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The Grammar of English Grammars
by Goold Brown
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Transcriber's Notes: Despite the severity with which the author of this work treats those who depart from his standard of correctness, the source text does contain a small number of typographical errors. Missing punctuation has been supplied silently, but all other errors have been left uncorrected. To let the reader distinguish such problems from any inadvertent transcription errors that remain, I have inserted notes to flag items that appear errors by Brown's own standard. Spellings that are simply different from current practice, e.g., 'Shakspeare' are not noted. Special characters: vowels with macrons are rendered with an equals sign (=) before the vowel. Vowels with breve marks are rendered with tildes (~) before the vowels.—KTH.

THE

GRAMMAR

OF

ENGLISH GRAMMARS,

WITH

AN INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL;

THE WHOLE

METHODICALLY ARRANGED AND AMPLY ILLUSTRATED;

WITH

FORMS OF CORRECTING AND OF PARSING, IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION, EXAMPLES FOR PARSING, QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION, EXERCISES FOR WRITING, OBSERVATIONS FOR THE ADVANCED STUDENT, DECISIONS AND PROOFS FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTED POINTS, OCCASIONAL STRICTURES AND DEFENCES, AN EXHIBITION OF THE SEVERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS,

AND

A KEY TO THE ORAL EXERCISES:

TO WHICH ARE ADDED

FOUR APPENDIXES,

PERTAINING SEPARATELY TO THE FOUR PARTS OF GRAMMAR.

BY GOOLD BROWN,

AUTHOR OF THE INSTITUTES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, THE FIRST LINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, ETC.

"So let great authors have their due, that Time, who is the author of authors, be not deprived of his due, which is, farther and farther to discover truth."—LORD BACON.

SIXTH EDITION—REVISED AND IMPROVED.

ENLARGED BY THE ADDITION OF A COPIOUS INDEX OF MATTERS.

BY SAMUEL U. BERRIAN, A. M.



PREFACE

The present performance is, so far as the end could be reached, the fulfillment of a design, formed about twenty-seven years ago, of one day presenting to the world, if I might, something like a complete grammar of the English language;—not a mere work of criticism, nor yet a work too tame, indecisive, and uncritical; for, in books of either of these sorts, our libraries already abound;—not a mere philosophical investigation of what is general or universal in grammar, nor yet a minute detail of what forms only a part of our own philology; for either of these plans falls very far short of such a purpose;—not a mere grammatical compend, abstract, or compilation, sorting with other works already before the public; for, in the production of school grammars, the author had early performed his part; and, of small treatises on this subject, we have long had a superabundance rather than a lack.

After about fifteen years devoted chiefly to grammatical studies and exercises, during most of which time I had been alternately instructing youth in four different languages, thinking it practicable to effect some improvement upon the manuals which explain our own, I prepared and published, for the use of schools, a duodecimo volume of about three hundred pages; which, upon the presumption that its principles were conformable to the best usage, and well established thereby, I entitled, "The Institutes of English Grammar." Of this work, which, it is believed, has been gradually gaining in reputation and demand ever since its first publication, there is no occasion to say more here, than that it was the result of diligent study, and that it is, essentially, the nucleus, or the groundwork, of the present volume.

With much additional labour, the principles contained in the Institutes of English Grammar, have here been not only reaffirmed and rewritten, but occasionally improved in expression, or amplified in their details. New topics, new definitions, new rules, have also been added; and all parts of the subject have been illustrated by a multiplicity of new examples and exercises, which it has required a long time to amass and arrange. To the main doctrines, also, are here subjoined many new observations and criticisms, which are the results of no inconsiderable reading and reflection.

Regarding it as my business and calling, to work out the above-mentioned purpose as circumstances might permit, I have laid no claim to genius, none to infallibility; but I have endeavoured to be accurate, and aspired to be useful; and it is a part of my plan, that the reader of this volume shall never, through my fault, be left in doubt as to the origin of any thing it contains. It is but the duty of an author, to give every needful facility for a fair estimate of his work; and, whatever authority there may be for anonymous copying in works on grammar, the precedent is always bad.

The success of other labours, answerable to moderate wishes, has enabled me to pursue this task under favourable circumstances, and with an unselfish, independent aim. Not with vainglorious pride, but with reverent gratitude to God, I acknowledge this advantage, giving thanks for the signal mercy which has upborne me to the long-continued effort. Had the case been otherwise,—had the labours of the school-room been still demanded for my support,—the present large volume would never have appeared. I had desired some leisure for the completing of this design, and to it I scrupled not to sacrifice the profits of my main employment, as soon as it could be done without hazard of adding another chapter to "the Calamities of Authors."

The nature and design of this treatise are perhaps sufficiently developed in connexion with the various topics which are successively treated of in the Introduction. That method of teaching, which I conceive to be the best, is also there described. And, in the Grammar itself, there will be found occasional directions concerning the manner of its use. I have hoped to facilitate the study of the English language, not by abridging our grammatical code, or by rejecting the common phraseolgy [sic—KTH] of its doctrines, but by extending the former, improving the latter, and establishing both;—but still more, by furnishing new illustrations of the subject, and arranging its vast number of particulars in such order that every item may be readily found.

An other important purpose, which, in the preparation of this work, has been borne constantly in mind, and judged worthy of very particular attention, was the attempt to settle, so far as the most patient investigation and the fullest exhibition of proofs could do it, the multitudinous and vexatious disputes which have hitherto divided the sentiments of teachers, and made the study of English grammar so uninviting, unsatisfactory, and unprofitable, to the student whose taste demands a reasonable degree of certainty.

"Whenever labour implies the exertion of thought, it does good, at least to the strong: when the saving of labour is a saving of thought, it enfeebles. The mind, like the body, is strengthened by hard exercise: but, to give this exercise all its salutary effect, it should be of a reasonable kind; it should lead us to the perception of regularity, of order, of principle, of a law. When, after all the trouble we have taken, we merely find anomalies and confusion, we are disgusted with what is so uncongenial: and, as our higher faculties have not been called into action, they are not unlikely to be outgrown by the lower, and overborne as it were by the underwood of our minds. Hence, no doubt, one of the reasons why our language has been so much neglected, and why such scandalous ignorance prevails concerning its nature and history, is its unattractive, disheartening irregularity: none but Satan is fond of plunging into chaos."—Philological Museum, (Cambridge, Eng., 1832,) Vol. i, p. 666.

If there be any remedy for the neglect and ignorance here spoken of, it must be found in the more effectual teaching of English grammar. But the principles of grammar can never have any beneficial influence over any person's manner of speaking or writing, till by some process they are made so perfectly familiar, that he can apply them with all the readiness of a native power; that is, till he can apply them not only to what has been said or written, but to whatever he is about to utter. They must present themselves to the mind as by intuition, and with the quickness of thought; so as to regulate his language before it proceeds from the lips or the pen. If they come only by tardy recollection, or are called to mind but as contingent afterthoughts, they are altogether too late; and serve merely to mortify the speaker or writer, by reminding him of some deficiency or inaccuracy which there may then be no chance to amend.

But how shall, or can, this readiness be acquired? I answer, By a careful attention to such exercises as are fitted to bring the learner's knowledge into practice. The student will therefore find, that I have given him something to do, as well as something to learn. But, by the formules and directions in this work, he is very carefully shown how to proceed; and, if he be a tolerable reader, it will be his own fault, if he does not, by such aid, become a tolerable grammarian. The chief of these exercises are the parsing of what is right, and the correcting of what is wrong; both, perhaps, equally important; and I have intended to make them equally easy. To any real proficient in grammar, nothing can be more free from embarrassment, than the performance of these exercises, in all ordinary cases. For grammar, rightly learned, institutes in the mind a certain knowledge, or process of thought, concerning the sorts, properties, and relations, of all the words which can be presented in any intelligible sentence; and, with the initiated, a perception of the construction will always instantly follow or accompany a discovery of the sense: and instantly, too, should there be a perception of the error, if any of the words are misspelled, misjoined, misapplied,—or are, in any way, unfaithful to the sense intended.

Thus it is the great end of grammar, to secure the power of apt expression, by causing the principles on which language is constructed, if not to be constantly present to the mind, at least to pass through it more rapidly than either pen or voice can utter words. And where this power resides, there cannot but be a proportionate degree of critical skill, or of ability to judge of the language of others. Present what you will, grammar directs the mind immediately to a consideration of the sense; and, if properly taught, always creates a discriminating taste which is not less offended by specious absurdities, than by the common blunders of clownishness. Every one who has any pretensions to this art, knows that, to parse a sentence, is but to resolve it according to one's understanding of its import; and it is equally clear, that the power to correct an erroneous passage, usually demands or implies a knowledge of the author's thought.

But, if parsing and correcting are of so great practical importance as our first mention of them suggests, it may be well to be more explicit here concerning them. The pupil who cannot perform these exercises both accurately and fluently, is not truly prepared to perform them at all, and has no right to expect from any body a patient hearing. A slow and faltering rehearsal of words clearly prescribed, yet neither fairly remembered nor understandingly applied, is as foreign from parsing or correcting, as it is from elegance of diction. Divide and conquer, is the rule here, as in many other cases. Begin with what is simple; practise it till it becomes familiar; and then proceed. No child ever learned to speak by any other process. Hard things become easy by use; and skill is gained by little and little. Of the whole method of parsing, it should be understood, that it is to be a critical exercise in utterance, as well as an evidence of previous study,—an exhibition of the learner's attainments in the practice, as well as in the theory, of grammar; and that, in any tolerable performance of this exercise, there must be an exact adherence to the truth of facts, as they occur in the example, and to the forms of expression, which are prescribed as models, in the book. For parsing is, in no degree, a work of invention; but wholly an exercise, an exertion of skill. It is, indeed, an exercise for all the powers of the mind, except the inventive faculty. Perception, judgement, reasoning, memory, and method, are indispensable to the performance. Nothing is to be guessed at, or devised, or uttered at random. If the learner can but rehearse the necessary definitions and rules, and perform the simplest exercise of judgement in their application, he cannot but perceive what he must say in order to speak the truth in parsing. His principal difficulty is in determining the parts of speech. To lessen this, the trial should commence with easy sentences, also with few of the definitions, and with definitions that have been perfectly learned. This difficulty being surmounted, let him follow the forms prescribed for the several praxes of this work, and he shall not err. The directions and examples given at the head of each exercise, will show him exactly the number, the order, and the proper phraseology, of the particulars to be stated; so that he may go through the explanation with every advantage which a book can afford. There is no hope of him whom these aids will not save from "plunging into chaos."

"Of all the works of man, language is the most enduring, and partakes the most of eternity. And, as our own language, so far as thought can project itself into the future, seems likely to be coeval with the world, and to spread vastly beyond even its present immeasurable limits, there cannot easily be a nobler object of ambition than to purify and better it."—Philological Museum, Vol. i, p. 665.

It was some ambition of the kind here meant, awakened by a discovery of the scandalous errors and defects which abound in all our common English grammars, that prompted me to undertake the present work. Now, by the bettering of a language, I understand little else than the extensive teaching of its just forms, according to analogy and the general custom of the most accurate writers. This teaching, however, may well embrace also, or be combined with, an exposition of the various forms of false grammar by which inaccurate writers have corrupted, if not the language itself, at least their own style in it.

With respect to our present English, I know not whether any other improvement of it ought to be attempted, than the avoiding and correcting of those improprieties and unwarrantable anomalies by which carelessness, ignorance, and affectation, are ever tending to debase it, and the careful teaching of its true grammar, according to its real importance in education. What further amendment is feasible, or is worthy to engage attention, I will not pretend to say; nor do I claim to have been competent to so much as was manifestly desirable within these limits. But what I lacked in ability, I have endeavored to supply by diligence; and what I could conveniently strengthen by better authority than my own, I have not failed to support with all that was due, of names, guillemets, and references.

