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The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 17, March 4, 1897 - A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls
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FIVE CENTS.

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD

AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. MARCH 4, 1897 Vol. 1. NO. 17 $2.50 PER YEAR [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second-class matter]



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER FOR BOYS AND GIRLS

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON. PUBLISHER

NO. 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

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The Great Round World Prize Competitions

OPEN TO SUBSCRIBERS ONLY.

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For Commercial Maps of the United States.

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD offers five prizes, each to be a book costing not over $2.50, and to be selected by the winners, for each of the best five commercial maps of the United States, to be sent in before February 1st. These maps are to be filled in, without assistance, by the contestants; Klemm's Relief Map of the United-States to be used for this purpose; one of these Relief Maps will be sent without charge to any subscriber who wishes to compete. Directions for the competition will be found in THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, No. 4, under story of "Pioneer Settlers of Marietta, Ohio."

* * * * *

For the Best Set of Political Maps.

NORTH AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA.

One set will be sent without charge to any yearly subscriber who wishes to compete.

A pair of skates will be given to the boy or girl who will fill in and send the most complete set of political maps of the five continents by February 1st. These maps are to be the Klemm's Relief Maps, and the political divisions are to be represented entirely by color, with an index on the margin of the maps to show which colors represent the different nations. The skates given as this prize may be selected by the winner.



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With the greatly increased facilities I can now offer to my customers the convenience of an assortment of text-books and supplies more complete than any other in any store in this city. Books will be classified according to subject. Teachers and students are invited to call and refer to the shelves when in search of information; every convenience and assistance will be rendered them.

Reading Charts, miscellaneous Reference Charts, Maps, Globes, Blackboards, and School Supplies at net prices singly or in quantity.

All books removed from old store (more or less damaged by removal) will be closed out at low prices.

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Copyrighted 1897, By WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON.



VOL. 1 MARCH 4, 1897. NO. 17

The news from Cuba is not very encouraging.

The reforms promised by Spain are not believed in by the Cubans, and the fighting is going on as fiercely as ever.

General Gomez, who is the head of the insurgent army, declares that Cuba will never accept anything from Spain but absolute freedom.

When he took command of the Cuban army, Gomez made this a condition of his acceptance. He did this because, years ago, when Cuba was fighting Spain, the Spaniards offered all the reforms the people asked for, and promised them everything they desired.

The Cubans believed Spain, and laid down their arms, only to find that they had been deceived and cheated. Spain did not keep her word, and probably never had any intention of doing so.

General Gomez does not mean to give her the chance of deceiving Cuba twice.

The Cuban leader has issued orders to the sugar planters, forbidding them to grind their cane, and threatening to burn their plantations if they attempt to disobey him. He promises the planters a speedy ending to the war, and says he is absolutely sure of the final triumph of the Cuban arms.

In the mean while, he has slipped past General Weyler, who is marching over the country, declaring it pacified.

The truth of the matter is, that in the so-called pacified country, which lies between Weyler and Havana, the entire insurgent army is assembled and at work.

In this very district that General Weyler declares to be so quiet, the rebels are using dynamite with deadly success. They are placing bombs on the railroad tracks, and trains are being blown up almost daily, killing many Spanish soldiers.

News of encounters between the enemies is constantly being brought in. Every day some small fight occurs that does little for the cause, but shows that the Cubans are still unconquered.

General Gomez had a long talk with the representative of one of our most reliable newspapers, and told him that he has over forty thousand soldiers fighting for freedom, but that unfortunately he has not enough guns or ammunition for more than half the number. He says that nearly every soldier carries a machete, which is a weapon in use among Spanish Americans. It is half knife, half cleaver, and is carried by the peasants for general use upon the plantations. It makes a formidable weapon, but is, of course, not so valuable as a rifle would be.

General Gomez said that if his men were only well armed, he would give battle to Weyler, and would without doubt beat him. He declared that he could raise seventy-five thousand men in a month, if he only had the means of arming them.

He spoke in a most determined way about the proposed reforms, and repeated that he would take nothing from Spain but freedom. He went on to say that the hatred of Spain was now so strong in Cuban hearts, that were the revolution to fail, he was sure that a large majority of Cubans would leave their homes, and go and live in a foreign country, rather than continue under the hated rule of Spain.

He was asked what he thought about the way the United States was treating Cuba.

