THE GREAT ROUND WORLD
AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT
SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. APRIL 22, 1897 Vol. 1. NO. 24 $2.50 PER YEAR [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second-class matter]
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Copyright, 1897, by WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON.
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VOL. 1 APRIL 22, 1897. NO. 24
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The news from Cuba this week confirms the story of the capture of Gen. Ruis Rivera.
It seems that the Spanish General, Velazco, was told by some of his scouts that Rivera was encamped in the near neighborhood, and only had a force of one hundred men with him.
Acting on this information, the Spaniards surrounded the camp and attacked the Cubans, who fought bravely until they were finally overpowered.
General Rivera was severely wounded, and was therefore unable to make his escape; the Spaniards captured him, just as his chief of staff was trying to carry him away to a place of safety.
Both men were taken prisoner and conveyed to San Cristobal. They will be tried by court-martial, and it is feared that the General will be shot as a rebel. If Rivera is shot, it will create a great deal of indignation, as it is the custom to exchange prisoners of war, and not to kill them. General Weyler has, however, sent out a proclamation, that any man found outside the Spanish limits without a proper pass shall be shot, and as Rivera of course had no pass from the Spaniards, it is feared that Weyler may take advantage of his proclamation to have the unfortunate General shot.
The Cuban war, however, seems to be on such a strong footing that even the loss of Ruis Rivera cannot seriously hurt the cause. Another General has already been appointed in his place, and though his loss will cause much sorrow, the affairs of the little island will not be interfered with.
It is said that Gen. Julio Sanguily, the Cuban who has just been released from prison through the influence of our Government, will return to Cuba and take command of the army lately commanded by Rivera.
A full account has reached us of the landing of the filibustering expedition that left our shores on board the Laurada, and under the charge of General Roloff.
It appears that the Cubans have done very clever work in this expedition, both in getting the arms on board the Laurada, and in landing them when they reached Cuba.
It was decided that the expedition should land at Banes, an important seaport on the northwestern coast of Santiago de Cuba. A few days before the ship was expected, the Cubans appeared in large numbers at Banes, ready to attack the Spanish soldiers, who occupied a small fort there.
You will remember that Santiago de Cuba is the province which the Cubans have under control, and which is really "Free Cuba."
The Cubans are so strong in this province, that the Spaniards remain in such forts as they hold, and make very few attempts to interfere with the insurgents.
At Banes, the insurgents appeared in such numbers that the soldiers did not venture out of the fort, and left them to occupy the town in peace.
When the Laurada appeared in sight, the commander of the Cuban forces sent word to the fort that the Laurada had some very heavy guns on board, which would be turned on the fort the instant the Spanish made an attempt to interfere with the unloading of the cargo. He added that the Laurada's guns would blow the whole fort to pieces in a very few minutes.
The Spanish commander decided that he would take their word for it, and not trouble the Laurada to prove the truth of the statement. The vessel steamed up to the wharf, and the expedition disembarked with ease and comfort.
Report says that the Cubans and Spaniards were so friendly together, that they even held a peaceful parley, in which the Spanish informed their new friends that they were a little short of water at the fort, and the obliging Cubans sent them up a fresh supply.
It is a great advance for the Cubans to have the free use of a port, where they can safely receive their cargoes, and it shows very clearly that success is indeed, coming to the Cuban arms.
Another filibustering expedition, supposed to be that taken by the Bermuda, has landed in Pinar del Rio, near Mariel, and about fifty miles from Havana.
This section of the country is, however, the stronghold of the Spaniards, and so the insurgents did not have such an easy time in landing as they did in Santiago.
The Spaniards had been warned of the arrival of the vessel, and allowed the cargo and men to be landed without interference, but prepared an ambush for the party, as it was making its way inland.
The Cubans fell into the trap set for them, and were beaten. The Spaniards in their turn were making off with the booty, when a larger body of insurgents arrived on the scene, fought the Spaniards, put them to flight, and carried off the recaptured cargo to a place of safety.
The news from Havana is that Gomez has done exactly as it was said he would: he has slipped past Weyler, and left him hunting for him in Santa Clara. Weyler was sure of catching his enemy this time, for he had divided his army into two columns, and thought that with them he had covered the entire country. But Gomez was too smart for him. He slipped between the two columns, at one time camping within three miles of Weyler; and is now well on his way to join the Western army.