Like every other grammarian, I stake my reputation as an author, upon "a certain set of opinions," and a certain manner of exhibiting them, appealing to the good sense of my readers for the correctness of both. All contrary doctrines are unavoidably censured by him who attempts to sustain his own; but, to grammatical censures, no more importance ought to be attached than what belongs to grammar itself. He who cares not to be accurate in the use of language, is inconsistent with himself, if he be offended at verbal criticism; and he who is displeased at finding his opinions rejected, is equally so, if he cannot prove them to be well founded. It is only in cases susceptible of a rule, that any writer can be judged deficient. I can censure no man for differing from me, till I can show him a principle which he ought to follow. According to Lord Kames, the standard of taste, both in arts and in manners, is "the common sense of mankind," a principle founded in the universal conviction of a common nature in our species. (See Elements of Criticism, Chap, xxv, Vol. ii, p. 364.) If this is so, the doctrine applies to grammar as fully as to any thing about which criticism may concern itself.

But, to the discerning student or teacher, I owe an apology for the abundant condescension with which I have noticed in this volume the works of unskillful grammarians. For men of sense have no natural inclination to dwell upon palpable offences against taste and scholarship; nor can they be easily persuaded to approve the course of an author who makes it his business to criticise petty productions. And is it not a fact, that grammatical authorship has sunk so low, that no man who is capable of perceiving its multitudinous errors, dares now stoop to notice the most flagrant of its abuses, or the most successful of its abuses? And, of the quackery which is now so prevalent, what can be a more natural effect, than a very general contempt for the study of grammar? My apology to the reader therefore is, that, as the honour of our language demands correctness in all the manuals prepared for schools, a just exposition of any that are lacking in this point, is a service due to the study of English grammar, if not to the authors in question.

The exposition, however, that I have made of the errors and defects of other writers, is only an incident, or underpart, of the scheme of this treatise. Nor have I anywhere exhibited blunders as one that takes delight in their discovery. My main design has been, to prepare a work which, by its own completeness and excellence, should deserve the title here chosen. But, a comprehensive code of false grammar being confessedly the most effectual means of teaching what is true, I have thought fit to supply this portion of my book, not from anonymous or uncertain sources, but from the actual text of other authors, and chiefly from the works of professed grammarians.

"In what regards the laws of grammatical purity," says Dr. Campbell, "the violation is much more conspicuous than the observance."—See Philosophy of Rhetoric, p. 190. It therefore falls in with my main purpose, to present to the public, in the following ample work, a condensed mass of special criticism, such as is not elsewhere to be found in any language. And, if the littleness of the particulars to which the learner's attention is called, be reckoned an objection, the author last quoted has furnished for me, as well as for himself, a good apology. "The elements which enter into the composition of the hugest bodies, are subtile and inconsiderable. The rudiments of every art and science exhibit at first, to the learner, the appearance of littleness and insignificancy. And it is by attending to such reflections, as to a superficial observer would appear minute and hypercritical, that language must be improved, and eloquence perfected."—Ib., p. 244.

GOOLD BROWN.

LYNN, MASS., 1851.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PRELIMINARY MATTERS. Preface to the Grammar of English Grammars This Table of Contents Catalogue of English Grammars and Grammarians

INTRODUCTION. Chapter I. Of the Science of Grammar Chapter II. Of Grammatical Authorship Chapter III. Of Grammatical Success and Fame Chapter IV. Of the Origin of Language Chapter V. Of the Power of Language Chapter VI. Of the Origin and History of the English Language Chapter VII. Changes and Specimens of the English Language Chapter VIII. Of the Grammatical Study of the English Language Chapter IX. Of the Best Method of Teaching Grammar Chapter X. Of Grammatical Definitions Chapter XI. Brief Notices of the Schemes of certain Grammars

THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS. Introductory Definitions General Division of the Subject

PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY. Chapter I. Of Letters I. Names of the Letters II. Classes of the Letters III. Powers of the Letters IV. Forms of the Letters Rules for the use of Capitals Errors concerning Capitals Promiscuous Errors of Capitals Chapter II. Of Syllables Diphthongs and Triphthongs Rules for Syllabication Observations on Syllabication Errors concerning Syllables Chapter III. Of Words Rules for the Figure of Words Observations on Figure of Words On the Identity of Words Errors concerning Figure Promiscuous Errors in Figure Chapter IV. Of Spelling Rules for Spelling Observations on Spelling Errors in Spelling Promiscuous Errors in Spelling Chapter V. Questions on Orthography Chapter VI Exercises for Writing

PART II. ETYMOLOGY. Introductory Definitions Chapter I. Of the Parts of Speech Observations on Parts of Speech Examples for Parsing, Praxis I Chapter II. Of the Articles Observations on the Articles Examples for Parsing, Praxis II Errors concerning Articles Chapter III. Of Nouns Classes of Nouns Modifications of Nouns Persons Numbers Genders Cases The Declension of Nouns Examples for Parsing, Praxis III Errors concerning Nouns Chapter IV. Of Adjectives Classes of Adjectives Modifications of Adjectives Regular Comparison Comparison by Adverbs Irregular Comparison Examples for Parsing, Praxis IV Errors concerning Adjectives Chapter V. Of Pronouns Classes of the Pronouns Modifications of the Pronouns The Declension of Pronouns Examples for Parsing, Praxis V Errors concerning Pronouns Chapter VI. Of Verbs Classes of Verbs Modifications of Verbs Moods Tenses Persons and Numbers The Conjugation of Verbs I. Simple Form, Active or Neuter First Example, the verb LOVE Second Example, the verb SEE Third Example, the verb BE II. Compound or Progressive Form Fourth Example, to BE READING Observations on Compound Forms III. Form of Passive Verbs Fifth Example, to BE LOVED IV. Form of Negation V. Form of Question VI. Form of Question with Negation Irregular Verbs, with Obs. and List Redundant Verbs, with Obs. and List Defective Verbs, with Obs. and List Examples for Parsing, Praxis VI Errors concerning Verbs Chapter VII. Of Participles Classes of Participles Examples for Parsing, Praxis VII Errors concerning Participles Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs Classes of Adverbs Modifications of Adverbs Examples for Parsing, Praxis VIII Errors concerning Adverbs Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions Classes of Conjunctions List of the Conjunctions Examples for Parsing, Praxis IX Errors concerning Conjunctions Chapter X. Of Prepositions List of the Prepositions Examples for Parsing, Praxis X Errors concerning Prepositions Chapter XI. Of Interjections List of the Interjections Examples for Parsing, Praxis XI Errors concerning Interjections Chapter XII. Questions on Etymology Chapter XIII. Exercises for Writing

PART III. SYNTAX. Introductory Definitions Chapter I. Of Sentences The Rules of Syntax General or Critical Obs. on Syntax The Analyzing of Sentences The several Methods of Analysis Observations on Methods of Analysis Examples for Parsing, Praxis XII Chapter II. Of the Articles Rule I. Syntax of Articles Observations on Rule I Notes to Rule I; 17 of them False Syntax under Notes to Rule I Chapter III. Of Cases, or Nouns Rule II. Of Nominatives Observations on Rule II False Syntax under Rule II Rule III. Of Apposition Observations on Rule III False Syntax under Rule III Rule IV. Of Possessives Observations on Rule IV Notes to Rule IV; 5 of them False Syntax under Notes to Rule IV Rule V. Of Objectives after Verbs Observations on Rule V Notes to Rule V; 8 of them False Syntax under Rule V Rule VI. Of Same Cases Observations on Rule VI Notes to Rule VI; 2 of them False Syntax under Rule VI Rule VII. Of Objectives after Prepositions Observations on Rule VII Note to Rule VII; 1 only False Syntax under Rule VII Rule VIII. Of Nominatives Absolute Observations on Rule VIII False Syntax under Rule VIII Chapter IV. Of Adjectives Rule IX. Of Adjectives Observations on Rule IX Notes to Rule IX; 16 of them False Syntax under Rule IX Chapter V. Of Pronouns Rule X. Pronoun and Antecedent Observations on Rule X Notes to Rule X; 16 of them False Syntax under Rule X Rule XI. Pronoun and Collective Noun Observations on Rule XI Notes to Rule XI; 2 of them False Syntax under Rule XI Rule XII. Pronoun after AND Observations on Rule XII False Syntax under Rule XII Rule XIII. Pronoun after OR or NOR Observations on Rule XIII False Syntax under Rule XIII Chapter VI. Of Verbs Rule XIV. Verb and Nominative Observations on Rule XIV Notes to Rule XIV; 10 of them False Syntax under Rule XIV Rule XV. Verb and Collective Noun Observations on Rule XV Note to Rule XV; 1 only False Syntax under Rule XV Rule XVI. The Verb after AND Observations on Rule XVI Notes to Rule XVI; 7 of them False Syntax under Rule XVI Rule XVII. The Verb with OR or NOR Observations on Rule XVII Notes to Rule XVII; 15 of them False Syntax under Rule XVII Rule XVIII. Of Infinitives with TO Observations on Rule XVIII False Syntax under Rule XVIII Rule XIX. Of Infinitives without TO Observations on Rule XIX False Syntax under Rule XIX Chapter VII. Of Participles Rule XX. Syntax of Participles Observations on Rule XX Notes to Rule XX; 13 of them False Syntax under Rule XX Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs Rule XXI. Relation of Adverbs Observations on Rule XXI Notes to Rule XXI; 10 of them False Syntax under Rule XXI Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions Rule XXII. Use of Conjunctions Observations on Rule XXII Notes to Rule XXII; 8 of them False Syntax under Rule XXII Chapter X. Of Prepositions Rule XXIII. Use of Prepositions Observations on Rule XXIII Notes to Rule XXIII; 5 of them False Syntax under Rule XXIII Chapter XI. Of Interjections Rule XXIV. For Interjections Observations on Rule XXIV False Syntax Promiscuous Examples for Parsing, Praxis XIII Chapter XII. General Review False Syntax for a General Review Chapter XIII. General Rule of Syntax Critical Notes to the General Rule General Observations on the Syntax False Syntax under the General Rule False Syntax under the Critical Notes Promiscuous Examples of False Syntax Chapter XIV. Questions on Syntax Chapter XV. Exercises for Writing

PART IV. PROSODY. Introductory Definitions and Observations Chapter I. Punctuation Obs. on Pauses, Points, Names, &c. Section I. The Comma; its 17 Rules Errors concerning the Comma Section II. The Semicolon; its 3 Rules Errors concerning the Semicolon Mixed Examples of Error Section III. The Colon; its 3 Rules Errors concerning the Colon Mixed Examples of Error Section IV. The Period; its 8 Rules Observations on the Period Errors concerning the Period Mixed Examples of Error Section V. The Dash; its 3 Rules Observations on the Dash Errors concerning the Dash Mixed Examples of Error Section VI. The Eroteme; its 3 Rules Observations on the Eroteme Errors concerning the Eroteme Mixed Examples of Error Section VII. The Ecphoneme; its 3 Rules Errors concerning the Ecphoneme Mixed Examples of Error Section VIII. The Curves; and their 2 Rules Errors concerning the Curves Mixed Examples of Error Section IX. The Other Marks Mixed Examples of Error Bad English Badly Pointed Chapter II. Of Utterance Section I. Of Articulation Article I. Of the Definition Article II. Of Good Articulation Section II. Of Pronunciation Article I. Powers of Letters Article II. Of Quantity Article III. Of Accent Section III. Of Elocution Article I. Of Emphasis Article II. Of Pauses Article III. Of Inflections Article IV. Of Tones Chapter III. Of Figures Section I. Figures of Orthography Section II. Figures of Etymology Section III. Figures of Syntax Section IV. Figures of Rhetoric Section V. Examples for Parsing, Praxis XIV Chapter IV. Of Versification Section I. Of Verse Definitions and Principles Observations on Verse Section II. Of Accent and Quantity Section III. Of Poetic Feet Critical Observations on Theories Section IV. Of the Kinds of Verse Order I. Iambic Verse; its 8 Measures Order II. Trochaic Verse; its Nature Observations on Trochaic Metre Trochaics shown in their 8 Measures Order III. Anapestic Verse; its 4 Measures Observations on the Short Anapestics Order IV. Dactylic Verse; its 8 Measures Observations on Dactylics Order V. Composite Verse Observations on Composites Section V. Improprieties for Correction Chapter V. Questions on Prosody Chapter VI. Exercises for Writing

KEY TO THE ORAL EXERCISES.

