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The Esperanto Teacher - A Simple Course for Non-Grammarians
by Helen Fryer
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THE ESPERANTO TEACHER,

A SIMPLE COURSE FOR NON-GRAMMARIANS.

BY HELEN FRYER.

TENTH EDITION. (B.E.A. PUBLICATIONS FUND—No. 3).

All profits from the sale of this book are devoted to the propaganda of Esperanto.



LONDON: BRITISH ESPERANTO ASSOCIATION (Incorporated), 17, Hart Street, W.C.I.

* * * * *

PRESENTATION.

Perhaps to no one is Esperanto of more service than to the non-grammarian. It gives him for a minimum expenditure of time and money a valuable insight into the principles of grammar and the meaning of words, while enabling him, after only a few months of study, to get into communication with his fellow men in all parts of the world.

To place these advantages within easy reach of all is the aim of this little book. Written by an experienced teacher, revised by Mr. E. A. Millidge, and based on the exercises of Dr. Zamenhof himself, it merits the fullest confidence of the student, and may be heartily commended to all into whose hands it may come.

W. W. PADFIELD.

PREFACE.

This little book has been prepared in the hope of helping those who, having forgotten the lessons in grammar which they received at school, find some difficulty in learning Esperanto from the existing textbooks. It is hoped it will be found useful not only for solitary students, but also for class work.

The exercises are taken chiefly from the "Ekzercaro" of Dr. Zamenhof. The compiler also acknowledges her indebtedness especially to the "Standard Course of Esperanto," by Mr. G. W. Bullen, and to the "Esperanto Grammar and Commentary," by Major-General Geo. Cox, and while accepting the whole responsibility for all inaccuracies and crudenesses, she desires to thank all who have helped in the preparation, and foremost among them Mr. W. W. Padfield, of Ipswich, for advice and encouragement throughout the work, and to Mr. E. A. Millidge, for his unfailing kindness and invaluable counsel and help in its preparation and revision.

MANNER OF USING THE BOOK.

The student is strongly advised to cultivate the habit of thinking in Esperanto from the very beginning of the study. To do this he should try to realise the idea mentally without putting it into English words, e.g., when learning the word "rozo" or "kolombo," let him bring the object itself before his mind's eye, instead of repeating "'rozo', rose; 'kolombo', pigeon"; or with the sentence "'la suno brilas', the sun shines," let him picture the sun shining. Having studied the lesson and learned the vocabulary, he should read the exercise, repeating each sentence aloud until he has become familiar with it and can pronounce it freely. Then turning to the English translation at the end of the book, he should write the exercise into Esperanto, compare it with the original, and re-learn and re-write if necessary. Although this method may require a little more time and trouble at first, the greater facility gained in speaking the language will well repay the outlay.

After mastering this book the student should take some reader, such as "Unua Legolibro," by Dr. Kabe, and then proceed to the "Fundamenta Krestomatio," the standard work on Esperanto, by Dr. Zamenhof.

A very good Esperanto-English vocabulary is to be found in the "Esperanto Key," 1/2d., or in "The Whole of Esperanto for a Penny."

THE ORIGIN AND AIM OF ESPERANTO.

A few words as to the origin of Esperanto will perhaps not be out of place here. The author of the language, Dr. Ludovic Zamenhof, a Polish Jew, was born on December 3rd, 1859, at Bielovstok, in Poland, a town whose inhabitants are of four distinct races, Poles, Russians, Germans, and Jews, each with their own language and customs, and often at open enmity with each other. Taught at home that all men are brethren, Zamenhof found everywhere around him outside the denial of this teaching, and even as a child came to the conclusion that the races hated, because they could not understand, each other. Feeling keenly, too, the disabilities under which his people specially laboured, being cut off by their language from the people among whom they lived, while too proud to learn the language of their persecutors, he set himself to invent a language which should be neutral and therefore not require any sacrifice of pride on the part of any race.

Interesting as is the story of Zamenhof's attempts and difficulties, it must suffice here to say that at the end of 1878 the new language was sufficiently advanced for him to impart it to schoolfellows like-minded with himself, and on December 17th of that year they feted its birth, and sang a hymn in the new language, celebrating the reign of unity and peace which should be brought about by its means, "All mankind must be united in one family." But the enthusiasm of its first followers died down under the derision they encountered, and for nine years more Zamenhof worked in secret at his language, translating, composing, writing original articles, improving, polishing, till in 1887 he published his first book under the title of "An International Language by Dr. Esperanto." ("Esperanto" means "one who hopes").

That the idea which impelled the young Zamenhof to undertake such a work is still the mainspring of his devotion to the cause is shown by the following extract from his opening speech at the second International Esperanto Congress in 1906:—"We are all conscious that it is not the thought of its practical utility which inspires us to work for Esperanto, but only the thought of the important and holy idea which underlies an international language. This idea, you all know, is that of: brotherhood and justice among all peoples." And, again, in his presidential address at the third Esperanto Congress, held this year (1907) at Cambridge, he said, "We are constantly repeating that we do not wish to interfere in the internal life of the nations, but only to build a bridge between the peoples. The ideal aim of Esperantists, never until now exactly formulated, but always clearly felt, is: To establish a neutral foundation, on which the various races of mankind may hold peaceful, brotherly intercourse, without intruding on each other their racial differences."

Sur neuxtrala lingva fundamento, Komprenante unu la alian, La popoloj faros en konsento Unu grandan rondon familian.

(On the foundation of a neutral language, Understanding one another, The peoples will form in agreement One great family circle).

HELEN FRYER.

December, 1907.

THE ALPHABET.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.

In Esperanto each letter has only one sound, and each sound is represented in only one way. The words are pronounced exactly as spelt, every letter being sounded.

Those CONSONANTS which in English have one simple sound only are exactly the same in Esperanto; they are—b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, v, z (r must be well rolled).

q, w, x, y are not used.

c, g, h, s, which in English represent more than one sound, and j are also used with the mark ^—

c cx, g gx, h hx, j jx, s sx.

c - (whose two English sounds are represented by k and s) has the sound of TS, as in iTS, TSar.

cx - like CH, TCH, in CHurCH, maTCH.

g - hard, as in Go, GiG, Gun.

gx - soft, as in Gentle, Gem, or like J in Just, Jew.

h - well breathed, as in Horse, Home, How.

hx - strongly breathed, and in the throat, as in the Scotch word loCH. (Ask any Scotsman to pronounce it). Hx occurs but seldom. It is the Irish GH in louGH, and the Welsh CH.

j - like Y in Yes, You, or J in halleluJah, fJord.

jx - like S in pleaSure, or the French J, as in deJeuner, Jean d'Arc.

s - like SS in aSS, leSS, never like S in roSe.

sx - like SH in SHe, SHall, SHip, or S in Sugar, Sure.

In newspapers, etc., which have not the proper type, cx, gx, hx, jx, sx are often replaced by ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, or by c', g', h', j', s', and ux by u.

ux - is also a consonant, and has the sound of W in We, as EUXropo, or U in persUade.

The VOWELS a, e, i, o, u have not the English, but the Continental sounds.

a - always like A in Ah! or in tArt.

e - like E in bEnd, but broader, like E in thEre.

i - is a sound between EE in mEEt and I in Is.

o - like O in fOr, or in the Scottish NO, or AU in AUght.

u - like OO in bOOt, pOOr.

a, e, i, o, u are all simple sounds, that is, the mouth is kept in one position while they are being sounded. In learning them lengthen them out, and be careful not to alter the position of the mouth, however long they are drawn out. In the compound sounds given below the shape of the mouth changes; to get the correct pronunciation sound each letter fully and distinctly, gradually bringing them closer until they run together, when they become almost as follows:—

aj - nearly like AI in AIsle, or I in nIce, fIne.

ej - nearly like EI in vEIn.

oj - nearly like OY in bOY, or OI in vOId.

uj - nearly like UJ in hallelUJah.

aux - like AHW, or nearly OU in hOUse, pronounced broadly, haOUse.

eux - like EHW, or EY W in thEY Were, AYW in wAYWard.

Practise saying aja, eja, oja, uja, auxa, euxa several times quickly. Then gradually drop the final a.

ACCENT.

The accent or stress is always placed on the syllable before the last, as es-PE-ro, es-pe-RAN-to, es-pe-ran-TIS-to, es-pe-ran-tis-TI-no; JU-na, ju-NU-lo, ju-nu-LA-ro. All the syllables must be clearly pronounced, not slurred over.

EXERCISE IN PRONOUNCIATION.

a - (as in bAth), PAT-ra, LA-na, a-GRA-bla, mal-VAR-ma, KLA-ra, pa-FA-do.

e - (as in bEnd), BE-la, mEm, fe-NES-tro, ven-DRE-do, tre-E-ge, le-TE-ro.

i - (as in sEE), mi, I-li, i-MI-ti, vi-ZI-ti, TRIN-ki, in-SIS-ti.

o - (as in fOr), HO-mo, RO-zo, ko-LOM-bo, DOR-mo (the R rolled), MOR-to, po-PO-lo.

u - (as in bOOt), U-nu, dum, BRU-lu, sur-TU-to, vul-TU-ro, mur-MUR-i.

aj - (as in nIce), ajn, kaj, rAJ-to, taj-LO-ro, FAJ-ro, BE-laj.

ej - (as in plAY), VEJ-no, HEJ-mo, plej, HEJ-to.

oj - (as in bOY), PAT-roj, FOJ-no, HO-mojn, KOJ-no, SOJ-lo, KON-koj.

uj - (as in hallelUJah), tuj, CXI-uj, TI-uj.

aux - (as in cOW), AN-taux, LAUX-bo, fraux-LI-no, KAUX-zi, auxs- KUL-tu, AUX-di.

eux - (like ehw), Eux-RO-po, neux-ral-GI-o, Eux-kar-IS-to, reux-ma-TIS-mo.

c - (= ts, biTS), CE-lo, fa-CI-la (=FA-TSEE-LA), be-LE-co (BE-LE-TSO), ofi-CI-ro, PA-co, ci-ko-NI-o, CO-lo.

cx - (= tch, maTCH), cxu, ecx, cxe, CXAM-bro, CXER-pi, TRAN-cxi, RI-cxa.

g - (as in Good), LON-ga, LE-gi, ge-NU-o, GEN-to, GLI-ti, GRO-so.

gx - (as in Gem), GXE-mi, gxis, gxar-DE-no, SA-gxa, MAN-gxi, RE-gxo.

h - (breathed), HA-ro, hi-RUN-do, ha-RIN-go, his-to-RI-o, he-DE-ro, HIM-no.

hx - (in throat), hxe-MI-o, hxo-LE-ro, me-hxa-NI-ko, E-hxo, hxa-O-so.

j - (like y), JU-na, ma-JES-ta, sin-JO-ro, ka-JE-ro, jes, ja.

jx - (= zh), bon-AJX-o, JXE-ti, jxur-NA-lo, jxus, JXAUX-do, jxa-LU-zo.

s - (ss), SU-per, ses, STA-ri, trans, ves-PE-ro, SVIN-gi.

sx - (sh), FRE-sxa, SXE-lo, KU-sxi, SXTU-po, SXVI-ti, SXVE-li.

kz - ek-ZER-co, ek-ZEM-plo, ek-za-ME-no, ek-ze-KU-ti, ek-ZI-li, ek-ZIS-ti.

kv - kvar, kvin, kvi-E-ta, KVAN-kam, KVER-ko, KVA-zaux.

gv - GVI-di, LIN-gvo.

kn - KNA-bo, KNE-di.

sc - (sts), SCI-o (sts-ee-o), SCE-no (stse-no), SCEP-tro, eks-CI-ti (eks-TSEE-tee), eks-cel-EN-co (eks-tsel-EN-tso), sci-EN-co (stsee-en-tso).

CEN-to, SEN-to; CE-lo, SE-lo, SXE-lo; CO-lo, KO-lo; ci, cxi; ec, ecx; KRU-co, KRU-cxo; PA-go, PA-gxo; RE-gi, RE-gxi; SE-gi, SE-gxo; HO-ro, HXO-ro; PE-si, PE-zi; STE-lo, SXTE-lo; SAN-go, SXAN-go; VER-so, VER-sxi; dis-I-ri, dis-SXI-ri; GUS-ta, GXUS-ta; STU-po, SXTU-po; STA-lo, SXTA-lo; POS-to, POSX-to; re-SER-vi, re-ZER-vi; ru-GXI-gi, ru-CXI-gxi; ri-CXI-gi, ri-CXI-gxi, ri-CXE-co; FTI-zo.

a-E-ro, oce-A-no, fe-I-no, GXU-i, pe-RE-i, pe-RE-u; fo-I-ro, CXI-u-JA-ra, VO-joj, tro-U-zi, for-RAM-pi, ku-I-ri; SKVA-mo, zo-o-lo-GI-o, en-U-i, de-TRU-u, SXPRU-ci, ru-I-ni; Jan-u-A-ro, Feb-ru-A-ro, li-E-no, ho-DI-aux, hi-E-raux, Hun-gar-U-jo, Ne-a-PO-lo, sci-U-ro.

