The Forme of Cury
by Samuel Pegge
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Compiled, about A.D. 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King RICHARD II,

Presented afterwards to Queen ELIZABETH, by EDWARD Lord STAFFORD,

And now in the Possession of GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq.

Illustrated with NOTES, And a copious INDEX, or GLOSSARY.

A MANUSCRIPT of the EDITOR, of the same Age and Subject, with other congruous Matters, are subjoined.

"—ingeniosa gula est." MARTIAL.

TO GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. and Cur. Brit. Mus.


I return your very curious Roll of Cookery, and I trust with some Interest, not full I confess nor legal, but the utmost which your Debtor, from the scantiness of his ability, can at present afford. Indeed, considering your respectable situation in life, and that diffusive sphere of knowledge and science in which you are acting, it must be exceedingly difficult for any one, how well furnished soever, completely to answer your just, or even most moderate demands. I intreat the favour of you, however, to accept for once this short payment in lieu of better,

or at least as a public testimony of that profound regard wherewith I am,


Your affectionate friend, and most obliged servant, St. George's day, 1780.





Without beginning ab ovo on a subject so light (a matter of importance, however, to many a modern Catius or Amasinius), by investigating the origin of the Art of Cookery, and the nature of it as practised by the Antediluvians [1]; without dilating on the several particulars concerning it afterwards amongst the Patriarchs, as found in the Bible [2], I shall turn myself immediately, and without further preamble, to a few cursory observations respecting the Greeks, Romans, Britons, and those other nations, Saxons, Danes, and Normans, with whom the people of this nation are more closely connected.

The Greeks probably derived something of their skill from the East, (from the Lydians principally, whose cooks are much celebrated, [3]) and something from Egypt. A few hints concerning Cookery may be collected from Homer, Aristophanes, Aristotle, &c. but afterwards they possessed many authors on the subject, as may be seen in Athenus [4]. And as Ditetics were esteemed a branch of the study of medicine, as also they were afterwards [5], so many of those authors were Physicians; and the Cook was undoubtedly a character of high reputation at Athens [6].

As to the Romans; they would of course borrow much of their culinary arts from the Greeks, though the Cook with them, we are told, was one of the lowest of their slaves [7]. In the latter times, however, they had many authors on the subject as well as the Greeks, and the practitioners were men of some Science [8], but, unhappily for us, their compositions are all lost except that which goes under the name of Apicius; concerning which work and its author, the prevailing opinion now seems to be, that it was written about the time of Heliogabalus [9], by one Clius, (whether Aurelianus is not so certain) and that Apicius is only the title of it [10]. However, the compilation, though not in any great repute, has been several times published by learned men.

The Aborigines of Britain, to come nearer home, could have no great expertness in Cookery, as they had no oil, and we hear nothing of their butter, they used only sheep and oxen, eating neither hares, though so greatly esteemed at Rome, nor hens, nor geese, from a notion of superstition. Nor did they eat fish. There was little corn in the interior part of the island, but they lived on milk and flesh [11]; though it is expressly asserted by Strabo that they had no cheese [12]. The later Britons, however, well knew how to make the best use of the cow, since, as appears from the laws of Hoel Dda, A.D. 943, this animal was a creature so essential, so common and useful in Wales, as to be the standard in rating fines, &c. [13].

Hengist, leader of the Saxons, made grand entertainments for king Vortigern [14], but no particulars have come down to us; and certainly little exquisite can be expected from a people then so extremely barbarous as not to be able either to read or write. 'Barbari homines a septentrione, (they are the words of Dr. Lister) caseo et ferina subcruda victitantes, omnia condimenta adjectiva respuerunt' [15].

Some have fancied, that as the Danes imported the custom of hard and deep drinking, so they likewise introduced the practice of gormandizing, and that this word itself is derived from Gormund, the name of that Danish king whom lfred the Great persuaded to be christened, and called thelstane [16], Now 'tis certain that Hardicnut stands on record as an egregious glutton [17], but he is not particularly famous for being a curious Viander; 'tis true again, that the Danes in general indulged excessively in feasts and entertainments [18], but we have no reason to imagine any elegance of Cookery to have flourished amongst them. And though Guthrum, the Danish prince, is in some authors named Gormundus [19]; yet this is not the right etymology of our English word Gormandize, since it is rather the French Gourmand, or the British Gormod [20]. So that

we have little to say as to the Danes.

I shall take the later English and the Normans together, on account of the intermixture of the two nations after the Conquest, since, as lord Lyttelton observes, the English accommodated them elves to the Norman manners, except in point of temperance in eating and drinking, and communicated to them their own habits of drunkenness and immoderate feasting [21]. Erasmus also remarks, that the English in his time were attached to plentiful and splendid tables; and the same is observed by Harrison [22]. As to the Normans, both William I. and Rufus made grand entertainments [23]; the former was remarkable for an immense paunch, and withal was so exact, so nice and curious in his repasts [24], that when his prime favourite William Fitz- Osberne, who as steward of the household had the charge of the Cury, served him with the flesh of a crane scarcely half-roasted, he was so highly exasperated, that he lifted up his fist, and would have strucken him, had not Eudo, appointed Dapiser immediately after, warded off the blow [25].

Dapiser, by which is usually understood steward of the king's household [26], was a high officer amongst the Normans; and Larderarius was another, clergymen then often occupying this post, and sometimes made bishops from it [27]. He was under the Dapiser, as was likewise the Cocus Dominic Coquin, concerning whom, his assistants and allowances, the Liber Niger may be consulted [28]. It appears further from Fleta, that the chief cooks were often providers, as well as dressers, of victuals [29]. But Magister Coquin, who was an esquire by office, seems to have had the care of pourveyance, A.D. 1340 [30], and to have nearly corresponded with our clerk of the kitchen, having authority over the cooks [31]. However, the Magnus Coquus, Coquorum Prpositus, Coquus Regius, and Grans Queux, were officers of considerable dignity in the palaces of princes; and the officers under them, according to Du Fresne, were in the French court A.D. 1385, much about the time that our Roll was made, 'Queus, Aideurs, Asteurs, Paiges, Souffleurs, Enfans, Saussiers de Commun, Saussiers devers le Roy, Sommiers, Poulliers, Huissiers' [32].

In regard to religious houses, the Cooks of the greater foundations were officers of consequence, though under the Cellarer [33], and if he were not a monk, he nevertheless was to enjoy the portion of a monk [34]. But it appears from Somner, that at Christ Church, Canterbury, the Lardyrer was the first or chief cook [35]; and this officer, as we have seen, was often an ecclesiastic. However, the great Houses had Cooks of different ranks [36]; and manors and churches [37] were often given ad cibum and ad victum monachorum

[38]. A fishing at Lambeth was allotted to that purpose [39].

But whether the Cooks were Monks or not, the Magistri Coquin, Kitcheners, of the monasteries, we may depend upon it, were always monks; and I think they were mostly ecclesiastics elsewhere: thus when Cardinal Otto, the Pope's legate, was at Oxford, A. 1238, and that memorable fray happened between his retinue and the students, the Magister Coquorum was the Legate's brother, and was there killed [40]. The reason given in the author, why a person so nearly allied to the Great Man was assigned to the office, is this, 'Ne procuraretur aliquid venenorum, quod nimis [i.e. valde] timebat legatus;' and it is certain that poisoning was but too much in vogue in these times, both amongst the Italians and the good people of this island [41]; so that this was a post of signal trust and confidence. And indeed afterwards, a person was employed to taste, or take the assaie, as it was called [42], both of the messes and the water in the ewer [43], at great tables; but it may be doubted whether a particular person was appointed to this service, or it was a branch of the Sewer's and cup-bearer's duty, for I observe, the Sewer is sometimes called Prgustator [44], and the cup-bearer tastes the water elsewhere [45]. The religious houses, and their presidents, the abbots and priors, had their days of Gala, as likewise their halls for strangers, whom, when persons of rank, they often entertained with splendour and magnificence. And as for the secular clergy, archbishops and bishops, their feasts, of which we have some upon record [46], were so superb, that they might vie either with the regal entertainments, or the pontifical suppers of ancient Rome (which became even proverbial [47]), and certainly could not be dressed and set out without a large number of Cooks [48]. In short, the satirists of the times before, and about the time of, the Reformation, are continually inveighing against the high-living of the bishops and clergy; indeed luxury was then carried to such an extravagant pitch amongst them, that archbishop Cranmer, A. 1541, found it necessary to bring the secular clergy under some reasonable regulation in regard to the furnishing of their tables, not excepting even his own [49].

After this historical deduction of the Ars coquinaria, which I have endeavoured to make as short as possible, it is time to say something of the Roll which is here given to the public, and the methods which the Editor has pursued in bringing it to light.

This vellum Roll contains 196 formul, or recipes, and belonged once to the earl of Oxford [50]. The late James West esquire bought it at the Earl's sale, when a part of his MSS were disposed of; and on the death of the gentleman last mentioned it came into the hands of my highly-esteemed friend, the present liberal and most communicative possessor. It is presumed to be one of the most ancient remains of the kind now in being, rising as high as the reign of king

Richard II. [51]. However, it is far the largest and most copious collection of any we have; I speak as to those times. To establish its authenticity, and even to stamp an additional value upon it, it is the identical Roll which was presented to queen Elizabeth, in the 28th year of her reign, by lord Stafford's heir, as appears from the following address, or inscription, at the end of it, in his own hand writing:

'Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum est majestati vestr vicesimo septimo die mensis Julij, anno regni vestri flicissimi vicesimo viij ab humilimo vestro subdito, vestrq majestati fidelissimo E. Stafford, Hres domus subvers Buckinghamiens.' [52]

The general observations I have to make upon it are these: many articles, it seems, were in vogue in the fourteenth century, which are now in a manner obsolete, as cranes, curlews, herons, seals [53], porpoises, &c. and, on the contrary, we feed on sundry fowls which are not named either in the Roll, or the Editor's MS. [54] as quails, rails, teal, woodcocks, snipes, &c. which can scarcely be numbered among the small birds mentioned 19. 62. 154. [55]. So as to fish, many species appear at our tables which are not found in the Roll, trouts, flounders, herrings, &c. [56]. It were easy and obvious to dilate here on the variations of taste at different periods of time, and the reader would probably not dislike it; but so many other particulars demand our attention, that I shall content myself with observing in general, that whereas a very able Italian critic, Latinus Latinius, passed a sinister and unfavourable censure on certain seemingly strange medlies, disgusting and preposterous messes, which we meet with in Apicius; Dr. Lister very sensibly replies to his strictures on that head, 'That these messes are not immediately to be rejected, because they may be displeasing to some. Plutarch testifies, that the ancients disliked pepper and the sour juice of lemons, insomuch that for a long time they only used these in their wardrobes for the sake of their agreeable scent, and yet they are the most wholesome of all fruits. The natives of the West Indies were no less averse to salt; and who would believe that hops should ever have a place in our common beverage [57], and that we should ever think of qualifying the sweetness of malt, through good housewifry, by mixing with it a substance so egregiously bitter? Most of the American fruits are exceedingly odoriferous, and therefore are very disgusting at first to us Europeans: on the contrary, our fruits appear insipid to them, for want of odour. There are a thousand instances of things, would we recollect them all, which though disagreeable to taste are commonly assumed into our viands; indeed, custom alone reconciles and adopts sauces which are even nauseous to the palate. Latinus Latinius therefore very rashly and absurdly blames Apicius, on account of certain preparations which to him, forsooth, were disrelishing.' [58] In short it is a known maxim, that de gustibus non est disputandum;

And so Horace to the same purpose:

'Tres mihi conviv prope dissentire videntur, Poscentes vario multum diversa palato. Quid dem? quid non dem? renuis tu quod jubet alter. Quod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobus.' Hor. II. Epist. ii.