All classes in Havana are uneasy and dissatisfied, and the anger against the Government and its manner of conducting the war is being expressed more openly every day.
The soldiers are in such a state of anger that the officers no longer dare trust them in the towns, for fear that they will mutiny.
The regular soldiers have received no pay for seven months, and are rebellious on that account. The volunteers are furious, because the weapons the Spanish Government gave them when they first enlisted, which were rifles of the very finest kind, have been taken from them, and replaced with old-fashioned weapons that have been in storage on the island since the war ten years ago.
Their fine rifles have been taken from them since the rumors of the Carlist uprising, and they are angry because they declare that the Government is putting all the good weapons in the hands of the home soldiers, so that when they are sent back to Spain they can carry them along.
There is a report that the governments of Spain and Cuba are discussing a plan for making peace.
It is impossible to say whether this is true or false, but it is a splendid thing if true.
Our Government is to send a commissioner to Cuba, to make full inquiries into the death of Dr. Ruiz.
This commissioner will probably be Judge Day, a well-known lawyer of Canton, Ohio, and a personal friend of the President's.
The duties of the commissioner, besides making the most careful investigation into the Ruiz case, will be to find out what the real state of affairs in Cuba is at the present time. If his report is favorable to Cuba, it may induce the President to help the Cubans.
Gen. Fitz-Hugh Lee, our Consul-General in Havana, has absolutely refused to have anything to do with the Ruiz case. He declares that the examination will not be a fair one, and that nothing will be gained by it.
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There is very little change in the situation in Crete.
The insurgents are fighting bravely, and the Powers, though doing their best to prevent trouble, are in much the same position that they were a week ago.
The real excitement of the week has been the landing from the British warships of a troop of Highlanders. These soldiers, by their extraordinary dress, caused a panic among the Turks, who, not knowing whether they were friends or foes, mortals or bogies, proceeded to attack them.
The Turkish officers with great difficulty succeeded in quieting their men and persuading them that the Highlanders were men and friends, but the fame and the terror of them spread all over the island.
The insurgents heard that a new race of men had been landed by the allies, and in their ignorance and superstition they fancied that some new and terrible kind of creature had been sent against them.
There was a small panic among the Cretans for a few days, and it was not until they had sent scouts to discover what kind of beings these were, and the report had come back that these terrible Highlanders were but men after all, that they had the courage to continue the fighting.
This is not the first time that the appearance of these men has struck terror into the heart of an enemy, and in truth they are a very imposing body of men, all of them over six feet in height. They walk with the light, springing step that is peculiar to all Highlanders, and they hardly seem to touch the ground as they march over it. They march to the music of the bagpipes, which adds not a little to the awe which, they inspire. The bagpipe is of all instruments the most uncanny and weird. When you see a Highland regiment marching to the music of bagpipes, it seems to be the only true music to which soldiers should march. Its wails and shrieks sound like the groans of the dying, and the drone of the bass notes has a fierce sound as it throbs and marks the tramp of the soldiers' feet, that speaks of battle and conquests, and the advance of a victorious army.
These are not the only things which help to make foreigners believe the Highlanders some uncommon kind of creature. In addition, the costume they wear is so strange, that it is easy to understand how terrible they must appear to foreign eyes.
They are dressed in the old Scotch fashion, with short stockings, bare knees, and kilts (a short skirt which comes nearly to the knee). Over their shoulders hangs the "plaidie," which is a long shawl. They wear a tight coat, and in front of them hangs the sporran, a pocket made of white fur. The crowning glory of the Highland regiment is the bonnet. This is a hideous structure of brown beaver; it is over a foot in height, and from the side hang three mournful black plumes. This curious dress makes the men look about eight feet high, and as they are all strong, broad-shouldered fellows, they seem like giants.
At the battle of the Alma, in the Crimean war, the Forty-Second Highlanders turned the fate of the fight by their appearance.
They were ordered to attack a position held by the Russians, and when they sprang forward to the charge, their kilts and plaids floating around them, their bare knees glistening, and their huge bonnets and waving plumes making them look so tall, the Russians were terror-stricken. Seeing their white sporrans wave as they ran, the Russians mistook them for small horses, and could not believe that these terrible-looking creatures were but men running.