* * * * *

NOTE.—A useful mnemonic for the Esperanto vowels is pAr, pEAr, pIEr, pORe, pOOr, but the sounds should not be dragged. It is helpful to note that the English words "mate, reign, pane, bend; meet, beat, feel, lady; grow, loan, soft; mute, yes, mule" (as pronounced in London and South of England), would be written in Esperanto thus:—"mejt, rejn, pejn, bend; mijt, bijt, fijl, lejdi; groux, louxn, soft; mjut, jes, mjul".

LESSON 1.

WORDS.

In Esperanto a word generally consists of an unchanging part or root, which expresses the idea, and an ending which shows the use of the word, that is, whether it is a name, a describing word, etc. By changing the ending the use of the word is changed.

Notice carefully the words given below which end in "o". It will be seen that they are all names.

In Esperanto every name ends in "o".

(In Grammar names are called NOUNS).

Notice further the words which end in "-as." They all express doing or being (action or state), which is going on at the present time, or which is a custom at the present time.

The words "a," "an," are not expressed; "the" is translated by "la".

VOCABULARY.

pAtro : father. cxAmbro : room. frAto : brother. fenEstro : window. fIlo : son. lIbro : book. TeodOro :Theodore. krajOno : pencil. tajlOro : tailor. plUmo : pen. leOno : lion. cxapElo : hat. bEsto : animal. dOmo : house. kolOmbo : pigeon. Arbo : tree. bIrdo : bird. rOzo : rose. Estas : is, are, am. flOro : flower. apartEnas : belongs. pOmo : apple. brIlas : shines. sUno : sun. kUsxas : lies. tEro : earth, ground. stAras : stands. sxtOno : stone.

la : the. de : of, from. kaj : and. kIe : where. jes : yes. kIo : what thing. ne : no, not. jen Estas : here is. al : to, towards. cxu : whether (asks a question). sur : on. Antaux : before, in front of. en : in. Apud : by, near, beside.

(The [UPPERCASE] shows the accented syllable).

Patro kaj frato. Leono estas besto. Rozo estas floro kaj kolombo estas birdo. La rozo apartenas al Teodoro. La suno brilas. La patro estas tajloro. Kie estas la libro kaj la krajono? Jen estas pomo. Sur la tero kusxas sxtono. Sur la fenestro kusxas krajono kaj plumo. La filo staras apud la patro. Jen kusxas la cxapelo de la patro. La patro estas en la cxambro. Antaux la domo staras arbo.

Kio estas leono? Kio estas rozo? Kio brilas? Kio estas la patro? Kie estas la patro? Kio estas sur la fenestro? Kie estas la plumo?

Cxu leono estas besto? Jes, leono estas besto. Cxu rozo estas birdo? Ne, rozo ne estas birdo, rozo estas floro.

LESSON 2.

Every "describing" word, that is, every word which tells the kind or quality of a person or thing, ends in "a," as "granda", large; "rugxa", red.

(A describing word is called an ADJECTIVE).

VOCABULARY.

bEla : beautiful. jUna : young. blAnka : white. matUra : mature, ripe. blUa : blue. nOva : new. bOna : good. nUtra : nutritious. fidEla : faithful. pUra : pure, clean. fOrta : strong. rIcxa : rich. frEsxa : fresh. sAna : well (healthy).

cxiElo : sky, heaven. nEgxo : snow. fEsto : holiday. pAno : bread. frauxlIno : maiden lady, Miss papEro : paper. hOmo : man (human being). tAblo : table. hUndo : dog. vIno : wine. infAno : child. Onklo : uncle. JohAno : John. pli : more. kajEro : exercise book. ol : than. lAkto : milk. sed : but. mAno : hand. tre : very.

La patro estas sana. Infano ne estas matura homo. La cxielo estas blua. Leono estas forta. La patro estas bona. La mano de Johano estas pura. Papero estas blanka. Blanka papero kusxas sur la tablo. Jen estas la kajero de la juna frauxlino. Sur la cxielo staras la bela suno. La papero estas tre blanka, sed la negxo estas pli blanka. Lakto estas pli nutra, ol vino. La pano estas fresxa. La onklo estas pli ricxa, ol la frato. Jen kusxas rugxa rozo. La hundo estas tre fidela. La libro estas nova.

LESSON 3.

When the name (noun) is required to denote more than one of the persons or things for which it stands, "j" is added to it, as "rozoj", roses; "kolomboj", pigeons; and then every "describing" word (adjective) which belongs to it must also have "j", as "rugxaj rozoj", red roses; "la kolomboj estas belaj", the pigeons are beautiful.

(When the noun stands for "more than one," it is said to be PLURAL. "j" is the sign of the plural).

VOCABULARY.

jAro : year. agrAbla : agreeable, pleasant. kAnto : song. Akra : sharp. knAbo : boy. delikAta : delicate. lilIo : lily. flUgas : fly, flies. trancxIlo : knife. diligenta : diligent. dento : tooth.

lUndo : Monday. vendrEdo : Friday. mArdo : Tuesday. sabAto : Saturday. merkrEdo : Wednesday. dimAncxo : Sunday. jxAUXdo : Thursday.

La birdoj flugas. La kanto de la birdoj estas agrabla. Kie estas la knaboj? La patroj estas sanaj. Infanoj ne estas maturaj homoj. Leonoj estas fortaj. La manoj de Johano estas puraj. Jen estas la kajeroj de la junaj frauxlinoj. La onkloj estas pli ricxaj, ol la fratoj. La hundoj estas tre fidelaj. Blankaj paperoj kusxas sur la tablo. En la cxambro estas novaj cxapeloj. Kie estas la akraj trancxiloj? Bonaj infanoj estas diligentaj. Jen kusxas puraj, blankaj, delikataj lilioj. La dentoj de leonoj estas akraj.

LESSON 4.

mi : I. ni : we, ci : thou. vi : you. li : he. ili : they. sxi : she. si (see Lesson 7). gxi : it oni : one, they, people.

(The above words are called PRONOUNS because they are used instead of repeating the noun).

By adding "a" the pronouns are made to denote a quality, in this case possession, as "mia libro", my book; "via pomo", your apple; "ilia infano", their child.

mia : my, mine. nia : our, ours. cia : thy, thine. via : your, yours, lia : his. ilia : their, theirs. sxia : her, hers. sia (see Lesson 7), gxia : its.

When the name to which these "pronoun-adjectives" belong is plural they must of course take "j", as "miaj libroj", my books; "viaj pomoj", your apples; "iliaj infanoj", their children.

In speaking of relations and parts of the body "la" is often used instead of "mia", "lia", etc., as "La filo staras apud la patro", The son stands by the (his) father.

For "mine," "ours," etc., "mia", "nia", etc., may be used either with or without "la", as "La libro estas mia", or "La libro estas la mia", The book is mine.

"Oni" is used for "one, they, people", when these words are indefinite in meaning, as in the sentences:—Here one can speak fearlessly, "Tie cxi oni povas maltime paroli", They say that he is rich, "Oni diras, ke li estas ricxa", People often eat too quickly, "Oni ofte mangxas tro rapide."

VOCABULARY.

Avo : grandfather. vEnkas : conquers. amIko : friend. mAngxi : to eat. gxardEno : garden gxentIla : polite. knabIno : girl. silEnte : silently. rUso : Russian. kIu : who, which (that). sinjOro gentleman, Mr., Sir. cxIu : each one, every. vEro : truth. cxIuj : all, all the. vEnas : comes. la plej : the most. Iras : goes. tIel : as, so. lEgas : reads. kIel : as. skrIbas : writes. nun : now. plOras : cry, cries. Ankaux : also. vOlas : wills, wishes. cxIam : always. dIras : says. el : out of. sIdas : sits. cxar : because, for.

Mi legas. Vi skribas. Li estas knabo, kaj sxi estas knabino. Ni estas homoj. Vi estas infanoj. Ili estas rusoj. Kie estas la knaboj? Ili estas en la gxardeno, Kie estas la knabinoj? Ili ankaux estas en la gxardeno. Kie estas la trancxiloj? Ili kusxas sur la tablo. La infano ploras, cxar gxi volas mangxi. Sinjoro, vi estas negxentila. Sinjoroj, vi estas negxentilaj. Oni diras; ke la vero cxiam venkas. La domo apartenas al li. Mi venas de la avo, kaj mi iras nun al la onklo. Mi estas tiel forta, kiel vi. Nun mi legas, vi legas, kaj li legas, ni cxiuj legas. Vi skribas, kaj la infanoj skribas, ili (vi) cxiuj sidas silente kaj skribas.

Mia hundo, vi estas tre fidela. Li estas mia onklo, cxar mia patro estas lia frato. El cxiuj miaj infanoj, Ernesto estas la plej juna. Lia patro kaj liaj fratoj estas en la gxardeno. sxia onklo estas en la domo. Kie estas viaj libroj? Niaj libroj kusxas sur la tablo; iliaj krajonoj kaj ilia papero ankaux kusxas sur la tablo.

Kiu estas en la cxambro? Kiuj estas en la cxambro? La sinjoro, kiu legas, estas mia amiko. La sinjoro, al kiu vi skribas, estas tajloro. Kio kusxas sur la tablo?

LESSON 5.

The use of final "n".

In order to understand the meaning of a sentence it is necessary to be able to recognise clearly and unmistakably what it is that is spoken about, that is, what the "subject of the sentence" is. In English this is often to be recognised only by its position in the sentence. For instance, the three words—visited, John, George, can be arranged to mean two entirely, different things, either "John visited George," or "George visited John." [Footnote: In teaching Esperanto to children it is well to make sure before going further that they thoroughly understand, what the subject is. The subject is that which we think or speak about. The word which stands for it is the subject of the sentence. The children may be required to underline the subject of each sentence in a suitable piece of prose or verse.] In Esperanto the sense does not depend on the arrangement— "Johano vizitis Georgon" and "Georgon vizitis Johano" mean exactly the same thing, that John visited George, the "n" at the end of "Georgon" showing that "Georgon" is not the subject. There is no want of clearness about the following (Esperanto) sentences, absurd as they are in English:—

La patron mordis la hundo. The father bit the dog.

La infanon gratis la kato. The child scratched the cat.

La birdojn pafis Johano. The birds shot John.

La musojn kaptis la knabo. The mice caught the boy.

La kokidon mangxis la onklo. The chicken ate the uncle.

La bildon pentris la pentristo. The picture painted the painter.

La fisxojn vendis la fisxisto. The fish sold the fisherman.

In these sentences the subjects are at once seen to be "hundo, kato, Johano, knabo, onklo, pentristo, fisxisto", for the final "n" in "patron, infanon, birdojn, musojn, kokidon, bildon, fisxojn", distinguishes these words from the subject.

This use of "n" renders clear sentences that are not clear in English. "John loves Mary more than George" may mean "more than John loves George" or "more than George loves Mary." In Esperanto it is quite clear. "Johano amas Marion, pli ol Georgo" means "more than George loves Mary," because "Georgo" is the subject of the second (elliptical) sentence, but "Johano amas Marion, pli ol Georgon" means "more than John loves George," because the final "n" in Georgon shows this to be not the subject.

There are cases, however, in which it is not necessary to add "n", the noun or pronoun being distinguished from the subject in another way. Examples are found in the first exercise:—"Sur la tero" kusxas sxtono, "On the ground" lies a stone. "Antaux la pordo" staras arbo, "Before the door" stands a tree. Notwithstanding their position, "ground" and "door" are seen to be not the subject, because before them are the words "on," "before," which connect them with the rest of the sentence—it is "on the ground," "before the door." So with other sentences.

The words "on", "before", and others given [in Lesson 26] are called PREPOSITIONS ("pre" = before). The noun or pronoun which follows them can never be the subject of the sentence.

Remember, then, that

"N" is added to every noun and pronoun, "other than the subject", unless it has a preposition before it. [Footnote: (i.). The explanation usually given for the use of final "n" is, that "n" is added to nouns and pronouns (a) in the Accusative Case (the direct object), (b) when the preposition is omitted. The explanation given above seems to me, however, to be much simpler. (ii.). Another use of final "n" is given later [Lesson 12, Lesson 26] ]

When the noun takes "n", any adjective which belongs to it must also take "n", as, "Li donas al mi belan rugxan floron", He gives me a beautiful red flower. "Li donas al mi belajn rugxajn florojn", He gives me beautiful red flowers.

VOCABULARY.

letero : letter. mateno : morning. litero : letter of alphabet. multaj : many. festo : festival, holiday. obstina : obstinate. tago : day. gxoja : joyful, joyous. nokto : night. hela : bright, clear.

amas : loves. pala : pale. vidas : sees. deziras : desires, wishes. konas : knows. eraras : errs, is wrong. havas : has, possesses. vokas : calls. luno : moon. hejtas : heats. stelo : star. hodiaux : to:day. vintro : winter. malpli : less. forno : stove. kiam : when. edzino : wife. kia : what (kind).