This was rather a difficult question for him to answer, because he was talking to an American; but General Gomez is a brave man, and a sincere man, and he was not afraid to give his real opinion.

He said, that while he did not think that the United States was allied with Spain to bring about the defeat of the Cubans, he thought the refusal to recognize the Cuban government, and the assistance given to Spain to stop filibustering, looked very much as if the United States was more friendly to Spain than to Cuba.

This being the case, he said it was out of the question for the Cuban government to listen to the advice of the United States about the reforms that Spain offered. Cuba could not regard the United States as her friend, and would not therefore take any suggestions from her.

Many people have supposed that even if the Cubans were successful, peace would not be restored to the island. There are so many negroes and "half-breed" white people among the Cubans, that the idea has got about that the white Cubans and colored Cubans would fight each other for the right to govern.

General Gomez spoke with much feeling on this point.

He said the colored people had borne their share in the revolution bravely and nobly, and that there never had been, and never would be, any distinction made between the white man and the man of African origin. All Cubans had fought shoulder to shoulder, as brother patriots should do, and brother patriots they would continue, white or colored.

Only once did General Gomez show any excitement, and that was when Weyler's name was mentioned.

"He is not a soldier, he is not a man, he is not a Christian!" he said. "If he were a true soldier, I would respect him; if his troops were true soldiers, I would respect them, even though they had come to hold Cuba in chains. But he is not a soldier, nor are his men soldiers; they are here to butcher and destroy. They think to exterminate us; but though Cuba may weep and bleed and burn, God is with us, and the right will come at last."

He said that he had often thought over Weyler's cruelties, and considered whether he should not treat the Spanish prisoners in the same way. But he could not do so. The very thought of the cruelties ordered by Weyler, the murdering of innocent persons, the attacking of hospitals and killing the poor invalids, filled him with horror.

He said that he was determined that Cuba should shed no innocent blood in the name of freedom.

He was finally asked how long the war would continue, and his answer was very short.

"Until Cuba is free!" he said

* * * * *

It is said that General Gomez cannot yet bear to speak about the death of Maceo, and of his own son, who perished at the same time.

When the news was brought to him, he showed the true nobility of his character.

Calling his soldiers together, he bade them harbor no thoughts of revenge for the act of treachery which had cost them so brave a leader, but to follow the example of those who had died for their country, and fight until death or success was their portion.

It is said that Gomez, as a token of respect for the dead hero Maceo, ordered his army to keep "silence" for ten days; which means that nearly all of the usual noises in camp were suppressed, and stilled in mourning.

While Gomez is showing the true qualities of a soldier, Weyler continues the atrocious method of warfare that more closely resembles that of the bloodthirsty red Indian, than of a civilized Christian general.

He is openly in favor of ending the rebellion by killing every man, woman, and child who is in favor of Cuban liberty. This method is called "Extermination."

The Marquis de Apezteguia has travelled all the way to Madrid, to tell the Prime Minister of Spain, Senor Canovas, the truth about Weyler, and to beg that he be recalled.

He has told the Prime Minister how Weyler has been robbing the people, and how he has made millions of dollars out of the Cuban war; that he is a disgrace to Spain, and to the Spanish name, and that there is no chance of the Cubans accepting terms from Spain while he is in command.

Weyler's treatment of the Cuban women is growing still more cruel.

Several Cuban ladies of rank were seized by his secret police, and without being told what they were arrested for, were taken to prison, and put in a cell with the lowest female prisoners.

After being kept in jail for twenty days, they were forced to march, with all the criminals, through the public streets. They had to pass between files of soldiers, the mob hooting and howling at them.

They were then put in box-cars, which are cars without seats, like those we use for baggage. They travelled thus for more than twelve hours, packed closely together with criminals of every kind, and forced to stand up all the way.

On arriving at Havana, they were first thrust into jail with the men.

Thinking that this was perhaps a little too severe, they were removed to the House of Refuge. This proved to be a wretched, unclean place, far worse than the jail.

The correspondents for the United States papers happened to hear of the arrival of these unfortunates, and went at once to the House of Refuge to see them.

Imagine their horror when they found that one of these ladies was a countrywoman of their own, an American citizen.

Word was sent at once to Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee, and then the correspondents clubbed together, and bought some beds and small comforts, and sent them to the ladies.

General Lee at once tried to help the American lady, Mrs. Rodriguez, and finally got permission for her release.

The other ladies said they wished they were Americans, that they might also be helped out of their miserable position.

