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The Epic of Gilgamish - A Fragment of the Gilgamish Legend in Old-Babylonian Cuneiform
by Stephen Langdon
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The Epic of Gilgamish

by

Stephen Langdon

University of Pennsylvania The University Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section Vol. X No. 3



INTRODUCTION

In the year 1914 the University Museum secured by purchase a large six column tablet nearly complete, carrying originally, according to the scribal note, 240 lines of text. The contents supply the South Babylonian version of the second book of the epic sa nagba imuru, "He who has seen all things," commonly referred to as the Epic of Gilgamish. The tablet is said to have been found at Senkere, ancient Larsa near Warka, modern Arabic name for and vulgar descendant of the ancient name Uruk, the Biblical Erech mentioned in Genesis X. 10. This fact makes the new text the more interesting since the legend of Gilgamish is said to have originated at Erech and the hero in fact figures as one of the prehistoric Sumerian rulers of that ancient city. The dynastic list preserved on a Nippur tablet [1] mentions him as the fifth king of a legendary line of rulers at Erech, who succeeded the dynasty of Kish, a city in North Babylonia near the more famous but more recent city Babylon. The list at Erech contains the names of two well known Sumerian deities, Lugalbanda [2] and Tammuz. The reign of the former is given at 1,200 years and that of Tammuz at 100 years. Gilgamish ruled 126 years. We have to do here with a confusion of myth and history in which the real facts are disengaged only by conjecture.

The prehistoric Sumerian dynasties were all transformed into the realm of myth and legend. Nevertheless these rulers, although appearing in the pretentious nomenclature as gods, appear to have been real historic personages. [3] The name Gilgamish was originally written dGi-bil-aga-mis, and means "The fire god (Gibil) is a commander," abbreviated to dGi-bil-ga-mis, and dGi(s)-bil-ga-mis, a form which by full labialization of b to u was finally contracted to dGi-il-ga-mis. [4] Throughout the new text the name is written with the abbreviation dGi(s), [5] whereas the standard Assyrian text has consistently the writing dGIS-TU [6]-BAR. The latter method of writing the name is apparently cryptographic for dGis-bar-aga-(mis); the fire god Gibil has also the title Gis-bar.

A fragment of the South Babylonian version of the tenth book was published in 1902, a text from the period of Hammurapi, which showed that the Babylonian epic differed very much from the Assyrian in diction, but not in content. The new tablet, which belongs to the same period, also differs radically from the diction of the Ninevite text in the few lines where they duplicate each other. The first line of the new tablet corresponds to Tablet I, Col. V 25 of the Assyrian text, [7] where Gilgamish begins to relate his dreams to his mother Ninsun. [8]

The last line of Col. I corresponds to the Assyrian version Book I, Col. VI 29. From this point onward the new tablet takes up a hitherto unknown portion of the epic, henceforth to be assigned to the second book. [9]

At the end of Book I in the Assyrian text and at the end of Col. I of Book II in the new text, the situation in the legend is as follows. The harlot halts outside the city of Erech with the enamoured Enkidu, while she relates to him the two dreams of the king, Gilgamish. In these dreams which he has told to his mother he receives premonition concerning the advent of the satyr Enkidu, destined to join with him in the conquest of Elam.

Now the harlot urges Enkidu to enter the beautiful city, to clothe himself like other men and to learn the ways of civilization. When he enters he sees someone, whose name is broken away, eating bread and drinking milk, but the beautiful barbarian understands not. The harlot commands him to eat and drink also:

"It is the conformity of life, Of the conditions and fate of the Land."

He rapidly learns the customs of men, becomes a shepherd and a mighty hunter. At last he comes to the notice of Gilgamish himself, who is shocked by the newly acquired manner of Enkidu.

"Oh harlot, take away the man," says the lord of Erech. Once again the faithful woman instructs her heroic lover in the conventions of society, this time teaching him the importance of the family in Babylonian life, and obedience to the ruler. Now the people of Erech assemble about him admiring his godlike appearance. Gilgamish receives him and they dedicate their arms to heroic endeavor. At this point the epic brings in a new and powerful motif, the renunciation of woman's love in the presence of a great undertaking. Gilgamish is enamoured of the beautiful virgin goddess Ishara, and Enkidu, fearing the effeminate effects of his friend's attachment, prevents him forcibly from entering a house. A terrific combat between these heroes ensues, [10] in which Enkidu conquers, and in a magnanimous speech he reminds Gilgamish of his higher destiny.

In another unplaced fragment of the Assyrian text [11] Enkidu rejects his mistress also, apparently on his own initiative and for ascetic reasons. This fragment, heretofore assigned to the second book, probably belongs to Book III. The tablet of the Assyrian version which carries the portion related on the new tablet has not been found. Man redeemed from barbarism is the major theme of Book II.

The newly recovered section of the epic contains two legends which supplied the glyptic artists of Sumer and Accad with subjects for seals. Obverse III 28-32 describes Enkidu the slayer of lions and panthers. Seals in all periods frequently represent Enkidu in combat with a lion. The struggle between the two heroes, where Enkidu strives to rescue his friend from the fatal charms of Ishara, is probably depicted on seals also. On one of the seals published by Ward, Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, No. 459, a nude female stands beside the struggling heroes. [12] This scene not improbably illustrates the effort of Enkidu to rescue his friend from the goddess. In fact the satyr stands between Gilgamish and Ishara(?) on the seal.