THE KEY.—PART I.—ORTHOGRAPHY. Chapter I. Of Letters; Capitals Corrections under each of the 16 Rules Promiscuous corrections of Capitals Chapter II. Of Syllables Corrections of False Syllabication Chapter III. Of the Figure of Words Corrections under each of the 6 Rules Promiscuous corrections of Figure Chapter IV. Of Spelling Corrections under each of the 15 Rules Promiscuous corrections of Spelling

THE KEY.—PART II—ETYMOLOGY. Chapter I. Of the Parts of Speech Remark concerning False Etymology Chapter II. Of Articles; 5 Lessons Chapter III. Of Nouns; 3 Lessons Chapter IV. Of Adjectives; 3 Lessons Chapter V. Of Pronouns; 3 Lessons Chapter VI. Of Verbs; 3 Lessons Chapter VII. Of Participles; 3 Lessons Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs; 1 Lesson Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions; 1 Lesson Chapter X. Of Prepositions; 1 Lesson Chapter XI. Of Interjections; 1 Lesson

THE KEY.—PART III.—SYNTAX. Chapter I. Of Sentences; Remark Chapter II. Of Articles. Corrections under the 17 Notes to Rule 1 Chapter III. Of Cases, or Nouns Cor. under Rule II; of Nominatives Cor. under Rule III; of Apposition Cor. under Rule IV; of Possessives Cor. under Rule V; of Objectives Cor. under Rule VI; of Same Cases Cor. under Rule VII; of Objectives Cor. under Rule VIII; of Nom. Absolute Chapter IV. Of Adjectives. Corrections under the 16 Notes to Rule IX Chapter V. Of Pronouns. Corrections under Rule X and its 16 Notes Corrections under Rule XI; of Pronouns Cor. under Rule XII; of Pronouns Cor. under Rule XIII; of Pronouns Chapter VI. Of Verbs. Corrections under Rule XIV and its 10 Notes Cor. under Rule XV and its Note Cor. under Rule XVI and its 7 Notes Cor. under Rule XVII and its 15 Notes Cor. under Rule XVIII; of Infinitives Cor. under Rule XIX; of Infinitives Chapter VII. Of Participles. Corrections under the 13 Notes to Rule XX Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs. Corrections under the 10 Notes to Rule XXI Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions. Corrections under the 8 Notes to Rule XXII Chapter X. Of Prepositions. Corrections under the 5 Notes to Rule XXIII Chapter XI. Promiscuous Exercises. Corrections of the 8 Lessons Chapter XII. General Review. Corrections under all the preceding Rules and Notes; 18 Lessons Chapter XIII. General Rule. Corrections under the General Rule; 16 Lessons Corrections under the Critical Notes Promiscuous Corrections of False Syntax; 5 Lessons, under Various Rules

THE KEY.—PART IV.—PROSODY. Chapter I. Punctuation Section I. The Comma; Corrections under its 17 Rules Section II. The Semicolon; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section III. The Colon; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section IV. The Period; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section V. The Dash; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section VI. The Eroteme; Corrections under its 3 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section VII. The Ecphoneme; Corrections under its 3 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section VIII. The Curves; Corrections under their 2 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section IX. All Points; Corrections Good English Rightly Pointed Chapter II. Utterance; no Corrections Chapter III. Figures; no Corrections Chapter IV. Versification. False Prosody, or Errors of Metre, Corrected

THE FOUR APPENDIXES. Appendix I. (To Orthography.) Of the Sounds of the Letters Appendix II. (To Etymology.) Of the Derivation of Words Appendix III. (To Syntax.) Of the Qualities of Style Appendix IV. (To Prosody.) Of Poetic Diction; its Peculiarities

INDEX OF MATTERS.



A DIGESTED CATALOGUE OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS AND GRAMMARIANS,

WITH SOME COLLATERAL WORKS AND AUTHORITIES, ESPECIALLY SUCH AS ARE CITED IN THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS.

ADAM, ALEXANDER, LL. D.; "Latin and English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 302: Edinburgh, 1772; Boston, 1803.

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, LL. D.; "Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory;" 2 vols., 8vo: Cambridge, N. E., 1810.

ADAMS, Rev. CHARLES, A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 172: 1st Edition, Boston, 1838. ADAMS, DANIEL, M. B.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 103: 3d Edition, Montpelier, Vt., 1814.

ADAMS, E.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 143. Leicester, Mass., 1st Ed., 1806; 5th Ed., 1821.

AICKIN, JOSEPH; English Grammar, 8vo: London, 1693.

AINSWORTH, ROBERT; Latin and English Dictionary, 4to: 1st Ed., 1736; revised Ed., Lond., 1823.

AINSWORTH, LUTHER; "A Practical System of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 144: 1st Ed., Providence, R. I., 1837.

ALDEN, ABNER, A. M.; "Grammar Made Easy;" 12mo, pp. 180: 1st Ed., Boston, 1811.

ALDEN, Rev. TIMOTHY, Jun.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 36: 1st Ed., Boston, 1811.

ALDRICH, W.; "Lectures on English Grammar and Rhetoric, for Common Schools, Academies," &c.; 18mo, pp. 68: 11th Ed., Boston, 1847.

ALEXANDER, CALEB, A. M.; (1.) "Grammatical Elements," published before 1794. (2.) "A Grammatical Institute of the Latin Language;" 12mo, pp. 132: Worcester, Mass., 1794. (3.) "A Grammatical System of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 96; written at Mendon, Mass., 1795: 10th Ed., Keene, N. H., 1814. Also, (4.) "An Introduction to Latin," 1795; and, (5.) "An Introduction to the Speaking and Writing of English."

ALEXANDER, SAMUEL; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 216: 4th Edition, London, 1832.

ALGER, ISRAEL, Jun., A. M.; "Abridgement of Murray's E. Gram.," &c.; 18mo, pp. 126: Boston, 1824 and 1842.

ALLEN, Rev. WILLIAM, M. A.; "Grammar of the English Language," &c.; 18mo: London. Also, "The Elements of English Grammar." &c.; 12mo, pp. 457: London, 1813; 2d Ed.,

ALLEN and CORNWELL:; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 162: 3d Edition, London, 1841.

ALLEN, D. CAVERNO; "Grammatic Guide, or Common School Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 94: Syracuse, N. Y., 1847.

ANDREW, JAMES, LL. D.; English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 129: London, 1817.

ANDREWS & STODDARD; "A Grammar of the Latin Language;" 12mo, pp. 328: Boston, 1836; 11th Ed., 1845.

ANGELL, OLIVER, A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 90: 1st Edition, Providence, R. I., 1830.

ANGUS, WILLIAM, M. A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 255: 2d Edition, Glasgow, Scotland, 1807.

ANON.; "The British Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 281: London, 1760, or near that date. Boston, Mass., 1784.

ANON.; "A Comprehensive Grammar," &c.; 18mo, pp. 174: 3d Ed., Philadelphia, T. Dobson, 1789.

ANON.; "The Comic Grammar," &c,: London, 1840.

ANON.; "The Decoy," an English Grammar with Cuts; 12mo, pp. 33: New York, S. Wood & Sons, 1820.

ANON.: E. Gram., "By T. C.;" 18mo, pp. 104: London, 1843.

ANON.; Grammar and Rhetoric; 12mo, pp. 221: London, 1776.

ANON.; "The English Tutor;" 8vo: London, 1747.

ANON.; English Grammar, 12mo: London, Boosey, 1795.

ANON.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 161: London, 1838.

ANON.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 85: London, 1838.

ANON.; An English Grammar, with Engravings; 18mo, pp. 16: London, 1820.

ANON.; English Grammar, pp. 84: 1st Ed., Huddersfield, 1817.

ANON.: "The Essentials of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 3d Edition, London, 1821.

ANON.; "A Plain and Comprehensive Grammar," in "The Complete Letter-Writer;" 12mo, pp. 31;—pages of the whole book, 215: London, 1811.

ANON.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 131: Albany, N. Y., 1819.

ANON.; (A. H. Maltby & Co. pub.;) Murray's Abridgement, "with Additions;" 18mo, pp. 120: Newhaven, Ct., 1822.

ANON.; (James Loring, pub.;) Murray's Abridgement, "with Alterations and Improvements; by a Teacher of Youth;" (Lawson Lyon;) 18mo, pp. 72: 14th Ed., Boston, 1821.

ANON.; "The Infant School Grammar;" (said to have been written by Mrs. Bethune;) 18mo, pp. 182: New York, 1830. Jonathan Seymour, proprietor.

ANON.; Pestalozzian Grammar; 12mo, pp. 60: Boston, 1830.

ANON.; Interrogative Grammar; 12mo, pp. 70: Boston, 1832.

ANON.; Grammar with Cuts; 18mo, pp. 108: Boston, 1830. ANON.; "The Juvenile English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 89: Boston, 1829. B. Perkins & Co., publishers and proprietors.

ANON.; "The Little Grammarian;" 18mo, pp. 108: 2d Edition, Boston, 1829.

ANON.; An Inductive Grammar; 12mo, pp. 185: Windsor, Vt., 1829.

ANON.; "A Concise Grammar of the English Language, attempted in Verse;" 18mo, pp. 63: 1st Edition, New York, 1825. ANON.; "Edward's First Lessons in Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Boston, T. H. Webb & Co., 1843.

ANON.; "The First Lessons in English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 90: 1st Edition, Boston, 1842.

ANON.; "A New Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 124: New York, 1831; 2d Ed., Boston, 1834.

ANON.; "Enclytica, or the Principles of Universal Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 133: London, J. Booth, 1814.

ANON.; "The General Principles of Grammar, edited by a few Well-Wishers to Knowledge;" 18mo, pp. 76: Philadelphia, Lea & Blanchard, 1847.

ANON.; "English School Grammar;" small 12mo, pp. 32: London, 1850. A meagre sketch, published by "the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge."

ANON.; "An English Grammar, together with a First Lesson in Reading;" 18mo, pp. 16: James Burns, London; 2d Ed., 1844. Not worth a pin.

ARISTOTLE; his Poetics;—the Greek text, with Goulston's Latin Version, and Winstanley's Notes;—8vo, pp. 320: Oxford, England, 1780.

ARNOLD, T. K., M. A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 76: 2d Edition, London, 1841.

ASH, JOHN, LL. D.; "Grammatical Institutes;" 18mo, pp. 142: London, first published about 1763; New York, "A New Edition, Revised and Corrected," 1799.

BACON, CALEB, Teacher; "Murray's English Grammar Put into Questions and Answers;" 18mo, pp. 108: New York, 1st Edition, 1818; 5th Edition, 1823, 1827, and 1830.

BADGLEY, JONATHAN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 200: 1st Edition, Utica, N. Y., 1845. Suppressed for plagiarism from G. Brown.

BALCH, WILLIAM S.; (1.) "Lectures on Language;" 12mo, pp. 252: Providence, 1838. (2.) "A Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp, 140: 1st Edition, Boston, 1839.

BALDWIN, EDWARD; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 148: London, 1810; 2d Ed., 1824.

BARBER, Dr. JONATHAN; "A Grammar of Elocution;" 12mo; Newhaven, 1830.

BARNARD, FREDERICK A. P., A. M.; "Analytic Grammar; with Symbolic Illustration;" 12mo, pp. 264: New York, 1836. This is a curious work, and remarkably well-written.

BARNES, DANIEL H., of N. Y.; "The Red Book," or Bearcroft's "Practical Orthography," Revised and Enlarged; 12mo, pp. 347: New York, 1828.