Mi vidas leonon (leonojn). Mi legas libron (librojn). Mi amas la patron. Mi konas Johanon. La patro ne legas libron, sed li skribas leteron. Mi ne amas obstinajn homojn. Mi deziras al vi bonan tagon, sinjoro. Bonan matenon! Gxojan feston (mi deziras al vi). Kia gxoja festo (estas hodiaux)! En la tago ni vidas la helan sunon, kaj en la nokto ni vidas la palan lunon kaj la belajn stelojn. Ni havas pli fresxan panon, ol vi. Ne, vi eraras, sinjoro, via pano estas malpli fresxa, ol mia. Ni vokas la knabon, kaj li venos. En la vintro oni hejtas la fornojn. Kiam oni estas ricxa, oni havas multajn amikojn. Li amas min, sed mi lin ne amas. Sinjoro P. kaj lia edzino tre amas miajn infanojn; mi ankaux tre amas iliajn (infanojn). Mi ne konas la sinjoron, kiu legas.

LESSON 6.

We have seen already (Lesson 1) that the words which end in "-as" express the idea of "doing" (action) or of "being" (state), and that they assert that this action or state is going on, or is a custom, at the present time, as "Mi vidas", I see; "Sxi estas", She is; "Ili suferas", They suffer, they are suffering.

To say that the action or state took place at some "past" time, "-is" is used, as "Mi vidis", I saw; "Sxi estis", She was; "Ili suferis", They suffered, they were suffering.

To say that the action or state will take place at some time to come, in the future, "-os" is used, as, "Mi vidos", I shall see; "Sxi estos", She will be; "Ili suferos", They will suffer, they will be suffering.

(Words which assert something, or which express the idea of doing or of being, are called VERBS).

(The root only of the verbs will now be given in the Vocabulary without the termination).

VOCABULARY.

historio : history. dorm- : sleep. kuzo : cousin. vek- : wake. plezuro : pleasure. sercx- : seek. horlogxo : clock. fin- : end. laboro : work. tim- : fear. popolo : a people. ating- : reach to. virino : woman. surda : deaf. agxo : age. muta : dumb. jaro : year. dolcxa : sweet. permeso : permission. tri : three. respond- : answer. dek-kvin : fifteen. far- : do, make. kial : why. forpel- : drive away. hieraux : yesterday. ricev- : receive, get. morgaux : to-morrow. don- : give. antaux : before. trov- : find. post : after. renkont- : meet. jam : already. salut- : greet, salute. jam ne : no more. rakont- : relate, tell. ankoraux : still, yet. vizit- : visit.

Kial vi ne respondas al mi? Cxu vi estas surda aux muta? Kion vi faras?

La knabo forpelis la birdojn. De la patro mi ricevis libron, kaj de la frato mi ricevis plumon. La patro donis al mi dolcxan pomon. Jen estas la pomo, kiun mi trovis. Hieraux mi renkontis vian filon, kaj li gxentile salutis min. Antaux tri tagoj mi vizitis vian kuzon, kaj mia vizito faris al li plezuron. Kiam mi venis al li, li dormis, sed mi lin vekis.

Mi rakontos al vi historion. Cxu vi diros al mi la veron? Hodiaux estas sabato, kaj morgaux estos dimancxo. Hieraux estis vendredo, kaj postmorgaux estos lundo. Cxu vi jam trovis vian horlogxon? Mi gxin ankoraux ne sercxis; kiam mi finos mian laboron, mi sercxos mian horlogxon, sed mi timas, ke mi gxin jam ne trovos. Se vi nin venkos, la popolo diros, ke nur virinojn vi venkis. Kiam vi atingos la agxon de dek-kvin jaroj, vi ricevos la permeson.

LESSON 7.

Confusion is apt to occur in English in the use of the words "him, her, it, them; his, hers, its, their", e.g., "John loves his brother and his children." Whose children, John's or his brother's? "The boys brought to their fathers their hats." Whose hats, the boys' or their fathers'? "She gave her sister her book." Whose book? Her own or her sister's?

This confusion is avoided in Esperanto by the use of, the pronoun "si" ("sin"), meaning "himself, herself, itself, themselves", and "sia," meaning "his own, her own, its own, their own."

"Si" ("sin, sia") refers to the "subject" of the sentence in which it occurs; therefore in the sentence "John loves his brother and his son," it must be "Johano amas sian fraton kaj sian filon" if it is his own (John's) son, because John is the subject, but we must say "lian filon" if the brother's son is meant. "La knaboj alportis al siaj patroj siajn cxapelojn" means "The boys brought to their fathers their own (the boys') hats," because "boys" is the subject, but if we mean "the fathers' hats" it must be "iliajn cxapelojn."

"She gave to her sister her book" must be "Sxi donis al sia fratino sian libron" if it were her own book, but "Sxi donis al sia fratino sxian libron" if it were her sister's book. "Li diris al si"... means "He said to himself," but "Li diris al li" means that he said it to another person.

"Si", "sia", can only "refer to" the subject, it cannot be the subject itself or any part of it; therefore we must say "Sinjoro P. kaj lia edzino tre amas miajn infanojn", because the subject is "Sinjoro P. kaj lia edzino."

"Mem," self, is only used for emphasis, "e.g.", "Mi mem," my (own) self.

VOCABULARY.

gasto : guest. montr- : show. vespero : evening. fleg- : tend, take care of mangxo : meal. re-ven- : come back. pupo : doll. pri : concerning, about. aventuro : adventure. gxis : until, as far as. palaco : palace. tute : quite, wholly. zorg- : take care of. tute ne : not at all. gard- : guard. kun : with. am- : love. el : out of. akompan- : accompany. el-ir- : go out of. lav- : wash.

Mi amas min mem, vi amas vin mem, li amas sin mem kaj cxiu homo amas sin mem. Mi zorgas pri sxi tiel, kiel mi zorgas pri mi mem, sed sxi mem tute ne zorgas pri si, kaj tute sin ne gardas. Miaj fratoj havis hodiaux gastojn; post la vespermangxo niaj fratoj eliris kun la gastoj el sia domo kaj akompanis ilin gxis ilia domo. Mi lavis min en mia cxambro, kaj sxi lavis sin en sia cxambro. La infano sercxis sian pupon; mi montris al la infano, kie kusxas gxia pupo. [Footnote: Notice the use of the present "kusxas," "lies", after the past "montris," "showed", because at the time the action of "showing" took place the action of "lying" was then actually going on.]

Sxi rakontis al li sian aventuron. Sxi revenis al la palaco de sia patro. Siajn florojn sxi ne flegis. Mia frato diris al Stefano, ke li amas lin pli, ol sin mem.

LESSON 8.

The Cardinal Numbers are:—

unu : 1 kvar : 4 sep : 7 dek : 10 du : 2 kvin : 5 ok : 8 cent : 100 tri : 3 ses : 6 naux : 9 mil : 1,000

The numbers above 10 are written and read exactly as they are set down in figures:—11, dek unu; 12, dek du; 13, dek tri; 19, dek naux. The "tens" are written as one word, 20, dudek; 30, tridek; 90, nauxdek; 23, dudek tri; 47, kvardek sep; 85, okdek kvin; 136, cent tridek ses; 208, ducent (as one word) ok; 359, tricent kvindek naux; 1,001, mil unu; 2,877, dumil okcent sepdek sep; 1907, mil nauxcent sep.

Notice that there is a separate word for each figure except 0, nulo.

VOCABULARY.

busxo : mouth. forges- : forget. orelo : ear. kre- : create. fingro : finger. estu : should be. horo : hour. facile : easily. minuto : minute. sankta : holy. sekundo : second. unuj : some. monato : month. alia : other. semajno : week. cxio : everything, all. dato : date (of month, etc.). multe : much, many. pov- : can, be able. per : by means of, through, with. promen- : take a walk. nur : only. konsist- : consist. malbona : bad. elekt- : choose, elect. Kristnaska Tago : Christmas Day.

Januaro : January. Julio : July. Februaro : February. Auxgusto : August. Marto : March. Septembro : September. Aprilo : April. Oktobro : October. Majo : May. Novembro : November. Junio : June. Decembro : December.

Du homoj povas pli multe fari, ol unu. Mi havas nur unu busxon, sed mi havas du orelojn. Li promenas kun tri hundoj. Li faris cxion per la dek fingroj de siaj manoj. El sxiaj multaj infanoj unuj estas bonaj kaj aliaj malbonaj. Kvin kaj sep faras dek du. Dek kaj dek faras dudek. Kvar kaj dek ok faras dudek du. Tridek kaj kvardek kvin faras sepdek kvin. Mil okcent nauxdek tri. Li havas dek unu infanojn. Sesdek minutoj faras unu horon, kaj unu minuto konsistas el sesdek sekundoj.

8A.

The Ordinal Numbers, first, second, etc., are formed by adding "a" to the Cardinal Numbers, as "unua", first; "dua", second; "tria", third; "kvara", fourth; "deka", tenth; "centa", hundredth; "mila", thousandth. The compound numbers are joined together by hyphens, and "a" is added to the last, as "dek-unua", eleventh; "la tridek-nauxa pagxo", the thirty-ninth page; la "cent-kvardek-kvina psalmo", the 145th psalm. Being adjectives, the Ordinal Numbers take the plural "j" and accusative "n" when necessary.

The Ordinals are used to tell the hour, as "Estas la trio, horo", It is 3 o'clock. The Cardinal Numbers are used for the minutes, as "A quarter past three" is "La tria horo kaj dek-kvin"; "Ten minutes to five," "La kvara horo kaj kvindek".

Januaro estas la unua monato de la jaro, Aprilo estas la kvara, Novembro estas la dek-unua, kaj Decembro estas la dek-dua. La dudeka (tago) de Februaro estas la kvindek-unua tago de la jaro. La sepan tagon de la semajno Dio elektis, ke gxi estu pli sankta, ol la ses unuaj tagoj. Kion Dio kreis en la sesa tago? Kiun daton ni havas hodiaux? Hodiaux estas la dudek-sepa (tago) de Marto. Kristnaska Tago estas la dudek-kvina (tago) de Decembro, Novjara Tago estas la unua de Januaro. Oni ne forgesas facile sian unuan amon.

LESSON 9.

The names of certain quantities are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding "o", as "dekduo", a dozen; "dudeko", a score; "cento", a hundred; "milo", a thousand. These names, as well as names of quantities generally, require to be followed by "da", of, as "dekduo da birdoj", a dozen (of) birds, but "dekdu birdoj", twelve birds; "dudeko da pomoj", a score of apples; "cento da sxafoj", or "cent sxafoj", a hundred sheep; "milo da homoj", a thousand people; "miloj da homoj", thousands of people.

When these expressions form the object of the verb, it is the name of the number which takes "-n", not the noun which follows "da", as "Li acxetis dudekon da sxafoj", He bought a score of sheep.

For "firstly, secondly", etc., "-e" is added to the number, as "unue", firstly; "kvine", fifthly; "deke", tenthly. (See Lesson 12).

VOCABULARY.

urbo : town. acxet- : buy. logxanto : inhabitant. dank- : thank. kulero : spoon. pet- : beg, request. forko : fork. bezon- : want, need. mono : money. kost- : cost. prunto : loan. poste : afterwards. metro : metre. tiu cxi : this. sxtofo : stuff. por : for. franko : franc (about 10d.). re- : prefix, meaning again atakanto : assailant. or back. pago : payment. tial : therefore. miliono : a million. aux : or. prunt- : lend. da : of (after a quantity).

Mi havas cent pomojn. Mi havas centon da pomoj. Tiu cxi urbo havas milionon da logxantoj. Mi acxetis dekduon da kuleroj, kaj du dekduojn da forkoj. Mil jaroj (aux, milo da jaroj) faras miljaron.

Unue mi redonas al vi la monon, kiun vi pruntis al mi; due mi dankas vin por la prunto; trie mi petas vin ankaux poste prunti al mi, kiam mi bezonos monon.

9A.

To express a certain part or fraction, "-on-" is added to the number specifying what part, as 1/2, unu "duono"; 1/3, unu "triono"; 1/4, unu "kvarono"; 1/10, unu "dekono"; 1/1000 unu "milono"; 1/1000000, unu "milionono". These words, being nouns, take "j" and "n" when required—3/10, "tri dekonoj"; 27/200, "dudek-sep ducentonoj"; 19/1000, "deknaux milonoj. Mi mangxis tri kvaronojn de la kuko", I ate three-quarters of the cake (see Lesson 35).

To express so many times a number "-obl-" is added to the number, as "duobla", double; "dekoble", ten times; "trioble kvar estas (or "faras") dekdu", three times four are twelve; "sepoble ok faras kvindek ses", seven times eight make fifty-six.

To express "by twos, by tens", etc., "-op-" is added to the number, as "duope", by twos, or two together; "dekope", by tens; "kvindekope", by fifties, fifty together, or fifty at a time.

Tri estas duono de ses, ok estas kvar kvinonoj de dek. Kvar metroj da tiu cxi sxtofo kostas naux frankojn, tial du metroj kostas kvar kaj duonon frankojn (aux da frankoj). Unu tago estas tricent-sesdek-kvinono, aux tricent-sesdek-sesono de jaro.