And our Roll sufficiently verifies the old observation of Martial—ingeniosa gula est.

[Addenda: after ingeniosa gula est, add, 'The Italians now eat many things which we think perfect carrion. Ray, Trav. p. 362. 406. The French eat frogs and snails. The Tartars feast on horse-flesh, the Chinese on dogs, and meer Savages eat every thing. Goldsmith, Hist. of the Earth, &c. II. p. 347, 348. 395. III. p. 297. IV. p. 112. 121, &c.']

Our Cooks again had great regard to the eye, as well as the taste, in their compositions; flourishing and strewing are not only common, but even leaves of trees gilded, or silvered, are used for ornamenting messes, see No. 175 [59]. As to colours, which perhaps would chiefly take place in suttleties, blood boiled and fried (which seems to be something singular) was used for dying black, 13. 141. saffron for yellow, and sanders for red [60]. Alkenet is also used for colouring [61], and mulberries [62]; amydon makes white, 68; and turnesole [63] pownas there, but what this colour is the Editor professes not to know, unless it be intended for another kind of yellow, and we should read jownas, for jaulnas, orange-tawney. It was for the purpose of gratifying the sight that sotiltees were introduced at the more solemn feasts. Rabelais has comfits of an hundred colours.

Cury, as was remarked above, was ever reckoned a branch of the Art Medical; and here I add, that the verb curare signifies equally to dress victuals [64], as to cure a distemper; that every body has heard of Doctor Diet, kitchen physick, &c. while a numerous band of medical authors have written de cibis et alimentis, and have always classed diet among the non-naturals; so they call them, but with what propriety they best know. Hence Junius '[Greek: Diaita] Grcis est victus, ac speciatim certa victus ratio, qualis a Medicis ad tuendam valetudinem prscribitur [65].' Our Cooks expressly tell us, in their proem, that their work was compiled 'by assent and avysement of maisters of phisik and of philosophie that dwelliid in his [the King's] court' where physik is used in the sense of medecine,

physicus being applied to persons prosessing the Art of Healing long before the 14th century [66], as implying such knowledge and skill in all kinds of natural substances, constituting the materia medica, as was necessiary for them in practice. At the end of the Editor's MS. is written this rhyme,

Explicit coquina que est optima medicina [67].

There is much relative to eatables in the Schola Salernitana; and we find it ordered, that a physcian should over-see the young prince's wet-nurse at every meal, to inspect her meat and drink [68].

But after all the avysement of physicians and philosophers, our processes do not appear by any means to be well calculated for the benefit of recipients, but rather inimical to them. Many of them are so highly seasoned, are such strange and heterogeneous compositions, meer olios and gallimawfreys, that they seem removed as far as possible from the intention of contributing to health; indeed the messes are so redundant and complex, that in regard to herbs, in No. 6, no less than ten are used, where we should now be content with two or three: and so the sallad, No. 76, consists of no less than 14 ingredients. The physicians appear only to have taken care that nothing directly noxious was suffered to enter the forms. However, in the Editor's MS. No. 11, there is a prescription for making a colys, I presume a cullis, or Invigorating broth; for which see Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. II. 124. vol. V. 148. vol. VI. 355. and the several plays mentioned in a note to the first mentioned passage in the Edit. 1780 [69].

I observe further, in regard to this point, that the quantities of things are seldom specified [70], but are too much left to the taste and judgement of the cook, if he should happen to be rash and inconsiderate, or of a bad and undistinguishing taste, was capable of doing much harm to the guests, to invalids especially.

Though the cooks at Rome, as has been already noted, were amongst the lowest slaves, yet it was not so more anciently; Sarah and Rebecca cook, and so do Patroclus and Automedon in the ninth Iliad. It were to be wished indeed, that the Reader could be made acquainted with the names of our master-cooks, but it is not in the power of the Editor to gratify him in that; this, however, he may be assured of, that as the Art was of consequence in the reign of Richard, a prince renowned and celebrated in the Roll [71], for the splendor and elegance of his table, they must have been persons of no inconsiderable rank: the king's first and second cooks are now esquires by their office, and there is all the reason in the world to believe they were of equal dignity heretofore [72]. To say a word of king Richard: he is said in the proeme to have been 'acounted the best and ryallest vyaund [curioso in eating] of all esten kynges.' This, however, must rest upon the testimony of our cooks, since it does not appear otherwise by the suffrage of history, that he was particularly remarkable for his niceness and delicacy in eating, like Heliogabalus, whose favourite dishes are said to have been the tongues of peacocks and nightingales, and the brains of parrots and pheasants [73]; or like Sept. Geta, who, according to Jul. Capitolinus [74], was so curious, so whimsical, as to order the dishes at his dinners to consist of things which all began with the same letters. Sardanapalus again as we have it in Athenus [75], gave a prmium to any one that invented and served him with some novel cate; and Sergius Orata built a house at the entrance of the Lucrine lake, purposely for the pleasure and convenience of eating the oysters perfectly fresh. Richard II is certainly not represented in story as resembling any such epicures, or capriccioso's, as these [76]. It may, however, be fairly presumed, that good living was not wanting among the luxuries of that effeminate and dissipated reign.

[Addenda: after ninth Iliad, add, 'And Dr. Shaw writes, p. 301, that even now in the East, the greatest prince is not ashamed to fetch a lamb from his herd and kill it, whilst the princess is impatient till she hath prepared her fire and her kettle to dress it.']

[Addenda: after heretofore add, 'we have some good families in England of the name of Cook or Coke. I know not what they may think; but we may depend upon it, they all originally sprang from real and professional cooks; and they need not be ashamed of their extraction, any more than the Butlers, Parkers, Spencers, &c.']

My next observation is, that the messes both in the roll and the Editor's MS, are chiefly soups, potages, ragouts, hashes, and the like hotche-potches; entire joints of meat being never served, and animals, whether fish or fowl, seldom brought to table whole, but hacked and hewed, and cut in pieces or gobbets [77]; the mortar also was in great request, some messes being actually denominated from it, as mortrews, or morterelys as in the Editor's MS. Now in this state of things, the general mode of eating must either have been with the spoon or the fingers; and this perhaps may have been the reason that spoons became an usual present from gossips to their god-children at christenings [78]; and that the bason and ewer, for washing before and after dinner, was introduced, whence the ewerer was a great officer [79], and the ewery is retained at Court to this day [80]; we meet with damaske water after dinner [81], I presume, perfumed; and the words ewer &c. plainly come from the Saxon ee or French eau, water.

Thus, to return, in that little anecdote relative to the Conqueror and William Fitz-Osbern, mentioned above, not the crane, but the flesh of the crane is said to have been under-roasted. Table, or case-knives, would be of little use at this time [82], and the art of carving so perfectly useless, as to be almost unknown. In about a century afterwards, however, as appears from archbishop Neville's entertainment, many articles were served whole, and lord Wylloughby was the carver [83]. So that carving began now to be practised, and the proper terms devised. Wynken de Worde printed a Book of Kervinge, A. 1508, wherein the said terms are registered [84]. 'The use of forks at table, says Dr. Percy, did not prevail in England land till the reign of James I. as we learn from a remarkable passage in Coryat [85]'; the passage is indeed curious, but too long to be here transcribed, where brevity is so much in view; wherefore I shall only add, that forks are not now used in some parts of Spain [86]. But then it may be said, what becomes of the old English hospitality in this case, the roast-beef of Old England, so much talked of? I answer, these bulky and magnificent dishes must have been the product of later reigns, perhaps of queen Elizabeth's time, since it is plain that in the days of Rich. II. our ancestors lived much after the French fashion. As to hospitality, the households of our Nobles were immense, officers, retainers, and servants, being entertained almost without number; but then, as appears from the Northumberland Book, and afterwards from the household establisliment of the prince of Wales, A. 1610, the individuals, or at least small parties, had their quantum, or ordinary, served out, where any good oeconomy was kept, apart to themselves [87]. Again, we find in our Roll, that great quantities of the respective viands of the hashes, were often made at once, as No. 17, Take hennes or conynges. 24, Take hares. 29, Take pygges. And 31, Take gees, &c. So that hospitality and plentiful housekeeping could just as well be maintained this way, as by the other of cumbrous unwieldy messes, as much as a man could carry.

As the messes and sauces are so complex, and the ingredients consequently so various, it seems necessary that a word should be spoken concerning the principal of them, and such as are more frequently employed, before we pass to our method of proceeding in the publication.

Butter is little used. 'Tis first mentioned No. 81, and occurs but rarely after [88]; 'tis found but once in the Editor's MS, where it is written boter. The usual substitutes for it are oil-olive and lard; the latter is frequently called grees, or grece, or whitegrece, as No. 18. 193. Capons in Grease occur in Birch's Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 459, 460. and see Lye in Jun. Etym. v. Greasie. Bishop Patrick has a remarkable passage concerning this article: 'Though we read of cheese in Homer, Euripides, Theocritus, and others, yet they never mention butter: nor hath Aristotle a word of it, though he hath sundry observations about cheese; for butter was not a thing then known among the Greeks; though we see by this and many other places, it was an ancient food among the eastern people [89].' The Greeks, I presume, used oil instead of it, and butter in some places of scripture is thought to mean only cream. [90]

Cheese. See the last article, and what is said of the old Britons above; as likewise our Glossary.