BARNES, WILLIAM, B. D.; (1.) English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 120: London, 1842. (2.) "A Philological Grammar, grounded upon English, and formed from a Comparison of more than Sixty Languages;" 8vo, pp. 312: London, 1854.

BARRETT, JOHN; "A Grammar of the English Language;" 18mo, pp. 214: 2d Ed., Boston, 1819.

BARRETT, SOLOMON, Jun.; (1.) "The Principles of Language;" 12mo, pp. 120: Albany, 1837. (2.) "The Principles of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 96; "Tenth Edition, Revised:" Utica, 1845. (3.) "The Principles of Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 407: "Revised Edition;" Cambridge, 1854.

BARRIE, ALEXANDER; English Grammar; 24to, pp. 54: Edinburgh, 9th Ed., 1800.

BARTLETT, MONTGOMERY R.; "The Common School Manual;" called in the Third or Philadelphia Edition, "The National School Manual;"—"in Four Parts," or Separate Volumes, 12mo: I, pp. 108; II, 302; III, 379; IV, promised "to consist of 450 or 500 pages." First three parts, "Second Edition," New York, 1830. A miserable jumble, in the successive pages of which, Grammar is mixed up with Spelling-columns, Reading-lessons, Arithmetic, Geometry, and the other supposed daily tasks of a school-boy!

BAILEY, N., Schoolmaster; "English and Latin Exercises;" 12mo, pp. 183: London. 18th Ed., 1798.

BAILEY, Rev. R. W., A. M.; "English Grammar," or "Manual of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 240: 2d Ed., Philadelphia, 1854.

BAYLEY, ANSELM, LL. D.; English Grammar, 8vo: London, 1772.

BEALE, SOLON; English Grammar, 18mo, pp. 27: Bangor, Maine, 1833.

BEALL, ALEXANDER; English Grammar, 12mo: 1st Ed., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1841.

BEATTIE, JAMES, LL. D.; "Theory of Language:" London, 1783; Philadelphia, 1809. "Elements of Moral Science;" 12mo, pp. 572; Baltimore, 1813. See, in Part 1, the sections which treat of "The Faculty of Speech," and the "Essentials of Language;" and, in Part IV, those which treat of "Rhetorick, Figures, Sentences, Style, and Poetry."

BECK, WILLIAM; "Outline of English Grammar;" very small, pp. 34: 3d Ed., London, 1829.

BEECHER, CATHARINE E.; English Grammar, 12mo, pp. 74. 1st Ed., Hartford, Ct., 1829.

BELL, JOHN; English Grammar, 12mo, pp. 446: (2 vols.:) 1st Ed., Glasgow, 1769.

BELLAMY, ELIZABETH; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1802.

BENEDICT,————; English Grammar, 12mo, pp. 192: 1st Ed., Nicholasville, Ky., 1832.

BETTESWORTH, JOHN; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1778.

BICKNELL, ALEXANDER, Esq.; "The Grammatical Wreath; or, a Complete System of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 804: London, 1790.

BINGHAM, CALEB, A. M.; "The Young Lady's Accidence;" 18mo, pp. 60: Boston, 1804; 20th Ed., 1815.

BLAIR, HUGH, D. D., F. B. S.; "Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres;" 8vo, pp. 500: London, 1783; New York, 1819.

BLAIR, JOHN, D. D.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 145: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1831.

BLAIR, DAVID, Rev.; "A Practical Grammar of the English Language;" 18mo, pp. 167: 7th Ed., London, 1815.

BLAISDALE, SILAS; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 88: 1st Ed., Boston, 1831.

BLISS, LEONARD Jun.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 73: 1st Ed., Louisville, Ky., 1839.

BOBBITT, A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 136: 1st Ed., London, 1833.

BOLLES, WILLIAM; (1.) "A Spelling-Book;" 12mo, pp. 180: Ster. Ed., N. London, 1831. (2.) "An Explanatory and Phonographic Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language;" royal octavo, pp. 944; Ster. Ed., New London, 1845.

BOOTH, DAVID; Introd. to Analytical Dict.; 8vo, pp. 168: London, 1814. Analytical Dictionary of the English Language: London, 1835. E. Grammar, 12mo: London, 1837.

BRACE, JOAB; "The Principles of English Grammar;" (vile theft from Lennie;) 18mo, pp. 144: 1st Edition, Philadelphia, 1839.

BRADLEY, JOSHUA, A. M.; "Youth's Literary Guide;" 12mo, pp. 192: 1st Ed., Windsor, Vt., 1815.

BRADLEY, Rev. C.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 148: York, Eng., 1810; 3d Ed., 1813.

BRIDIL, EDMUND, LL. D.; E. Gram., 4to: London, 1799.

BRIGHTLAND, JOHN, Pub.; "A Grammar of the English Tongue;" 12mo, pp. 800: 7th Ed., London, 1748.

BRITTAIN, Rev. LEWIS; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 156: 2d Edition, London, 1790.

BROMLEY, WALTER; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 104: 1st Ed., Halifax, N. S., 1822.

BROWN, GOOLD; (1.) "The Institutes of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 220-312: New York, 1st Ed., 1823; stereotyped in 1832, and again in 1846. (2.) "The First Lines of English Grammar;" early copies 18mo, late copies 12mo, pp. 108: New York, 1st Ed., 1823; stereotyped in 1827, and in 1844. (3.) "A Key to the Exercises for Writing, contained in the Institutes of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 51: New York, 1825. (4.) "A Catechism of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 72: New York, 1827. (5.) "A Compendious English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 22: (in Part I of the Treasury of Knowledge:) New York, 1831. (6.) "The Grammar of English Grammars;" 8vo, pp. 1028; first printed in Boston in 1850 and 1851.

BROWN, JAMES; (1.) An Explanation of E. Grammar as taught by an Expensive Machine; 8vo, pp. 40: 1st Ed., Boston, 1815. (2.) "The American Grammar;" a Pamphlet; 12mo, pp. 48: Salem, N. Y., 1821. (3.) "An American Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 162: New York, 1821. (4.) "An Appeal from the British System of English Grammar to Common Sense;" 12mo, pp. 336: Philadelphia, 1837. (5.) "The American System of English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 216: Philad., 1838. (6.) "An Exegesis of English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 147: Philad., 1840. (7.) "The First Part of the American System of English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 195: Boston, 1841. (8.) "An English Syntascope," a "Chart," and other fantastical works.

BROWN, J. H., A. M.; (with Gengemhre;) "Elements of English Grammar, on a Progressive System;" 12mo, pp. 213: Philad., 1855.

BROWN, RICHARD; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1692.

BUCHANAN, JAMES; "A Regular English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 196: 5th American Ed., Philad., 1792.

BUCKE, CHARLES; "A Classical Grammar of the E. Language;" 18mo, pp. 152: London, 1829.

BULLEN, Rev. H. ST. JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 140: 1st Edition, London, 1797.

BULLIONS, Rev. PETER, D. D.; (1.) "Elements of the Greek Language;" (now called, "The Principles of Greek Grammar;") mostly a version of Dr. Moor's "Elementa Linguae Graecae:" 1st Ed., 1831. (2.) "The Principles of English Grammar;" (mostly copied from Lennie;) 12mo, pp. 187; 2d Ed., New York, 1837; 5th Ed., Revised, pp. 216, 1843, (3.) "The Principles of Latin Grammar;" (professedly, "upon the foundation of Adam's Latin Grammar;") 12mo, pp. 312: Albany, 1841: 12th Ed., New York, 1846. (4.) "Practical Lessons in English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 132: New York, 1844. (5.) "An Analytical and Practical Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 240: 1st Ed., New York, 1849.

BULLOKAR, WILLIAM; (1.) "Booke at Large for the Amendment of Orthographie for English Speech." (2.) "A Bref Grammar for English:" London, 1586.

BURHANS, HEZEKIAH; "The Critical Pronouncing Spelling-Book;" 12mo, pp. 204: 1st Ed., Philad., 1823.

BURLES, EDWARD; E. Gram., 12mo: Lond., 1652.

BURN, JOHN; "A Practical Grammar of the E. Lang.;" 12mo, pp. 275: Glasgow, 1766; 10th Ed., 1810.

BURR, JONATHAN, A. M.; "A Compendium of Eng. Gram.;" 18mo, pp. 72: Boston, 1797,—1804,—1818.

BUTLER, CHARLES; E. Gram., 4to: Oxford, Eng., 1633.

BUTLER, NOBLE, A. M.; (1.) "A Practical Grammar of the E. Lang.;" 12mo, pp. 216: 1st Ed., Louisville, Ky., 1845. (2.) "Introductory Lessons in E. Grammar," 1845.

CAMPBELL, GEORGE, D. D., F. R. S.; "The Philosophy of Rhetoric;" 8vo, pp. 445: London, 1776: Philad., 1818.

CARDELL, WM. S.; (1.) An "Analytical Spelling-Book;" (with Part of the "Story of Jack Halyard;") 12mo, pp. 192: (published at first under the fictitious name of "John Franklin Jones:") New York, 1823; 2d Ed., 1824. (2.) An "Essay on Language;" 12mo, pp. 203: New York, 1825. (3.) "Elements of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 141: New York, 1826; 3d Ed., Hartford, 1827. (4.) "Philosophic Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 236: Philadelphia, 1827.

CAREY, JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 220: 1st Ed., London, 1809.

CARTER, JOHN; E. Gram., 8vo: Leeds, 1773.

CHANDLER, JOSEPH R.; "A Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 180: Philad., 1821. Rev. Ed., pp. 208, stereotyped, 1847.

CHAPIN, JOEL; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 252: 1st Edition, Springfield, Mass., 1842.

CHAUVIER, J. H., M. A.; "A Treatise on Punctuation;" translated from the French, by J. B. Huntington; large 18mo, pp. 112: London, 1849.

CHESSMAN, DANIEL, A. M.; Murray Abridged; 18mo, pp. 24: 3d Ed., Hullowell, Me., 1821.

CHILD, PROF. F. J.; "Revised Edition" of Dr. Latham's "Elementary English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 236: Cambridge, N. E., 1852.

CHURCHILL, T. O.; "A New Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 454: 1st Ed., London, 1823.

CLAPHAM, Rev. SAMUEL; E. Grammar: London, 1810.

CLARK, HENRY; E. Grammar; 4to: London, 1656.

CLARK, SCHUYLER; "The American Linguist, or Natural Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 240: Providence, 1830.

CLARK, S. W., A. M.; "A Practical Grammar," with "a System of Diagrams;" 12mo, pp. 218; 2d Ed., New York, 1848.

CLARK, WILLIAM; E. Gram.; 18mo: London, 1810.

CLARKE, R.; "Poetical Grammar of the English Language, and an Epitome of Rhetoric;" 12mo, pp. 172; price, 2s. 6d.: London, 1855.

COAR, THOMAS; "A Grammar of the English Tongue;" 12mo, pp. 276: 1st Ed., London, 1796.

COBB, ENOS; "Elements of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Boston, 1820.

COBB, LYMAN, A. M.; (1.) A Spelling-Book according to J. Walker; "Revised Ed.:" Ithaca, N. Y., 1825. (2.) "Abridgment of Walker's Crit. Pron. Dict.:" Hartford, Ct., 1829. (3.) "Juvenile Reader, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and Sequel:" New York, 1831. (4.) "The North American Reader;" 12mo, pp. 498: New York, 1835. (5.) "New Spelling-Book, in Six Parts;" 12mo, pp. 168: N. Y., 1843. (6.) An "Expositor," a "Miniature Lexicon," books of "Arithmetic, &c., &c."

COBBETT, WILLIAM; "A Grammar of the E. Language;" 12mo, New York and Lond., 1818; 18mo, N. Y., 1832.

COBBIN, Rev. INGRAM, M. A.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 72: 20th Edition, London, 1844.