Crying out to each other that the Angels of Death on their snow-white horses were riding them down, the Russians dropped their arms, and fled in the greatest confusion.
Stories without number are told of the way Highlanders, left on the field of battle, have frightened the enemy into letting them escape, and a piper seems to need no protection but his pipes. In the Indian mutiny, one blast of them was enough to scatter a score of natives.
It is not to be wondered at that both Cretans and Turks were a little alarmed at the sight of these brawny, petticoated soldiers.
The main part of the interest in Greek and Turkish affairs is centring itself along the Greek frontier.
The Powers sent word to Greece, that unless the troops are recalled from the frontier, they will blockade all her ports.
In the mean while, the Crown Prince has arrived at Larissa, and taken the command of the troops in Thessaly. The Crown Princess is with him, to organize a Red Cross Society, to give aid to the wounded in case war breaks out. This good, kind woman has put aside all her own feelings, and is working for the benefit of her husband's people.
The Greeks show no disposition to obey the demands of the Powers, and it is said that Russia refused to join in blockading the Greek ports, because she believed that it is no longer possible to keep peace between Greece and Turkey.
The Greek army along the frontier is so large and powerful as to be beyond the control of diplomacy. It is stated, on good authority, that if the King of Greece were to listen to the Powers, and order the troops back from Thessaly, the army would revolt, dethrone him, and carry on a war on its own account.
So incensed are the people against the Turks, that nothing will satisfy them but war, and the winning back of such of their provinces as are still under Turkish control.
It is said that the Greeks are not attempting to make a strongly fortified position for themselves on the frontier. They consider themselves an invading army, and the moment war is declared, they intend to swarm over the border, and, if possible, conquer the provinces that once were theirs.
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The inquiry into the Transvaal Raid is still going on.
Dr. Jameson has been called before the Committee, and appears to have told all he knows of the matter.
His story makes things look very black indeed for Mr. Cecil Rhodes, the Prime Minister of Cape Colony, and perhaps for the English Government also, if the whisper is true that Mr. Rhodes and the Government perfectly understood each other as regarded South African matters.
Dr. Jameson said that before the raid occurred, he had various talks with Cecil Rhodes and John Hays Hammond, an American mining engineer, who lived in the town of Johannesburg, and was one of the principal movers in the plot.
They spoke about the troubles of the foreigners in the Transvaal. Mr. Hammond declared that the Boers made life so difficult for foreigners that unless some change was made, the people of Johannesburg would revolt.
Dr. Jameson went to Pretoria at Mr. Hammond's invitation, and saw for himself the condition of things.
Plans were then made to overthrow the government, and to make a pretence of finding out who the people would prefer to have for a President, by taking a man-to-man vote of the whole population. The person chosen by this vote was to be declared President.
Dr. Jameson was to bring his soldiers to Johannesburg, to keep order while the vote of the people was being taken.
This plan, while it was fair enough in sound, was in fact an infamous scheme to trick the Boers out of their rights.
The Uitlanders, as we told you before, far outnumber the Boers.
By taking a vote of the whole population, every Uitlander would have had a vote; these foreigners would of course have voted for the person who would let them have things their own way, and as they outnumbered the natives, the poor Boers would have had their rights taken away from them by foreigners, who, according to their laws, had no right to vote at all.
The scheme was as clever as it was infamous. To the world it would have seemed fair enough, and only those familiar with South African politics would have understood what a shameful trick it was.
There is small doubt that Mr. Hammond was as deep in this fraud as Cecil Rhodes and Dr. Jameson. He may have hoped to win the presidency when Oom Paul Krueger was put out of office, and very probably did not realize that Mr. Rhodes and Jameson intended to annex the Transvaal to the English Territory, after they had stolen it from the Boers.
It is, however, sure, from Dr. Jameson's own words, that the Raid was a deliberate attempt on the part of these three men to rob the Boers of their rights, and divide the spoil when the deed was done.
Both Cecil Rhodes and Dr. Jameson have been bold enough to state this, cloaking their misdeed under a tale of gaining more lands for their beloved sovereign, and both have had the courage to say that they only made one mistake in the Transvaal matter, and that was to fail. Had they been successful, they would have been forgiven.
The angry feeling between the Boers and the English is daily growing stronger. It is feared that war cannot be prevented.
President Krueger is preparing for the worst by allying himself with the Orange Free State, his neighbor on the east.