Kvinoble sep estas tridek kvin. Por cxiu tago mi ricevas kvin frankojn, sed por la hodiauxa tago mi ricevis duoblan pagon, t.e. (= tio estas) dek frankojn.

Tiuj cxi du amikoj promenas cxiam duope. Kvinope ili sin jxetis sur min, sed mi venkis cxiujn kvin atakantojn.

LESSON 10.

VERBS (continued), -i, -u.

In the examples already given the verbs ending in "-as", "-is", "-os" express "action" or "being" ("state") going on in present, past, or future time, as "Mi skribas", I am writing; "Li legis", He read; "Ni iros", We shall go.

If we wish merely to express the idea of action or state indefinitely, without reference to any time or any subject, the verb must end in "-i," as "Vivi", To live; "Mi deziras lerni", I wish to learn; "Ni devas labori", We must work.

(This is called the INDEFINITE or INFINITIVE Mood (manner of expression), because not limited by reference to time or subject).

To give an "order" or "command", or to express "will, desire, purpose", etc., the verb must end in "u", as "Donu al mi panon", Give (to) me bread; "Iru for", Go away; "Estu felicxa", May you be happy! "Vivu la regxo!" (Long) live the king!

In such cases as Tell "him to come", I want "you to sing", Allow "her to speak", we have to use a second sentence with the verb ending in "u", and beginning with "ke", that, as "Diru al li, ke li venu", Tell (say to) him, that he come; "Mi deziras, ke vi kantu", I wish, that you sing; "Permesu al sxi, ke sxi parolu", Allow her, that she speak. Sentences like the last are often contracted, only the last subject and verb being used, as "Sxi parolu", Let her speak; "Gxi kusxu", Let it lie; "Ni iru", Let us go; "Ili dormu", Let them sleep. "Cxu vi volas ke mi tion faru?" Do you wish me to do that? "Cxu mi tion faru?" Shall I do that?

VOCABULARY.

nomo : name. rajd- : ride. vesto : coat, clothing. las- : let, leave. kandelo : candle. kur- : run. dometo : cottage. parol- : speak. akvo : water. viv- : live, have life. spegulo : looking-glass. rest- : rest, remain. est- : be. honesta : honest. tusx- : touch. inda : worthy. auxskult- : listen. atenta : attentive. pardon- : pardon. kara : dear. uz- : use. gaja : gay, cheerful. ordon- : order. tia : such. babil- : chatter. longa : long. send- : send. sincera : sincere. trink- : drink. for : away, forth. vol- : will, wish. forte : strongly. bat- : beat. sole : alone. kuragx- : have courage

Donu al la birdoj akvon, cxar ili volas trinki. Aleksandro ne volas lerni, kaj tial mi batas Aleksandron. Kiu kuragxas rajdi sur leono? Mi volis lin bati, sed li forkuris de mi.

Al leono ne donu la manon. Rakontu al mia juna amiko belan historion. Diru al la patro, ke mi estas diligenta. Diru al mi vian nomon. Ne skribu al mi tiajn longajn leterojn. Montru al mi vian novan veston. Infano, ne tusxu la spegulon. Karaj infanoj, estu cxiam honestaj. Ne auxskultu lin.

Li diras, ke mi estas atenta. Li petas, ke mi estu atenta. Ordonu al li, ke li ne babilu. Petu lin, ke li sendu al mi kandelon. La dometo estas inda, ke vi gxin acxetu. Sxi forte deziris, ke li restu viva.

Li venu, kaj mi pardonos al li. Ni estu gajaj, ni uzu bone la vivon, cxar la vivo ne estas longa. Li ne venu sole, sed alvenu kun sia plej bona amiko. Mi jam havas mian cxapelon; nun sercxu vi vian.

LESSON 11.

VERBS (continued), -us.

Sometimes we want to express a "supposition", to say that something "would" take place, supposing that something else, which is not likely to occur, were to do so, or that something "would have" taken place if something else which did not occur had done so. In this case the verb must end with "-us", as, If I were well (which I am not) I should be happy (which also I am not), "Se mi estus sana, mi estus felicxa". If he knew (supposition) that I am here (a fact) he would immediately come to me (supposition), "Se li scius, ke mi estas tie cxi, li tuj venus al mi". Compare the two following sentences:— (i.). "Kvankam vi estas ricxa, mi dubas, cxu vi estas felicxa", Though you are (in fact) rich, I doubt whether you are (in fact) happy, (ii.). "Kvankam vi estus ricxa, mi dubas, cxu, vi estus felicxa", Though (supposing that) you were rich, I doubt whether you would be happy.

VOCABULARY.

lernanto : pupil. pen- : endeavour. leciono : lesson. imit- : imitate, instruanto : teacher, kvazaux : as if. sci- : know. io : something. pun- : punish. efektive : really. estim- : esteem. supren : upwards. lev- : lift, raise. kvankam : though. ten- : hold, keep. se : if.

Se la lernanto scius bone sian lecionon, la instruanto lin ne punus. Se vi scius, kiu li estas, vi lin pli estimus. Ili levis unu manon supren, kvazaux ili ion tenus. Se mi efektive estus bela, aliaj penus min imiti. Ho! se mi jam havus la agxon de dekkvin jaroj!

LESSON 12.

When we tell of someone doing a certain action we often want to allude to some circumstance concerning that action, such as the time, or place, or manner in which it was done, that is, when, or where, or how it was done.

In the sentences—Yesterday I met your son, "Hieraux mi renkontis vian filon"; He will go in the evening, "Li iros vespere"; They sat there, "Ili sidis tie"; She will remain at home, "Sxi restos hejme"; Good children learn diligently, "Bonaj infanoj lernas diligente"; I will do it with pleasure, "Mi faros gxin plezure", the words "hieraux, vespere", show the time, "tie, hejme", show the place, and "diligente, plezure", show the manner of the action.

(Because these words relate to the verb they are called ADVERBS).

Adverbs may be formed from any word whose sense admits of it, and especially from adjectives, by means of the termination "e", as "bona", good, "bone", well; "antaux" before, "antauxe", previously or formerly; "mateno", morning, "matene", in the morning; "sekvi", to follow, "sekve", consequently.

When we want the adverb to show "direction towards" any place, time, etc., either actually or figuratively, "n" is added, as "Li alkuris hejmen", He ran home. "Ili levis unu manon supren", They raised one hand upwards. "Antauxen"! Forward! ("n" is also added to nouns to show direction towards. "Li eniris en la domon", He entered into the house).

Some adverbs are used with adjectives and other adverbs to show the "degree" of the quality, quantity, etc., as The paper is "very" white, La papero estas "tre" blanka. "Too" much speaking tires him, La "tro" multa parolado lacigas lin. I am "as" strong "as" you, Mi estas "tiel" forta, "kiel" vi (estas forta). He came "very" early, Li venis "tre" frue.

The following words are in themselves adverbs, and need no special ending:—

VOCABULARY.

hodiaux : to-day. tre : very. hieraux : yesterday. tro : too. morgaux : to-morrow. tute : quite. baldaux : soon. nur : only. ankoraux : yet. nepre : surely, without fail. jam : already. preskaux : nearly. jxus : just (time). apenaux : scarcely. nun : now. almenaux : at least. tuj : immediately. ambaux : both. denove : again, anew. ankaux : also. cxi denotes proximity. ne : not. jen : here, there, lo, behold. jes : yes. for : away, forth. ja : indeed. pli : more. ecx : even. plej : most. cxu : whether, asks a question. plu : further. ju ... des : the more...the more.

Comparisons are made with—

"pli...ol", more than: "Lakto estas pli nutra ol vino", Milk is more nutritious than wine.

"malpli...ol", less than: "Vino estas malpli nutra ol lakto", Wine is less nutritious than milk.

"la plej", the most, "la malplej", the least: "El cxiuj liaj amikoj Johano estas la plej sagxa, kaj Georgo la malplej sagxa", Of all his friends John is the wisest, and George the least wise.

"Ju pli...des pli", the more...the more: "Ju pli li lernas, des pli li deziras lerni", The more he learns, the more he wishes to learn.

"Ju malpli...des malpli", the less...the less: "Ju malpli li laboras, des malpli li ricevas", The less he works, the less he gets.

"Ju pli...des malpli", the more...the less: "Ju pli li farigxas granda, des malpli li estas forta", The taller he becomes, the less strong he is.

"Ju malpli...des pli", the less...the more: "Ju malpli li pensas, des pli li parolas", The less he thinks, the more he talks.

For comparisons of equality, as...as, so...as, see Lesson 20.

VOCABULARY.

pordo : door. sav- : save. kontrakto : contract. dauxr- : last, continue. pastro : pastor, priest. trancx- : cut. fero : iron. ekrigard- : glance. bastono : stick (rod). flu- : flow. stacio : station. ag- : act (do). stacidomo : station. logx- : live, lodge. hejmo : home. brul- : burn (as a fire). furio : fury. vetur- : ride (in a vehicle). sxipano : sailor. aper- : appear. kolero : anger. postul- : require, demand. honesto : honesty. pendig- : hang (something) dangxero : danger. mort- : die. koro : heart. malsana : ill. oficisto : an official. varma : warm. regxo : king. varmega : hot. balo : ball, dance. frua : early. humoro : humour. plue : further. tempo : time. returne : back. sinjorino : lady, Mrs. cxar : because, whereas. ferm- : shut.

Resti kun leono estas dangxere. La trancxilo trancxas bone, cxar gxi estas akra. Iru pli rapide. Li fermis kolere la pordon. Lia parolo fluas dolcxe kaj agrable. Ni faris la kontrakton ne skribe, sed parole. Honesta homo agas honeste. La pastro, kiu mortis antaux nelonge (antaux ne longa tempo), logxis longe en nia urbo. Cxu vi gxin ne ricevis returne? Li estas morte malsana. La fera bastono, kiu kusxis en la forno, estas brule varmega. Parizo estas tre gaja. Matene frue sxi alveturis [Footnote: See Lesson 27.] al la stacidomo.

Pardonu al mi, ke mi restis tiel longe. Lia kolero longe dauxris. Li estas hodiaux en kolera humoro. La regxo baldaux denove sendis alian bonkoran oficiston. Hodiaux vespere ni havos balon. Kie vi estas? For de tie-cxi!

Kien li forveturis? Sxi kuris hejmen. Ni iris antauxen, kiel furioj. Cxio estis bona, kaj ni veturis pluen. La sinjorino ekrigardis returnen. La sxipanoj postulis, ke oni iru returnen. Mi gxin pendigis tien cxi, cxar gxi savis mian vivon. Mi neniam sendis tien cxi.

LESSON 13.

Mal-, -in-.

In Esperanto certain syllables which have a definite meaning are placed at the beginning (prefixes) or end (suffixes) of words to alter in some way the meaning of those words.

The prefix "mal-" gives an exactly opposite meaning to the word to which it is prefixed, as "dekstra", right (hand); "maldekstra", left (hand); "nova", new; "malnova", old; "helpi", to help, "malhelpi", to hinder; "fermi", to shut, "malfermi", to open.

The suffix "-in-" denotes the female sex. From "viro", [Footnote: The word "homo" previously given (Lesson 2) signifies a human being, a person, without reference to sex; "viro" means a man as distinguished from a woman.] a man, we get "virino", a woman; "filo", son, "filino", daughter; "cxevalo", a horse, "cxevalino", a mare; "koko", a cock, "kokino", a hen.

VOCABULARY.

kresko : growth. ferm- : shut. haro : hair (substance). help- : help. haroj : hair (of head). farigx- : become. nazo : nose. dekstra : right (hand). vojo : road. meza : middle, medium. viro : man. dika : thick, stout. edzo : husband, mola : soft. nepo : grandson. luma : light (luminous). nevo : nephew. nobla : noble (character). bovo : ox. rekta : straight. vidvo : widower, kurba : curved. fiancxo : fiance. felicxa : happy. nenio : nothing. naskita : born. turment- : torment. fermita : shut. sent- : feel. ecx : even. ben- : bless. longe : for a long time. estim- : have esteem for. denove : anew, again.

Mia frato ne estas granda, sed li ne estas malgranda, li estas de meza kresko. Haro estas tre maldika. La nokto estas tiel malluma, ke ni nenion povas vidi ecx antaux nia nazo. Tiu cxi malfresxa pano estas malmola, kiel sxtono. Malbonaj infanoj amas turmenti bestojn. Li sentis sin tiel malfelicxa, ke li malbenis la tagon, en kiu li estis naskita. Ni forte malestimas tiun cxi malnoblan homon. La fenestro longe estis nefermita; mi gxin fermis, sed mia frato tuj gxin denove malfermis. Rekta vojo estas pli mallonga, ol kurba. Ne estu maldanka.

La edzino de mia patro estas mia patrino, kaj la avino de miaj infanoj. Mia fratino estas tre bela knabino. Mia onklino estas tre bona virino. Mi vidis vian avinon kun sxiaj kvar nepinoj, kaj kun mia nevino. Mi havas bovon kaj bovinon. La juna vidvino farigxis denove fiancxino.