These ladies do not as yet know why they have been arrested. They all have relatives in the insurgent army, and suppose that is the reason for their punishment.

* * * * *

The Three Friends, the filibustering steamer that has been in so much trouble, will soon know her fate.

She is to be proceeded against for piracy.

The officers, agents, and lawyers are not included in the new case, and so there is no danger of any of them having to pay the penalty of piracy, which the law says is hanging.

The vessel alone is the guilty party, and if her guilt is proved, she will be confiscated, which means, taken away from her owners.

We spoke about the trial of the tug Dauntless and the Three Friends in No. 14 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and told how Judge Locke had set them at liberty, because he said that if no state of war existed in Cuba, the tugs could not be guilty of breaking any of the laws between nations.

Attorney-General Harmon says that this decision of Judge Locke's makes the Three Friends guilty of piracy, for in time of peace she fired a gun on the subjects of a friendly nation.

It seems that whichever way they fix it, the Three Friends is in trouble.

The whole case rests upon the statement, made in certain New York newspapers, that the Three Friends had a Hotchkiss gun in her bows, with which she fired on the Spanish gunboat that tried to prevent her landing her party.

If this statement is true, the Three Friends is guilty, and will have some difficulty in escaping from justice. But it is evident that her owners are going to deny the whole thing, and say that she had no gun on board.

In Jacksonville, where she will be tried, the people are already saying that it is foolish to suppose that there was a gun on so small a tug as the Three Friends, and in Washington it is thought unlikely that it can be proved that a gun was on the boat.

This makes the matter very interesting, because the New York newspapers which published the story will not like to have it proved that they print anything which is not true.

They must do everything in their power to prove that the report was true, while the owners of the tug will make every effort to prove that it was false, and only a made-up story sent by the newspaper correspondent to give his paper an interesting item.

These "interesting" items are so frequent that people are afraid to believe all they read in the papers.

It is for this very reason that we have warned our readers that it is not safe to say "such and such a thing has happened" until time enough has passed to prove or contradict a statement; and this is the reason why we so often say, "it is said that this or that has happened." We want to be quite sure that a thing is true before we assert it as a fact.

* * * * *

There may be some false report of this character at the bottom of the trouble in Siam, which we were speaking about last week.

The State Department has merely filed all the papers in relation to the outrage on Vice-Consul Kellet, and has decided to let the matter drop.

Consul-General Barrett sent word that the King of Siam had not taken any notice of his demand for an inquiry into the matter; and the only reply given him was a polite note saying that his letter had been received.

People who know, say that this means that the Government wishes to have the matter dropped. Otherwise word would have been sent to Bangkok that the Consul-General was to insist upon a proper explanation from the Siamese government.

Meanwhile, the commander of the gunboat which was sent to Siam, has received orders to make inquiries. He is not to do this as an official, or on the part of the Government, but merely to find out the facts, and let the Government know if it is necessary to take any further notice of the affair.

It seems that Mr. Olney thinks that Mr. Kellet may have been to blame, and that Mr. Barrett got excited, and made demands from the Siamese government without first stopping to find out the truth.

* * * * *

There is more trouble in Turkey, between the Turks and the Christians.

This time the trouble is in Crete.

Crete is a large island in the Grecian Archipelago, and lies just at the foot of Greece.

It is a very celebrated island, and played a most important part in the affairs of Europe when Greece was the famous empire of the world.

It has another claim for celebrity. It was the supposed birthplace of the heathen god Jupiter. Jupiter was a fabulous person, of course, but the Greeks believed in him, and declared that he was born on Mount Ida in the island of Crete. When you grow older and read your classics, you will learn a great deal about the heathen gods and goddesses whom the Greeks worshipped in the days before Christianity had come to enlighten the world.

Crete, in the days of Grecian glory, was one of the most famous parts of that wonderful empire. From its favorable geographical position, it was at one time the place through which all the arts and wonders of Asia and the East were made known to the then rough and uncultivated Europeans.

People from the East, and from the West, would meet on the island of Crete, and it became one of the most important points in Europe.

After many ups and downs—you should read all about them in your Grecian history—Crete fell, with the rest of Greece, into the hands of the Turks.

When the Greeks fought for and gained their freedom from the Turks in 1827, Crete struggled bravely for liberty too, but she was not as fortunate as her sister land, and had to submit to the hated rule of the Turk.

The Cretans are Greeks and Christians, and long to be under the rule of a Christian monarch.