TRANSLITERATION

it-bi-e-ma iluGilgamis su-na-tam i-pa-as-sar. iz-za-kar-am [13] a-na um-mi-su um-mi i-na sa-a-at mu-si-ti-ia sa-am-ha-ku-ma at-ta-na-al-la-ak i-na bi-ri-it id-da-tim ib-ba-su-nim-ma ka-ka-'a [14] sa-ma-i ki-?-?-rum [15] sa a-nim im-ku-ut a-na si-ri-ia as-si-su-ma ik-ta-bi-it [16] e-li-ia ilam [17] is-su-ma nu-us-sa-su [18] u-ul el-ti-'i ad-ki ma-tum pa-hi-ir [19] e-li-su id-lu-tum u-na-sa-ku si-pi-su u-um-mi-id-ma pu-ti i-mi- du ia-ti as-si-a-su-ma at-ba-la-as-su a-na si-ri-ki um-mi iluGilgamis mu-u-da-a-at ka-la-ma iz-za-kar-am a-na iluGilgamis mi-in-di iluGilgamish sa ki-ma ka-ti i-na si-ri i-wa-li-id-ma u-ra-ab-bi-su sa-du-u ta-mar-su-ma [sa(?)]-ap-ha-ta at-ta id-lu-tum u-na-sa-ku si-pi-su [20] te-it-ti-ra-su(?) ... su-u-zu ta-tar-ra-á-su a-na si-[ri-i]a [is-(?)] ti-lam-ma [21] i-ta-mar sa-ni-tam [su-na-]ta i-ta-wa-a-am a-na um-mi-su [um-m]i a-ta-mar sa-ni-tam [su-na-ta a-ta]mar e-mi-a i-na zu-ki-im [i-na?] Unuk-(ki) ri-bi-tim [22] ha-as-si-nu na-di-i-ma e-li-su pa-ah- ru ha-as-si-nu-um-ma sa-ni bu-nu-su a-mur-su-ma ah-ta-ta a-na-ku a-ra-am-su-ma ki-ma as-sa-tim a-ha-ap-pu-up el-su el-ki-su-ma as-ta-ka-an-su a-na a-hi-ia um-mi iluGilgamish mu-da-at ka-la-ma [iz-za-kar-am a-na iluGilgamish] ...................................

COL. II

as-sum us-[ta-] ma-ha-ru it-ti-ka. iluGilgamish su-na-tam i-pa-sar iluEn-ki-[du w]a?-si-ib ma-har ha-ri-im-tim UR [ ]-ha-mu DI-?-al-lu-un [ ] im-ta-si a-sar i-wa-al-du ume 6 [23] u 7 mu-si- a-tim iluEn-ki-du te-bi- i-ma sa-[am-ka-ta] ir- hi ha-[ri-im-tu pa-a]-sa i-pu-sa-am-ma iz-za-[kar-am] a-na iluEn-ki-du [24] a-na-tal-ka dEn-ki-du ki-ma ili ta-ba-as-si am-mi-nim it-ti na-ma-as-te-e [25] ta-at-ta-[na-al-]la -ak si-ra-am al-kam lu-ur-di- ka a-na libbi Uruk-(ki) ri-bi-tim a-na biti [el-]lim mu-sa-bi sa A-nim dEn-ki-du ti-bi lu-ru-ka a-na E-[an-n]a mu-sa-bi sa A-nim a-sar [iluGilgamis] it-[.........] ne-pi-si-tim(?) u at-[ ]-di [ -] ma ta-[ ] ra-ma-an- ka al-ka ti-ba i-[na] ga-ag-ga-ri ma-a-a? [26] -ak ri-i-im is-me a-wa-az-za im-ta-gar ga-ba-sa mi-il-kum sa sinnisti im-ta-[ku]-ut a-na libbi-su is-hu-ut li-ib-sa-am is-ti-nam [u]-la-ab-bi-is-su li-ib- [sa-am] sa-ni-a-am si-i it-ta-al-ba- as sa-ab-ta-at ga-az- zu ki-ma ? i-ri-id-di-su a-na gu-up-ri sa ri-i-im a-s[ar ] tar-ba-si-im i-na [ ]-hu-ru ri-ia-u [27] .............................

(About two lines broken away.)

COL. III

si-iz-ba sa na-ma-as-te-e i-te-en- ni- ik a-ka-lam is-ku-nu ma-har-su ip-te-ik-ma i-na -at-tal [28] u ip-pa-al-la- as u-ul i-di dEn-ki- du aklam a-na a-ka-lim sikaram a-na sa-te-e-im la-a lum-mu- ud ha-ri-im-lum pi-sa i-pu-sa-am- ma iz-za-kar-am a-na iluEn-ki-du a-ku-ul ak-lam dEn-ki-du zi-ma-at ba-la-ti-im bi-si-ti si-im-ti ma-ti i-ku-ul a-ak-lam iluEn-ki-du a-di si-bi-e-su sikaram is-ti-a-am 7 as-sa-am-mi-im [29] it-tap-sar kab-ta-tum i-na-an-gu i-li-is libba- su- ma pa-nu-su [it-]ta(?)-bir -ru [30] ul-tap-pi-it [............]-i su-hu-ra-am pa-ga-ar-su sa-am-nam ip-ta-sa-as-ma a-we-li-is i-me il-ba- as li-ib-sa-am ki-ma mu-ti i-ba-as-si il-ki ka-ak-ka-su la-bi u gi-ir- ri is-sa-ak-pu sab-[si]-es mu-si-a-ti ut- tap -pi-is sib-ba-ri [31] la-bi uk-ta-si-id it-ti immer na-ki-e ra-bu-tum iluEn-ki-du ma-as-sa-ar-su-nu a-we-lum wa-ru-um is-[te]-en id-lum a-na[ ........ u]-za-ak-ki-ir ...........................

(About five lines broken away.)