Ale is applied, No. 113, et alibi; and often in the Ediitor's MS. as 6, 7, &c. It is used instead of wine, No. 22, and sometimes along with bread in the Editor's MS. [91] Indeed it is a current opinion that brewing with hops was not introduced here till the reign of king Henry VIII. [92] Bere, however, is mentioned A. 1504. [93]

Wine is common, both red, and white, No. 21. 53. 37. This article they partly had of their own growth, [94] and partly by importation from France [95] and Greece [96]. They had also Rhenish [97], and probably several other sorts. The vynegreke is among the sweet wines in a MS of Mr. Astle.

Rice. As this grain was but little, if at all, cultivated in England, it must have been brought from abroad. Whole or ground-rice enters into a large number of our compositions, and resmolle, No. 96, is a direct preparation of it.

Alkenet. Anchusa is not only used for colouring, but also fried and yfoundred, 62. yfondyt, 162. i. e. dissolved, or ground. 'Tis thought to be a species of the buglos.

Saffron. Saffrwm, Brit. whence it appears, that this name ran through most languages. Mr. Weever informs us, that this excellent drug was brought hither in the time of Edward III. [98] and it may be true; but still no such quantity could be produced here in the next reign as to supply that very large consumption which we see made of it in our Roll, where it occurs not only as an ingredient in the processes, but also is used for colouring, for flourishing, or garnishing. It makes a yellow, No. 68, and was imported from Egypt, or Cilicia, or other parts of the Levant, where the Turks call it Safran, from the Arabic Zapheran, whence the English, Italians, French, and Germans, have apparently borrowed their respective names of it. The Romans were well acquainted with the drug, but did not use it much in the kitchen [99]. Pere Calmet says, the Hebrews were acquainted with anise, ginger, saffron, but no other spices [100].

Pynes. There is some difficulty in enucleating the meaning of this word, though it occurs so often. It is joined with dates, No. 20. 52. with honey clarified, 63. with powder-fort, saffron, and salt, 161. with ground dates, raisins, good powder, and salt, 186. and lastly they are fried, 38. Now the dish here is morree, which in the Editor's MS. 37, is made of mulberries (and no doubt has its name from them), and yet there are no mulberries in our dish, but pynes, and therefore I suspect, that mulberries and pynes are the same, and indeed this fruit has some resemblance to a pynecone. I conceive pynnonade, the dish, No. 51, to be so named from the pynes therein employed; and qure whether pyner mentioned along with powder-fort, saffron, and salt, No. 155, as above in No. 161, should not be read pynes. But, after all, we have cones brought hither from Italy full of nuts, or kernels, which upon roasting come out of their capsul, and are much eaten by the common people, and these perhaps may be the thing intended.

[Addenda: after intended. add, 'See Ray, Trav. p. 283. 407. and Wright's Trav. p. 112.']

Honey was the great and universal sweetner in remote antiquity, and particularly in this island, where it was the chief constituent of mead and metheglin. It is said, that at this day in Palestine they use honey in the greatest part of their ragouts [101]. Our cooks had a method of clarifying it, No. 18. 41. which was done by putting it in a pot with whites of eggs and water, beating them well together; then setting it over the fire, and boiling it; and when it was ready to boil over to take it and cool it, No. 59. This I presume is called clere honey, No. 151. And, when honey was so much in use, it appears from Barnes that refining it was a trade of itself [102].

Sugar, or Sugur [103], was now beginning here to take place of honey; however, they are used together, No. 67. Sugar came from the Indies, by way of Damascus and Aleppo, to Venice, Genoa, and Pisa, and from these last places to us [104]. It is here not only frequently used, but was of various sorts, as cypre, No. 41. 99. 120. named probably from the isle of Cyprus, whence it might either come directly to us, or where it had received some improvement by way of refining. There is mention of blanch-powder or white sugar, 132. They, however, were not the same, for see No. 193. Sugar was clarified sometimes with wine [105].

Spices. Species. They are mentioned in general No. 133, and whole spices, 167, 168. but they are more commonly specified, and are indeed greatly used, though being imported from abroad, and from so far as Italy or the Levant (and even there must be dear), some may wonder at this: but it shouid be considered, that our Roll was chiefly compiled for the use of noble and princely tables; and the same may be said of the Editor's MS. The spices came from the same part of the world, and by the same route, as sugar did. The spicery was an ancient department at court, and had its proper officers.

As to the particular sorts, these are,

Cinamon. Canell. 14. 191. Canel, Editor's MS. 10. Kanell, ibid. 32. is the Italian Canella. See Chaucer. We have the flour or powder, No. 20. 62. See Wiclif. It is not once mentioned in Apicius.

Macys, 14. 121. Editor's MS. 10. Maces, 134. Editor's MS. 27. They are used whole, No. 158. and are always expressed plurally, though we now use the singular, mace. See Junii Etym.

Cloves. No. 20. Dishes are flourished with them, 22. 158. Editor's MS. 10. 27. where we have clowys gylofres, as in our Roll, No. 104. Powdour gylofre occurs 65. 191. Chaucer has clowe in the singular, and see him v. Clove-gelofer.

Galyngal, 30. and elsewhere. Galangal, the long rooted cyperus [106], is a warm cardiac and cephalic. It is used in powder, 30. 47. and was the chief ingredient in galentine, which, I think, took its name from it.

Pepper. It appears from Pliny that this pungent, warm seasoning, so much in esteem at Rome [107], came from the East Indies [108], and, as we may suppose, by way of Alexandria. We obtained it no doubt, in the 14th century, from the same quarter, though not exactly by the same route, but by Venice or Genoa. It is used both whole, No. 35, and in powder, No. 83. And long-pepper occurs, if we read the place rightly, in No. 191.

Ginger, gyngyn. 64. 136. alibi. Powder is used, 17. 20. alibi. and Rabelais IV. c. 59. the white powder, 131. and it is the name of a mess, 139. qure whether gyngyn is not misread for gyngyr, for see Junii Etym. The Romans had their ginger from Troglodytica [109].

Cubebs, 64. 121. are a warm spicy grain from the east.

Grains of Paradice, or de parys, 137. [110] are the greater cardamoms.

Noix muscadez, 191. nutmegs.

The caraway is once mentioned, No. 53. and was an exotic from Caria, whence, according to Mr. Lye, it took its name: 'sunt semina, inquit, carri vel carrei, sic dicti a Caria, ubi copiosissim nascitur [111].'

Powder-douce, which occurs so often, has been thought by some, who have just peeped into our Roll, to be the same as sugar, and only a different name for it; but they are plainly mistaken, as is evident from 47. 51. 164. 165. where they are mentioned together as different things. In short, I take powder-douce to be either powder of galyngal, for see Editor's MS II. 20. 24, or a compound made of sundry aromatic spices ground or beaten small, and kept always ready at hand in some proper receptacle. It is otherwise termed good powders, 83. 130. and in Editor's MS 17. 37. 38 [112]. or powder simply, No. 169, 170. White powder-douce occurs No. 51, which seems to be the same as blanch-powder, 132. 193. called blaynshe powder, and bought ready prepared, in Northumb. Book, p. 19. It is sometimes used with powder-fort, 38. 156. for which see the next and last article.

Powder-fort, 10. 11. seems to be a mixture likewise of the warmer spices, pepper, ginger, &c. pulverized: hence we have powder-fort of gynger, other of canel, 14. It is called strong powder, 22. and perhaps may sometimes be intended by good powders. If you will suppose it to be kept ready prepared by the vender, it may be the powder-marchant, 113. 118. found joined in two places with powder- douce. This Speght says is what gingerbread is made of; but Skinner disapproves this explanation, yet, says Mr. Urry, gives none of his own.

After thus travelling through the most material and most used ingredients, the spykenard de spayn occurring only once, I shall beg leave to offer a few words on the nature, and in favour of the present publication, and the method employed in the prosecution of it.

The common language of the formul, though old and obsolete, as naturally may be expected from the age of the MS, has no other difficulty in it but what may easily be overcome by a small degree of practice and application [113]: however, for the further illustration of this matter, and the satisfaction of the curious, a fac simile of one of the recipes is represented in the annexed plate. If here and there a hard and uncouth term or expression may occur, so as to stop or embarrass the less expert, pains have been taken to explain them, either in the annotations under the text, or in the Index and Glossary, for we have given it both titles, as intending it should answer the purpose of both [114]. Now in forming this alphabet, as it would have been an endless thing to have recourse to all our glossaries, now so numerous, we have confined ourselves, except perhaps in some few instances, in which the authorities are always mentioned, to certain contemporary writers, such as the Editor's MS, of which we shall speak more particularly hereafter, Chaucer, and Wiclif; with whom we have associated Junius' Etymologicon Anglicanum.

As the abbreviations of the Roll are here retained, in order to establish and confirm the age of it, it has been thought proper to adopt the types which our printer had projected for Domesday-Book, with which we find that our characters very nearly coincide.

The names of the dishes and sauces have occasioned the greatest perplexity. These are not only many in number, but are often so horrid and barbarous, to our ears at least, as to be inveloped in several instances in almost impenetrable obscurity. Bishop Godwin complains of this so long ago as 1616 [115]. The Contents prefixed will exhibit at once a most formidable list of these hideous names and titles, so that there is no need to report them here. A few of these terms the Editor humbly hopes he has happily enucleated, but still, notwithstanding all his labour and pains, the argument is in itself so abstruse at this distance of time, the helps so few, and his abilities in this line of knowledge and science so slender and confined, that he fears he has left the far greater part of the task for the more sagacious reader to supply: indeed, he has not the least doubt, but other gentlemen of curiosity in such matters (and this publication is intended for them alone) will be so happy as to clear up several difficulties, which appear now to him insuperable. It must be confessed again, that the Editor may probably have often failed in those very points, which he fancies and flatters himself to have elucidated, but this he is willing to leave to the candour of the public.

Now in regard to the helps I mentioned; there is not much to be learnt from the Great Inthronization-feast of archbishop Robert Winchelsea, A. 1295, even if it were his; but I rather think it belongs to archbishop William Warham, A. 1504 [116]. Some use, however, has been made of it.

Ralph Bourne was installed abbot of St. Augustine's, near Canterbury, A. 1309; and William Thorne has inserted a list of provisions bought for the feast, with their prices, in his Chronicle [117].

The Great Feast at the Inthronization of George Nevile archbishop of York, 6 Edward IV. is printed by Mr. Hearne [118], and has been of good service.

Elizabeth, queen of king Henry VII. was crowned A. 1487, and the messes at the dinner, in two courses, are registered in the late edition of Leland's Collectenea, A. 1770 [119], and we have profited thereby.

The Lenten Inthronization-feast of archbishop William Warham, A. 1504 [120], given us at large by Mr. Hearne [121], has been also consulted.