In 1869 they made another struggle for freedom, and appealed to the powers of Europe to free them.

They asked to be allowed to join themselves to Greece, or else to be given liberty, under the protection of some Christian country.

But they got no help, and the Turks still ruled in Crete.

The present outbreak is but a renewal of the old feud. The recent murders of Christians in Armenia have made the Christians in Crete restless, and they are determined to make one more effort for freedom.

The Greeks are anxious to aid the Cretans, and at the first word of the revolt in Crete sent war-ships to Canea, the port at which the fighting has taken place.

The revolt appears to have been well planned, for the main cities of the island were soon in the possession of the Cretans, who only waited a signal from Greece to declare a union with that country, and to overthrow the rule of Turkey.

The signal seems not to have been long in coming, for, if the news can be believed, the union of Crete and Greece has already been proclaimed.

This will probably mean a war between Greece and Turkey; indeed, it seems impossible that war can be prevented, for Turkey is not going to sit quietly down and allow her possessions to be taken from her.

There is a report that a Greek ship entered Canea, the port of Crete, and did not salute the Turkish flag. This looks very like war.

It is the custom for every vessel on entering a foreign port to salute the flag of that port, and a failure to do so is considered a very grave insult.

The latest news seems very serious indeed, almost as if this Cretan matter were going to bring about the European war that has been so long feared.

Russia has suddenly become very indignant with England, declaring that she has stirred up this Cretan trouble, so that, in the confusion that will follow, she may be able to secure some important ports in the Mediterranean Sea.

The Russians have ranged themselves on the side of Turkey, and insist that the only way for peace to be restored in Crete is for Russian and French war-ships to occupy the ports, and force the people back into quiet.

England will not submit to anything of this sort, and if Russia and France take such action, war is bound to follow.

It must not be supposed that a war with Turkey is going to be an easy thing.

The Turkish soldiers are a fine, well-drilled body of men; indeed, the English Minister to Greece stated that the Turkish soldiers were the finest he had ever seen.

The Janizaries, the most famous regiment of soldiers in the world, are the body-guard of the Sultan of Turkey.

Not only are they well-drilled and powerful men, but they fight absolutely without fear. A Turkish soldier will never run away—he fights till he conquers or dies. This is due to his religion, which teaches him that what is to be will be, and that if it is his fate to be killed he will be killed, whether he runs away or stays in the battle.

So he stays—and does all the harm he can before his fate, whatever it may be, overtakes him.

It is also his belief that if he is killed in battle his sins are forgiven him, and he will go straight to Paradise; so he has no fear of the fight, and makes a very stubborn and dangerous foe.

In the mean while, the Sultan of Turkey has a little business of his own on hand.

He is very much annoyed at the length of the conference of the Powers about the reforms he is to be asked to make.

All the dead walls of Constantinople, where the Ambassadors are meeting, have been covered with placards and posters of a character to enrage the common people, and make them turn their thoughts to fresh massacres.

It is said on good authority, that the placards come from the Sultan, and have been posted by his orders.

It is also said that he hopes to provoke the people and cause fresh rioting, and so break up the conference which so much annoys him.

Another massacre may be expected any moment.

* * * * *

There is a movement on foot in New York, to prevent any more of the very high buildings being put up.

It seems that no one has any idea of the danger from high buildings.

The Board of Trade and Transportation, which is trying to get a bill passed in Albany, preventing any further work of this sort being done, asked the Chief of the Fire Department to come before it and give his opinion of these high structures.

He told the committee, that at the present time the Fire Department could not fight a fire in any of these tall buildings. He said that none of the engines owned by the department could throw a stream of water higher than 125 feet from the ground, and that all floors over that height would have to be left to burn.

All the very high buildings are supposed to be fire proof, and Chief Bonner was asked what he thought about them. He laughed, and said there was no such thing as a fire-proof building, and that in fact the iron-framed structures, supposed to be fire-proof, were perhaps a little more dangerous than the old style of brick building. He said that these frames become heated and bend, pulling the walls down, so that they fall much more quickly than they used to, and make the firemen's work more difficult.

The only absolutely fire-proof building that he knew of was the Public Library in Boston, where there was no wood at all used in the building—the doors and window frames even being of iron. He was sure that so long as wood was used in the construction of any part of a building, it was quite impossible to call it fire-proof.

Several architects were asked to give their opinions, and also some engineers who had made a study of the laws of health.