The treaty has just been made, and is waiting to be ratified by the Congress of each country. It gives the citizens of both republics the right of citizenship in either country, and binds each to fight for the other in case of war.
Mr. Chamberlain, the English Colonial Secretary, is trying his best to upset this treaty.
He declares that, according to an understanding made between England and the Transvaal in 1884, the Boers have the right to govern their country as they please, but they must not enter into any treaties or relations with other countries, without the consent of England.
Mr. Chamberlain says that Her Majesty the Queen will insist upon the terms of this treaty being obeyed.
Though England is taking such a very decided stand in the matter, she is far from feeling at ease as to the result. It seems that Germany is taking more interest in the affairs of South Africa than is pleasant to England.
It is feared that if war does break out in the Transvaal, Germany will join with the Boers and the people of the Orange Free State in fighting England.
Germany already owns a rich province in the neighborhood, and she has for some time been sending arms and soldiers, able to teach the Boers the art of war, across the continent, from her province on the West Coast, to the Transvaal.
She has lately sent three thousand of her soldiers out to South Africa.
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While we are on the subject of Africa, we must speak of the expeditions that are being sent out from France to Abyssinia, with the object of making commercial treaties with King Menelik.
England is also sending out an envoy to the same country.
The reason for this sudden interest in Abyssinia comes from the great victory won by the Abyssinians last year, a victory which brought them into importance as a nation.
In 1896 the Italians, who have colonized a portion of Eastern Africa, bordering on Abyssinia, invaded their neighbor's country, with the intention of conquering it and adding it to their own.
The Abyssinians, a race of dark-skinned people whom we have been accustomed to look upon as savages, met the Italians on the open field of battle, and, without ambush or any of the usual savage methods of warfare, defeated them, the Italians leaving twelve thousand killed on the field.
The civilized nations had hardly recovered from their surprise at this defeat, when they were astounded afresh to find that the savage king Menelik had no desire to overrun the Italian country and punish the invaders for their attack, but having put them outside his borders, he settled quietly down to enjoy the blessings of peace.
The eyes of the world were turned on Abyssinia and its wonderful king, and the result has been that the various nations interested in Eastern Africa have decided that the friendship of Menelik is well worth having, and they are all hastening to make friends with this powerful king.
The French have been especially eager to make an alliance with him, before any other nations could get ahead of them. Abyssinia is a country rich in gold and ivory, and the friendship of Menelik is also valuable, because of the trade that can be done with his country. One expedition has been sent by the government to make the treaty, and at the same time another has started under the command of Prince Henry of Orleans.
This last has no political work to do, but is going in the interest of science and commerce. The Prince intends to explore the country, and find out what its chief products are, and what part of its commerce will be of value to his country.
He is writing most interesting accounts of his journey, which are being published in the papers, and we shall probably hear much that is new and interesting of this country.
In one of his letters he gave an amusing account of the astonishment of the natives over a graphophone (a present for King Menelik).
He at first put in a cylinder on which was recorded a song, sung by a great singer.
Strange to say, the natives received this with neither interest nor astonishment; the single voice did not seem anything out of the way to them. When, however, a cylinder with orchestral music, bugle calls, and a stirring march was put in place, their delight and surprise knew no bounds.
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The mention of this brings another wonderful invention to mind, the animatograph, the machine which throws pictures on a sheet; the figures in them move as though they are alive.
During the Queen's Jubilee, which will be celebrated in London this spring, it has been arranged to have a number of animatograph pictures taken of the procession and all the finest part of the ceremonies. These, it is said, are to be kept in the library of the British Museum, to show future generations what kind of people lived in the nineteenth century.
This should be a very interesting collection, and probably, if the idea is successfully carried out, we shall have a set of these same pictures brought to this country, and be able to see just how our English cousins celebrated their great festival.
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The news of the floods continues to be very serious.
At New Orleans the Mississippi River has reached the danger level, and the severe rain-storms which have visited the country during the past week have made the people in the city very anxious.
Certain of the streets are already swamps, and the river has risen within a foot and a half of the top of the levees.
The convicts have been sent out from the prisons to help pile the sacks of earth on the levees, and companies of engineers are stationed at all the weak spots along them, to guard against the banks giving way.