There is a large catalogue of viands in Rabelais, lib. iv. cap. 59. 60. And the English translation of Mr. Ozell affording little information, I had recourse to the French original, but not to much more advantage.

There is also a Royal Feast at the wedding of the earl of Devonshire, in the Harleian Misc. No. 279, and it has not been neglected.

Randle Holme, in his multifarious Academy of Armory, has an alphabet of terms and dishes [122]; but though I have pressed him into the service, he has not contributed much as to the more difficult points.

The Antiquarian Repertory, vol. II. p. 211, exhibits an entertainment of the mayor of Rochester, A. 1460; but there is little to be learned from thence. The present work was printed before No. 31 of the Antiquarian Repertory, wherein some ancient recipes in Cookery are published, came to the Editor's hand.

I must not omit my acknowledgments to my learned friend the present dean of Carlisle, to whom I stand indebted for his useful notes on the Northumberland-Household Book, as also for the book itself.

Our chief assistance, however, has been drawn from a MS belonging to the Editor, denoted, when cited, by the signature MS. Ed. It is a vellum miscellany in small quarto, and the part respecting this subject consists of ninety-one English recipes (or nyms) in cookery. These are disposed into two parts, and are intituled, 'Hic incipiunt universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus.' [123] The second part, relates to the dressing of fish, and other lenten fare, though forms are also there intermixed which properly belong to flesh-days. This leads me to observe, that both here, and in the Roll, messes are sometimes accommodated, by making the necessary alterations, both to flesh and fish-days. [124] Now, though the subjects of the MS are various, yet the hand-writing is uniform; and at the end of one of the tracts is added, 'Explicit massa Compoti, Anno Di M'lo CCC'mo octogesimo primo ipso die Felicis et Audacti.' [125], i.e. 30 Aug. 1381, in the reign of Rich. II. The language and orthography accord perfectly well with this date, and the collection is consequently contemporary with our Roll, and was made chiefly, though not altogether, for the use of great tables, as appears from the sturgeon, and the great quantity of venison therein prescribed for.

As this MS is so often referred to in the annotations, glossary, and

even in this preface, and is a compilation of the same date, on the same subject, and in the same language, it has been thought adviseable to print it, and subjoin it to the Roll; and the rather, because it really furnishes a considerable enlargement on the subject, and exhibits many forms unnoticed in the Roll.

To conclude this tedious preliminary detail, though unquestionably a most necessary part of his duty, the Editor can scarcely forbear laughing at himself, when he reflects on his past labours, and recollects those lines of the poet Martial;

Turpe est difficiles habere nugas, Et stultus labor est ineptiarum. II. 86.

and that possibly mesdames Carter and Raffald, with twenty others, might have far better acquitted themselves in the administration of this province, than he has done. He has this comfort and satisfaction, however, that he has done his best; and that some considerable names amongst the learned, Humelbergius, Torinus, Barthius, our countryman Dr. Lister, Almeloveen, and others, have bestowed no less pains in illustrating an author on the same subject, and scarcely of more importance, the Pseudo-Apicius.

[1] If, according to Petavius and Le Clerc, the world was created in autumn, when the fruits of the earth were both plentiful and in the highest perfection, the first man had little occasion for much culinary knowledge; roasting or boiling the cruder productions, with modes of preserving those which were better ripened, seem to be all that was necessary for him in the way of Cury, And even after he was displaced from Paradise, I conceive, as many others do, he was not permitted the use of animal food [Gen. i. 29.]; but that this was indulged to us, by an enlargement of our charter, after the Flood, Gen. ix, 3. But, without wading any further in the argument here, the reader is referred to Gen. ii. 8. seq. iii. 17, seq. 23.

[Addenda: add 'vi. 22. where Noah and the beasts are to live on the same food.'] [2] Genesis xviii. xxvii. Though their best repasts, from the politeness of the times, were called by the simple names of Bread, or a Morsel of bread, yet they were not unacquainted with modes of dressing flesh, boiling, roasting, baking; nor with sauce, or seasoning, as salt and oil, and perhaps some aromatic herbs. Calmet v. Meats and Eating, and qu. of honey and cream, ibid. [3] Athenus, lib. xii. cap. 3. [4] Athenus, lib. xii. cap. 3. et Cafaubon. See also Lister ad Apicium, prf. p. ix. Jungerm. ad Jul. Polluccm, lib. vi. c. 10. [5] See below. 'Tamen uterque [Torinus et Humelbergius] hc scripta [i, e. Apicii] ad medicinam vendicarunt.' Lister, prf. p. iv. viii. ix. [6] Athenaus, p. 519. 660. [7] Priv. Life of the Romans, p. 171. Lister's Prs, p. iii, but Ter. An, i. 1. Casaub. ad Jul. Capitolin. cap. 5. [8] Casaub. ad Capitolin. l. c. [9] Lister's Prs. p. ii. vi. xii. [10] Fabric. Bibl. Lat. tom. II. p. 794. Hence Dr. Bentley ad Hor. ii. ferm. 8. 29. stiles it Pseudapicius. Vide Listerum, p. iv. [11] Csar de B. G. v. 10. [12] Strabo, lib. iv. p. 200. Pegge's Essay on Coins of Cunob, p. 95. [13] Archologia, iv. p. 61. Godwin, de Prsul. p. 596, seq. [14] Malmsb. p. 9. Galfr. Mon. vi. 12. [15] Lister. ad Apic. p. xi. where see more to the same purpose. [16] Spelm. Life of lfred, p. 66. Drake, Eboracum. Append, p. civ. [17] Speed's History. [18] Mons. Mallet, cap. 12. [19] Wilkins, Concil. I. p. 204. Drake, Ebor. p. 316. Append, p. civ. cv. [20] Menage, Orig. v. Gourmand. [21] Lord Lyttelton, Hist. of H. II. vol. iii. p. 49. [22] Harrison, Descript. of Britain, p. 165, 166. [23] Stow, p. 102. 128. [24] Lord Lyttelton observes, that the Normans were delicate in their food, but without excess. Life of Hen. II. vol. III. p. 47. [25] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 109. Henry II. served to his son. Lord Lyttelton, IV. p. 298. [26] Godwin de Prsul. p. 695, renders Carver by Dapiser, but this I cannot approve. See Thoroton. p. 23. 28. Dugd. Bar. I. p. 441. 620. 109. Lib. Nig. p. 342. Kennet, Par. Ant. p. 119. And, to name no more, Spelm. in voce. The Carver was an officer inferior to the Dapiser, or Steward, and even under his control. Vide Lel. Collect. VI. p. 2. And yet I find Sir Walter Manny when young was carver to Philippa queen of king Edward III. Barnes Hist. of E. III. p. 111. The Steward had the name of Dapiser, I apprehend, from serving up the first dish. V. supra. [27] Sim. Dunelm. col. 227. Hoveden, p. 469. Malms. de Pont. p. 286. [28] Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, p. 347. [29] Fleta, II. cap. 75. [30] Du Fresne, v. Magister. [31] Du Fresne, ibid. [32] Du Fresne, v. Coquus. The curious may compare this List with Lib. Nig. p. 347. [33] In Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36. they are under the Magister Coquin, whose office it was to purvey; and there again the chief cooks are proveditors; different usages might prevail at different times and places. But what is remarkable, the Coquinarius, or Kitchener, which seems to answer to Magister Coquin, is placed before the Cellarer in Tanner's Notitia, p. xxx. but this may be accidental. [34] Du Fresne, v. Coquus. [35] Somner, Append. p. 36. [36] Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36. [37] Somner, p. 41. [38] Somner, p. 36, 37, 39, spius. [39] Somner, l. c. [40] M. Paris, p4. 69. [41] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 45. Stow, p. 184. M. Paris, p. 377. 517. M.

Westm. p. 364. [42] Lel. Collectan. VI. p. 7. seq. [43] Ibid. p. 9. 13. [44] Compare Leland, p. 3. with Godwin de Prsul. p. 695. and so Junius in Etymol. v. Sewer. [45] Leland, p. 8, 9. There are now two yeomen of the mouth in the king's household. [46] That of George Neville, archbishop of York, 6 Edw. IV. and that of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1504. These were both of them inthronization feasts. Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2 and 16 of Appendix. They were wont minuere sanguinem after these superb entertainments, p. 32. [47] Hor. II. Od. xiv. 28. where see Mons. Dacier. [48] Sixty-two were employed by archbishop Neville. And the hire of cooks at archbishop Warham's feast came to 23 l. 6 s. 8 d. [49] Strype, Life of Cranmer, p. 451, or Lel. Coll. ut supra, p. 38. Sumptuary laws in regard to eating were not unknown in ancient Rome. Erasm. Colloq. p. 81. ed. Schrev. nor here formerly, see Lel. Coll. VI. p. 36. for 5 Ed. II. [50] I presume it may be the same Roll which Mr. Hearne mentions in his Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, I. p. 346. See also three different letters of his to the earl of Oxford, in the Brit. Mus. in the second of which he stiles the Roll a piece of antiquity, and a very great rarity indeed. Harl. MSS. No. 7523. [51] See the Proem. [52] This lord was grandson of Edward duke of Bucks, beheaded A. 1521, whose son Henry was restored in blood; and this Edward, the grandson, born about 1571, might be 14 or 15 years old when he presented the Roll to the Queen. [53] Mr. Topham's MS. has socas among the fish; and see archbishop Nevil's Feast, 6 E. IV. to be mentioned below. [54] Of which see an account below. [55] See Northumb. Book, p. 107, and Notes. [56] As to carps, they were unknown in England t. R. II. Fulier, Worth. in Sussex, p. 98. 113. Stow, Hist. 1038. [57] The Italians still call the hop cattiva erba. There was a petition against them t. H. VI. Fuller, Worth. p. 317, &c. Evelyn, Sylva, p. 201. 469. ed. Hunter. [58] Lister, Prf. ad Apicium, p. xi. [59] So we have lozengs of golde. Lel. Collect. IV. p. 227. and a wild boar's head gylt, p. 294. A peacock with gylt neb. VI. p. 6. Leche Lambart gylt, ibid. [60] No. 68. 20. 58. See my friend Dr. Percy on the Northumberland- Book, p. 415. and MS Ed. 34. [61] No. 47. 51. 84.