LESSON 14.

Re-, -ad-, ek-.

The prefixes "re-" and "ek-" and the suffix "-ad-" are attached to verbs.

"Re-" has nearly the same meaning as in English, "back" or "again", as "re-pagi", to pay back; "re-porti", to carry back; "re-jxeti", to throw back; "re-salti", to rebound; "re-kanti" to sing again; "re-legi", to read over again.

"-ad-" denotes the continuance or continued repetition of an action; it means "goes on doing", or "keeps on doing", or "is in the habit of", or in the past "used to", as "spiri", to breathe, "spirado", respiration; "movi", to move, "movado", continued movement; "fumi", to smoke, "fumado", the habit of smoking; "auxdi", to hear, "auxdado", the sense of hearing.

"Ek-" has the opposite meaning to "-ad-"; it signifies the beginning of an action, or a short or sudden action, as "kanti", to sing, "ekkanti", to begin to sing; "ridi", to laugh, "ekridi", to burst out laughing; "krii", to cry or call, "ekkrii", to cry out; "iri", to go, "ekiri", to set out; "dormi", to sleep, "ekdormi", to fall asleep.

VOCABULARY.

rivero : river. fal- : fall. lando : land. atend- : wait for, expect. segxo : seat. lacig- : make tired. dauxro : duration. frot- : rub. okupo : occupation. rigard- : look. pluvo : rain. elrigard- : look out of. vagonaro : train. salt- : jump. surprizo : surprise. rapida : quick. diamanto : diamond. klara : clear. fulmo : lightning. lerte : cleverly. lumo : a light. energie : energetically. paf- : shoot. kelke : some. jxet- : throw. cxiuminute : every minute. [p. 84] auxd- : hear. tra : through.

Li donis al mi monon, sed mi gxin tuj redonis al li. Mi foriras, sed atendu min, cxar mi baldaux revenos. La suno rebrilas en la klara akvo de la rivero. Li reiris al sia lando. Sxi rejxetis sin sur la segxon.

En la dauxro de kelke da minutoj mi auxdis du pafojn. La pafado dauxris tre longe. Lia hierauxa parolo estis tre bela, sed la tro multa parolado lacigas lin. Li kantas tre belan kanton. La kantado estas agrabla okupo. Per mia mano mi energie lin frotadis. La pluvo faladis per riveroj. Cxiuminute sxi elrigardadis tra la fenestro, kaj malbenadis la malrapidan iradon de la vagonaro.

Mi saltas tre lerte. Mi eksaltis de surprizo. Mi saltadis la tutan tagon [Footnote: See Lesson 26 (iii.)] de loko al loko. Kiam vi ekparolis, mi atendis auxdi ion novan. La diamanto havas belan brilon. Sxi lasis la diamanton ekbrili. Du ekbriloj do fulmo trakuris tra la malluma cxielo.

LESSON 15.

VERBS (continued).

In all the examples already given the Subject of the Sentence is the "doer" of the action, but often it is "the one to whom the action is done" who occupies our thoughts, and of whom we wish to speak. This one then becomes the subject, and the form of the Verb is changed. Instead of saying "The police are searching for the thief," "Someone has broken the window," "Someone is going to finish the work to-morrow," we say "The thief is being sought for by the police," "The window has been broken," "The work is going to be finished to-morrow."

(Note the convenience of this form when we do not know or do not wish to mention the doer).

In Esperanto the terminations "-ata", "being", denoting "incompleteness" or "present" time, "-ita", "having been", denoting "completeness" or "past" time, and "-ota", "about to be" (going to be), denoting "action not yet begun", or "future" time, are added to the root of the verb, as "ami", to love, "amata", being loved, "amita", having been loved, "amota", going to be loved. "La sxtelisto estas sercxata de la policanoj" [Footnote: "De" is used after these participles to denote the "doer" of the action.], The thief is being searched for by the police. "La fenestro estas rompita", The window has been broken. "La laboro estas finota morgaux", The work is going to be finished to-morrow.

It will be seen that these words ending in "-ata", "-ita", "-ota" describe the subject or show the "condition" or "state" in which the subject is, therefore they are adjectival; the thief is a "searched-for" thief, the window was a "broken" window, the work is a "going-to-be-finished" work (compare The work will be "ready" to-morrow). They are called PARTICIPLES, and being adjectival, take "j" when the noun to which they belong is plural.

Mi estas tenata ............. I am (being) held. Li estis tenata ............. He was (being) held. Ni estos tenataj ............ We shall be (being) held. Vi estus tenataj ............ You would be (being) held. Ke ili estu tenataj ......... That they may be (being) held. Estu tenata ................. Be (being) held. Esti tenata ................. To be (being) held.

Mi estas vidita ............. I am (in the state of) having been seen, or, I have been seen. Li estis vidita ............. He was (in the state of) having been seen, or, he had been seen. Ni estos viditaj ............ We shall be (in the state of) having been seen, or, we shall have been seen. Vi estus viditaj ............ You would be (in the state of) having been seen, or, you would have been seen. (Ke) ili estu viditaj ....... (That) they may be (in the state of) having been seen, or, that they may have been seen. Esti vidita ................. To be (in the state of) having been seen, or, to have been seen.

Mi estas lauxdota .......... I am about (going) to be praised. Sxi estis lauxdota .......... She was about (going) to be praised. Ni estos lauxdotaj .......... We shall be about (going) to be praised. Vi estus lauxdotaj .......... You would be about (going) to be praised. (Ke) ili estu lauxdotaj ..... (That) they should be about (going) to be praised. Esti lauxdota ............... To be about (going) to be praised.

VOCABULARY.

komercajxo : commodity. sciig- : inform. surtuto : overcoat. kasx- : hide. sxuldo : debt. pens- : think. ringo : ring. kapt- : capture. projekto : project. trankvila : quiet. ingxeniero : civil engineer. tuta : all, whole. fervojo : railroad. grava : important. pregxo : prayer. ora : golden. pasero : sparrow. volonte : willingly. aglo : eagle. sekve : consequently. invit- : invite. laux : according to. konstru- : construct.

Mi estas amata. Mi estis amata. Mi estos amata. Mi estus amata. Estu amata. Esti amata. Vi estas lavita. Vi estis lavita. Vi estos lavita. Vi estus lavita. Estu lavita. Esti lavita. Li estas invitota. Li estis invitota. Li estos invitota. Li estus invitota. Estu invitota. Esti invitota. Tiu cxi komercajxo estas cxiam volonte acxetata de mi. La surtuto estas acxetita de mi; sekve gxi apartenas al mi. Kiam via domo estis konstruata, mia domo estis jam longe konstruita. Mi sciigas, ke de nun la sxuldoj de mia filo ne estos pagataj de mi. Estu trankvila, mia tuta sxuldo estos pagita al vi baldaux. Mia ora ringo ne estus tiel longe sercxata, se gxi ne estus tiel lerte kasxita de vi. Laux la projekto de la ingxenieroj tiu cxi fervojo estas konstruota en la dauxro de du jaroj; sed mi pensas, ke gxi estos konstruata pli ol tri jarojn. Kiam la pregxo estis finita, li sin levis.

Auxgusto estas mia plej amata filo. Mono havata estas pli grava ol havita. Pasero kaptita estas pli bona, ol aglo kaptota.

LESSON 16.

Another set of participles is used to describe or show the condition or state of the "doer" of the action, namely "-anta", denoting "incompleteness" or present time, "-inta", denoting "completeness" or past time, and "-onta", denoting "action not yet begun", or future time, as "Sur la arbo staras kantanta birdo (aux birdo kantanta"), On the tree is a singing bird (or a bird singing); "En la venonta somero mi vizitos vin", In the coming summer I shall visit you; "La pasinta nokto estis tre pluva", The past night was very wet (rainy).

Mi estas mangxanta .......... I am (in the act of) eating. Li estis mangxanta .......... He was eating. Ni estos mangxantaj ......... We shall be eating. Vi estus mangxantaj ......... You would be eating. (Ke) ili estu mangxantaj .... (That) they may be eating. Esti mangxanta .............. To be eating. Estu mangxanta .............. Be (in the act of) eating.

Mi estas teninta ............ I am (in the state of) having held, or, I have held. Li estis teninta ............ He was (in the state of) having held, or, he had held. Ni estos tenintaj ........... We shall be (in the state of) having held, or, we shall have held. Vi estus tenintaj ........... You would be (in the state of) having held, or, you would have held. (Ke) ili estu tenintaj ...... (That) they may be (in the state of) having held, or, (that) they may have held. Esti teninta ................ To be (in the state of) having held, or, to have held.

Mi estas dironta ............ I am about (going) to say. Li estis dironta ............ He was about (going) to say. Ni estos dirontaj ........... We shall be about (going) to say. Vi estus dirontaj ........... You would be about (going) to say. (Ke) ili estu dirontaj ...... (That) they may be about (going) to say. Esti dironta ................ To be about (going) to say.

The participles are made into nouns by ending them with "o" instead of "a", as "Kiam Nikodemo batas Jozefon, tiam Nikodemo estas la batanto, kaj Jozefo estas la batato", When Nicodemus beats Joseph, then Nicodemus is the beater, and Joseph is the one being beaten.

La batanto ...... The one who is beating. La batinto ...... The one who was beating. La batonto ...... The one who is about (going) to beat. La batato ....... The one who is being beaten. La batito ....... The one who has been beaten. La batoto ....... The one who is about to be beaten.

Note that the participles which have "n" in the termination refer to the "doer"; they are called "active" participles. Those without "n" refer to the one to whom the action is done; they are "passive" participles.

VOCABULARY.

tempo : time. ripet- : repeat. mondo : world. arest- : arrest. lingvo : language. jugx- : judge. nombro : number. konduk- : lead, conduct. legendo : legend. vojagx- : travel, journey. loko : place. sxtel- : steal. salono : drawing-room. ripoz- : rest, repose. eraro : mistake. diradis : used to say (tell). soldato : soldier. estonta : future (about to be). strato : street. vera : true. pek- : sin. intence : intentionally. fal- : fall. facile : easily. mensog- : tell a lie. antauxe : formerly, previously. pas- : pass (as time passes). dum : while, whilst, during. atend- : wait, expect. neniam : never. sav- : save, rescue. neniu : nobody. danc- : dance. sen : without. kred- : believe. senmove : motionless.

Fluanta akvo estas pli pura, ol akvo staranta senmove. La falinta homo ne povas sin levi. La tempo pasinta jam neniam revenos; la tempon venontan neniu ankoraux konas. Venu, ni atendas vin, Savonto de la mondo. En la lingvo Esperanto ni vidas la estontan lingvon de la tuta mondo. La nombro de la dancantoj estis granda. Gxi estas la legendo, kiun la veraj kredantoj cxiam ripetas. Li kondukis la vojagxanton al la loko, kie la sxtelintoj ripozis. Al homo, pekinta senintence, Dio facile pardonas. La soldatoj kondukis la arestitojn tra la stratoj. Homo, kiun oni devas jugxi, estas jugxoto.

16A.

Nun li diras al mi la veron. Hieraux li diris al mi la veron. Li cxiam diradis al mi la veron. Kiam vi vidis nin en la salono, li jam antauxe diris al mi la veron (aux, li estis dirinta al mi la veron). Li diros al mi la veron. Kiam vi venos al mi, li jam antauxe diros al mi la veron (aux, li estos dirinta al mi la veron; aux, antaux ol vi venos al mi, li diros al mi la veron). Se mi petus lin, li dirus al mi la veron. Mi ne farus la eraron, se li antauxe dirus al mi la veron (aux, se li estus dirinta al mi la veron). Kiam mi venos, diru al mi la veron. Kiam mia patro venos, diru al mi antauxe la veron (aux, estu dirinta al mi la veron). Mi volas diri al vi la veron. Mi volas, ke tio, kion mi diris, estu vera (aux, mi volas esti dirinta la veron).

LESSON 17.

Participles can be used as adverbs when they refer to the subject, and tell some circumstance about the action, as "Walking along the street, John saw your friend." "Walking along the street" tells the circumstance under which the subject, John, saw your friend; therefore "walking" is adverbial—"Promenante sur la strato, Johano vidis vian amikon." If it were the friend who was walking, it must be "Johano vidis vian amikon, promenantan sur la strato."

(Examine in this way the sentences in the following exercise).

VOCABULARY.

braceleto : bracelet. medit- : meditate. sxtelisto : thief. port- : carry. vorto : word. demand- : ask. duko : duke. sxpar- : save. juvelo : jewel. edzigx- : marry. juvelujo : jewel-case. hont- : be ashamed. dolaro : dollar. ir- : go. instruo : instruction. profunda : deep. planko : floor. kelka : some. imperiestro : emperor. ia : some (kind), any (kind). okazo : opportunity, occurrence, kredeble : probably. chance. trans : across. serv- : serve. tio cxi : this (thing).