REVERSE I

.............................. i-ip-pu-us ul-sa-am is-si-ma i-ni-i-su i-ta-mar a-we-lam iz [32]-za-kar-am a-na harimti sa-am-ka-at uk-ki-si [33] a-we-lam a-na mi-nim il-li-kam zi-ki-ir-su lu-us-su [34] ha-ri-im-tum is-ta-si a-we-lam i-ba-us-su-um-ma i-ta-mar-su e-di-il [35] e-es-ta-hi-[ta-am] mi-nu a-la-ku-zu na-ah- [36] [ -]ma e pi-su i-pu-sa-am-[ma] iz-za-kar-am a-na iluEn-[ki-du] bi-ti-is e-mu-tim [ ] si-ma-a-at ni-si-i- ma tu-sa [37]-ar pa-a-ta-tim [38] a-na ali dup-sak-ki-i e si-en UG-AD-AD-LIL e-mi sa-a-a-ha-tim a-na sarri Unuk-(ki) ri-bi-tim pi-ti pu-uk epsi [39] a-na ha-a-a-ri a-na iluGilgamis sarri sa Unuk-(ki) ri-bi-tim pi-ti pu-uk epsi [40] a-na ha-a-a-ri as-sa-at si-ma-tim i-ra-ah-hi su-u pa-na-nu-um-ma mu-uk wa-ar-ka-nu i-na mi-il-ki sa ili ga-bi-ma i-na bi-ti-ik a-pu-un-na-ti-su [41] si- ma- az- zum a-na zi-ik-ri id-li-im i-ri-ku pa-nu-su



REVERSE II

............................................................

(About five lines broken away.)

i-il-la-ak- .......... u sa-am-ka-at[ ]ar-ki-su i- ru- ub-ma [42] a-na [43] libbi Uruk-(ki) ri-bi-tim ip-hur um-ma-nu-um i-na si-ri-su iz-zi-za-am-ma i-na zu-ki-im sa Unuk-(ki) ri-bi-tim pa-ah-ra-a-ma ni-su i-ta-me-a i-na si-ri-su pi(?)-it-tam [44] a-na mi-[ni] [45] iluGilgamis ma-si-il la-nam sa- pi- il e-si[ pu]-uk-ku-ul i ? -ak-ta i[- -]di i-si? si-iz-ba sa[na-ma-]as-[te]-e i-te- en- ni- ik ka-ia-na i-na [libbi] Uruk-(ki) kak-ki-a-tum [46] id-lu-tum u-te-el-li- lu sa-ki-in ip-sa- nu [47] a-na idli sa i-tu-ru zi-mu-su a-na iluGilgamis ki-ma i-li-im sa-ki-is-sum [48] me-ih-rum a-na ilatIs-ha-ra ma-ia-lum na- [di]-i- ma iluGilgamish id-[ ]na-an(?)... i-na mu-si in-ni-[ -]id i-na-ak [49]-sa-am- ma it-ta-[ ]i-na zuki ip-ta-ra-[ku ]-ak-tam sa iluGilgamish ........... da-na(?) ni-is-su



COL. III [ERROR: unhandled comment start] SIC —>

ur-(?)ha ..................... iluGilgamis ................ i-na si-ri .................... i-ha-an-ni-ib [pi-ir-ta-su?] it-bi-ma ... a-na pa-ni- su it-tam-ha-ru i-na ri-bi-tu ma-ti iluEn-ki-du ba-ba-am ip-ta-ri-ik i-na si-pi-su iluGilgamis e-ri-ba-am u-ul id-di-in is-sa-ab-tu-ma ki-ma li-i-im i- lu- du [50] zi-ip-pa-am 'i-bu- tu i-ga-rum ir-tu-tu [51] iluGilgamis u iluEn-ki- du is-sa-ab-tu-u- ma ki-ma li-i-im i-lu-du zi-ip-pa-am 'i-bu- tu i-ga-rum ir-tu-tu ik-mi-is-ma iluGilgamis i-na ga-ga-ag-ga-ri si-ip-su ip-si-ih [52] us-sa-su- ma i-ni-'i i-ra-az-zu is-tu i-ra-zu i-ni-hu [53] iluEn-ki-du a-na sa-si-im iz-za-kar-am a-na iluGilgamis ki-ma is-te-en-ma um-ma-ka u- li- id- ka ri-im-tum sa zu- pu-ri ilat-Nin- sun- na ul-lu e-li mu-ti ri-es-su sar-ru-tam sa ni-si i-si-im-kum iluEn-lil



duppu 2 kam-ma su-tu-ur e-li ... 4 su-si [54]



TRANSLATION

Gilgamish arose interpreting dreams, addressing his mother. "My mother! during my night I, having become lusty, wandered about in the midst of omens. And there came out stars in the heavens, Like a ... of heaven he fell upon me. I bore him but he was too heavy for me. He bore a net but I was not able to bear it. I summoned the land to assemble unto him, that heroes might kiss his feet. He stood up before me [55] and they stood over against me. I lifted him and carried him away unto thee." The mother of Gilgamish she that knows all things, said unto Gilgamish:— "Truly oh Gilgamish he is born [56] in the fields like thee. The mountains have reared him. Thou beholdest him and art distracted(?) Heroes kiss his feet. Thou shalt spare him.... Thou shalt lead him to me." Again he dreamed and saw another dream and reported it unto his mother. "My mother, I have seen another [dream. I beheld] my likeness in the street. In Erech of the wide spaces [57] he hurled the axe, and they assembled about him. Another axe seemed his visage. I saw him and was astounded. I loved him as a woman, falling upon him in embrace. I took him and made him my brother." The mother of Gilgamish she that knows all things [said unto Gilgamish:—] ...................................