All along the river people are sending petitions to the various mayors and governors, begging them to forbid the river steamers travelling during the night, and to have them move as slowly as possible during the day. The wash from the paddle-wheels after they pass has done a great deal of damage, and in many places has helped to break the levees.
In several of the river towns all business has been forbidden, and all the men ordered to go to the levees and help to shore them up.
The slightest extra ripple of the waters at New Orleans brings them over the banks and floods the streets, but the banks are still safe.
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England has just presented a very valuable manuscript to us, that has long been kept in the Bishop of London's palace at Fulham.
This book is called the log of the Mayflower, and is an account of the first voyage of the Pilgrim Fathers, and a history of the Plymouth Plantation.
Several previous attempts have been made to get this manuscript from England, but it has remained for Ambassador Bayard to secure the gift for us.
The manuscript is supposed to have been written by Gov. William Bradford, and if this is true, it can hardly be the log of the Mayflower, because the log is usually kept by the captain.
Every ship that sails the sea keeps a log, or log-book, in which is entered the progress the ship is making, and any facts of interest as they occur. It is in reality the ship's diary, but it is called a log-book, because its chief object is to record the speed of the vessel.
This speed is found by using an instrument called a log, which is attached to a line, divided into equal spaces by knots. These are placed certain distances apart, so many to a mile. The log is made in such a way that it will remain almost stationary in the water when thrown overboard. The line, wound upon a reel, is allowed to run out for a few seconds; the number of knots that have been paid off the reel are counted, and in this way the speed of the vessel is calculated.
The book in which the record is kept is called a "log"-book.
The book that England is giving to us is probably the diary of William Bradford, which he kept while on board the Mayflower, and it is said to record the account of the colony after the landing, and to contain many interesting accounts of the treaties with the Indians.
It is to be kept in the Boston Public Library.
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The Tariff Bill has been hurried through the House of Representatives, and, having passed that House, has now gone up to the Senate.
There seems to have been a good deal of haste in the manner this was done.
Talking over alterations was not allowed, and the bill was forced to a vote, in spite of the fact that many of the Republicans were against it.
Several Congressmen said they would not have voted for it, unless quite sure that it would be much altered by the Senate before it is allowed to pass.
The Senate is still busy with the Arbitration Treaty.
Amendment after amendment has been made, until it is now a very different paper from the one handed in by Mr. Olney. Many of the Senators are so disgusted with all the talk and trouble over it, that they are inclined to vote against it, and put an end to the whole affair.
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The Charter of the City of Greater New York has been prepared, and New York City is now ready to begin its life as the second largest city in the world, London being the largest.
Greater New York will take in the whole of Staten Island, Brooklyn, the Lower Bay as far as Far Rockaway, the whole of Queens County Long Island, then across the Sound to Pelham, and along the line of Westchester County, taking in Woodlawn Cemetery, the town of Mt. Vernon, and on until it reaches the Hudson River at Mount St. Vincent.
The new city will come into existence January 1, 1898.
The Charter for its government, which has been prepared, provides that the entire city shall be governed by one mayor, who shall hold office for four years.
The new city can build schoolhouses, public buildings, bridges, docks, tunnels, construct parks, establish ferries, open streets, and make railroads without going to the State Legislature in Albany for permission.
The number of square miles contained in the new city will be 360; the greatest length will be 35 miles, measured from Mt. St. Vincent on the Hudson to Tottenville on Staten Island.
It is expected that with the wonderful harbors and docks the new city will possess, its future as a centre of commerce will be most prosperous.
The Mayor of this great city will be a very important person, and great care must be taken in choosing the right man.
The election of the officers of Greater New York will take place next November.
GENIE H. ROSENFELD.
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
FISH-HOOK BOOK.—A book has been invented for carrying fish-hooks, and it promises to be of great use to all those who find pleasure in the gentle art of angling.
It is a book arranged somewhat like a wallet. At one end is a strong leather pocket for flies, then stretched across it are four ledges. Each ledge has a number of slits in it. At the end opposite the pocket is the first ledge, and into the slits in this ledge the hooks are placed. The short line attached to the hook is carried to the next ledge, and carefully slipped into a slit opposite to the one which holds the hook. The line is carried over another ledge to be finally anchored in the one nearer the pocket. When the book is closed the ledges fit into each other, and the fish-hooks are kept in place and therefore cannot get tangled.