Promenante sur la strato, mi falis. Trovinte pomon, mi gxin mangxis. Li venis al mi tute ne atendite. Li iris tre meditante kaj tre malrapide. Ni hontis, ricevinte instruon de la knabo. La imperiestra servanto eliris, portante kun si la braceleton. Profunde salutante, li rakontis, ke oni kaptis la sxteliston. Ne dirante vorton, la dukino malfermis sian juvelujon. Laborinte unu jaron, kaj sxparinte kelkajn dolarojn, mi edzigxis kun mia Mario. Transirinte la riveron, li trovis la sxteliston. Rigardinte okaze la plankon, sxi vidis ian libron, forgesitan kredeble de elirinta veturanto.

LESSON 18.

Suffix -ist-.

The suffix "-ist-" denotes one who occupies himself with or devotes himself to any special thing, as a business or a hobby, as "jugxi", to judge, "jugxisto", a judge; "servi", to serve, "servisto", a servant; "kuraci", to treat (as a doctor), "kuracisto", a doctor; "lavi", to wash, "lavisto", a laundryman.

VOCABULARY.

boto : boot. transskrib- : transcribe, copy. sxuo : shoe. kuir- : cook. maro : sea. veturig- : drive (carriage, etc.). mehxaniko : mechanics. tromp- : deceive. hxemio : chemistry. okup- : occupy, employ. diplomato : diplomatist. teks- : weave. fiziko : physics. diversa(j) : various. scienco : science. simple : simply. dron- : be drowned, sink. je (indefinite meaning). verk- : work mentally, write, [Lessons 26, 40.] compose.

La botisto faras botojn kaj sxuojn. Sxtelistojn neniu lasas en sian domon. La kuragxa maristo dronis en la maro. Verkisto verkas librojn, kaj skribisto simple transskribas paperojn. Ni havas diversajn servantojn—kuiriston, cxambristinon, infanistinon, kaj veturigiston. Kiu okupas sin je mehxaniko estas mehxankisto, kaj kiu okupas sin je hxemio estas hxemiisto. Diplomatiiston oni povas ankaux nomi diplomato, [Footnote: See Lesson 45.] sed fizikiston oni ne povas nomi fiziko, [Footnote: See Lesson 45.] cxar fiziko estas la nomo de la scienco mem. Unu tagon [Footnote: See Lesson 26.] (en unu tago) venis du trompantoj, kiuj diris, ke ili estas teksistoj.

LESSON 19.

Suffixes -ig-, -igx-.

"-ig-" means "to make" or "cause" someone or something to be or to do that which the word denotes, while "-igx-" means "to become" so or such oneself. Thus from "rugxa", red, we get "rugxigi", to make (something or someone) red, "rugxigxi", to become red oneself, to blush; "klara", clear, "klarigi", to make clear, to explain, "klarigxi", to become clear; "sidi", to sit, to be sitting, "sidigi", to cause someone to sit, "sidigxi", to become seated, to sit down; "kun", with, "kunigi", to connect, "kunigxi", to become connected with; "devi", to have to (must), "devigi", to compel; "fari", to do or make, "farigxi", to become; "for", away, "forigi", make (go) away.

VOCABULARY.

printempo : spring. kapo : head. glacio : ice. botelo : bottle. vetero : weather. dev- : have to, must. broso : brush. kurac- : treat as a doctor. relo : rail. pren- : take. rado : wheel. pend- : hang. cxapo : bonnet, cap. blov- : blow. arbeto : little tree. ekbrul- : begin to burn. vento : wind. rid- : laugh. brancxo : branch. romp- : break. vizagxo : face. fluida : fluid. kuvo : tub. kota : dirty, muddy. kolego : companion, colleague natura : natural. Hebreo : Hebrew. seka : dry. Kristano : Christian. tamen : however, nevertheless, yet

Oni tiel malhelpis al mi, ke mi malbonigis mian tutan laboron. Forigu vian fraton, cxar li malhelpas al ni. Venigu la kuraciston, cxar mi estas malsana.

Li venigis al si el Berlino multajn librojn (multe da libroj).

Li paligxis de timo, kaj poste li rugxigxis de honto. En la printempo la glacio kaj la negxo fluidigxas. En la kota vetero mia vesto forte malpurigxis; tial mi prenis broson kaj purigis la veston. Mia onklo ne mortis per natura morto, sed li tamen ne mortigis sin mem, kaj ankaux estis mortigita de neniu; unu tagon, [Footnote: See Lesson 26, Note iii.] promenante apud la reloj de fervojo, li falis sub la radojn de veturanta vagonaro, kaj mortigxis. Mi ne pendigis mian cxapon sur tiu cxi arbeto; sed la vento forblovis de mia kapo la cxapon, kaj gxi, flugante, pendigxis sur la brancxoj de la arbeto. Sidigu vin (aux, sidigxu), sinjoro!

Lia malgaja vizagxo ridigis lian amikon. La tutan nokton ili pasigis maldorme, kaj ekbruligis pli ol dekses kandelojn. Mi senvestigis la infanon de liaj noktaj vestoj, kaj starigis lin en la kuvon; poste mi sekigis lin. Li amikigxis kun malbonaj kolegoj. Malricxa hebreo volis kristanigxi. La botelo falis kaj rompigxis. Sxi farigxis lia edzino. Iom post iom, sxi tute trankviligxis.

* * * * *

NOTES.

1.—In "pluvas", it rains; "tondras", it thunders; "estas bela tago", it is a fine day; "estas bele", it is fine; "estas vere, ke...", it is true that..., etc., "it" is left out, because it does not stand for any "thing." The adverbs "bele", "vere", are used because no "thing" is mentioned.

2.—"Ni havas fresxajn lakton kaj panon" means "Ni havas fresxan lakton kaj fresxan panon", We have new milk and new bread. "Ni havas fresxan lakton kaj panon" means We have bread and new milk.

3.—"La angla, franca kaj germana lingvoj estas malfacilaj", The English, French and German languages are difficult. "Angla", "franca", "germana" do not take "j" because each refers to only one language, while "malfacilaj" refers to all those mentioned.

LESSON 20.

The words "ia, tia; kial, tial; kiam, cxiam, neniam; kie, kiel, tiel; io, kio, tio, cxio, nenio; kiu, cxiu, neniu", have already been met with. They belong to a series whose use will best be seen from the following examples:—

"ia" denotes kind or quality. "Kia" floro estas la plej bela? "Ia" kaj "cxia" floro estas beta, "nenia" estas malbela. Mi admiras la rozon; "tia" floro la plej placxas al mi. "What (kind of)" flower is the most beautiful? "Any kind" and "every kind" of flower is beautiful, "no kind" is ugly. I admire the rose, "that kind of" flower pleases me the most.

"ial", motive, reason. "Kial" li iros en Parizon? Mi ne scias; "ial" li foriros, sed "cxial" estus pli bone resti en Londono. Li deziras foriri, "tial" li foriros. "Why" is he going (will he go) to Paris? I know not; "for some reason" he is going, but "for every reason" (on every account) it would be better to remain in London. He wishes to go, "therefore" (for that reason) he will go.

"iam", time. "Kiam" vi venos min viziti? "Iam" mi venos, "kiam" mi havos libertempon; vi "cxiam" havas libertempon, mi "neniam". Postmorgaux estos festo, "tiam" mi venos. "When" will you come to visit me? "Sometime" I will come, "when" (at what time) I shall have a holiday; you "always" (at all times) have a holiday, I "never" (at no time). (The day) after to-morrow will be a festival (a general holiday); I will come "then" (at that time).

"ie", place. "Kie" estas mia cxapelo? Gxi devas esti "ie", sed mi sercxis gxin "cxie", kaj "nenie" mi povas trovi gxin. Ha, nun mi ekvidas gxin "tie". "Where" is my hat? It must be "somewhere", but I have looked for it "everywhere", and "nowhere" can I find it. Ha, now I see it "there".

"iel", manner. "Kiel" vi faros tion cxi? Mi ne scias; mi "cxiel" provis gxin fari, sed mi "neniel" sukcesis. Johano sukcesis "iel"; eble li faris gxin "tiel". "How" will you do this? I do not know; I have tried in every way to do it, but I have "in no way" (not at all) succeeded. John succeeded "in some way" (somehow); perhaps he did it "so (in such a way").

"ies", possession. "Kies" devo estas tio cxi? Eble gxi estas "ties"; sendube gxi estas "ies". "Cxies" devo estas "nenies". "Whose" duty is this? Perhaps it is "that one's (person's)"; doubtless it is "somebody's. Everybody's" duty is "nobody's."

"io", thing. "Kio" malplacxas al vi? Nun "nenio" malplacxas al mi, "cxio" estas bona. Antaux tri tagoj "io" tre malplacxis al mi, sed mi ne parolas pri "tio" nun. "What" displeases you? Now "nothing" displeases me, "all" is well. Three days ago "something" greatly displeased me, but I am not speaking about "that" now.

"iom", quantity. "Kiom" da mono vi bezonas? Mi havas "tiom", mi povas prunti al vi "iom", sed ne "cxiom". Se mi pruntus al vi "cxiom", mi mem havus "neniom". "How much" money do you need ? I have "so much (that quantity)", I can lend you "some", but not "all". If I were to lend you "all", I myself should have "none".

"iu" denotes individuality, person, or thing specified. "Kiu" estis cxe la balo? "Cxiu, kiu" estis invitita, estis tie, "neniu" forestis. "Iu, kiun" mi mem ne konas, venis kun "tiu kiu" vizitis vin hierau. "Who" was at the ball? "Everybody who" had been invited was there, "nobody" was absent. "Somebody, whom" I myself do not know, came with "that person who" visited you yesterday.

It will be seen from these examples that the words beginning with "K" either "ask questions" or "refer" to some person or thing before mentioned. Those beginning with "T" point to a "definite" time, place, etc. Those with "Cx" signify "each" or "every", and in the plural "all". Those without a letter prefixed are "indefinite", meaning some or any; and those with "nen-" are "negative", meaning "no, none".

The words ending in "ia" and those in "iu" can take the plural "j" and accusative "n".

The words in "io" take "n", but the sense does not permit of their taking "j".

The words in "ie" take the "n" denoting direction.

The word "cxi", signifying nearness, is used with the "T" series (words meaning "that"), to denote the one near "i.e., this", as "Tio cxi", this thing; "Tiu cxi", this person; "Tie cxi", or, "cxi tie", here, etc.

The word "ajn", ever, is used with the "K" series to give a more inclusive and wider meaning, as "Kio ajn", whatever; "Kiu ajn", whoever; "Kiam ajn", whenever; "Kiom ajn", however much.

Comparisons of equality are made with the words—

"tiel ... kiel", as Vi estas "tiel" forta, "kiel" mi, You are "as" strong "as" I.

"tia ... kia", as "Tia" domo, "kia" tiu, estas malofta, "Such" a house "as" that is rare.

"sama ... kia", as Mia bastono estas "tia sama, kia" la via, My stick is "the same as" yours.

"sama ... kiel", as Gxia uzado estas "tia sama, kiel" en la aliaj lingvoj, Its use is "the same as" in the other languages. Vi cxiam laboradas al tiu "sama" celo, "kiel" mi, You are always working towards that "same" end (aim) "as" I.

Any of the above series of words whose sense admits of it can be used as adjectives, adverbs, etc., and in combination with prefixes, suffixes, or other words, as "cxiama", continual, eternal; "tiea", of that place. "Kioma" is used for asking the time, as "Kioma horo estas"? What time is it?

CORRELATIVE WORDS.

+ -+ * K T CX Nen- INDEFINITE. QUESTIONING DEFINITE. INCLUSIVE. NEGATIVE. RELATIVE. Some, any. What, That. Each, No, none. which. every, all. + -+ -+ + -+ - Ia Kia Tia Cxia Nenia QUALITY Some kind What kind That kind Each kind No kind Kind of Any kind Such Every kind + -+ -+ + -+ - Ial Kial Tial Cxial Nenial MOTIVE For some For what For that For each For no Reason reason reason reason reason reason Purpose For any Why Therefore For every reason reason + -+ -+ + -+ - Iam Kiam Tiam Cxiam Neniam TIME Sometime At what At that Each time At no time Any time time time Every time Never When Then Always + -+ -+ + -+ - Ie Kie Tie Cxie Nenie PLACE In some At what At that At each At no place place place place place Somewhere Where There At every Nowhere Anywhere place Everywhere + -+ -+ + -+ - Iel Kiel Tiel Cxiel Neniel MANNER In some way In what way In that In each In no way In any way How way way Nohow Somehow, As, like So In every anyhow way + -+ -+ + -+ - Ies Kies Ties Cxies Nenies POSSES- Someone's What That one's Each one's No one's SION Anyone's person's Everyone's Whose + -+ -+ + -+ - Io Kio Tio Cxio Nenio THING Something What thing That Everything Nothing Anything What thing + -+ -+ + -+ - Iom Kiom Tiom Cxiom Neniom QUANTITY Some(of the What That Every None of the quantity) quantity quantity quantity quantity How much So much All of the quantity + -+ -+ + -+ - Iu Kiu Tiu Cxiu Neniu INIVIDU- Someone What person That Each person No one ALITY Anyone Which thing person Everyone Nobody Who Which That Cxiuj = (specified) all, thing all the... + -+

VOCABULARY.

ankro : anchor. prov- : attempt, try. maniero : manner, way. sukces- : succeed. riprocxo : reproach. perd- : lose. konscienco : conscience. merit- : deserve. propono : proposal, offer. kompren- : understand. rando : edge. libera : free. sxipo : ship. certa : certain, sure. dubo : doubt. utila : useful. demando : question. fremda : strange. admir- : admire. necesa : necessary. placx- : be pleasing. ekster : beyond, outside. supoz- : suppose.