COL. II

that he may join with thee in endeavor." (Thus) Gilgamish solves (his) dream. Enkidu sitting before the hierodule

[ ] forgot where he was born. Six days and seven nights came forth Enkidu and cohabited with the courtesan. The hierodule opened her mouth speaking unto Enkidu. "I behold thee Enkidu; like a god thou art. Why with the animals wanderest thou on the plain? Come! I will lead thee into the midst of Erech of the wide places, even unto the holy house, dwelling place of Anu. Oh Enkidu, arise, I will conduct thee unto Eanna dwelling place of Anu, where Gilgamish [oppresses] the souls of men(?) And as I ............ thou shalt ........ thyself. Come thou, arise from the ground unto the place yonder (?) of the shepherd." He heard her speak and accepted her words with favor. The advice of the woman fell upon his heart. She tore off one garment and clothed him with it. With a second garment she clothed herself. She clasped his hand, guiding him like .............. unto the mighty presence of the shepherd, unto the place of the ... of the sheepfolds. In ......... to shepherd .............................

(About two lines broken away.)

COL. III

Milk of the cattle he drank. Food they placed before him. He broke bread [58] gazing and looking. But Enkidu understood not. Bread to eat, beer to drink, he had not been taught. The hierodule opened her mouth and said unto Enkidu:— "Eat bread, oh Enkidu! It is the conformity of life, of the conditions and the fate of the land." Enkidu ate bread, until he was satiated. Beer he drank seven times(?). His thoughts became unbounded and he shouted loudly. His heart became joyful, and his face glowed. He stroked................. the hair of the head. [59] His body with oil he anointed. He became like a man. He attired himself with clothes even as does a husband. He seized his weapon, which the panther and lion fells in the night time cruelly. He captured the wild mountain goats. The panther he conquered. Among the great sheep for sacrifice Enkidu was their guard. A man, a leader, A hero. Unto .......... he elevated ...........................

(About five lines broken away.)

REVERSE I

.............................. And he made glad. He lifted up his eyes, and beheld the man, and said unto the hierodule:— "Oh harlot, take away the man. Wherefore did he come to me? I would forget the memory of him." The hierodule called unto the man and came unto him beholding him. She sorrowed and was astonished how his ways were ............ Behold she opened her mouth saying unto Enkidu:— "At home with a family [to dwell??] is the fate of mankind. Thou shouldest design boundaries(??) for a city. The trencher-basket put (upon thy head). .... ......an abode of comfort. For the king of Erech of the wide places open, addressing thy speech as unto a husband. Unto Gilgamish king of Erech of the wide places open, addressing thy speech as unto a husband. He cohabits with the wife decreed for him, even he formerly. But henceforth in the counsel which god has spoken, in the work of his presence shall be his fate." At the mention of the hero his face became pale.

REVERSE II

............................................................

(About five lines broken away.)

going ....................... and the harlot ..... after him. He entered into the midst of Erech of the wide places. The artisans gathered about him. And as he stood in the street of Erech of the wide places, the people assembled disputing round about him:— "How is he become like Gilgamish suddenly? In form he is shorter. In ........ he is made powerful.

Milk of the cattle he drank. Continually in the midst of Erech weapons the heroes purified. A project was instituted. Unto the hero whose countenance was turned away, unto Gilgamish like a god he became for him a fellow. For Ishara a couch was laid. Gilgamish ................... In the night he .............. embracing her in sleep. They ........ in the street halting at the ................ of Gilgamish. .......... mightily(?)

COL. III

A road(?) .................... Gilgamish ................... in the plain .................. his hair growing thickly like the corn. He came forth ... into his presence. They met in the wide park of the land. Enkidu held fast the door with his foot, and permitted not Gilgamish to enter. They grappled with each other goring like an ox. The threshold they destroyed. The wall they demolished. Gilgamish and Enkidu grappled with each other, goring like an ox. The threshold they destroyed. The wall they demolished. Gilgamish bowed to the ground at his feet and his javelin reposed. He turned back his breast. After he had turned back his breast, Enkidu unto that one spoke, even unto Gilgamish. "Even as one [60] did thy mother bear thee, she the wild cow of the cattle stalls, Ninsunna, whose head she exalted more than a husband. Royal power over the people Enlil has decreed for thee."

Second tablet. Written upon ... 240 (lines).



INDEX TO PARTS 2 AND 3

A.

Adab, city, 123, 23.

addi, wailing, 117, 31; 137, 22; 161, 12.

ahu, brother, 212, 36.

Aja, goddess, 198, 9.

al (gis), al-gar (gis), a musical instrument, 187-191. See also No. 20 Rev. 7-12. al-bi, compound verb, 189 n. 6. In Ni. 8164 (unpublished) al-gar, al-gar-balag in list with (gis)-a-la, also an instrument of music.

alad, protecting genius, 154, 18.

amelis, like a man, 215, 25.

Amurru, god. Psalm to, 118; 119.

angubba, sentinel, 180, 14.

Anu, god. 116, 18:26 ff. 131, 8; 165, 9; 180, 20.

Anunnaki, gods, 114, 17:21; 116, 25; 116 n. 7; 128, 13; 135, 31; 189, 21.

Anunit, goddess, 158, 12; 166, 2.

apunnatu, nostrils, pitik, apunnati, 217, 28.

assammim (?), 215, 18.

Arallu, 132, 26; 134, 7.

aramu, cover, 198 n. 2.

araku, be pale, Prt. iriku, 217, 31.

arhis, quickly, 199, 28.

Aruru, goddess. Lamentation to, 115. Sister of Enlil, 115, 2; 171, 29; 190, 25. Other references, 116, 13:15:18; 117, 34 f.