The book is of a convenient size and is likely to find many admirers.
A patent was lately issued to a man who has invented a means of cutting the pages of the magazines for us.
His idea is to bind a strong thread into every page that needs cutting, and when we would cut the pages there is nothing to be done but to pull the thread and this cuts the page.
The next thing to be invented should be a machine that reads the magazine for us, and tells us what is in them.
The nearest approach we have made to this idea is in reading stories to the phonograph, and having the instrument repeat them to us.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
Another heavy mail this week. The Editor's friends are getting so numerous that a strike of the postmen on the route may be expected.
Three daily readers of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD wish to know if Queen Victoria is allowed to see the daily papers. We once heard or read somewhere that certain things are cut from the papers and handed to her on a beautiful silver tray—such articles as her advisors think it best for her to see; but she cannot read all the daily papers as common folks do. Will you kindly answer in next week's number of the Magazine, and oblige three constant and interested readers of the Magazine?
JOHN ELIOT R. URSULA FRANCIS R. HELEN L.H.
PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY, March 31st, 1897.
MY DEAR YOUNG FRIENDS:
In reply to your letter asking how Queen Victoria gets her news, I must tell you that she is perhaps the most advanced and progressive woman in the world.
Though she is such an old lady, she keeps herself thoroughly posted about everything that goes on in the world. There is no question as to what she shall be allowed to read—she reads everything that is of interest to her; but that she may not waste her precious time looking over worthless articles, her secretaries are instructed to read the papers first every morning, and see what is worthy the Queen's reading.
From long habit they know the subjects that are of interest to Her Majesty, and these they carefully outline with a blue pencil.
It has always been the custom for one of the Princesses, the Queen's daughters, to read these items to her.
No clippings are sent to the Queen; the papers are marked and sent to her as they are.
Her Majesty really has a Great Round World made for herself every day, for the secretaries are like your Editor—they do their best to call the Sovereign's attention only to such matters as are really important and true.
To Ernest K., Lakewood, N.J.
DEAR ERNEST:—We were very pleased to receive your letter, but we will not publish it, because we think you could write us a much better one, that would be well worth putting in our paper.
Won't you tell us something about golf, or what you see when you go out riding? We think you could write a very interesting letter on either of these subjects.
Sydney G., Baltimore, and A.V.N. Myers, Cornwall-on-Hudson:
Thank you for your kind letter. We are glad you find THE GREAT ROUND WORLD interesting.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
I have had only two of your papers. I like them very much. I am going to save them and have them bound. It is so muddy here, and it was muddier last week; the mud was half a foot deep. There is a man that runs a dray-wagon here, and he has two little mules. He whips them almost to death.
A little while ago a poor dog went by with a tin can tied to his tail; the boys that did this filled it full of dirt, and the poor dog was half scared to death.
Perhaps I ought not to be so familiar, as this is the first letter I have written to you.
Our neighbors are nice people. They have a little pug dog. There was a black cat in the yard, and the dog ran after it. It seemed as if the cat was crazy. It dragged its hind legs behind it, and pulled them with its front legs, and crawled under the barn before the dog got to it.
I guess I will close now.
Your loving friend,
GRAY F. WAYNE, NEBR., March, 1897.
MY DEAR GRAY:
We enjoyed your letter very much; it is very bright and interesting.
When we read it we said, Master Gray has gone off with his pen and paper all by himself to write to us, and that pleased us very much, because we want all our boys and girls to talk to us in their letters just as if they were speaking to us.
You seem to be a friend of dumb animals. Read Little Friend's letter to us, in No. 19, page 498. Would you not like to form a Band of Mercy to help your animal friends? Think of that poor cat, who was probably half-dead with fright, and the doggie with the can tied to his tail. Would you not like to know just how to help these poor little kindly things, who cannot help themselves? EDITOR.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
I wish to tell Grace of some good books. Three of C.M. Yonge's books, "Dynevor Terrace," "The Daisy Chain," and its sequel, "The Trial," are stories of English boys and girls, much like "Little Women." Elizabeth Stuart Phelps' "Gypsy Breynton" series are good. The last of the series "Gypsy's Year at the Golden Crescent" is a boarding-school story. "The Five Little Peppers" series by Margaret Sidney are her best books. The five little Pepper boys and girls live in "the little brown house" with "Mamsy." Their father is dead, and they are very poor. They gain a rich friend, a very nice boy named Jasper, and all go to live in his father's house, "Mamsy" becoming the housekeeper. It is all written in a delightful and natural manner.