[62] No. 93. 132. MS Ed. 37. [63] Perhaps Turmerick. See ad loc. [64] Ter. Andr. I. 1. where Donatus and Mad. Dacier explain it of Cooking. Mr. Hearne, in describing our Roll, see above, p. xi, by an unaccountable mistake, read Fary instead of Cury, the plain reading of the MS. [65] Junii Etym. v. Diet. [66] Reginaldus Phisicus. M. Paris, p. 410. 412. 573. 764. Et in Vit. p. 94. 103. Chaucer's Medicus is a doctor of phisick, p.4. V. Junii Etym. voce Physician. For later times, v. J. Rossus, p. 93. [67] That of Donatus is modest 'Culina medicin famulacrix est.' [68] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 183. 'Diod. Siculus refert primos gypti Reges victum quotidianum omnino sumpsisse ex medicorum prscripto.' Lister ad Apic. p. ix. [69] See also Lylie's Euphues, p. 282. Cavendish, Life of Wolsey, p. 151, where we have callis, mal; Cole's and Lyttleton's Dict. and Junii Etymolog. v. Collice. [70] See however, No. 191, and Editor's MS II. 7. [71] Vide the proeme. [72] See above. [73] Univ. Hist. XV. p. 352. 'sopus pater linguas avium humana vocales lingua cnavit; filius margaritas.' Lister ad Apicium, p. vii. [74] Jul. Capitolinus, c. 5. [75] Athenus, lib. xii. c. 7. Something of the same kind is related of Heliogabalus, Lister Prf. ad Apic. p. vii. [76] To omit the paps of a pregnant sow, Hor. I. Ep. xv. 40. where see Mons. Dacier; Dr. Fuller relates, that the tongue of carps were accounted by the ancient Roman palate-men most delicious meat. Worth. in Sussex. See other instances of extravagant Roman luxury in Lister's Prf. to Apicius, p. vii. [77] See, however, No. 33, 34, 35, 146.

[Addenda: add 'reflect on the Spanish Olio or Olla podrida, and the French fricasse.'] [78] The king, in Shakespeare, Hen. VIII. act iv. sc. 2. and 3. calls the gifts of the sponsors, spoons. These were usually gilt, and, the figures of the apostles being in general carved on them, were called apostle spoons. See Mr. Steevens's note in Ed. 1778, vol. VII. p. 312, also Gent. Mag. 1768, p. 426. [79] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 328. VI. p. 2. [80] See Dr. Percy's curious notes on the Northumb. Book, p. 417. [81] Ibid. VI. p. 5. 18. [82] They were not very common at table among the Greeks. Casaub. ad Athenum, col. 278. but see Lel. Coll. VI. p. 7. [83] Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2. Archbishop Warham also had his carver, ibid. p. 18. See also, IV. p. 236. 240. He was a great officer. Northumb. Book, p. 445. [84] Ames, Typ. Ant. p. 90. The terms may also be seen in Rand. Holme III. p. 78. [85] Dr. Percy, 1. c. [86] Thicknesse, Travels, p., 260. [87] Dr. Birch, Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 457. seq. [88] No. 91, 92. 160. [89] Bishop Patrick on Genesis xviii. 8. [90] Calmer, v. Butter. So Judges iv, 19. compared with v. 25. [91] Ib. No. 13, 14, 15. [92] Stow, Hist. p. 1038. [93] Lel. Coll. VI. p. 30. and see Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p. 414. [94] Archologia, I. p. 319. Ill, p. 53. [95] Barrington's Observ. on Statutes, p. 209. 252. Edit. 3d. Archolog. I. p. 330. Fitz-Stephen, p. 33. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 14. Northumb. Book, p. 6. and notes. [96] No. 20. 64. 99. [97] No. 99. [98] Fun. Mon. p. 624 [99] Dr. Lister, Prf. ad Apicium, p. xii. [100] Calmet. Dict. v. Eating. [101] Calmet. Dict. v. Meats. [102] Barnes, Hist. of E. III. p. 111. [103] No. 70, Editor's MS. 17. alibi. [104] Moll, Geogr. II. p. 130. Harris, Coll. of Voyages, I. p. 874. Ed. Campbell. [105] No. 20. 148. [106] Glossary to Chaucer. See the Northumb. Book, p. 415 and 19. also Quincy's Dispens. and Brookes's Nat. Hist. of Vegetables. [107] Lister, Prf. ad Apicium, p. xii. [108] Plinius, Nat. Hist. XII. cap. 7. [109] Bochart. III. col. 332. [110] See our Gloss. voce Greynes. [111] Lye, in Junii Etymolog. [112] But see the next article. [113] Doing, hewing, hacking, grinding, kerving, &c. are easily understood. [114] By combining the Index and Glossary together, we have had an opportunity of elucidating some terms more at large than could conveniently be done in the notes. We have also cast the Index to the Roll, and that to the Editor's MS, into one alphabet; distinguishing, however, the latter from the former. [115] Godwin de Prsul. p. 684. [116] In Dr. Drake's edition of archbishop Parker, p. lxiii. it is given to archbishop Winchelsea: but see Mr. Battely's Append. to Cantuaria Sacra, p. 27. or the Archologia, I. p. 330. and Leland's Collectanea, VI. p. 30. where it is again printed, and more at large, and ascribed to Warham. [117] Thorne, Chron. inter X Script. Col. 2010. or Lel. Collect. VI. p. 34. Ed. 1770. [118] Leland, Collect. VI. p. 2. See also Randle Holme, III. p. 77. Bishop Godwin de Prsul. p. 695. Ed. Richardson; where there are some considerable variations in the messes or services, and he and the Roll in Leland will correct one another. [119] Vol. IV. p. 226. [120] See first paragraph before. [121] Leland's Collect. VI. p. 16. [122] Holme, Acad. of Armory, III. p. 81. [123] It is pissibus again in the title to the Second Part. [124] No. 7. 84. here No. 17. 35. 97. [125] In the common calendars of our missals and breviaries, the latter saint is called Adauctus, but in the Kalend. Roman. of Joh. Fronto, Paris. 1652, p. 126, he is written Audactus, as here; and see Martyrolog. Bed, p. 414.



... fome [1] of cury [2] was compiled of the chef Maister Cokes of kyng Richard the Secunde kyng of .nglond [3] aftir the Conquest. the which was acounted e [4] best and ryallest vyand [5] of alle csten .ynges [6] and it was compiled by assent and avysement of Maisters and [7] phisik [8] and of philosophie at dwellid in his court. First it techi a man for to make commune potages and commune meetis for howshold as ey shold be made craftly and holsomly. Aftirward it techi for to make curious potages & meetes and sotiltees [9] for alle maner of States bothe hye and lowe. And the techyng of the forme of making of potages & of meetes bothe of flessh and of fissh. buth [10] y sette here by noumbre and by ordre. sso is little table here sewyng [11] wole teche a man with oute taryyng: to fynde what meete at hym lust for to have.

or [12] to make gronnden benes . . . . . I. For to make drawen benes. . . . . . . . . II. for to make grewel forced.. . . . . . . . III. Caboches in potage. . . . . . . . . . . . IIII. rapes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. Eowtes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. hebolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII. Gowrdes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. ryse of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX. Funges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X. Bursen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI. Corat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII. noumbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII. Roobroth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIIII. Tredure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV. Mounchelet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVI. Bukkenade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII. Connat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII. drepee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX. Mawmenee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX. Egurdouce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI. Capouns in Conney . . . . . . . . . . . . XXII. haares in talbotes. . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII. Haares in papdele . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIIII. connynges in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXV. Connynges in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . XXVI. Chykens in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVII. filetes in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . . XXVIII. Pigges in sawse sawge . . . . . . . . . . XXIX. sawse madame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXX. Gees in hoggepot. . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXI. carnel of pork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXII. Chikens in Caudell. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII. chikens in hocchee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII. For to boyle Fesauntes, Partyches Capons and Curlewes . . . . . . . . . . . XXX. V. blank manng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVI. Blank Dessorre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVII. morree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVIII. Charlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIX. charlot y forced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. Cawdel ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. I. iusshell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. III.[13] Iusshell enforced . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IIII. mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. V. Blank mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VI. brewet of almony. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VII. Peions y stewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VIII. loseyns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IX. Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. X. pynnonade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XI. Rosee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XII. cormarye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIII. New noumbles of Deer. . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIIII. nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XV. Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVI. ipynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVII. Chyryse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVIII. payn Foundewe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIX. Crotoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. vyne grace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. I. Fonnell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. II. douce ame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. III. Connynges in Cirypp . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IIII. leche lumbard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. V. Connynges in clere broth. . . . . . . . . XX.III. VI. payn Ragoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VII. Lete lardes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VIII. furmente with porpeys . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IX. Perrey of Pesoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. X. pesoun of Almayn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XI. Chiches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XII. frenche owtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIII. Makke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIIII. Aquapates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XV. Salat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVI. fenkel in soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVII. Clat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVIII. appulmoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIX. Slete soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. Letelorye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. I. Sowpes Dorry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. II. Rapey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. III. Sause Sarzyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IIII. creme of almanndes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. V. Grewel of almandes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VI. cawdel of almandes mylk . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VII. Iowtes of almannd mylk. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VIII. Fygey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX. Pochee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. X. brewet of ayrenn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XI. Macrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XII. Tostee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIII. Gyndawdry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIIII. Erbowle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XV. Resmolle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVI. vyannde Cipre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVII. Vyannde Cipre of Samon. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVIII. vyannde Ryal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX. Compost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. gelee of Fyssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. I. Gelee of flessh . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. II. Chysanne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. III. congur in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IIII. Rygh in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. V. makerel in sawce. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VI. Pykes in brasey . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VII. porpeys in broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VIII. Ballok broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX. eles in brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. X Cawdel of Samoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XI. plays in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XII. For to make Flaumpeyns. . . . . . . . . . C. XIII. for to make noumbles in lent. . . . . . . C. XIIII. For to make Chawdoun for lent . . . . . . C. XV. furmente with porpays . . . . . . . . . . C. XVI. Fylettes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . C. XVII. veel in buknade . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XVIII. Sooles in Cyney . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX. tenches in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. Oysters in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. I muskels in brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. II Oysters in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. III. cawdel of muskels . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IIII. Mortrews of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. V laumpreys in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VI. Laumprouns in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VII. losyns in Fysshe day. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VIII. Sowpes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IX. sobre sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. X. Colde Brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XI. peeres in confyt. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XII. Egur douce of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIII. Cold Brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIIII. Pevorat for Veel and Venysoun . . . . . . XX.VI. XV. sawce blaunche for Capouns y sode . . . . XX.VI. XVI. Sawce Noyre for Capons y rosted . . . . . XX.VI. XVII. Galentyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XVIII. Gyngeuer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIX. verde sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. Sawce Noyre for mallard . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. I. cawdel for Gees . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. II. Chawdon for Swannes . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. III. sawce Camelyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IIII. Lumbard Mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. V. Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VI. Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VII. frytour blaunched . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VIII. Frytour of pasturnakes. . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IX.

frytour of mylke. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. X. frytour of Erbes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XI. Raisiowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XII. Whyte milates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIII. crustardes of flessh. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIIII. Mylates of Pork . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XV. crustardes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVI. Crustardes of erbis on fyssh day. . . . . XX.VII. XVII. lesshes fryed in lentoun. . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVIII. Wastels y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIX. sawge y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. Sawgeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. I. cryspes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. II. Cryspels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. III. Tartee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IIII. Tart in Ymbre day . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. V. tart de Bry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VI. Tart de Brymlent. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VII. tartes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VIII. Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IX. tartes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. X. Sambocade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XI. Erbolat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XII. Nysebek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIII. for to make Pom Dorryes. & oer ynges. . XX.VIII. XIIII. Cotagres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XV. hart rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVI. Potews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVII. Sachus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVIII. Bursews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIX. spynoches y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. Benes y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. I. russhewses of Fruyt . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. II. Daryols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. III. Flaumpens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IIII. Chewetes on flessh day. . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. V. chewetes on fyssh day . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VI. Hastletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.XI. VII. comadore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VIII. Chastletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IX. for to make twey pecys of Flesshe to fasten to gydre. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. X. pur fait y pocras . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XI. For to make blank maunnger. . . . . . . . XX.IX. XII. for to make Blank Desire. . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIII. For to make mawmoune. . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIIII. the pety peruaunt . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XV. And the pete puant. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XVI.