Asarludug, god, 163, 8; 170, 4.

As-im-ur, title of Moon-god, 136, 12. as omitted, No. 19, 2.

as-me, disk, 133, 38.

Assirgi, god, No. 22, Rev. 7.

Azagsud, goddess, 196, 30:33; 197, 38.

B.

Babbar, god, 116, 24; 139, 43; 147, 21; 148, 3; 152.

Babylon, city, 158, 14; 160, 6; 163, 8; 166, 4:11.

badara, see 200 n. 2. badarani, a weapon, 133, 36.

balag, lyre, 138, 52.

bansur, table; title of a goddess, 175, 3.

Bau, goddess, 179, 2; 181, 30; 182, 32; 141, 7:10.

bisitu, condition, 215, 14.

bi'u, cavern, 196, 29.

bulukku, crab, 174, 5.

burgul, engraver, 185, 8.

C.

Cutha, city. Center of the cult of Nergal, 167, 15.

D.

Dada, god, 192, 6.

Dagan, West Semitic god, 149, 21.

Damu, title of Tammuz, 176, 7.

Deification of kings, 106-9; 127 n. 1.

depu, shatter, 195 n. 16.

DI-BAL, ideogram in incantations, 194, 10.

Dilbat, city, 167, 16.

Dilmun, land and city, 112, 2:4.

dimgul, dimdul, master workman, 150.

dingir-gal-gal-e-ne, the great gods, the Anunnaki, 114, 21:125; 149, 19.

dumu-anna, daughter of heaven, title of Bau, 179, 5; 181, 28; 184, 28.

dumu-sag, title of Tasmet, 163, 12.

Dungi, king of Ur, liturgy to, 136.

dupsakku, trencher basket, 216, 17.

Duranki, epithet for Nippur, 122, 18; 180, 11.

E.

E-anna, temple in Erech, 123, 30; 125; 148, 12; 213, 18.

E-babbar, temple of the sun god, 152; 158, 11; 166, 1. Perhaps read E-barra.

E-daranna, temple of Enki in Babylon, 169, 25; 170, 29. See BL. 133.

edelu = ederu, be gloomy, 216, 10.

e-dub, house of learning, 117, 39.

e-gal, palace, No. 19, Rev. 3; 115, 11; 131, 7; 134, 22; 158, 9.

e-gig = kissu, 191, 11.

E-ibe-Anu, temple in Dilbat, 167, 16.

E-kinammaka, temple, 115, 10.

E-kisibba, temple in Kish, 166, 13.

E-kur, temple, 180, 12; 183, 23; 190, 7; 146, 9; 147, 17; 158, 8; 160, 4; 166, 17; 169, 23.

Emah, Esmah, ritual house of the water cult of Marduk, 163, 7; 115, 4.

E-malga-sud, temple, 181, 24; 141, 3.

E-meteg, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

E-mete-ursag, temple in Kish, 166, 13.

E-namtila, temple, 160, 4; 169, 24.

en-a-nu-un, en-a-nun, title of Innini and Gula, 173, 2.

Enbilulu, title of Marduk, 170, 5.

E-ninnu, temple, 181, 22.

EN-HUL-tim-mu, 194 n. 2.

EN-KA-KA, bel dababi, 194, 2.

Enki, god. Hymn to, No. 20, 113, 7; 114, 10; 116, 21; 122, 7; 149, 16.

Enkidu, satyr, 213, 3:7:10:11; 214, 6; 215, 11:12:15:34; 216, 13; 219, 8:15:25; 131, 11; 134, 16; 178, 13.

Enlil, god. Liturgy to, 155-184. Regarded as god of light, 157, 1 ff. 158, 3 f. Other references, 114, 19; 115, 2; 116, 19; 131, 6; 136, 5; 139, 40; 149, 22; 146, 3:7:14; 189, 11:19; 220, 33.

Enul, god, 149, 16.

Enzu, god, 139, 41; 146, 3.

epsanu, deeds, 218, 18.

epu, be dark, I2 itepu, 196, 29.

Erech, city, 125; 149, 13. Erech ribitim, 212, 28; 213, 15; 217, 19:21; 217, 3:6.

eri-azag, holy city, Isin, 141, 8.

erida, title, 175, 1.

Eridu, city, 113, 20; 136, 13.

Erishkigal, goddess, 131, 10; 134, 11.

ersagtugmal, penitential psalm, 118.

E-sagila, temple, 152.

E-sakudkalamma, temple, 166, 10; 169 n. 4.

esendili, a title, 177, 10.

eskar, fixed tax, 188, 9.

es-lal, a sacred place, 161, 14.

E-temen-anki, temple, 169, 25.

E-turkalamma, temple, 166, 14.

Euphrates, river, 183, 12; 183, 20.

E-zida, temple, 166, 12.

Ezina, grain goddess, 174, 9.

Ezira, reading of the divine name KA-DI, 177, 11.

F.

Fara, modern Arabic name for the site of Isin (?), 177 n. 4.

G.

GAB, baked bread, 200, 33.

GAB-LAL, a cake made with honey, 195, 22; 200, 35.

GAR-sunnu = episan-sunu, 198, 13.

gasan-gula, title of Nina, 119 n. 2.

gepar, dark chamber, 123, 30 f., 148, 10; 161, 18.

Gibil, god, 197, 3.

gi-gal(gis),interlude, 151 n. 1; 182, 33.

gigunna, 114, 23.

Gilgamish, king of Erech, 207; 211, 1:115 f. 212, 17:37; 213, 2; 217, 21; 218, 9:20:24:29 and below 2; 219, 10;15:20:26. Derivation of name, 208. See also No. 16 Rev. II 15; 197, 42; 124 f.

gilsa, a sacred relic, 132, 22.