Flora Shaw's three books, "Hector," "Phyllis Browne," and "Castle Blair," are also good. In the first, Hector, a little English boy, goes to France to live with his little country cousin Zelie. In the second a little Pole, Count Ladislas Starinski, comes to England to live with his English cousins. The last is the story of five Irish boys and girls, their big dog Royal, and their two cousins Frankie and a French girl Adrienne (whose name they could not pronounce, and so they called her Nessa, after one of their dogs which had died, and which they said looked like her).
Elizabeth Champney's "Witch Winnie" series are very interesting. The first two, "Witch Winnie" and "Witch Winnie's Mystery," are boarding-school stories.
Other good books are: "When I Was Your Age," by Laura Richards; "Two Girls," and "Girls Together," by Miss Blanchard; "Half a Dozen Girls," by Anna Chapin Ray; "Dr. Gilbert's Daughters," by Margaret Matthews; "Captain Polly," "Flying Hill Farm," and "The Mate of The Mary Ann," by Sophie Sweet; "Summer in a Canon," and "Polly Oliver's Problem," by Kate D. Wiggin; The "Katy Did" series, by Susan Coolidge; the Quinnebasset Series, by Sophie May, comprising "The Doctor's Daughter," "Asbury Twins," "Our Helen," "Janet," and "Quinnebasset Girls"; "The Jolly Good Time" books, by Mary P. Wells Smith; and all the books of Lucy C. Lillie, Nora Perry, Mrs. Mead, and Mrs. Molesworth.
I have read and enjoyed all the above, and can recommend them to any one as delightful stories of boys and girls.
MY DEAR EDITH:
We are glad to have your nice letter to publish, and will be pleased to have you read for us.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
Miss Bessy reads THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and will you please send me a pattern of the kite of Lieutenant Wise?
Yours truly, SYDNEY G. BALTIMORE, MD., March 26th, 1897.
MY DEAR SYDNEY G.:
"The American Boy's Book of Sport," published by Charles Scribner's Sons, and mentioned in No. 21 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, will tell you how to make kites of all kinds. We cannot promise that you will find Lieutenant Wise's kite there, because we think he has kept the manner of making his kite a secret, and will do so until he has quite finished his experiments with it.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
I take THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and like it very much. In your last number you spoke of "Singing Mice." Can you tell me, where can they be got? If they can be bought, where and how much?
Yours truly, WILLIE T.H.
Singing mice are very rare; but we have been to the store where we get our lizards, and tadpoles, and goldfish, and the man who keeps it has promised to see if he can hear of one. If he is fortunate enough to find such a mouse he is to let us know, and if you send us your address we will tell you how much he wants for it, and where you can see it.
A number of us girls have formed a society named The Daffodil Reading Circle, of which I am the president. We meet at the different girls' houses every week. I subscribe for THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. It is one of the principal things we read, and we all enjoy it very much. We were very much interested in the article about the cuttlefish or octopus found on the coast of Florida, in Number 16. I am surprised to hear to-day that it has been examined by some scientific men, who say that it is not an octopus at all, but only the head of a deformed whale. I am very anxious to hear what the truth is about it.
Your interested reader, FLORENCE C.R.
JERSEY CITY, N.J., March 20, 1897.
We have written to the Smithsonian Institution about the cuttlefish. The reply has not reached us in time for this number, but next week we hope to be able to tell you what the scientific men have decided about it. That the monster found was the head of a whale was only the opinion of some of the gentlemen who examined it. We believe that no absolute decision was arrived at.
We were very much pleased to get an account of a gold mine published in a recent number, for we want our boys and girls to write letters describing the different industries of the United States. A number of New York boys a few days since went to Waterbury, Conn., and visited various factories; we publish two of their letters, and hope that we may receive similar letters from boys and girls in different parts of the country. In almost every town there is something which can be written about.
OUR EXCURSION TO WATERBURY.
On Thursday last the three upper classes visited Waterbury, Conn., to inspect some of the numerous industries for which the town is so famous, and returned Friday night, filled with great thoughts of the wonders of Yankee inventive genius.