[1] This is a kind of Preamble to the Roll. A space is left for the initial word, intended to be afterwards written in red ink, and presumed to be is. Fome, the lineola over it being either casually omitted, or since obliterated, means form, written Foume below, and in No. 195. [2] Cury. Cookery. We have adopted it in the Title. V. Preface. [3] ynglond. E was intended to be prefixed in red ink. Vide Note [1] and [6]. [4] . This Saxon letter with the power of th, is used almost perpetually in our Roll and the Editor's Ms. Every one may not have adverted to it; but this character is the ground of our present abbreviations y'e the, y't that, y's this, &c. the y in these cases being evidently only an altered and more modern way of writing . [5] vyaund. This word is to be understood in the concrete, quasi vyander, a curious epicure, an Apicius. V. Preface. [6] csten ynges. Christian kings. K being to be inserted afterwards (v. note [1] and [3]) in red ink. Chaucer, v. christen. [7] and. Read of. [8] Phisik. V. Preface. [9] Sotiltees. Devices in paste, wax, and confectionary ware; reviving now, in some measure, in our grander deserts. V. Index. [10] buth. Be, or are. V. Index. [11] sewing. Following; from the French. Hence our ensue written formerly ensew. Skelton, p. 144; and ensiew, Ames Typ. Ant. p. 9. [12] F is omitted for the reason given in note 1. [13] No. XX.II. II. is omitted.


Take benes and dry hem in a nost [2] or in an Ovene and hulle hem wele and wyndewe [3] out e hulk and wayshe hem clene an do hem to see in gode broth [4] an ete hem with Bacon.

[1] Gronden Benes. Beans ground (y ground, as No. 27. 53. 105.) stript of their hulls. This was a dish of the poorer householder, as also is 4 and 5, and some others. [2] a nost. An ost, or kiln. Vide Gloss. voce Ost. [3] wyndewe. Winnow. [4] gode broth. Prepared beforehand.


Take benes and see hem and grynde hem in a morter [1] and drawe hem up [2] with gode broth an do Oynouns in the broth grete mynced [3] an do erto and colour it with Safroun and serve it forth.

[1] morter. Mortar. [2] Footnote f: drawen hem up. Mix them. [3] Footnote g: grete mynced. Grossly, not too small.


Take grewel and do to the fyre with gode flessh and see it wel. take the lire [2] of Pork and grynd it smal [3] and drawe the grewel thurgh a Straynour [4] and colour it wi Safroun and serue [5] forth.

[1] forced, farced, enriched with flesh. Vide Gloss. [2] lire. Flesh. [3] grynd it smal. Bruise or beat in a mortar. [4] stryno'. Strainer. [5] serue. Serve. Vide Gloss.


Take Caboches and quarter hem and seeth hem in gode broth with Oynouns y mynced and the whyte of Lekes y slyt and corue smale [2] and do er to safroun an salt and force it with powdour douce [3].

[1] Caboches. Probably cabbages. [2] corue smale. Cut small. V. i corue in Gloss. [3] powdour douce. Sweet aromatic powder. V. Pref.


Take rapus and make hem clene and waissh hem clene. quare hem [2]. parboile hem. take hem up. cast hem in a gode broth and see hem. mynce Oynouns and cast erto Safroun and salt and messe it forth with powdour douce. the wise [3] make of Pasturnakes [4] and skyrwates. [5]

[1] Rapes, or rapus. Turneps. [2] quare hem. Cut them in squares, or small pieces. V. Gloss. [3] in the wise, i.e. in the same manner. Self or same, seems to be casually omitted. Vide No. 11 and 122. [4] Pasturnakes, for parsnips or carrots. V. Gloss. [5] skyrwates, for skirrits or skirwicks.


Take Borage, cool [2]. langdebef [3]. persel [4]. betes. orage [5]. auance [6]. violet [7]. saueray [8]. and fenkel [9]. and whane ey buth sode; presse hem wel smale. cast hem in gode broth an see hem. and serue hem forth.

[1] Eowtes. Lowtes, No. 88, where, in the process, it is Rowtes. Qure the meaning, as Roots does not apply to the matter of the Recipe. In No. 73 it is written owtes. [2] Cole, or colewort. [3] Langdebef. Bugloss, buglossum sylvestre. These names all arise from a similitude to an ox's tongue. V. Ms. Ed. No. 43. [4] Persel. Parsley. [5] orage. Orach, Atriplex. Miller, Gard. Dict. [6] auance. Fort Avens. V. Avens, in Gloss. [7] The leaves probably, and not the flower. [8] Savory. [9] Fenkel. Fennil.


Take Oynouns and erbes and hewe hem small and do es to gode broth. and aray [2] it as ou didest caboches. If ey be in fyssh day. make [3] on the same maner [4] with water and oyle. and if it be not in Lent alye [5] it with zolkes of Eyren [6]. and dresse it forth and cast er to powdour douce.

[1] Hebolace. Contents, Hebolas; for Herbolas, from the herbs used; or, if the first letter be omitted (see the Contents), Chebolas, from the Chibols employed. [2] aray. Dress, set it out. [3] make. Dress. Vide Gloss. [4] maner. manner. [5] alye. Mix. V. Gloss. [6] Eyren. Eggs. V. Gloss.


Take young Gowrdes pare hem and kerue [1] hem on pecys. cast hem in gode broth, and do er to a gode pertye [2] of Oynouns mynced. take Pork soden. grynd it and alye it er with and wi zolkes of ayrenn. do er to safroun and salt, and messe it forth with powdour douce.

[1] kerve. Cut. [2] partye. Party, i.e. quantity.


Take Ryse and waishe hem clene. and do hem in erthen pot with gode

broth and lat hem see wel. afterward take Almaund mylke [2] and do er to. and colour it wi safroun an salt, an messe forth.

[1] Ryse. Rice. V. Gloss. [2] Almand mylke. V. Gloss.

FUNGES [1]. X.

Take Funges and pare hem clere and dyce hem [2]. take leke and shred hym small and do hym to see in gode broth. colour it with safron and do er inne powdour fort [3].

[1] Funges. Mushrooms. [2] dyce hem. Cut them in squares. Vide quare in Gloss. [3] Powdour fort. Vide Preface.


Take the whyte of Lekes. slype hem and shrede hem small. take Noumbles [2] of swyne and boyle hem in broth and wyne. take hym up and dresse hem and do the Leke in the broth. see and do the Noumbles er to make a Lyour [3] of brode blode and vynegre and do er to Powdour fort see Oynouns mynce hem and do er to. the self wise make of Pigges.

[1] Bursen. Qu. the etymon. [2] Noumbles. Entrails. V. Gloss. [3] Lyo', Lyour. A mixture. Vide alye in Gloss.


Take the Noumbles of Calf. Swyne. or of Shepe. parboile hem and skerne hem to dyce [2] cast hem in gode broth and do er to erbes. grynde chyballes [3]. smale y hewe. see it tendre and lye it with zolkes of eyrenn. do er to verious [4] safroun powdour douce and salt, and serue it forth.

[1] Corat. Qu. [2] kerve hem to dyce. V. quare in Gloss. [3] Chyballes. Chibols, young onions. V. Gloss. [4] verious. Verjuice.


Take noumbles of Deer oer [1] of oer beest parboile hem kerf hem to dyce. take the self broth or better. take brede and grynde with the broth. and temper it [2] up with a gode quantite of vyneger and wyne. take the oynouns and parboyle hem. and mynce hem smale and do er to. colour it with blode and do er to powdour fort and salt and boyle it wele and serue it fort [3].

[1] oer. Other, i.e. or. [2] temper it. Temper it, i. e. mix it. [3] fort. Miswritten for forth. So again No. 31. 127.


Take the lire of the Deer oer of the Roo parboile it on smale peces. see it wel half in water and half in wyne. take brede and bray it wi the self broth and drawe blode er to and lat it seeth to gedre with powdour fort of gynger oer of canell [2]. and macys [3]. with a grete porcioun of vineger with Raysouns of Coraunte [4].

[1] Roo. Roe. The Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 53. is very different. [2] Canell. Cinnamon. [3] macys. Mace. V. Preface and Gloss. [4] Raysouns of Coraunte. Currants. V. Gloss.


Take Brede and grate it. make a lyre [2] of rawe ayrenn and do erto Safroun and powdour douce. and lye it up [3] with gode broth. and make it as a Cawdel. and do erto a lytel verious.

[1] Tredure. A Cawdle; but qure the etymon. The French tres dure does not seem to answer. [2] lyre. Mixture. [3] lye it up. Mix it.


Take Veel oer Moton and smite it to gobettes see it in gode broth. cast erto erbes yhewe [2] gode wyne. and a quantite of Oynouns mynced. Powdour fort and Safroun. and alye it with ayren and verious. but lat not see after.

[1] Monchelet. Mounchelet, Contents. [2] y hewe. Shred.


Take Hennes [2] oer Conynges [3] oer Veel oer oer Flessh an hewe hem to gobettes waische it and hit well [4]. grynde Almandes unblaunched. and drawe hem up with e broth cast er inne raysons of Corance. sugur. Powdour gyngur erbes ystewed in grees [5]. Oynouns and Salt. If it is to to [6] thynne. alye it up with flour of ryse oer with oer thyng and colour it with Safroun.