Girra, Irra, god, 174, 7; 177, 12.

girru, lion, 215, 29.

Girsu, city, 181, 23.

Guanna, deity, No. 16 Rev. II 18.

Guedin, province, 129, 28.

Gunura, goddess of healing, 176, 6.

gupru, mighty, 214, 33.

Gutium, land, 120 ff.

H.

Hallab, city, 125; 141.

hanabu, grow thickly, Prs. ibannib, 219, 4.

hapapu, embrace, 212, 34.

hassinu, axe, 212, 29:31.

harbatu, waste place, 200, 39.

Harsagkalamma, temple, 166, 14.

Hubur, mythical river, 197, 42.

hulu, a bird, 199, 31.

huku, a bird, 199, 31.

I.

Ibi-Sin, king of Ur, 151 n. 2.

ibsi, liturgical expression, 120, 5.

Igigi, heaven spirits, 116 n. 6.

IGI-NAGIN-NA, 194, 11.

imib, weapon, 131, 8. mi-ib, ibid. n.3.

imin, seven. Seven lands, 130, 35; seventh day, 134, 18.

Immer, god, 177, 8.

Indag, god, consort of Gula, 173, 3.

Innini, goddess, 123. Liturgy to, 184; 123, 29. Consort of Shamash, 148, 4. Other references, 154, 21.

issur same, unclean birds, 195 n. 10.

Ishara, goddess, 218, 22.

Isin, city, 122, 15; 176, 4.

Ishme-Dagan, 178 ff. Son of Enlil, 181, 29; 182, 32. Liturgy to, 143.

K.

KA-DIB-BI, sibit pi, 194, 10.

KAK-DIG, a weapon, 130, 4.

kakkitu (?), weapon. Pl. kakkiatum, 218, 16.

KAK-SIR, a weapon (?), 130, 4.

kalama, the Land, Sumer, 138, 25; 141, 5; 147, 22; 150, 4; 154, 17; 177, 9.

kanami=kalama, land, 120, 8.

KA-NE, a new ideograph, 153 n. 10.

kasu, bind. I2 liktisu, 198, 20.

Kenurra, chapel of Ninlil, 114, 22; 123, 20; 160, 4; 166, 18; 166, 8; 169, 24.

Kes, city, 115, 11; 123, 22.

kesda-azag, a relic, 132, 27.

ki, kin for gim = kima, 120, 6.

KI-AG-MAL, ramu, 194 n. 4.

Kidurkazal, daughter of Ninkasi, 145.

ki-malla, to bend. tig-zu ki-ma-al-la nu-gi-gi, "Thy neck wearies not in bending," 168, 2. [Correct the translation.]

ki-in-gin, ki-en-gin, Sumer, 115, 24; 134, 19; 189, 17.

KI-SAR, kakkara tasabbit, 199, 29.

Kish, city, 129, 30; 166, 12. e kis-(ki)-su, so read, No. 5 Obv. 8.

Kullab, city, 149, 14; 173, 1.

kunin, gunin, reed basket, 150 n. 3.

kurgal, "great mountain," title of Sumer, 114, 11. Of Enlil, 114, 19; 182, 5.

KURUN-NA, (amelu), 196, 34.

KUS-KU-MAL, 194, 11.

L.

la'atu, gore. Prt. iludu, 219, 12:17.

labu, panther, 215, 29:32.

Lagash, city, 181, 23:26.

Lahama, goddess of Chaos, 113, 5.

Laws, promulgated by Dungi, 138, 31.

Libit-Ishtar, king, 141.

libsu, garment, 214, 27:29; 215, 26.

Ligirsig, a god, 113, 3.

lilazag, epithet of a deified king, 141, 1.

Lillaenna, goddess, 192, 5.

limenu, be evil. II1 ulammenu-inni, 197, 7.

Lugal-dig, god, 197, 5.

lu'utu, pollution, 195, 19.

M.

Magan, land, 112, 2:5.

maialu, couch, 218, 22.

malasu, shear, 195, 20.

Mamit, 200, 41.

mandatu, form, 195, 21.

mal-gar (gi), a musical instrument, 191, 10.

mangu, disease, 195, 19.

Marduk, god, 151.

markasu, leader, 150.

masu, seize, 195 n. 5.

masu, to forget, 216, 7.

Me-azag, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

mehru, fellow, 218, 21.

Mehus, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

Meluhha, land, 112, 6.

Meslam, temple in Cutha, 167, 15.

mesu, a tree, 159, 23.

muk, now, but now, 217, 26.

Mulgenna, Saturn, 137, 18.

Mulmul, gods, 142.

N.

nadu, water bottle, 198, 17.

naditu, temple devotee, 188, 7.

nagu, shout. Prs. inangu, 215, 19.

naku, embrace, 218, 26.

namastu, cattle, etc., 213, 12:17; 214, 1; 219, 14.

Namtar, god, 197, 3; 132, 24.

Nangt, goddess, 192, 7.

Nannar, god, 115, 12; 116, 23; 133, 38; 137, 11; 150, 2.

Nergal, god, 131, 6.

Nidaba, goddess, 191.

ni-gal, cattle, 121, 6.

nimir = ligir, 174, 4.

ninda, linear measure, 133, 41.

Ningal, goddess, No. 19, 5; 148, 3; 151, 3.

Ningiszida, god, 133, 34.

Nin-isinna, goddess, 122, 16; 191, 15.

Ninkasi, goddess, 144.

Ninki, goddess, 149, 16.

Ninlil, goddess, 116, 20; 123, 20; 137, 12; 146, 14.