While there we had the good fortune to be admitted to a pin-factory, an iron-foundry, a watch-factory, and the most extensive brass-works in the world.
I shall here limit myself to a brief description of the last.
Brass is made by melting together in large crucibles certain proportions of copper and zinc. The heat applied must be considerable, for during the fusion of the two metals a white flame from the zinc and a green one from the copper flash from the mouth of the crucible. When properly mixed the molten alloy is poured into rectangular or cylindrical moulds. After cooling, the bars are driven between immense rollers, to be formed into sheet-brass. This process is very much like rolling out dough for pie-crust, and is repeated many times. But the great pressure to which the sheets are subjected makes the alloy very brittle, so that it has to be softened or "annealed," as it is called, by being heated red-hot in very large ovens before each re-rolling. When the sheets have attained the required thinness, they are cut into widths and lengths suitable for easy handling, transportation, and manufacture.
We also saw sheets of copper and German silver made in a similar manner. The latter is simply brass that has had some nickel added to it to make it white like silver.
The cylindrical casts above mentioned are placed in machines that draw them into wire or tubing. The process is a most interesting one, though rather difficult to describe.
A large quantity of the products of these works is used directly in the very town, in factories for making clocks, watches, pins, and other articles.
It is interesting and curious to note how the manufacture of brass in this country originally started.
During the war of 1812 many useful articles became scarce; among these were buttons. A man named Benedict, who lived in Waterbury, began to make them out of bone, and became very prosperous.
About 1830 "Dame Fashion" ordained that brass or gilt buttons should be worn. At first Benedict imported brass from England, but as he could not get it of the required thinness, he resolved to make it himself. As copper was scarce, he travelled about the country, buying up old copper kettles and other things made of copper, which he melted with zinc, and had the resulting brass slabs rolled at a neighboring iron rolling-mill. In this way the great brass industry of the United States started. Its product is now valued at $60,000,000 a year.
H.H. ROGERS, JR.
APRIL 6th, 1897.
Among the factories of interest in and around Waterbury, Conn., is the Clinton Pin Factory. This is one of the largest in America, and has perhaps the most highly developed machinery in the world.
It is well to remember that the pin-machine is a purely American invention, and its immense advantage can be fully appreciated if we recall that it does the work that was required of eighteen distinct hands hardly more than fifty years ago.
Pins are made of either brass or iron wire. Those made of the latter are much cheaper, as the price of iron wire varies from three to five cents a pound, while brass wire is usually worth fourteen.
The wire is fed to the machine from large reels. It is first cut into the proper lengths by a small steel knife, so arranged that when the regular length of wire is drawn, the knife descends and cuts it off. Next, each small piece of wire, for we can hardly call it anything else yet, is headed by a sharp rap from a small automatic hammer. Lastly, the blunt ends are pointed by passing over a series of rapidly revolving emery-wheels, and the pin falls, the essentially completed article, into a large box, at the rate of three or four per second.
The pins are now placed in large vats, filled with soft soap and water, to be freed from the dirt and grease gathered while passing through the machine. After being thoroughly washed, they are put in the "hopper," mixed with bran or sawdust, to be dried. The hopper is shaken rapidly, and the clean, dry pins fall out at one side, the sawdust at the other.
The tinning or "silvering" process is next in order. To accomplish this, the pins are put into a vessel containing a solution of cream of tartar and tin, and boiled for four or five hours. From this they come forth bright and silvery-looking, to be dried again as before, previous to the final operation of polishing.
The pins are now ready to be put on papers. The machine which does this is perhaps one of the most ingenious ever constructed. Quantities of pins are thrown from time to time into a rapidly vibrating hopper, which causes them to pass, one by one, into a trough-like slide, that holds the pins by the head; consequently the imperfect ones are automatically rejected. They then slide along a groove to the main body of the machine, where they fall into slits properly distanced, and are pressed into the paper in rows, twelve in all, containing five hundred and sixteen pins.
Shield or safety-pins are made in about the same way, only there are twelve instead of three different stages before the pin issues from the machine absolutely complete. After this it has to be washed and tinned as above described.
The factory has more than fifty machines, which operate themselves so perfectly that they require the supervision of about ten men only.
It has been estimated that more than fifteen thousand gross of pins per day, or five million gross per annum, are turned out by this one concern.
GEORGE C. CANNON.
March 29th, 1897.
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