[1] Bukkenade. Vide No. 118. qu. [2] Hennes; including, I suppose, chicken and pullets. [3] Conynges. Coneys, Rabbits. [4] hit well. This makes no sense, unless hit signifies smite or beat. [5] Grees. Fat, lard, grece. No. 19. [6] to to. So again, No. 124. To is too, v. Gloss. And too is found doubled in this manner in Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 277. 371, and other authors.


Take Connes and pare hem. pyke out the best and do hem in a pot of erthe. do erto whyte grece at he stewe er inne. and lye hem up with hony clarified and with rawe zolkes [2] and with a lytell almaund mylke and do erinne powdour fort and Safron. and loke at it be yleesshed [3],

[1] Connat seems to be a kind of marmalade of connes, or quinces, from Fr. Coing. Chaucer, v. Coines. Written quinces No. 30. [2] Yolkes, i. e. of Eggs. [3] yleesshed. V. Gloss.


Take blanched Almandes grynde hem and temper hem up with gode broth take Oynouns a grete quantite parboyle hem and frye hem and do erto. take smale bryddes [2] parboyle hem and do erto Pellydore [3] and salt. and a lytel grece.

[1] Drepee. Qu. [2] bryddes. Birds. Per metathesin; v. R. in Indice. [3] Pellydore. Perhaps pellitory. Peletour, 104.

Mawmenee [1]. XX.

Take a pottel of wyne greke. and ii. pounde of sugur take and clarifye the sugur with a qantite of wyne an drawe it thurgh a straynour in to a pot of erthe take flour of Canell [2]. and medle [3] with sum of the wyne an cast to gydre. take pynes [4] with Dates and frye hem a litell in grece oer in oyle and cast hem to gydre. take clowes [5] an flour of canel hool [6] and cast erto. take powdour gyngur. canel. clower, colour it with saundres a lytel yf hit be nede cast salt erto. and lat it see; warly [7] with a slowe fyre and not to thyk [8], take brawn [9] of Capouns yteysed [10]. oer of Fesauntes teysed small and cast erto.

[1] Vide No. 194, where it is called Mawmenny. [2] Flour of Canell. Powder of Cinamon. [3] medle. Mix. [4] pynes. A nut, or fruit. Vide Gloss. [5] clowes. Cloves. [6] hool. Whole. How can it be the flour, or powder, if whole? Qure, flower of cand for mace. [7] warly. Warily, gently. [8] not to thyk. So as to be too thick; or perhaps, not to thicken. [9] brawn. Fleshy part. Few Capons are cut now except about Darking in Surry; they have been excluded by the turkey, a more magnificent, but perhaps not a better fowl.

[10] yteysed, or teysed, as afterwards. Pulled in pieces by the fingers, called teezing No. 36. This is done now with flesh of turkeys, and thought better than mincing. Vide Junius, voce Tease.


Take Conynges or Kydde and smyte hem on pecys rawe. and frye hem in white grece. take raysouns of Coraunce and fry hem take oynouns parboile hem and hewe hem small and fry hem. take rede wyne suger with powdour of peper. of gynger of canel. salt. and cast erto. and lat it see with a gode quantite of white grece an serue it forth.

[1] Egurdouce. The term expresses piccante dolce, a mixture of sour and sweet; but there is nothing of the former in the composition. Vide Gloss.


Take Capons and rost hem right hoot at ey be not half y nouhz and hewe hem to gobettes and cast hem in a pot, do erto clene broth, see hem at ey be tendre. take brede and e self broth and drawe it up yferer [2], take strong Powdour and Safroun and Salt and cast er to. take ayrenn and see hem harde. take out the zolkes and hewe the whyte erinne, take the Pot fro e fyre and cast the whyte erinne. messe the disshes erwith and lay the zolkes hool and flour it with clowes.

[1] Concys seems to be a kind of known sauce. V. Gloss. [2] yfere. Together.


Take Hares and hewe hem to gobettes and see hem with e blode unwaisshed in broth. and whan ey buth y nowh: cast hem in colde water. pyke and waisshe hem clene. cole [3] the broth and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take oer blode and cast in boylyng water see it and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take Almaundes unblaunched. waisshe hem and grynde hem and temper it up with the self broth. cast al in a pot. tak oynouns and parboile hem smyte hem small and cast hem in to is Pot. cast erinne Powdour fort. vynegur an salt.

[1] Haares, Contents. So again, No. 24. [2] Talbotes. Ms. Ed. No. 9, Talbotays. [3] Cole. Cool.


Take Hares parboile hem in gode broth. cole the broth and waisshe the fleyssh. cast azeyn [2] to gydre. take obleys [3] oer wafrouns [4] in stede of lozeyns [5]. and cowche [6] in dysshes. take powdour douce and lay on salt the broth and lay onoward [7] an messe forth.

[1] Papdele. Qu. [2] azeyn. Again. [3] obleys, called oblat; for which see Hearne ad Lib. Nig. I. p. 344. A kind of Wafer, otherwise called Nebul; and is the French oublie, oble. Leland, Collect. IV. p. 190. 327. [4] wafrouns. Wafers. [5] loseyns. Vide Gloss. [6] cowche. Lay. [7] onoward. Upon it.


Take Connynges and smyte hem on peces. and see hem in gode broth, mynce Oynouns and see hem in grece and in gode broth do erto. drawe a lyre of brede. blode. vynegur and broth do erto with powdour fort.

[1] Cynee. Vide Gloss.


Take Connynges smyte hem to pecys. parboile hem and drawe hem with a gode broth with almandes blanched and brayed. do erinne sugur and powdour gynger and boyle it and the flessh erwith. flour it with sugur and with powdour gynger an serue forth.


Take Chykens and serue hem the same manere and serue forth.


Take fylettes of Pork and rost hem half ynowh smyte hem on pecys. drawe a lyour of brede and blode. and broth and Vineger. and do erinne. see it wele. and do erinne powdour an salt an messe it forth.

[1] Fylettes. Fillets. [2] of Galyntyne. In Galyntyne. Contents, rectlus. As for Galentine, see the Gloss.


Take Pigges yskaldid and quarter hem and see hem in water and salt, take hem and lat hem kele [2]. take persel sawge. and grynde it with brede and zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode. temper it up with vyneger sum what thyk. and, lay the Pygges in a vessell. and the sewe onoward and serue it forth.

[1] Sawge. Sage. As several of them are to be used, these pigs must have been small. [2] kele. Cool.


Take sawge. persel. ysope. and saueray. quinces. and peeres [1], garlek and Grapes. and fylle the gees erwith. and sowe the hole at no grece come out. and roost hem wel. and kepe the grece at fallith erof. take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet, whan the gees buth rosted ynowh; take an smyte hem on pecys. and at tat [2] is withinne and do it in a possynet and put erinne wyne if it be to thyk. do erto powdour of galyngale. powdour douce and salt and boyle the sawse and dresse e Gees in disshes and lay e sowe onoward.

[1] Peares. Pears. [2] that tat, i.e. that that. Vide Gloss.


Take Gees and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem in a Pot do erto half wyne and half water. and do erto a gode quantite of Oynouns and erbest. Set it ouere the fyre and couere [2] it fast. make a layour of brede and blode an lay it erwith. do erto powdour fort and serue it fort.

[1] Hoggepot. Hodge-podge. Ochepot. Ms. Ed. No. 22. French, Hochepot. Cotgrave. See Junii Enym. v. Hotch-potch. [2] couere. Cover.


Take the brawnn of Swyne. parboile it and grynde it smale and alay it up with zolkes of ayren. set it ouere [2] the fyre with white Grece and lat it not see to fast. do erinne Safroun an powdour fort and messe it forth. and cast erinne powdour douce, and serue it forth.

[1] Carnel, perhaps Charnel, from Fr. Chaire. [2] ouere. Over. So again, No. 33.


Take Chikenns and boile hem in gode broth and ramme [2] hem up. enne take zolkes of ayrenn an e broth and alye it togedre. do erto powdour of gynger and sugur ynowh safroun and salt. and set it ouere the fyre withoute boyllyng. and serue the Chykenns hole [3] oer ybroke and lay e sowe onoward.

[1] Chikens. Contents. So again in the next Recipe. [2] ramme. Qu. press them close together. [3] hole. Whole.


Take Chykenns and scald hem. take parsel and sawge withoute eny oere erbes. take garlec an grapes and stoppe the Chikenns ful and see hem in gode broth. so at ey may esely be boyled erinne. messe hem an cast erto powdour dowce.

[1] Hochee. This does not at all answer to the French Hachis, or our Hash; therefore qu.


Take gode broth and do erto the Fowle. and do erto hool peper and flour of canel a gode quantite and lat hem see with. and messe it forth. and er cast eron Podour dowce.


Take Capouns and see hem, enne take hem up. take Almandes blaunched. grynd hem and alay hem up with the same broth. cast the mylk in a pot. waisshe rys and do erto and lat it see. anne take brawn of Capouns teere it small and do erto. take white grece sugur and salt and cast erinne. lat it see. enne messe it forth and florissh it with aneys in confyt rede oer whyt. and with Almaundes fryed in oyle. and serue it forth.

[1] Blank Maunger. Very different from ours. Vide Gloss.


Take Almandes blaunched, grynde hem and temper hem up with whyte wyne, on fleissh day with broth. and cast erinne flour of Rys. oer amydoun [2], and lye it erwith. take brawn of Capouns yground. take sugur and salt and cast erto and florissh it with aneys whyte. take a vessel yholes [3] and put in safroun. and serue it forth.

[1] Blank Dessorre. V. Gloss. [2] Amydoun. "Fine wheat flour steeped in water, strained and let stand to settle, then drained and dried in the sun; used for bread or in broths." Cotgrave. Used in No. 68 for colouring white. [3] yholes. Qure.


Take Almandes blaunched, waisshe hem. grynde hem. and temper hem up with rede wyne, and alye hem with flour of Rys. do erto Pynes yfryed. and colour it with saundres. do erto powdour fort and powdour douce

and salt, messe it forth and flour it [2] with aneys confyt whyte.

[1] Morree. Ms. Ed. 37. murrey. Ibid. II. 26. morrey; probably from the mulberries used therein. [2] flour it. Flourish it.


Take Pork and see it wel. hewe it smale. cast it in a panne. breke ayrenn and do erto and swyng [2] it wel togyder. do erto Cowe mylke and Safroun and boile it togyder. salt it & messe it forth.

[1] Charlet; probably from the French, chair. Qu. Minced Meat, and the next article, Forced Meat. [2] swyng. Shake, mix.


Take mylke and see it, and swyng erwith zolkes of Ayrenn and do erto. and powdour of gynger suger. and Safroun and cast erto. take the Charlet out of the broth and messe it in dysshes, lay the sewe onoward. flour it with powdour douce. and serue it forth.