COCHRAN, PETER, A. B.: English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 71: 1st Ed., Boston, 1802.

COLET, Dr. John, Dean of St. Paul's; the "English Introduction" to Lily's Grammar; dedicated to Lily in 1510. See Gram. of E. Gram., Introd., Chap. XI, 3, 4, and 5.

COMLY, JOHN; "English Grammar Made Easy;" 18mo, pp. 192: 6th Ed., Philad., 1815; 15th Ed., 1826.

COMSTOCK, ANDREW, M. D.; "A System of Elocution;" 12mo, pp. 364: Philadelphia, 1844. "A Treatise on Phonology;" 12mo, 1846: &c.

CONNEL, ROBERT; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 162: Glasgow, 1831; 2d Ed., 1834.

CONNON, C. W., M. A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 168: Edinburgh, 1845.

COOPER, Rev. JOAB GOLDSMITH, A. M.; (1.) "An Abridgment of Murray's English Grammar;" (largely stolen from G. Brown;) 12mo, pp. 200: Philadelphia, 1828. (2.) "A Plain and Practical English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 210: Philad., 1831.

COOTE, C., LL. D.; on the English Language; 8vo, pp. 281: 1st Edition, London, 1788.

CORBET, JAMES; English Grammar; 24to, pp. 153: 1st Edition, Glasgow, 1743.

CORBET, JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo: Shrewsbury, England, 1784.

CORNELL, WILLIAM M.; English Grammar; 4to, pp. 12: 1st Edition, Boston, 1840.

COVELL, L. T.; "A Digest of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 219: 3d Ed., New York, 1853. Much indebted to S. S. Greene, H. Mandeville, and G. Brown.

CRANE, GEORGE; "The Principles of Language;" 12mo, pp. 264: 1st Ed., London, 1843.

CROCKER, ABRAHAM; English Grammar, 12mo: Lond., 1772.

CROMBIE, ALEXANDER, LL. D., F. R. S.; "A Treatise on the Etymology and Syntax of the English Language;" 8vo, pp. 425: London, 2d Ed., 1809; 4th Ed., 1836.

CUTLER, ANDREW, A. M.; "English Grammar and Parser;" 12mo, pp. 168: 1st Ed., Plainfield, Ct., 1841.

DALE, W. A. T.; a small "English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 72: 1st Ed., Albany, N. Y., 1820.

DALTON, JOHN; "Elements of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 122: London, 1st Ed., 1801.

DAVENPORT, BISHOP; "English Grammar Simplified;" 18mo, pp. 139: 1st Ed., Wilmington, Del., 1830.

DAVIDSON, DAVID; a Syntactical Treatise, or Grammar; 12mo: London, 1823.

DAVIS, Rev. JOHN, A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 188: 1st Ed., Belfast, Ireland, 1832.

DAVIS, PARDON; (1.) An Epitome of E. Gram.; 12mo, pp. 56: 1st Ed., Philad., 1818. (2.) "Modern Practical E. Gram.;" 12mo, pp. 175: 1st Ed., Philad., 1845.

DAY, PARSONS E.; "District School Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 120: 2d Ed., Ithaca, N. Y., 1844.

DAY, WILLIAM; "Punctuation Reduced to a System;" 18mo, pp. 147: 3d Ed., London, 1847.

DEARBORN, BENJAMIN; "Columbian Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 140: 1st Ed., Boston, 1795.

DEL MAR, E.; Treatise on English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 115: 1st Ed., London, 1842.

D'ORSEY, ALEXANDER J. D.; (1.) A Duodecimo Grammar, in Two Parts; Part I, pp. 153; Part II, pp. 142: 1st Ed., Edinburgh, 1842. (2.) An Introduction to E. Gram.; 18mo, pp. 104: Edin., 1845.

DE SACY, A. J. SYLVESTRE, Baron; "Principles of General Grammar;" translated from the French, by D. Fosdick, Jun.; 12mo, pp. 156: 1st American, from the 5th French Edition; Andover and New York, 1834.

"DESPAUTER, JOHN, a Flemish grammarian, whose books were, at one time, in great repute; he died in 1520."—Univ. Biog. Dict. Despauter's Latin Grammar, in Three Parts,—Etymology, Syntax, and Versification,—comprises 858 octavo pages. Dr. Adam says, in the "Preface to the Fourth Edition" of his Grammar, "The first complete edition of Despauter's Grammar was printed at Cologne, anno 1522; his Syntax had been published anno 1509." G. Brown's copy is a "complete edition," printed partly in 1517, and partly in 1518.

DEVIS, ELLEN; E. Gram.; 18mo, pp. 130: London and Dublin; 1st Ed., 1777; 17th Ed., 1825. [Fist] Devis's Grammar, spoken of in D. Blair's Preface, as being too "comprehensive and minute," is doubtless an other and much larger work.

DILWORTH, THOMAS; "A New Guide to the English Tongue;" 12mo, pp. 148: London; 1st Ed., 1740: 26th Ed., 1764; 40th Ed., (used by G. B.,) undated.

DOHERTY, HUGH; a Treatise on English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 240; 1st Ed., London, 1841.

DRUMMOND, JOHN; English Grammar; 8vo: London, 1767. DYCHE, THOMAS; English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 10: London, 1st Ed., 1710; 12th Ed., 1765.

EARL, MARY; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 36: 1st Ed., Boston, 1816.

EDWARDS, Mrs. M. C.; English Grammar; 8vo: Brentford. England, 1796.

EGELSHEM, WELLS; English Grammar; 12mo: London, 1781.

ELMORE, D. W., A. M.; "English Grammar, or Natural Analysis;" 18mo, pp. 18: 1st Ed., Troy, N. Y., 1830. A mere trifle.

ELPHINSTON, JAMES; on the English Language; 12mo, pp. 298: 1st Ed., London, 1796.

EMERSON, BENJAMIN D.; "National Spelling-Book;" 12mo, pp. 168: Boston, 1828.

EMERY, J., A. B.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 39: 1st Ed., Wellsborough, Pa., 1829.

EMMONS, S. B.; "The Grammatical Instructer;" 12mo, pp. 160: 1st Ed., Boston, 1832. Worthless.

ENSELL, G.; "A Grammar of the English Language;" in English and Dutch; 8vo, pp. 612: Rotterdam, 1797.

EVEREST, Rev. CORNELIUS B.; "An English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 270: 1st Ed., Norwich, Ct., 1835. Suppressed for plagiarism from G. Brown.

EVERETT, ERASTUS, A. M.; "A System of English Versification;" 12mo, pp. 198: 1st Ed., New York, 1848.

FARNUM, CALEB, Jun., A. M.; "Practical Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 124: 1st Edition, (suppressed for petty larcenies from G. Brown,) Providence, R. I., 1842; 2d Edition, (altered to evade the charge of plagiarism,) Boston, 1843.

FARBO, DANIEL; "The Royal British Grammar and Vocabulary;" 12mo, pp. 344: 1st Ed., London. 1754.

FELCH, W.; "A Comprehensive Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 122: 1st Edition, Boston, 1837. This author can see others' faults better than his own.

FELTON, OLIVER C.; "A Concise Manual of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 145: Salem, Mass., 1843.

FENNING, DANIEL; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 224: 1st Ed., London, 1771.

FENWICK, JOHN; an English Grammar, 12mo.: London, 1811.

FISHER, A.; "A Practical New Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 176: London: 1st Ed., 1753; 28th Ed., 1795; "A New Ed., Enlarged, Improved, and Corrected," (used by G. B.,) 1800.

FISK, ALLEN; (1.) Epitome of E. Gram.; 18mo, pp. 124: Hallowell, Me., 1821; 2d Ed., 1828. (2.) "Adam's Latin Grammar Simplified;" 8vo, pp. 190: New York, 1822; 2d Ed., 1824. (3.) "Murray's English Grammar Simplified;" 8vo, pp. 178: 1st Ed., Troy, N. Y., 1822.

FLEMING, Rev. CALEB; an English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1765.

FLETCHER, LEVI; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 83: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1834.

FLETCHER, Rev. W.; English Gram.; 18mo, pp. 175: London; 1st Ed., 1828; 2d Ed., 1833.

FLINT, ABEL, A. M., and D. D.; "Murray's English Grammar Abridged;" 12mo, pp. 204: Hartford, Ct.; 1st Ed., 1807; 6th Ed., pp. 214, 1826.

FLINT, JOHN; "First Lessons in English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 107: 1st Ed., New York, 1834.

FLOWER, M. and W. B.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 170: 1st Ed., London, 1844.

FOLKER, JOSEPH; "An Introduction to E. Gram.;" 12mo, pp. 34: Savannah, Ga., 1821.

FORMEY, M., M. D., S. E., &c., &c.; "Elementary Principles of the Belles-Lettres;"—"Translated from the French, by the late Mr. Sloper Forman;" 12mo, pp. 224: Glasgow, 1767.

FOWLE, WILLIAM BENTLEY; (1.) "The True English Grammar," (Part I;) 18mo, pp. 180: Boston, 1827. (2.) "The True English Grammar, Part II;" 18mo, pp. 97: Boston, 1829. (3.) "The Common School Grammar, Part I;" 12mo, pp. 46: Boston, 1842. (4.) "The Common School Grammar, Part II;" 12mo, pp. 108: Boston, 1842.

FOWLER, WILLIAM C.; "English Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 675: 1st Ed., New York, 1850.

FRAZEE, Rev. BRADFORD; "An Improved Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 192: Philad., 1844; Ster. Ed., 1845.

FRENCH, D'ARCY A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 168: Baltimore, 1st Ed., 1831.

FROST, JOHN, A. M.; (1.) "Elements of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Boston, 1829. (2.) "A Practical English Grammar;" (with 89 cuts;) 12mo, pp. 204: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1842.

FULLER, ALLEN; "Grammatical Exercises, being a plain and concise Method of teaching English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Plymouth, Mass., 1822. A book of no value.

GARTLEY, G.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 225: 1st Edition, London, 1830.

GAY, ANTHELME; "A French Prosodical Grammar;" for English or American Students; 12mo, pp. 215: New York, 1795.

GENGEMBRE, P. W.; "Brown and Gengembre's English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 213: Philad., 1855. (See J. H. Brown.)

GIBBS, Prof. J. W., of Yale C.; on Dialects, Sounds, and Derivations. See about 126 pages, credited to this gentleman, in Prof. Fowler's large Grammar, of 1850.

GILBERT, ELI; a "Catechetical Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 124: 1st Ed., 1834; 2d Ed., New York, 1835.

GILCHRIST, JAMES; English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 269: 1st Ed., London, 1815.

GILES, JAMES; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 152: London, 1804; 2d Ed., 1810.

GILES, Rev. T. A., A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, London, 2d Ed., 1838.

GILL, ALEXANDER; English Grammar, treated in Latin; 4to: London, 1621.

GILLEADE, G.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 206: London; 1st Ed., 1816.

GIRAULT Du VIVIER, Ch. P.; (1.) "La Grammaire des Grammaires;" two thick volumes, 8vo: Paris; 2d Ed., 1814. (2.) "Traite des Participes;" 8vo, pp. 84: 2d Ed., Paris, 1816.

GOLDSBURY, JOHN, A. M.; (1.) "The Common School Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 94: 1st Ed., Boston, 1842. (2.) "Sequel to the Common School Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 110: 1st Ed., Boston, 1842.

GOODENOW, SMITH B.; "A Systematic Text-Book of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 144: 1st Edition, Portland, 1839; 2d Edition, Boston, 1843.

GOUGH, JOHN and JAMES; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 212: 2d Ed., Dublin, 1760.

GOULD, BENJAMIN A.; "Adam's Lat. Gram., with Improvements;" 12mo, pp. 300: Boston, 1829.

GRAHAM, G. F.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 134: 1st Ed., London, 1843.

GRANT, JOHN, A. M.; (1.) "Institutes of Latin Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 453: London, 1808. (2.) A Comprehensive English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 410: 1st Ed., London, 1813.