Ninmada, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

Ninmah, goddess, 116, 22.

Ninmenna, epithet of Damgalnunna, 190, 27.

Ninsun, goddess, 219, 30; 208 n. 6; 129; 131, 16 (?).

Nintudri, goddess, 123, 26. Nintudra, 137, 16. Creatress of man and woman, 192.

Ninul, goddess, 149, 16.

Ninurasa, god, 191, 12; 146, 12.

Ninzuanna, goddess, 122, 13.

Nippur, city, 112, 8; 122, 18:19; 160, 3; 169, 21; 180, 11; 149, 18; 158, 7; 165, 16.

NI-SUR (amelu), 196, 35.

Nudimmud, god, 199, 25. No. 20, 10.

nugiganna, epithet of Innini, 185, 2.

nun apsi, unclean fish, 195 n. 11.

Nunamnirri, god, 190, 28; 146, 13; 180, 10:13:17.

nun-ur, epithet of Amurru, 119, 3.

Nusiligga, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

Nusku, god, 146, 7; 163, 13.

P.

Pabilsag, god. Son and consort of Gula, 173 n. 3; 176, 5. A form of Tammuz.

pananumma, formerly, 217, 25.

Panunnaki, goddess, consort of Marduk, 163, 9.

pataku, fashion, break, 214, 4.

paturru, a weapon, 200, 37.

Pleiades, 142.

R.

ratatu, demolish, 219, 19.

Rimat ilatNinsun, 208 n. 6; 219, 29.

Ruskisag, goddess, 132, 28.

RU-TIG, an epithet, 141, 2.

S.

sa-bar; sa-sud-da, liturgical note, 182, 31.

sabsis, cruelly, 215, 30.

Sagilla, temple, 158, 15. E-sagila, 160, 5; 166, 5; 166, 11.

sahatu, be astounded, 216, 10. Arabic sahita.

saiahatu, desire, comfort, 216, 18.

sakapu, fell. I2 issakpu, 215, 30.

salutu, enmity, 199, 27.

Samas, god, 197, 4:8; 198, 10:13; 199, 25:31.

Samas-sum-ukin, king. Incantations for, 193-200; 199, 23.

Samsuiluna, king, 151.

SAR-DI-DA, a relic, 133, 37.

Serpent adversary, 183, 21; 148, 12.

Seven, sacred number. Seven gods, 196, 30.

Ship, in legend, 113, 2.

Silsirsir, a chapel.

Sin, god. Hymn to, No. 19.

sippu, threshold, 219, 13:18.

Sippar, city, 158, 10; 160, 5; 166, 19.

sirgidda, long song, 140, 54.

Siris, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

Siriskas, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

Siriskasgig, daughter of Ninkasi, 144.

sirsagga, first melody, 117, 28; 139, 48.

SU-AN = kat ili, 194, 12. See also SU-dINNINI, 194, 12.

SU-NAM-ERIM-MA, 194, 13.

SU-NAM-LU-GAL-LU, 194, 13.

subura, earth, 175, 3.

su-ud, su-ud-am, epithet of goddess of Suruppak, 177, 10 and note 4.

suhuru, hair (?), 215, 23.

sukkal-zid, title of Nebo, 163, 10.

Sulpae, god, No. 16 II 22.

Sumer, land, 113, 21; 114, 11; 136, 2.

sumugan, title of Girra, 177, 12 and note; 179, 3.

T.

Tablet of fates, 132 n. 3.

Tammuz, ancient ruler, 208. Liturgy to, 191. Other references, 126; 208; 131, 20.

tapasu, seize, capture, II2 uttappis, 215, 31.

temeru, cook, 196, 35.

Tigris, river, 183, 12.

Tummal, land, 190, 9; 191, 10.

U.

ud, spirit, word, 150, 1:4; 158, 16; 159, 17:24.

ul-al-tar, 191 n. 6.

ulinnu, girdle cord, 195, 20.

Ulmas, temple of Anunit, 158, 13; 166, 3.

Ur, city, 134, 21; 137, 6. Lamentation for, 150. Other references, No. 19, 4:7:8:16:28: Rev. 5; 151, 3.

Ur-azag, king of Isin (?), 140 n. 2.

Ur-Engur, king of Ur, 126 ff.

urinu, spear (?), 173, 3.

ursaggal, epithet for Ninurasa, 165, 11. For Enbilulu, 170, 5.

usumgal, 117, 33.

Z.

zabu, flow. li-zu-bu, 198, 16. Cf. gam = za'ibu, mitirtu, words for canal, SAI. 691-3.

zag-sal, liturgical note, 103 f. No. 21 end.

za-am, 138, 34; 139, 38; 140, 56.

zenu, be enraged, II1 uzinu-inni, 197, 6.

ZI-TAR-RU-DA = nikis napisti, 194 n. 6.



DESCRIPTION OF TABLETS

Number in this volume. 1

Museum number. 7771

Description.

Dark brown unbaked tablet. Three columns. Lower edge slightly broken. Knobs at left upper and left lower corners to facilitate the holding of the tablet. H. 7 inches: W. 6 1/2; T. 1 1/2. Second tablet of the Epic of Gilgamish.



NOTES

[1] Ni. 13981, published by Dr. Poebel in PBS. V, No. 2.

[2] The local Bel of Erech and a bye-form of Enlil, the earth god. Here he is the consort of the mother goddess Ninsun.

[3] Tammuz is probably a real personage, although Dumu-zi, his original name, is certainly later than the title Ab-u, probably the oldest epithet of this deity, see Tammuz and Ishtar, p. 8. Dumu-zi I take to have been originally the name of a prehistoric ruler of Erech, identified with the primitive deity Abu.