"Ia." La maro estas tie pli profunda, ol povas atingi ia ankro. En ia maniero. Sen ia riprocxo de konscienco. Mi scias, en kia loko mi certe lin trovos. Kia estas la vetero? Kian malbonon mi al vi faris? Tiamaniere li faris cxion. Li invitis lin veni en tian kaj tian lokon. Ne cxia birdo kantas. Ekster cxia dubo. Nenia homo meritas tian punon. Tiaj libroj estas malutilaj. Iafoje li vizitas nin.

"Ial." Ial li ne povis dormi. Kial vi ne respondas al mi? Mi ne komprenis vian demandon, tial mi ne respondis. La homoj ne komprenas unu la alian, kaj tial ili tenas sin fremde. Cxial tio estas la plej bona.

"Iam." Mi iam vin amis. Kio vivas, necese devas iam morti. Kiam vi foriros? En la luna nokto, kiam cxiuj dormis, tiam sxi sidis sur la rando de la sxipo. Estu por cxiam benata! Sxi antauxe neniam vidis hundon.

VOCABULARY 20A.

mono : money. monto : mountain. monujo : purse. ganto : glove. juneco : youth. opinio : opinion. reto : net. vocxo : voice. ideo : idea. prezid- : preside. gajno : gain. alpren- : adopt. tauxg- : be fit, suitable. stranga : strange, curious. fart- : be, fare (as to health). komprenebla : understandable. subita : sudden.

"Ie." Kie estas la knaboj? Kien vi iris? Mi restas tie cxi. Li perdis sian monujon ie en la urbo, sed kie li perdis gxin, li ne scias. Mi volonte el tie venis tien cxi. Li petis sxin, ke sxi diru al li, de kie si venas. [Footnote: See note in Lesson 17.] Por la juneco cxie staras retoj. Cxie estas floroj, kaj nenie oni povas trovi pli belajn.

"Iel." Kiel bela! Cxu mi tauxgas kiel regxo? Tiel finigxis la felicxa tago. Ili brilis kiel diamantoj. Kiel vi fartas? Iel li malkomprenis min. Mia edzino pensis tiel same, kiel mi. Mi neniel povas kompreni, kion vi diras. Tre stranga kaj neniel komprenebla! Mi elektis lin kiel prezidanto. Mi elektis lin kiel prezidanton.

"Ies." Kies ganto tiu cxi estas? Mi neniam alprenas ties opinion. Subite sxi ekauxdis ies fortan malagrablan vocxon. Cxies ideo estas diversa. Bona amiko, sen kies helpo li neniam ekvidus tiun cxi landon. Ies perdo ne estas cxiam ies gajno. Ies perdo estas ofte nenies gajno.

VOCABULARY 20B.

ornamo : ornament. hxino : Chinese. pupilo : pupil (of eye). decido : decision. centimo : centime. ced- : give up, yield, cede. forto : strength, power. forlas- : forsake, leave. nesto : nest. prudenta : reasonable, prudent. Fortuno : fortune. firma : firm, stable. funto : pound (weight or money). sterlinga : sterling. lango : tongue. kontraux : against, opposite. gusto : taste. pro : for, owing to. okulo : eye.

"Io." Mi sentas, ke io okazas. Neniam mi ion al vi donis. Mi volas fari al vi ion bonan. Kio tio cxi estas? Kia ornamo tiu cxi estas? Kion mi vidas? Tio cxi estas cxio, pri kio mi parolis. Mi nenion cedos al vi. Nenion faru kontraux la patrino. Antaux cxio estu fidela al vi mem. Sxi eksentis ion tian, kion sxi mem komence ne povas kompreni.

"Iom." Sxi parolis iom kolere. La pupiloj de la okuloj iom post iom malgrandigxis. Kiu estas tiom senprudenta, ke li povas gxin kredi? Kiom da mono vi havas? Mi havas neniom. Donu al mi tiom da akvo, kiom da vino.

"Iu." Iu venas; kiu gxi estas? Cxu iu kuragxus tion fari? Cxiu penis sin savi, kiel li povis. Lingvo, en kiu neniu nin komprenos. Neniu el ili povis savi la dronanton. Li al neniu helpis iam ecx per unu centimo. Ni iros cxiuj kune. Mi konas neniun en tiu urbo. Tio cxi estas super cxiuj homaj fortoj.

20C.

Oni petis lin atendi iom kun lia forveturo. Tiuj cxi nestoj ofte estas pli grandaj, ol la dometoj de la tieaj homoj. Li forveturis kun firma decido forlasi por cxiam tiun cxi sendankan landon. Se iu tion vidus, li malbenus la Fortunon. Mi donus cent funtojn sterlingajn, se bova lango povus havi por mi tian bonan guston kiel por vi. Kioma

LESSON 21.

Suffixes -eg-, -et-.

The suffixes "-eg-" and "-et-" are opposites; "-eg-" denotes a great size or degree, and "-et-" a small size or degree, of that which the word signifies, as "domo", a house, "domego", a mansion, "dometo", a cottage; "sxnuro", a cord, "sxnurego", a rope, "sxnureto", a string; "monto", a mountain, "montego", a huge mountain, "monteto", a hill; "ami", to love, "amegi", to idolise, "ameti", to have a liking for; "ridi", to laugh, "ridegi", to shout with laughter, to guffaw, "rideti", to smile.

"-eg-" and "-et-" denote a greater or smaller size or degree than is expressed by "very large" or "very small". The adjective "ega" means "enormous, huge", and "eta" means "tiny".

VOCABULARY.

arbaro : a wood. somero : summer. bruo : noise. kampo : field. kalesxo : carriage. piedego : paw. korto : courtyard. forir- : go away. piedo : foot. murmur- : murmur. teruro : terror. varma : warm. militistaro : army. densa : dense. serio : series.

En varmega tago mi amas promeni en arbaro. Kun bruo oni malfermis la pordegon, kaj la kalesxo enveturis en la korton. Tio cxi estas jam ne simpla pluvo, sed pluvego. Grandega hundo metis sur min sian antauxan piedegon, kaj mi de teruro ne sciis, kion fari. Antaux nia militistaro staris granda serio da pafilegoj. En tiu nokto blovis terura ventego. Kun plezurego. Li deziregis denove foriri.

Tuj post la hejto la forno estis varmega, post unu horo gxi estis nur varma, post du horoj gxi estis nur iom varmeta, kaj post tri horoj gxi estis jam tute malvarma. Mi acxetis por la infanoj tableton kaj kelke da segxetoj. En nia lando sin ne trovas montoj, sed nur montetoj. En somero ni trovas malvarmeton en densaj arbaroj. Li sidas apud la tablo kaj dormetas. Mallargxa vojeto kondukas tra tiu cxi kampo al nia domo. Sur lia vizagxo mi vidis gxojan rideton. Antaux la virino aperis malgranda, beleta hundo. Pardonu, li murmuretis.

LESSON 22.

Suffix -il-.

The suffix "-il-" denotes the "instrument" by means of which something is done, as "razi", to shave, "razilo", a razor; "rigli", to bolt, "riglilo", a bolt; "butero", butter, "buterilo", a churn; "kuraci", to treat (as a doctor), "kuracilo", a medicine.

VOCABULARY.

viando : meat, flesh. komb- : comb. posxo : pocket. sxtop- : stop up. korko : cork (substance). sxlos- : lock. argxento : silver. glit- : glide, slide. telero : plate. direkt- : direct, steer. sano : health. difekt- : damage. butero : butter. montr- : show. hak- : chop, hew. pes- : weigh something. seg- : saw. tir- : draw, pull. fos- : dig. vetur- : drive (in a vehicle). kudr- : sew. frosta : frosty. tond- : clip, shear. magneta : magnetic.

Per hakilo ni hakas, per segilo ni segas, per fosilo ni fosas, per kudrilo ni kudras, per tondilo ni tondas. La trancxilo estis tiel malakra, ke mi ne povis trancxi per gxi la viandon, kaj mi devis uzi mian posxan trancxilon. Cxu vi havas korktirilon, por malsxtopi la botelon? Mi volis sxlosi la pordon, sed mi perdis la sxlosilon. Sxi kombas al si la harojn per argxenta kombilo. En somero ni veturas per diversaj veturiloj, kaj en vintro per glitveturilo. Hodiaux estas bela frosta vetero; tial mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros gliti. La direktilisto de "Pinta" difektis la direktilon. La magneta montrilo. La unua montrilo en la plej multaj malsanoj estas la lango. Li metis gxin sur la teleron de pesilo.

LESSON 23.

Suffixes -an-, -estr-.

The suffix "-an-" signifies a "member", an "inhabitant" of a country, town, etc., or a member of a party, society, religion, etc. "Euxropano", a European; "Londonano", a Londoner; "urbo", a town or city, "urbano", a citizen; "klubo", a club, "klubano", a member of a club. "Ano", a member.

"-estr-" denotes the "head" of a State, town, society, etc. "Regno", a State, "regnestro", a ruler of a State; "urbestro", the head of a town, a mayor; "lernejo", a school, "lernejestro", the principal or head master of a school; "imperio", an empire, "imperiestro", an emperor.

VOCABULARY.

Parizo : Paris. vilagxo : village. regno : State. obe- : obey. imperio : empire. konfes- : confess, avow, polico : police. acknowledge, profess Kristo : Christ. (a religion, etc.). Lutero : Luther. enir- : enter. Kalvino : Calvin. ruza : sharp (cunning). germano : German. suficxa : sufficient. franco : Frenchman. ordinara : ordinary. Rusujo : Russia. naiva : simple. provinco : province. sagxa : wise. religio : religion. severa : strict, severe. regimento : regiment. justa : just, righteous. lokomotivo : engine. egala : equal. logxio : box (opera), fiera : proud. lodge (freemason, etc.). energia : energetic.

La sxipanoj devas obei la sxipestron. Cxiuj logxantoj de regno estas regnanoj. Urbanoj estas ordinare pli ruzaj, ol vilagxanoj. La Parizanoj estas gajaj homoj. Nia urbo havas bonajn policanojn, sed ne suficxe energian policestron. Luteranoj kaj Kalvinanoj estas Kristanoj. Germanoj kaj francoj, kiuj logxas en Rusujo, estas Rusujanoj, kvankam ili ne estas rusoj. Li estas nelerta kaj naiva provincano. La logxantoj de unu regno estas samregnanoj, la logxantoj de unu urbo estas samurbanoj, la konfesantoj de unu religio estas samreligianoj. Tiuj, kiuj havas la samajn ideojn, estas samideanoj.

La regnestro de nia lando estas bona kaj sagxa regxo. Nia provincestro estas severa, sed justa. Nia regimentestro estas por siaj soldatoj kiel bona patro. Ili estas egale fieraj, kiel domestrino pri sia domo. Sur la lokomotivo la lokomotivestro sidis sola. La imperiestro, akompanata de la imperiestrino, jxus eniris en sian logxion.

LESSON 24.

Suffixes -ar-, -er-.

The suffix "-ar-" signifies a collection of the persons or things named, as "arbo", a tree, "arbaro", a wood; "homo", a human being, "homaro", mankind; "militisto", a soldier (from "milito", war), "militistaro", an army; "vorto", a word, "vortaro", a dictionary ("vortareto", a vocabulary); "aro", a flock, "anaro", a company, troop.

"-er-" signifies a particle, or one of things of which the name denotes a mass, as "greno", corn, "grenero", a grain of corn; "polvo", dust, "polvero", a speck of dust; "pulvo", gunpowder, "pulvero", a grain of gunpowder; "hajlo", hail, "hajlero", a hailstone; "negxo", snow, "negxero", a snowflake; "koto", mud, "kotero", a speck of mud or dirt.

VOCABULARY.

pulvo : gunpowder. sxafo : a sheep. sxtupo : step, stair. fajro : fire. tegmento : roof. met- : put, set. herbo : grass. pasxt- : feed (cause to feed), bruto : brute, beast, head of cattl pasture. lano : wool. sekv- : follow. persono : person. bar- : bar (obstruct). floreno : florin. batal- : battle, fight. sxilingo : shilling. eksplod- : explode. penco : penny. brava : brave. glaso : a glass (tumbler). kruta : steep. brando : brandy. hispana : Spanish. tuko : a cloth. vasta : vast, spacious. telertuketo : serviette. precipe : chiefly, particularly. [Footnote: See Lesson 45.] preskaux : almost. sxnuro : cord. inter : between, among. sablo : sand.