GRANVILLE, GEO.; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1827.

GRAY, JAMES, D. D.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 144: 1st Ed., Baltimore, 1818.

GREEN, MATTHIAS; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 148: 1st Ed., London, 1837.

GREEN, RICHARD W.; "Inductive Exercises in English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., New York, 1829; 5th Ed., Phila., 1834.

GEEENE, ROSCOE G.; (1.) E. Gram.; 12mo, pp. 132: Hallowell, Me.; 1st Ed., 1828; Ster. Ed., 1835. (2.) "A Practical Grammar for the English Language;" (with Diagrams of Moods;) 12mo: Portland, 1829. (3.) "A Grammatical Text-Book, being an Abstract of a Practical Gram., &c.;" 12mo, pp. 69: Boston, 1833.

GREENE, SAMUEL S.; (1.) "Analysis of Sentences;" 12mo, pp. 258: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1848. (2.) "First Lessons in Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 171: 1st Ed., Philad., 1848.

GREENLEAF, JEREMIAH; "Grammar Simplified;" 4to, pp. 48: New York; 3d Ed., 1821; 20th Ed., 1837.

GREENWOOD, JAMES; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 315: London, 1711; 2d Ed., 1722.

GEENVILLE, A. S.; "Introduction to English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 63: 1st Ed., Boston, 1822.

GRISCOM, JOHN, LL. D.; "Questions in English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 42: 1st Ed., New York, 1821.

GURNEY, DAVID. A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 72: Boston, 1801; 2d Ed., 1808.

GUY, JOSEPH, Jun.; "English School Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 143: 4th Ed., London 1816.

HALL, Rev. S. R.; "The Grammatical Assistant;" 12mo, pp. 131: 1st Ed., Springfield, Mass., 1832.

HALL, WILLIAM; "Encyclopedia of English Grammar;" (by report;) Ohio, 1850.

HALLOCK, EDWARD J., A. M.; "A Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 251: 1st Ed., New York, 1842. A very inaccurate book, with sundry small plagiarisms from G. Brown.

HAMLIN, LORENZO F.; "English Grammar in Lectures;" 12mo, pp. 108: New York, 1831; Ster. Ed., 1832.

HAMMOND, SAMUEL; English Grammar; 8vo: Lond., 1744.

HARRIS, JAMES, Esq.; "Hermes; or a Philosophical Inquiry concerning Universal Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 468; London, 1751: 6th Ed., 1806.

HARRISON, Mr.; "Rudiments of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 9th American Ed., Philad., 1812.

HARRISON, Rev. MATTHEW, A. M.; "The Rise, Progress, and Present Structure of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 393: Preface dated Basingstoke, Eng., 1848; 1st American Ed., Philad., 1850.

HART, JOHN S., A. M.; "English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 192; 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1845.

HARVEY, J.; English Grammar: London, 1841.

HAZEN, EDWARD, A. M.; "A Practical Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 240: New York, 1842.

HAZLITT, WILLIAM; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 205: London, 1810.

HENDRICK, J. L., A. M.; "A Grammatical Manual;" 18mo, pp. 105: 1st Ed., Syracuse, N. Y., 1844.

HEWES, JOHN, A. M.; English Grammar; 4to: London, 1624.

HEWETT, D.; English Grammar; folio, pp. 16: 1st Edition, New York, 1838.

HIGGINSON, Rev. T. E.; E. Gram.; 12mo; Dublin, 1803.

HILEY, RICHARD; "A Treatise on English Grammar," &c.; 12mo, pp. 269: 3d Ed., London, 1840. Hiley's Grammar Abridged; 18mo, pp. 196: London, 1843: 4th Ed., 1851.

HILL, J. H.; "On the Subjunctive Mood;" 8vo, pp. 63: 1st Ed., London, 1834.

HODGSON, Rev. ISAAC; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 184: 1st Ed., London, 1770.

HOME, HENRY, Lord Kames; "Elements of Criticism;" 2 volumes 8vo, pp. 836: (3d American, from the 8th London Ed.:) New York, 1819. Also, "The Art of Thinking;" 12mo, pp. 284: (from the last London Ed.:) New York, 1818.

HORNSEY, JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 144; York, England, 1798: 6th Ed., 1816.

HORT, W. JILLARD; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 219: 1st Ed., London, 1822.

HOUGHTON, JOHN; English Grammar; 8vo: London, 1766.

HOUSTON, SAMUEL, A. B.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 48: 1st Ed., Harrisburgh, Pa., 1818.

HOWE, S. L.; English Grammar; 18mo; 1st Ed., Lancaster, Ohio, 1838.

HOWELL, JAMES; English Grammar; 12mo: London, 1662.

HULL, JOSEPH HERVEY; "E. Gram., by Lectures;" 12mo, pp. 72: 4th Ed., Boston, 1828.

HUMPHREY, ASA; (1.) "The English Prosody;" 12mo, pp. 175: 1st Ed., Boston, 1847. (2.) "The Rules of Punctuation;" with "Rules for the Use of Capitals;" 18mo, pp. 71: 1st Ed., Boston, 1847.

HURD, S. T.; E. Gram.: 2d Ed., Boston, 1827.

HUTHERSAL, JOHN; English Grammar; 18mo: England, 1814.

INGERSOLL, CHARLES M.; "Conversations on English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 296: New York, 1821.

JAMIESON, ALEXANDER; "A Grammar of Rhetoric and Polite Literature;" 12mo, pp. 345: "The first American, from the last London Edition;" Newhaven, 1820.

JAUDON, DANIEL; "The Union Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 216: Philadelphia; 1st Ed., 1812; 4th, 1828.

JENKINS, AZARIAH; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 256; 1st Ed., Rochester, N. Y., 1835.

JOEL, THOMAS; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 78: 1st Ed., London, 1775.

JOHNSON, RICHARD; "Grammatical Commentaries;" (chiefly on Lily;) 8vo, pp. 436: London, 1706.

JOHNSON, SAMUEL, LL. D.; "A Dictionary of the English Language;" in two thick volumes, 4to: 1st American, from the 11th London Edition; Philadelphia, 1818. To this work, are prefixed Johnson's "History of the English Language," pp. 29; and his "Grammar of the English Tongue," pp. 14.

JONES, JOSHUA; E. Gram.; 18mo: Phila., 1841.

JONSON, BEN;—see, in his Works, "The English Grammar, made by Ben Jonson, for the Benefit of all Strangers, out of his Observation of the English Language, now spoken and in use:" London, 1634: 8vo, pp. 94; Lond., 1816.

JUDSON, ADONIRAM, Jun., A. B.; E. Grammar; 12mo, pp. 56: 1st Ed., Boston, 1808.

KENNION, CHARLOTTE; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 157: 1st Ed., London, 1842.

KILSON, ROGER; English Grammar; 12mo: England, 1807.

KING, WALTER W.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 76: 1st Ed., London, 1841.

KIRKHAM, SAMUEL; "English Grammar in familiar Lectures;" 12mo, pp. 141—228: 2d Ed., Harrisburgh, Pa., 1825; 12th Ed., New York, 1829.

KNOWLES, JOHN; "The Principles of English Grammar;" 12mo: 3d Ed., London, 1794.

KNOWLTON, JOSEPH; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 84: Salem, Mass., 1818; 2d Ed., 1832.

LATHAM, ROBERT GORDON, A. M., M. D., F. R. S. (1.) "The English Language;" 8vo, pp. 418: 1st Ed., London, 1841. (2.) "English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 214: 1st Ed., London, 1843. (3.) "A Hand-Book of the English Language;" large 12mo, pp. 898: New York, 1852.

LEAVITT, DUDLEY; English Grammar; 24to, pp. 60: 1st Ed., Concord, N. H., 1826.

LENNIE, WILLIAM; "The Principles of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 142: 5th Ed., Edinburgh, 1819; 13th Ed., 1831.

LEWIS, ALONZO; "Lessons in English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 50: 1st Ed., Boston, 1822.

LEWIS, JOHN; (1.) English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 48: 1st Ed., New York, 1828. (2.) "Tables of Comparative Etymology; or, The Student's Manual of Languages;" 4to, pp. 108: Philad., 1828.

LEWIS, WILLIAM GREATHEAD; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 204: 1st Ed., London, 1821.

LILY, WILLIAM; "Brevissima Institutio, seu Ratio Grammatices cognoscendae;" large 18mo, pp. 140: London, 1793.

LINDSAY, Rev. JOHN, A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 88: 1st Ed., London. 1842.

LOCKE, JOHN, M. D.; small English Grammar; 18mo: 1st Ed., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1827.

LOUGHTON, WILLIAM; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 194: 3d Ed., London, 1739.

LOVECHILD, Mrs.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 72: 40th Ed., London, 1842.

LOWTH, ROBERT, D. D.; "A Short Introduction to English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 132: London, 1763;—Philadelphia, 1799;—Cambridge, Mass., 1838.

LYNDE, JOHN; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 10: 1st Ed., Woodstock, Vt., 1821.

MACK, EVERED J.; "The Self-Instructor, and Practical English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 180: 1st Ed., Springfield, Mass., 1835. An egregious plagiarism from G. Brown.

MACGOWAN, Rev. JAMES; "English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 248: London, 1825.

MACKINTOSH, DUNCAN; "An Essay on English Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 239: Boston, 1797.

MACKILQUHEM, WILLIAM; English Grammar; 12mo: Glasgow, 1799.

MAITTAIRE, MICHAEL; English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 272: London, 1712.

MANDEVILLE, HENRY, D. D.; (1.) "Elements of Reading and Oratory;" large 12mo: Utica, N. Y., 1845. (2.) "A Course of Reading for Schools;" 12mo, pp. 377: Improved Ed.; New York, 1851.

MARCET, Mrs.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 331: 7th Ed., London, 1843.

MARTIN, BENJ.; English Grammar; 12mo: London, 1754.

MATHESON, JOHN; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 138: 2d Ed., London, 1821.

MAUNDER, SAMUEL; Grammar prefixed to Dict.; 12mo, pp. 20: 1st Ed., London, 1830.

MAVOR, WILLIAM; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 70: 1st Ed., London, 1820.

M'CREADY, F.; 12mo Grammar: Philad., 1820.

M'CULLOCH, J. M., D. D.; "A Manual of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 188: 7th Ed., Edinburgh, 1841.

M'ELLIGOTT, JAMES N.; "Manual, Analytical and Synthetical, of Orthography and Definition;" 8vo, pp. 223: 1st Ed., New York, 1846. Also, "The Young Analyzer:" 12mo, pp. 54: New York, 1846.

MEILAN, MARK A.; English Grammar; 12mo: London, 1803.

MENDENHALL, WILLIAM; "The Classification of Words;" 12mo, pp. 36: Philad., 1814.

MENNYE, J.: "English Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 124: 1st Ed., New York, 1785.

MERCEY, BLANCHE; English Grammar; 12mo, 2 vols., pp. 248: 1st Ed., London, 1799.

MERCHANT, AARON M.; Murray's Small Grammar, Enlarged; 18mo, pp. 216: N. Y., 1824. This "Enlarged Abridgement" became "The American School Grammar" in 1828.

MILLER, ALEXANDER; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 119: 1st Ed., New York, 1795.

MILLER, The Misses; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 63: 1st Ed., London, 1830. MILLER, FERDINAND H.; "The Ready Grammarian;" square 12mo, pp. 24: Ithaca, New York, 1843.

MILLER, TOBIAS HAM; Murray's Abridgement, with Questions; 12mo, pp. 76: Portsmouth, N. H., 1823.

MILLIGAN, Rev. GEORGE; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 72: Edin., 1831; 2d Ed., 1839.

MOORE, THOMAS; "Orthography and Pronunciation;" 12mo, pp. 176: London, 1810.

MORGAN, JONATHAN, Jun., A. B.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 405: 1st Ed., Hallowell, Me., 1814.