[4] See ibid., page 40.

[5] Also Meissner's early Babylonian duplicate of Book X has invariably the same writing, see Dhorme, Choix de Textes Religieux, 298-303.

[6] Sign whose gunufied form is read aga.

[7] The standard text of the Assyrian version is by Professor Paul Haupt, Das Babylonische Nimrodepos, Leipzig, 1884.

[8] The name of the mother of Gilgamish has been erroneously read ri-mat ilatNin-lil, or Rimat-Belit, see Dhorme 202, 37; 204, 30, etc. But Dr. Poebel, who also copied this text, has shown that Nin-lil is an erroneous reading for Nin-sun. For Ninsun as mother of Gilgamish see SBP. 153 n. 19 and R.A., IX 113 III 2. Ri-mat ilatNin-sun should be rendered "The wild cow Ninsun."

[9] The fragments which have been assigned to Book II in the British Museum collections by Haupt, Jensen, Dhorme and others belong to later tablets, probably III or IV.

[10] Rm. 289, latter part of Col. II (part of the Assyrian version) published in HAUPT, ibid., 81-4 preserves a defective text of this part of the epic. This tablet has been erroneously assigned to Book IV, but it appears to be Book III.

[11] K. 2589 and duplicate (unnumbered) in Haupt, ibid., 16-19.

[12] See also Ward, No. 199.

[13] Here this late text includes both variants pasaru and zakaru. The earlier texts have only the one or the other.

[14] For kakabe; b becomes u and then is reduced to the breathing.

[15] The variants have kima kisri; ki-[ma]?-rum is a possible reading. The standard Assyrian texts regard Enkidu as the subject.

[16] Var. da-an

[17] SAM-KAK = ilu, net. The variant has ultaprid ki-is-su-su, "he shook his murderous weapon." For kissu see ZA. 9,220,4 = CT. 12,14b 36, gis-kud = ki-is-su.

[18] Var. nussu for nus-su = nussa-su. The previous translations of this passage are erroneous.

[19] This is to my knowledge the first occurence of the infinitive of this verb, paheru, not paharu.

[20] Text ma?

[21] istanamma > istilamma.

[22] Cf. Code of Hammurapi IV 52 and Streck in Babyloniaca II 177.

[23] Restored from Tab. I Col. IV 21.

[24] Cf. Dhorme Choix de Textes Religieux 198, 33.

[25] namastu a late form which has followed the analogy of restu in assuming the feminine t as part of the root. The long u is due to analogy with namassu a Sumerian loan-word with nisbe ending.

[26] Room for a small sign only, perhaps A; maiak? For maka, there, see BEHRENS, LSS. II page 1 and index.

[27] Infinitive "to shepherd"; see also Poebel, PBS. V 106 I, ri-ia-u, ri-te-ia-u.

[28] The text has clearly AD-RI.

[29] Or azzammim? The word is probably an adverb; hardly a word for cup, mug (??).

[30] it is uncertain and ta more likely than us. One expects ittabriru. Cf. muttabrirru, CT. 17, 15, 2; littatabrar, EBELING, KTA. 69, 4.

[31] For sapparu. Text and interpretation uncertain. uttappis II2 from tapasu, Hebrew tapas, seize.

[32] Text ta!

[33] On ekesu, drive away, see Zimmern, Shurpu, p. 56. Cf. uk-kis Myhrman, PBS. I 14, 17; uk-ki-si, King, Cr. App. V 55; etc., etc.

[34] The Hebrew cognate of masu, to forget, is nasa, Arabic nasijia, and occurs here in Babylonian for the first time. See also Brockelman, Vergleichende Grammatik 160 a.

[35] Probably phonetic variant of edir. The preterite of ederu, to be in misery, has not been found. If this interpretation be correct the preterite edir is established. For the change r > l note also attalah < attarah, Harper, Letters 88, 10, bilku < birku, RA. 9, 77 II 13; uttakkalu < uttakkaru, Ebeling, KTA. 49 IV 10.

[36] Also na-'-[ -]ma is possible.

[37] The text cannot be correct since it has no intelligible sign. My reading is uncertain.

[38] Text uncertain, kal-lu-tim is possible.

[39] KAK-si.

[40] KAK-si.

[41] Literally nostrils. pitik apunnati-su, work done in his presence(?). The meaning of the idiom is uncertain.

[42] Text ZU!

[43] Text has erroneous form.

[44] Text PA-it-tam clearly!

[45] Omitted by the scribe.

[46] Sic! The plural of kakku, kakkitu(?).

[47] Cf. e-pi-sa-an-su-nu libaru, "May they see their doings," Maklu VII 17.

[48] For sakin-sum.

[49] On the verb naku see the Babylonian Book of Proverbs Sec. 27.

[50] The verb la'atu, to pierce, devour, forms its preterite ilut; see VAB. IV 216, 1. The present tense which occurs here as ilut also.

[51] Note BUL(tu-ku) = ratatu (falsely entered in Meissner, SAI. 7993), and irattutu in Zimmern, Shurpu, Index.

[52] "For ipsah."

[53] Sic! hu reduced to the breathing 'u; read i-ni-'u.

[54] The tablet is reckoned at forty lines in each column,

[55] Literally "he attained my front."

[56] IV1 of waladu.

[57] I.e., in the suburb of Erech.

[58] pataku has apparently the same sense originally as bataku, although the one forms its preterite iptik, and the other ibtuk. Cf. also mahasu break, hammer and construct.

[59] The passage is obscure. Here suhuru is taken as a loan-word from sugur = kimmatu, hair of the head. The infinitive II1 of saharu is philologically possible.

[60] I.e., an ordinary man.

THE END

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