Take flour of Payndemayn [2] and gode wyne. and drawe it togydre. do erto a grete quantite of Sugur cypre. or hony clarified, and do erto safroun. boile it. and whan it is boiled, alye it up with zolkes of ayrenn. and do erto salt and messe it forth. and lay eron sugur and powdour gyngur.

[1] ferry. Qure. We have Carpe in Ferry, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21. [2] Payndemayn. White bread. Chaucer.


Take brede ygrated and ayrenn and swyng it togydre. do erto safroun, sawge. and salt. & cast broth. erto. boile it & messe it forth.

[1] Jusshell. See also next number. Jussell, Ms. Ed. 21, where the Recipe is much the same. Lat. Juscellam, which occurs in the old scholiast on Juvenal iv. 23; and in Apicius, v. 3. Vide Du Fresne, v. Jusselium and Juscellum, where the composition consists of vinum, ova, and sagmea, very different from this. Faber in Thesauro cites Juscellum Gallin from Theod. Priscianus.

N.B. No. XX.II. II. is omitted both here and in the Contents.


Take and do erto as to charlet yforced. and serue it forth.

[1] Jusshell enforced. As the Charlet yforced here referred to was made of pork, compare No. 40 with No. 39. So in Theod. Priscian we have Jussetlum Gallin.


Take hennes and Pork and see hem togyder. take the lyre of Hennes and of the Pork, and hewe it small and grinde it all to doust [2]. take brede ygrated and do erto, and temper it with the self broth and alye it with zolkes of ayrenn, and cast eron powdour fort, boile it and do erin powdour of gyngur sugur. safroun and salt. and loke er it be stondyng [3], and flour it with powdour gynger.

[1] Mortrews. Vide Gloss. [2] doust. Dust, powder. [3] stondyng. Stiff, thick.


Take Pork and Hennes and see hem as to fore. bray almandes blaunched, and temper hem up with the self broth. and alye the fleissh with the mylke and white flour of Rys. and boile it. & do erin powdour of gyngur sugar and look at it be stondyng.


Take Conynges or kiddes and hewe hem small on moscels [2] oer on pecys. parboile hem with the same broth, drawe an almaunde mylke and do the fleissh erwith, cast erto powdour galyngale & of gynger with flour of Rys. and colour it wi alkenet. boile it, salt it. & messe it forth with sugur and powdour douce.

[1] Almony. Almaine, or Germany. Almany. Fox, part I. p. 239. Alamanie. Chron. Sax. p. 242. V. ad No. 71. [2] moscels. Morsels.


Take peions and stop hem with garlec ypylled and with gode erbes ihewe. and do hem in an erthen pot. cast erto gode broth and whyte grece. Powdour fort. safroun verious & salt.

[1] Peiouns, Pejons, i. e. Pigeons, j is never written here in the middle of a word.


Take gode broth and do in an erthen pot, take flour of payndemayn and make erof past with water. and make erof thynne foyles as paper [2] with a roller, drye it harde and see it in broth take Chese ruayn [3] grated and lay it in disshes with powdour douce. and lay eron loseyns isode as hoole as ou mizt [4]. and above powdour and chese, and so twyse or thryse, & serue it forth.

[1] Loseyns. Vide in Gloss. [2] foyles as paper. Leaves of paste as thin as paper. [3] Chese ruyan. 166. Vide Gloss. [4] mizt. Might, i.e. can.


Take pork ysode and grynde it small with safroun, medle it with ayrenn and raisons of coraunce and powdour fort and salt, and make a foile of dowhz [2] and close the fars [3] erinne. cast e Tartletes in a Panne with faire water boillyng and salt, take of the clene Flessh withoute ayren & bolle it in gode broth. cast erto powdour douce and salt, and messe the tartletes in disshes & helde [4] the sewe eronne.

[1] Tarlettes. Tartletes in the process. [2] foile of dowhz, or dowght. A leaf of paste. [3] fars. Forced-meat. [4] helde. Cast.


Take Almandes iblaunched and drawe hem sumdell thicke [2] with gode broth oer with water and set on the fire and see it, cast erto zolkes of ayrenn ydrawe. take Pynes yfryed in oyle oer in grece and erto white Powdour douce, sugur and salt. & colour it wi alkenet a lytel.

[1] Pynnonade. So named from the Pynes therein used. [2] sumdell thicke. Somewhat thick, thickish.


Take thyk mylke as to fore welled [2]. cast erto sugur a gode porcioun pynes. Dates ymynced. canel. & powdour gynger and see it, and alye it with flores of white Rosis, and flour of rys, cole it, salt it & messe it forth. If ou wilt in stede of Almaunde mylke, take swete cremes of kyne.

[1] Rosee. From the white roles therein mentioned. See No. 41. in Mi. Ed. but No. 47 there is totally different. [2] welled, f. willed; directed.


Take Colyandre [2], Caraway smale grounden, Powdour of Peper and garlec ygrounde in rede wyne, medle alle ise [3] togyder and salt it, take loynes of Pork rawe and fle of the skyn, and pryk it wel with a knyf and lay it in the sawse, roost erof what ou wilt, & kepe at at fallith erfro in the rosting and see it in a possynet with faire broth, & serue it forth wit e roost anoon [4].

[1] Cormarye. Qure. [2] Golyandre. Coriander. [3] ise. These. [4] anoon. Immediately.


Take noumbles and waisshe hem clene with water and salt and perboile hem in water. take hem up an dyce hem. do with hem as with ooer noumbles.


The Loyne of the Pork, is fro the hippe boon to the hede.


The fyletes buth two, that buth take oute of the Pestels [1].

[1] Pestels. Legs.


Take and make gode thik Almaund mylke as tofore. and do erin of flour of hawthorn [2]. and make it as a rose. & serue it forth.

[1] Spynee. As made of Haws, the berries of Spines, or Hawthorns. [2] Hawthern. Hawthorn.


Take Almandes unblanched, waisshe hem, grynde hem, drawe hem up with gode broth. do erto thridde part of chiryse. e stones. take oute and grynde hem smale, make a layour of gode brede an powdour and salt and do erto. colour it with sandres so that it may be stondyng, and florish it with aneys and with cheweryes, and strawe eruppon and serue it forth.

[1] Chyryse. Chiryse in the process. Cheriseye. Ms. Ed. II. 18. Chiryes there are cherries. And this dish is evidently made of Cherries, which probably were chiefly imported at this time from Flanders, though they have a Saxon name, [Anglo-Saxon: cyrre].


Take brede and frye it in grece oer in oyle, take it and lay it in rede wyne. grynde it with raisouns take hony and do it in a pot and cast erinne gleyres [2] of ayrenn wi a litel water and bete it wele togider with a sklyse [3]. set it ouer the fires and boile it. and whan the hatte [4] arisith to goon [5] ouer, take it adoun and kele it, and whan it is er clarified; do it to the oere with sugur and spices. salt it and loke it be stondyng, florish it with white coliaundre in confyt.

[1] foundewe. Contents. It seems to mean dissolved. V. found in Gloss. [2] gleyres. Whites. [3] Sklyse. Slice. [4] hatte. Seems to mean bubling or wallop. [5] goon. Go.


Take the offal of Capouns oer of oere briddes. make hem clene and parboile hem. take hem up and dyce hem. take swete cowe mylke and cast erinne. and lat it boile. take Payndemayn [2] and of e self mylke and drawe thurgh a cloth and cast it in a pot and lat it see, take ayren ysode. hewe the white and cast erto, and alye the sewe with zolkes of ayren rawe. colour it with safron. take the zolkes and fry hem and florish hem erwith and with powdour douce.

[1] Crotoun. Ms. Ed. 24. has Craytoun, but a different dish. [2] Payndemayn. Whitebread. V. ad No. 41.


Take smale fylettes of Pork and rost hem half and smyte hem to gobettes and do hem in wyne an Vynegur and Oynouns ymynced and stewe it yfere do erto gode poudours an salt, an serue it forth.

[1] Vyne Grace. Named probably from grees, wild swine, and the mode of dressing in wine. V. Gloss. voce Vyne grace.


Take Almandes unblaunched. grynde hem and drawe hem up with gode broth, take a lombe [2] or a kidde and half rost hym. or the ridde [3] part, smyte hym in gobetes and cast hym to the mylke. take smale briddes yfasted and ystyned [4]. and do erto sugur, powdour of canell and salt, take zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode and cleeue [5] a two and ypaunced [6] with flour of canell and florish e sewe above. take alkenet fryed and yfoundred [7] and droppe above with a feur [8] and messe it forth.

[1] Fonnell. Nothing in the recipe leads to the etymon of this multifarious dish. [2] Lombe. Lamb. [3] thridde. Third, per metathesin. [4] yfasted and ystyned. [5] cleeue. cloven. [6] ypaunced. pounced. [7] yfoundred. melted, dissolved. [8] fe'. feather.


Take gode Cowe mylke and do it in a pot. take parsel. sawge. ysope. saueray and ooer gode herbes. hewe hem and do hem in the mylke and see hem. take capouns half yrosted and smyte hem on pecys and do erto pynes and hony clarified. salt it and colour it with safroun an serue it forth.

[1] Douce Ame. Quasi, a delicious dish. V. Blank Desire in Gloss. Titles of this tissue occur in Apicius. See Humelberg. p. 2.


Take Connynges and see hem wel in good broth. take wyne greke and do erto with a porcioun of vyneger and flour of canel, hoole clowes quybibes hoole, and ooer gode spices with raisouns coraunce and gyngyner ypared and ymynced. take up the conynges and smyte hem on pecys and cast hem into the Siryppe and see hem a litel on the fyre and sue it forth.

[1] Cyrip. In the process Siryppe. Cirypp, Contents. Sirop or Sirup, as 133. Syryp, 132.


Take rawe Pork and pulle of the skyn. and pyke out e skyn synewes and bray the Pork in a morter with ayrenn rawe do erto suger, salt, raysouns coraunce, dates mynced, and powdour of Peper powdour gylofre. an do it in a bladder, and lat it see til it be ynowhz. and whan it is ynowh, kerf if leshe it [2] in likenesse of a peskodde [3], and take grete raysouns and grynde hem in a morter, drawe hem Up wi rede wyne, do erto mylke of almaundes colour it with saunders an safroun.

and do erto powdour of peper an of gilofre and boile it. and whan it is iboiled; take powdour of canel and gynger, and temper it up with wyne. and do alle ise thynges togyder. and loke at it be rennyns [4], and lat it not see after that it is cast togyder, an serue it forth.

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