MORLEY, CHARLES, A. B.; "School Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 86: (with Cuts:) 1st Ed., Hartford, Ct., 1836.

MOREY, AMOS C.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 106: Albany, N. Y., 1829.

MULKEY, WILLIAM; "An Abridgment of Walker's Rules on the Sounds of the Letters;" 18mo, pp. 124: Boston. 1834. Fudge!

MULLIGAN, JOHN, A. M.; (1.) "Exposition of the Grammatical Structure of the English Language;" small 8vo, pp. 574: New York, 1852. (2.) Same Abridged for Schools; 12mo, pp. 301: N. Y., 1854.

MURRAY, ALEXANDER, D. D.; "The History of European Languages;" in two vols., 8vo.; pp. 800.

MURRAY, ALEXANDER, Schoolmaster; "Easy English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 194: 3d Ed., London, 1793.

MURRAY, LINDLEY; (1.) "English Grammar, Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners;" 12mo, pp. 284: York, Eng., 1795; 2d Ed., 1796; 23d Ed., 1816. (2.) "Abridgment of Murray's English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 105: "From the 30th English Ed.," New York, 1817. (3.) "An English Grammar;" in two volumes, octavo; pp. 684: 4th American from the last English Ed.; New York, 1819. (4.) A Spelling-Book; 18mo, pp. 180: New York, 1819.

MYLINS, WM. F.; Gram., 12mo: England, 1809.

MYLNE, Rev. A., D. D.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 180: 11th Ed., Edinburgh, 1832.

NESBIT, A.; "An Introd. to English Parsing;" 18mo, pp. 213: 2d Ed., York, England, 1823.

NEWBURY, JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 152: 5th Ed., London, 1787.

NIGHTINGALE, Rev. J.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 96: 1st Ed., London, 1822.

NIXON, H.; (1.) "The English Parser;" 12mo, pp. 164: 1st Ed., London, 1826. (2.) "New and Comprehensive English Grammar;" 12mo: 1st Ed., London, 1833.

NUTTING, RUFUS, A. M.; "A Practical Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 144: 3d Ed., Montpelier, Vt., 1826.

ODELL, J., A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 205: 1st Ed., London, 1806.

OLIVER, EDWARD, D. D.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 178: 1st Ed., London, 1807.

OLIVER, SAMUEL; English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 377: 1st Ed., London, 1825.

PALMER, MARY; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 48: New York, 1803.

PARKER, RICHARD GREEN; (1.) "Exercises in Composition;" 12mo, pp. 106: 3d Ed., Boston, 1833. (2.) "Aids to English Composition;" 12mo, pp. 418: 1st Ed., Boston, 1844.

PARKER and FOX; "Progressive Exercises in English Grammar;" in three separate parts, 12mo:—Part I, pp. 96; Boston, 1834: Part II, pp. 60; Boston, 1835: Part III, pp. 122; Boston, 1840.

PARKHURST, JOHN L.; (1.) "A Systematic Introduction to English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 104: Concord, N. H., 1820; 2d Ed., 1824. (2.) "English Grammar for Beginners;" 18mo, pp. 180: 1st Ed., Andover, Mass., 1838.

PARSONS, SAMUEL H.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 107: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1836.

PEIRCE, JOHN; "The New American Spelling-Book," with "A Plain and Easy Introduction to English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 200: 6th Ed., Philadelphia, 1804. This Grammar is mostly copied from Harrison's.

PEIRCE, OLIVER B.; "The Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 384: 1st Ed., New York, 1839. Also, Abridgement of the same; 18mo, pp. 144: Boston, 1840.

PENGELLEY, EDWARD; English Gram.; 18mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., London, 1840.

PERLEY, DANIEL, M. D.; "A Grammar of the English Language;" 18mo, pp. 79: 1st Ed., Andover, Mass., 1834.

PERRY, WILLIAM; Grammar in Dict.; 12mo: Edinburgh, 1801.

PICKBOURN, JAMES; "Dissertation on the English Verb:" London, 1789.

PICKET, ALBERT; "Analytical School Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 252: New York, 1823; 2d Ed., 1824.

PINNEO, T. S., M. A., M. D.; (1.) "A Primary Grammar, for Beginners:" Cincinnati. (2.) "Analytical Grammar of the E. Language:" 12mo, pp. 216: Cincinnati, 1850; New York, 1853. (3.) "Pinneo's English Teacher; in which is taught the Structure of Sentences by Analysis and Synthesis;" 12mo, pp. 240: Cincinnati, 1854.

PINNOCK, W.; (1.) A Catechism of E. Gram.; 18mo, pp. 70: 18th Ed., London, 1825. (2.) A Comprehensive Grammar; 12mo, pp. 318: 1st Ed., London, 1829.

POND, ENOCH, D. D.; "Murray's System of Eng. Grammar, Improved;" 12mo, pp. 228: 5th Ed., Worcester, Mass., 1835. Also, under the same title, a petty Grammar with Cuts; 18mo, pp. 71: New Ed., Worcester, 1835.

POWERS, DANIEL, A. M.; E. Grammar; 12mo, pp. 188: 1st Ed., West Brookfleld, Mass., 1845.

PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH, LL. D.; "The Rudiments of E. Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 202: 3d Ed., London, 1772.

PUE, HUGH A.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 149: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1841.

PULLEN, P. H.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 321: London, 1820; 2d Ed., 1822.

PUTNAM, J. M.; "English Grammar;" (Murray's, Modified;) 18mo, pp. 162: Concord, N. H., 1825; Ster., 1831.

PUTNAM, SAMUEL; "Putnam's Murray;" 18mo, pp. 108: Improved Ster. Ed.; Dover, N. H., 1828.

PUTSEY, Rev. W.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 211: London, 1821; 2d Ed., 1829.

QUACKENBOS, GEO. PAYN; (1.) "First Lessons in Composition." (2.) "Advanced Course of Composition and Rhetoric;" 12mo, pp. 455: New York, 1854.

RAND, ASA; "Teacher's Manual," &c.; 18mo, pp. 90: 1st Ed., Boston, 1832.

REED, CALEB, A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 30: 1st Ed., Boston, 1821.

REID, A.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 46: 2d Ed., London, 1839.

REID, JOHN, M. D.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 68: 1st Ed., Glasgow, 1830.

RICORD, F. W., A. M.; "The Youth's Grammar; or, Easy Lessons in Etymology;" 12mo, pp. 118: 1st Ed., N. Y., 1855.

RIGAN, JOHN; Grammar, 12mo: Dublin, 1823.

ROBBINS, MANASSEH; "Rudimental Lessons in Etym. and Synt.;" 12mo, pp. 70: Prov., R. I., 1826.

ROBINSON, JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 95: 1st Ed., Maysville, 1830.

ROOME, Rev. T.; Gram.; 12mo: England, 1813.

ROSS, ROBERT; an American Grammar; 12mo, pp. 199: 7th Ed., Hartford, Ct., 1782.

ROTHWELL, J.; English Grammar; 12mo: 2d Ed., London, 1797.

ROZZELL, WM.; English Grammar in Verse; 8vo: London, 1795.

RUSH, JAMES, M. D.; "Philosophy of the Human Voice;" 8vo: Philadelphia, 1833.

RUSSELL, Rev. J., D. D.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 168: London, 1835; 10th Ed., 1842.

RUSSELL, WILLIAM; (1.) "A Grammar of Composition;" 12mo, pp. 150: Newhaven, 1823. (2.) "Lessons in Enunciation:" Boston, 1841. (3.) "Orthophony; or the Cultivation of the Voice;" 12mo, pp. 300: improved Ed., Boston, 1847.

RUSSELL, WILLIAM E.: "An Abridgment of Murray's Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 142: Hartford, 1819.

RYLAND, JOHN; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 164: 1st Ed., Northampton, Eng., 1767.

SABINE, H., A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 120: 1st Ed., London, 1702.

SANBOBN, DYER H.; "An Analytical Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 299: 1st Ed., Concord, N. H., 1836.

SANDERS, CHARLES W. and J. C.; "The Young Grammarian;" 12mo, pp. 120: Rochester, N. Y., 1847.

SARGENT, EPES; "The Standard Speaker; a Treatise on Oratory and Elocution;" small 8vo, pp. 558: Philadelphia, 1852.

SCOTT, WILLIAM; Grammar, 12mo: Edinb., 1797. Dictionary, with Grammar prefixed; square, pp. 492: Cork, 1810.

SEARLE, Rev. THOMAS; Grammar in Verse; 18mo, pp. 114: 1st Ed., London, 1822.

SHATFORD, W.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 104: 1st Ed., London, 1834.

SHAW, Rev. JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 259: 4th Ed., London, 1793.

SHERIDAN, THOMAS, A. M.; (1.) "Lectures on Elocution;" 12mo, pp. 185: London, 1762; Troy, N. Y., 1803. (2.) "Lectures on the Art of Reading." (3.) "A Rhetorical Grammar;" square 12mo, pp. 73: 3d Ed., Philadelphia, 1789. (4.) "Elements of English;" 12mo, pp. 69: Dublin, 1789. (5.) "A Complete Dictionary of the English Language;" 1st Ed., 1780.

SHERMAN, JOHN; American Grammar; 12mo, pp. 323: 1st Ed., Trenton Falls, N. Y., 1836.

SIMMONITE, W. J.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 228: 1st Ed., London, 1841.

SKILLERN, R. S., A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 184: 2d Ed., Gloucester, England, 1808. SMART, B. H.; (1.) "A Practical Grammar of English Pronunciation;" 8vo: London, 1810. (2.) "The Accidence of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 52: London, 1841. (3.) "The Accidence and Principles of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 280: London, 1841.

SMETHAM, THOMAS; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 168: 1st Ed., London, 1774.

SMITH, ELI; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1812.

SMITH, JOHN; Grammar, 8vo: Norwich, Eng., 1816.

SMITH, PETER, A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 176: 1st Ed., Edinburgh, 1826.

SMITH, Rev. THOMAS; (1.) Alderson's "Orthographical Exercises," Copied; 18mo, pp. 108: 15th Ed., London, 1819. (2.) "Smith's Edition of L. Murray's Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 128: London, 1832. Very petty authorship. SMITH, ROSWELL C.; (1.) "English Grammar on the Inductive System;" 12mo, pp. 205: Boston, 1830; 2d Ed., 1881. (2.) "English Grammar on the Productive System;" 12mo, pp. 192: 2d Ed., New York, 1832. A sham.

SNYDER, W.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 164: 1st Ed., Winchester, Va., 1834.

SPALDING, CHARLES; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 36: 1st Ed., Onondaga, N. Y., 1825.

SPEAR, MATTHEW P.; "The Teacher's Manual of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 116: 1st Ed., Boston, 1845.

SPENCER, GEORGE, A. M.; "An English Grammar on Synthetical Principles;" 12mo, pp. 178: New York, 1851.

STANIFORD, DANIEL, A. M.; "A Short but Comprehensive Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 96: Boston, 1807; 2d Ed., 1815.

STEARNS, GEORGE; English Grammar; 4to, pp. 17: 1st Ed., Boston, 1843.

STOCKWOOD, JOHN; Gram., 4to: London, 1590.

STORY, JOSHUA; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 180: 1st Ed., Newcastle, Eng., 1778; 3d, 1783.

ST. QUENTIN, D., M. A.; "The Rudiments of General Gram.;" 12mo, pp. 163: Lond., 1812.

SUTCLIFFE, JOSEPH, A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 262; London, 1815; 2d Ed., 1821.

SWETT, J., A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 192: Claremont, N. H., 1843; 2d Ed., 1844.

TICKEN, WILLIAM; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 147: 1st Ed., London, 1806.

TICKNOR, ELISHA, A. M.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 72: 3d Ed., Boston, 1794.

TOBITT, R.; "Grammatical Institutes;" (in Verse;) 12mo, pp. 72: 1st Ed., London, 1825.

TODD, LEWIS C.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 126: Fredonia, N. Y., 1826; 2d Ed., 1827.