Nia lando venkos, cxar nia militistaro estas granda kaj brava. Sur kruta sxtuparo li levis sin al la tegmento de la domo. Mi ne scias la lingvon hispanan, sed per helpo de vortaro hispana-germana mi tamen komprenis iom vian leteron. Sur tiuj cxi vastaj kaj herboricxaj kampoj pasxtas sin grandaj brutaroj, precipe aroj da bellanaj sxafoj. La vagonaro konsistis preskaux nur el personvagonoj. Oni metis antaux mi mangxilaron, kiu konsistis el telero, kulero, trancxilo, forko, glaseto por brando, glaso por vino kaj telertuketo. Sur la maro staris granda sxipo, kaj inter la sxnuregaro sidis cxie sxipanoj. Lia sekvantaro staris en la posto de la logxio. Mallumaj montegaroj baras la vojon.

Floreno, sxilingo kaj penco estas moneroj. Sablero enfalis en mian okulon. Unu fajrero estas suficxa por eksplodigi pulvon.

LESSON 25.

Suffix -ul-.

The suffix "-ul-" denotes a person characterised by the quality, etc., which the word expresses, as "justa", just, righteous, "justulo", one who is just; "babili", to chatter, "babilulo", one who chatters, a babbler; "avara", avaricious, "avarulo", a miser; "kun", with, "kunulo", a companion.

VOCABULARY.

legendo : legend. entrepren- : undertake. ombro : shadow. propra : own. rajto : right, authority. avara : avaricious. profeto : prophet. potenca : powerful. mensogo : a lie. infekta : infectious. tagmangx- : dine. cxe : at, with.

Malricxa sagxulo tagmangxis cxe avara ricxulo. Malsagxulon cxiu batas. Li estas mensogisto kaj malnoblulo. Timulo timas ecx sian propran ombron. Tiu cxi maljunulo tute malsagxigxis kaj infanigxis. Unu instruitulo entreprenis gravan sciencan laboron. Nur sanktuloj havas la rajton enveni tien cxi. Li sola estas la grandulo, la potenculo. Gxi ne estas la legendo pri la belulino Zobeido. Post infekta malsano oni ofte bruligas la vestojn de la malsanulo. La malbeno de la profeto staras super la kapo de maldankulo. Post kelkaj minutoj la kuragxulo eliris. Cxiuj sanktuloj, helpu!

LESSON 26.

The following words, which have already been used in the previous lessons, are always placed before nouns or pronouns, to show the relation (of position, etc.) between the thing for which the noun stands and another thing or an action.

al : to, towards. laux : according to. apud : beside, near, by. per : by means of, with. da : of (indefinite quantity). post : after, behind. de : of from, by. pri : concerning, about. el : out of. por : for, for the sake of. en : in, into, within. sen : without. ekster : outside. super : above, over. gxis : until, till, as far as. sur : on, upon. inter : between, among. tra : through. kontraux : against, opposite. trans : across, on the other side. kun : (in company) with. je (has no definite meaning).

(These words are called PREPOSITIONS, which means placed before).

The other simple prepositions are—

anstataux : instead of. po : at the rate of. antaux : before. pro : for (cause), owing to. cxe : at, with. preter : past, beyond, by. cxirkaux : about, around. spite : in despite of. krom : besides, except. sub : under. malgraux : notwithstanding, in spite of.

The prepositions "anstataux", "antaux" ("ol"), and "por" are also used before Infinitive verbs, as "anstataux diri", instead of saying (to say); "antaux ol paroli", before speaking; "por lerni", in order to learn.

In Esperanto all the prepositions except "je" have a definite meaning, and care must be taken to use the one which conveys the exact sense. The same word cannot be used for "with" in the two sentences "He went with his father" and "He cut it with a knife," or for "about" in "He spoke about his child" and "They stood about the stove." In the first example "with" his father is "kun", in company with, Li iris "kun" sia patro, and "with" a knife is "per", by means of, Li trancxis gxin "per" trancxilo. "About," in "about his child," is "pri," concerning, Li parolis "pri" sia infano, but "about," in "about the stove," is "cxirkaux," around, Ili staris "cxirkaux" la forno.

When we cannot decide which is the correct preposition to use in any case, we may use "je," the only preposition which has no special meaning of its own, or the preposition may be left out altogether, and "n" added to the noun or pronoun, provided that no want of clearness ensue (see Lesson 27), as Mi ridas "pro" lia naiveco, or, Mi ridas "je" lia naiveco, or, Mi ridas lian "naivecon", I laugh at his simplicity.

When we wish to express "motion towards" something, and the preposition does not of itself express it, "n" is added to the noun or pronoun, as in the case of adverbs (see Lesson 12), "Li estas en la domo", He is in the house; but, "Li iras en la domon", He is going into the house.

NOTE.—There are three cases in which the noun or pronoun takes "n". (i.). When it is the "direct object" of the verb, as "Mi vidis lin", I saw him. (ii.). To show "direction", as "Li iris en la gxardenon", He went into the garden. (iii.). When the "preposition" is "left out". This is usually done in the case of "dates" and expressions signifying "duration" of time, as "Georgo Vasxington estis naskita la dudek-duan de Februaro de la jaro mil sepcent tridek du", George Washington was born the 22nd of February, 1732. "Vi restos tie cxi la tutan vivon (dum la tuta vivo)", You will remain here your (the) whole life.

All the prepositions whose meaning allows of it can be used as adjectives, adverbs, etc., by adding the proper endings, as from "antaux", before, we get "antauxa", former, "antauxe", formerly or previously, "antauxen", forward.

Prepositions are also joined to other words, and to prefixes or suffixes, as "antauxdiri", to foretell; "apudmara urbo", a seaside town; "senigi", to deprive of.

Sometimes the preposition is both prefixed to the verb and used after it before the noun, as "Li eliris el la domo, kaj eniris en la gxardenon", He went out of the house, and entered into the garden.

LESSON 27.

Al.

"Al" signifies "to" or "towards" a person or place. It is also used before the noun or pronoun which signifies "person" after such verbs as "give, tell", etc., which take two objects in different relations to the verb, as— Give (to) him the book, "Donu al li la libron." Tell (to) him the truth, "Diru al li la veron." Write (to) him a letter, "Skribu al li leteron." In such cases we can say "Pardonu lin", Pardon him, if the "thing" object is not mentioned, but we cannot say "Pardonu lin la kulpon", Forgive him his fault; it must be "Pardonu al li la kulpon." The pronoun with "al" is sometimes used instead of the possessive (pronoun) adjective "mia", etc., as "Mi trancxis al mi la fingron", for "Mi trancxis mian fingron", I cut my finger. "Sxi kombis al si la harojn," instead of "Sxi kombis siajn harojn," She combed her hair.

"Al" is frequently used as a prefix as well as after the verb, as "aldoni", to add; "alpreni", to adopt; "aligxi", to adhere; "aljugxi", to award.

VOCABULARY.

sorcxisto : sorcerer. promes- : promise. detrancx- : cut off. ambaux : both.

Sxi revenis al la palaco de sia patro. Ili ambaux iris al la urbestro. Cxu mi ne faris al vi bonon? Sxi nenion al ili rakontis. Sxi skribis al li leteron. Cxiutage li instruas al la homoj ion, kion ili ne scias. Ili flugis al la suno. Unu fratino promesis al la alia rakonti al sxi, kion sxi vidis kaj kio la plej multe placxis al sxi en la unua tago. Eble li al vi pardonos. Sxi ne kredis al siaj propraj oreloj. Li ne sciis, ke al sxi li devas danki la vivon. Si savis al li la vivon. La sorcxistino detrancxis al la virineto de maro la langon.

LESSON 28.

Cxe. Apud.

"Cxe" indicates a certain "place, time", or "point of thought, discourse", etc., as, "Li estis cxe mia patro", He was with my father, or at my father's house. "Cxe la momento", At the moment. "Li estis cxe la pordo", He was at the door, "Cxeesti", To be present.

"Apud" means "close by, beside." It applies to place only, as "La knabo staris apud la patro", The boy stood by, or beside, the father.

VOCABULARY.

fundo : bottom. halt- : stop, halt. brako : arm. ramp- : creep, crawl. torcxo : torch. plant- : (to) plant. serpento : serpent. multekosta : precious, statuo : statue. valuable. saliko : willow. aux ... aux : either ... or.

Mi logxis cxe sxia patro. Gxi falis sur la fundon de la maro cxe la rompigxo de la sxipo. Cxe lumo de torcxoj. Brako cxe brako. Kaptis lin kelka timo cxe la penso. Nenio helpas; oni devas nur kuragxe resti cxe sia opinio. Sxi ridis cxe lia rakontado. Cxe cxiu vorto, kiun vi diros, el via busxo eliros aux floro aux multekosta sxtono.

Li haltis apud la pordo. La serpento rampis apud sxiaj piedoj. Kiam li estis cxe mi, li staris tutan horon apud la fenestro. Mi logxis en arbo apud via domo. Sxi plantis apud la statuo roza-rugxan salikon. La apudvojaj arboj.

LESSON 29.

En.

"En" means "in, inside;" when "n" is added to the noun which it precedes, it means "into", as "Kie vi estas? Mi estas en la domo. Kien vi iras? Mi iras en la gxardenon." Where are you? I am in the house. Where are you going? I am going into the garden. "Malamiko venis en nian landon", An enemy came into our country.

VOCABULARY.

Hispanujo : Spain. muel- : grind. humoro : humour, temper. turn- : turn. paco : peace. divid- : divide. pinglo : pin. do : then. nasko-tago : birthday. gxuste : exactly, just. faruno : flour. kvazaux : as if. parto : part.

La birdo flugas en la cxambro ( = gxi estas en la cxambro, kaj flugas en gxi). La birdo flugas en la cxambron ( = gxi estas ekster la cxambro, kaj flugas nun en gxin). Mi vojagxas en Hispanujo. Mi vojagxas en Hispanujon. Kion do fari en tia okazo? Mi estas en bona humoro. Li murmuretis al la regxino en la orelon. En sekvo de tiu cxi okazo. Mi preferus resti en paco tie cxi. Sxia naskotago estis gxuste en la mezo de vintro. Li ekrigardis en la okulojn de la infano. Li estis bela granda viro en la agxo de kvardek jaroj. En la dauxro de mia tuta vivo. En la fino de la jaro. Mano en mano. Enirinte en la vagonon, sxi sidis kvazaux sur pingloj. La greno mueligxas en farunon. Aleksandro turnigxis en polvon. Li dividis la pomon en du partojn.

LESSON 30.

Inter. Ekster. El.

"Inter" means "between, among", or "amongst." It is largely used as a prefix, as "interparoli", to converse; "internacia", international; "interkonsento", agreement; "sin intermeti", to interfere.

"Ekster" means "out of, outside", as "ekster dangxero", out of danger. It is used as a prefix, as "eksterordinara", extraordinary.

"El" means "out of". It applies (i.) to "place", signifying motion from, as, "Mi eliris el la domo", I went out of the house. (ii.). "Chosen from among", as, "Unu el miaj infanoj", One of (from among) my children. (iii.). "Made out of", as, "Tiu cxi sxtofo estas farita el lano", This cloth is made (out) of wool. "El" is used as a prefix, and means "out, outright", or "thoroughly", as, "Elfosi", to dig out; "Ellerni", to learn thoroughly.

VOCABULARY.

kolono : column, pillar. krono : crown. marmoro : marble. uzo : use. figuro : figure. okazo : occasion. muro : wall. alfabeto : alphabet. kanapo : sofa. divid- : divide (something). arto : art. produkt- : produce. viveco : liveliness. interne : inside.

Inter Rusujo kaj Francujo estas Germanujo. Ili dividis inter si dekdu pomojn. Inter la deka kaj dekunua horo matene. Inter la kolonoj staris marmoraj figuroj. Apud la muro inter la fenestroj staris kanapo. Longe ili parolis inter si. Cxe tiu cxi malsano unu horo povas decidi inter vivo kaj morto. En la intertempo inter la paroloj oni produktas artajn fajrojn.

Mi staras ekster la domo, kaj li estas interne. Li estas ekster la pordo. Nun ni estas ekster dangxero. Li logxas ekster la urbo. Starante ekstere, li povis vidi nur la eksteran flankon de nia domo. Li montris eksteren en la mallumon. Mi lasis lin ekstere. La ekstero de tiu cxi homo estas pli bona, ol lia interno.

Li eliris el la urbo. Li estas jxus reveninta el la eksterlando. Kun eksterordinara viveco sxi elsaltis el la vagono. Sxi metis al sxi kronon el blankaj lilioj sur la harojn. Li faris uzon el la okazo. Tiuj cxi nestoj estas farataj tute el tero. Sxi estis la plej kuragxa el cxiuj. Jen vi elkreskis! Li eliris el la dormocxambro, kaj eniris en la mangxocxambron. La esperanta alfabeto konsistas el dudek ok literoj.

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