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE, A. M.; "Epea Pteroenta; or, the Diversions of Purley;" 2 vols., 8vo; pp. 924: 1st American, from the 2d London Ed.; Philadelphia, 1806.

TOWER, DAVID B., A. M.; "Gradual Lessons in Grammar;" small 12mo, pp. 180: Boston, 1847.

TRENCH, RICHARD CHENEVIX, B. D; "On the Study of Words;" 12mo, pp. 236: London, 1st Ed., 1851; 2d Ed., 1852: reprinted, New York, 1852.

TRINDER, WILLIAM M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 116: 1st Ed., London, 1781.

TUCKER, BENJAMIN; "A Short Introd. to E. Gram.;" 18mo, pp. 36: 4th Ed., Phila., 1812.

TURNER, DANIEL, A. M.; English Grammar; 8vo: London, 1739.

TURNER, Rev. BRANDON, A. M.; Grammar from G. Brown's Inst.; 12mo, pp. 238: Lond., 1841.

TWITCHELL, MARK; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 106: 1st Ed., Portland. Me., 1825.

USSHER, G. NEVILLE; English Grammar: 12mo, pp. 132: London, 1787; 3d Amer. Ed., Exeter, N. H., 1804.

WALDO, JOHN; "Rudiments," 12mo; Philad., 1813: "Abridg't," 18mo, pp. 124; Philadelphia, 1814.

WALKER, JOHN; (1.) E. Gram., 12mo, pp. 118: London, 1806. (2.) "Elements of Elocution;" 8vo, pp. 379: Boston, 1810. (3.) Rhyming Dict., 12mo; (4.) Pronouncing Dict., 8vo; and other valuable works.

WALKER, WILLIAM, B. D.; (1.) "A Treatise of English Particles;" 12mo, pp. 488: London, 1653; 10th Ed., 1691. (2.) "The Art of Teaching Grammar;" large 18mo, pp. 226: 8th Ed., London, 1717.

WALLIS, JOHN, D. D.; E. Gram. in Latin; 8vo, pp. 281:. Lond., 1653; 6th Ed., 1765.

WARD, H.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 151: Whitehaven, England, 1777.

WARD, JOHN, LL. D.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 238: London, 1768.

WARD, WILLIAM, A. M.; "A Practical Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 192: York, England, 1765.

WARE, JONATHAN, Esq.; "A New Introduction to English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 48: Windsor, Vt., 1814.

WASE, CHRISTOPHER, M. A.; "An Essay of a Practical Gram.," 12mo, pp. 79: Lond., 1660.

WATT, THOMAS, A. M.; "Gram. Made Easy;" 18mo, pp. 92: Edinburgh, 1708.; 5th Ed., 1742.

WEBBER, SAMUEL, A. M., M. D.; "An Introd. to E. Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 116: Cambridge, Mass., 1832.

WEBSTER, NOAH, LL. D.; (1.) "A Plain and Comprehensive Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 131: 8th Ed., Hartford, Ct., 1800. (2.) "A Philosophical and Practical Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 250: Newhaven, Ct., 1807. (3.) "Rudiments of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 87: New York, 1811. (4.) "An Improved Grammar of the E. L.;" 12mo, pp. 180: Newhaven, 1831. (5.) "An American Dictionary of the E. L.," 4to; and an Abridgement, 8vo.

WELCH, A. S.; "Analysis of the English Sentence;" 12mo, pp. 264: New York, 1854. Of no value.

WELD, ALLEN H., A. M.; (1.) "English Grammar Illustrated;" 12mo, pp. 228: Portland, Me., 1846; 2d Ed., 1847: "Abridged Edition," Boston, 1849. "Improved Edition," much altered: Portland, 1852. (2.) "Parsing Book, containing Rules of Syntax," &c.; 18mo, pp. 112: Portland, 1847.

WELLS, WILLIAM H., M. A.; "Wells's School Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 220: 1st Ed., Andover, 1846; "113th Thousand," 1850.

WHITE, MR. JAMES; "The English Verb;" 8vo, pp. 302: 1st Ed., London, 1761.

WHITING, JOSEPH, A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo: Detroit, 1845.

WHITWORTH, T.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 216: 1st Ed., London, 1819.

WICKES, EDWARD WALTER; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 106: 2d Ed., London, 1841.

WILBER & LIVINGSTON; "The Grammatical Alphabet;" (with a Chart;) 18mo, pp. 36: 2d Ed., Albany, 1815.

WILBUR, JOSIAH; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 132: Bellows Falls, N. H., 1815; 2d Ed., 1822.

WILCOX, A. F.; "A Catechetical and Practical Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 110: 1st Ed., Newhaven, Ct., 1828.

WILLARD, SAMUEL: English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 54: 1st Ed., Greenfield, Mass., 1816.

WILLIAMS, MRS. HONORIA; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 226: London, 1823; 3d Ed., 1826.

WILSON, CHARLES, D. D.; "Elements of Hebrew Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 398: 3d Ed., London, 1802.

WILSON, GEORGE; English Grammar; 18mo; London, 1777.

WILSON, JAMES P., D. D.: "An Essay on Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 281: Philadelphia, 1817.

WILSON, JOHN; "A Treatise on English Punctuation;" 12mo, pp. 204: Boston, 1850.

WILSON, Rev. J.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 184: 3d Ed., Congleton, England, 1803.

WINNING, Rev. W. B., M. A.; "A Manual of Comparative Philology;" 8vo, pp. 291: London, 1838.

WISEMAN, CHARLES; an English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1765.

WOOD, HELEN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 207: London, 1st Ed., 1827; 6th Ed., 1841.

WOOD, Rev. JAMES, D. D; English Grammar; 12mo: London, 1778.

WOODWORTH, A.; "Grammar Demonstrated;" 12mo, pp. 72: 1st Ed., Auburn, N. Y., 1823.

WORCESTER, JOSEPH, E.; "Universal and Critical Dictionary of the English Language;" 1st Ed., Boston, 1846.

WORCESTER, SAMUEL; "A First Book of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 86; Boston, 1831.

WRIGHT, ALBERT D.; "Analytical Orthography;" 18mo, pp. 112: 2d Ed., Cazenovia, N. Y., 1842.

WRIGHT, JOSEPH W.; "A Philosophical Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 252: New York and London, 1838.

[Asterism] The Names, or Heads, in the foregoing alphabetical Catalogue, are 452; the Works mentioned are 548; the Grammars are 463; the other Books are 85.

END OF THE CATALOGUE.



INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL

CHAPTER I.

OF THE SCIENCE OF GRAMMAR.

"Haec de Grammatica quam brevissime potui: non ut omnia dicerem sectatus, (quod infinitum erat,) sed ut maxima necessaria."—QUINTILIAN. De Inst. Orat., Lib. i, Cap. x.

1. Language, in the proper sense of the term, is peculiar to man; so that, without a miraculous assumption of human powers, none but human beings can make words the vehicle of thought. An imitation of some of the articulate sounds employed in speech, may be exhibited by parrots, and sometimes by domesticated ravens, and we know that almost all brute animals have their peculiar natural voices, by which they indicate their feelings, whether pleasing or painful. But language is an attribute of reason, and differs essentially not only from all brute voices, but even from all the chattering, jabbering, and babbling of our own species, in which there is not an intelligible meaning, with division of thought, and distinction of words.

2. Speech results from the joint exercise of the best and noblest faculties of human nature, from our rational understanding and our social affection; and is, in the proper use of it, the peculiar ornament and distinction of man, whether we compare him with other orders in the creation, or view him as an individual preeminent among his fellows. Hence that science which makes known the nature and structure of speech, and immediately concerns the correct and elegant use of language, while it surpasses all the conceptions of the stupid or unlearned, and presents nothing that can seem desirable to the sensual and grovelling, has an intrinsic dignity which highly commends it to all persons of sense and taste, and makes it most a favourite with the most gifted minds. That science is Grammar. And though there be some geniuses who affect to despise the trammels of grammar rules, to whom it must be conceded that many things which have been unskillfully taught as such, deserve to be despised; yet it is true, as Dr. Adam remarks, that, "The study of Grammar has been considered an object of great importance by the wisest men in all ages."—Preface to Latin and English Gram., p. iii.

3. Grammar bears to language several different relations, and acquires from each a nature leading to a different definition. First, It is to language, as knowledge is to the thing known; and as doctrine, to the truths it inculcates. In these relations, grammar is a science. It is the first of what have been called the seven sciences, or liberal branches of knowledge; namely, grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Secondly, It is as skill, to the thing to be done; and as power, to the instruments it employs. In these relations, grammar is an art; and as such, has long been defined, "ars recte scribendi, recteque loquendi" the art of writing and speaking correctly. Thirdly, It is as navigation, to the ocean, which nautic skill alone enables men to traverse. In this relation, theory and practice combine, and grammar becomes, like navigation, a practical science. Fourthly, It is as a chart, to a coast which we would visit. In this relation, our grammar is a text-book, which we take as a guide, or use as a help to our own observation. Fifthly, It is as a single voyage, to the open sea, the highway of nations. Such is our meaning, when we speak of the grammar of a particular text or passage.

4. Again: Grammar is to language a sort of self-examination. It turns the faculty of speech or writing upon itself for its own elucidation; and makes the tongue or the pen explain the uses and abuses to which both are liable, as well as the nature and excellency of that power, of which, these are the two grand instruments. From this account, some may begin to think that in treating of grammar we are dealing with something too various and changeable for the understanding to grasp; a dodging Proteus of the imagination, who is ever ready to assume some new shape, and elude the vigilance of the inquirer. But let the reader or student do his part; and, if he please, follow us with attention. We will endeavour, with welded links, to bind this Proteus, in such a manner that he shall neither escape from our hold, nor fail to give to the consulter an intelligible and satisfactory response. Be not discouraged, generous youth. Hark to that sweet far-reaching note:

"Sed, quanto ille magis formas se vertet in omnes, Tanto, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla." VIRGIL. Geor. IV, 411.

"But thou, the more he varies forms, beware To strain his fetters with a stricter care." DRYDEN'S VIRGIL.

5. If for a moment we consider the good and the evil that are done in the world through the medium of speech, we shall with one voice acknowledge, that not only the faculty itself, but also the manner in which it is used, is of incalculable importance to the welfare of man. But this reflection does not directly enhance our respect for grammar, because it is not to language as the vehicle of moral or of immoral sentiment, of good or of evil to mankind, that the attention of the grammarian is particularly directed. A consideration of the subject in these relations, pertains rather to the moral philosopher. Nor are the arts of logic and rhetoric now considered to be properly within the grammarian's province. Modern science assigns to these their separate places, and restricts grammar, which at one period embraced all learning, to the knowledge of language, as respects its fitness to be the vehicle of any particular thought or sentiment which the speaker or writer may wish to convey by it. Accordingly grammar is commonly defined, by writers upon the subject, in the special sense of an art—"the art of speaking or writing a language with propriety or correctness."—Webster's Dict.

6. Lily says, "Grammatica est recte scribendi atque loquendi ars;" that is, "Grammar is the art of writing and speaking correctly." Despauter, too, in his definition, which is quoted in a preceding paragraph, not improperly placed writing first, as being that with which grammar is primarily concerned. For it ought to be remembered, that over any fugitive colloquial dialect, which has never been fixed by visible signs, grammar has no control; and that the speaking which the art or science of grammar teaches, is exclusively that which has reference to a knowledge of letters. It is the certain tendency of writing, to improve speech. And in proportion as books are multiplied, and the knowledge of written language is diffused, local dialects, which are beneath the dignity of grammar, will always be found to grow fewer, and their differences less. There are, in the various parts of the world, many languages to which the art of grammar has never yet been applied; and to which, therefore, the definition or true idea of grammar, however general, does not properly extend. And even where it has been applied, and is now honoured as a popular branch of study, there is yet great room for improvement: barbarisms and solecisms have not been rebuked away as they deserve to be.

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