These men were all agreed that high buildings were unsanitary—which means bad for the health—and that they made all the lower buildings around them unsanitary too, by shutting off the light and air, and making them dark, and inclined to be damp.

The general opinion was so much against these "sky-scrapers" that the Board of Trade and Transportation decided to send a bill to the Legislature in Albany, praying that the erection of such dangerous buildings might be stopped.

They ask that no structure may be higher than 165 feet. This will allow for twelve and thirteen stories. It was proposed to run up some offices that would be twenty-two stories high, and it was this that frightened people into action on the subject.

The Board of Trade and Transportation does some very good work for the citizens of New York.

It is made up of men who have large business interests in the city, and they watch all the bills that are sent up to Albany, and all the work done by the Mayor and Aldermen, and take notice of every part of the city's government, to make sure that the best interests of the citizens are being cared for.

This Board is of the greatest service to all New Yorkers. The business interests of a city demand that all the roads shall be kept in good repair, that the ways of reaching the city shall be many and easy, and that the fares shall not be too high.

Over all these matters, and a great many more which we have not space to write about, the Board of Trade and Transportation watches faithfully and untiringly.

* * * * *

There was a meeting of the George Junior Republic Association the other day. Many interesting things were spoken of in regard to the settlement at Freeville.

You may not perhaps know what a wonderful association this Republic is.

The Junior Republic was started in 1890 by Mr. William R. George.

This kind-hearted man read a story in a newspaper, about a ragged boy in City Hall Park, eagerly watching a little yellow spot on the grass which he hoped was a dandelion. It told how, after a weary waiting until the policeman's back was turned, the boy dashed under the forbidden rail, stooped for the prize, only to find that it was a bit of orange peel.

Mr. George was touched by the story of the boy's disappointment; the more he thought of it, and of the longing of a city child for the trees and flowers of the country, the more he grieved that so many little ones never had a chance of seeing the green fields, and enjoying the wonders of Nature.

The result of it all was, that Mr. George collected twenty-two poor little ragged lads, and gave them a two weeks' outing at Freeville that summer.

From this beginning, the whole wonderful plan of the Republic shaped itself in his mind.

He thought that if he could get hold of the rough children of the streets, who have no kind parents to care for them, and use the summer holiday to influence them to good actions, he would be doing a great work for them.

He felt that the best way to bring this about was to put them in a miniature world of their own, where they would have the same trials and temptations as in their city homes, but with the advantage of having some one at hand to show them the right way.

His plan was to form a genuine republic, to which boys and girls would be equally welcome as citizens. The plan has been carried out, and the Junior Republic is a great success.

It is an absolute republic, with a government like our own. It has its President, its Senators and Congressmen, and so forth.

Mr. George is the President; the boy and girl citizens form the Congress, the Cabinet officers, the Judge, and the police.

The Constitution of the United States, and the laws of New York State, are followed as closely as possible, and other laws are made to regulate the particular needs of the Republic.

All citizens, boys and girls, are required to work. Nothing is given away in Freeville. The young citizens are paid for their work, and have to support themselves on their earnings.

The boys and girls who will not work get no food.

In all large cities and communities, the people who have money are obliged to pay a certain sum to help others who have none. Therefore men and women who do not work because they are old or ill, are provided with food and shelter from the money, or taxes, that the well-to-do have to pay.



In Freeville it is different. All the citizens are young and healthy, and able to work, so a law has been passed that no laws shall be made to raise money to keep the idle. No money is set aside to keep paupers, and those who do not work cannot eat. The result is, that there are no paupers or tramps in Freeville.

The way the children earn their money, is by working from eight-thirty till noon every day at farming, landscape gardening, carpentry, cooking, millinery, and sewing.

They are paid according to their skill, and are divided into three grades; unskilled, medium, and skilled labor.

The children naturally try their best to improve, so that they may get higher wages, and thus they gradually progress, and learn their trades.

They are paid every Saturday, like regular laborers, and out of the money they earn, they pay for their board and lodging through the week.

There is a bank in which the thrifty can put their savings, and when they go back to the city they draw these savings out.

The money used is not regular money, but Freeville money, made of cardboard, and at the end of the holiday the children are not given United States money for their savings, but the value of their little hoard in vegetables, fruit, and clothing.

This summer outing teaches the rough boys of the city what their duties in life are, and shows them, better than words could do, that the boy or man who wants to be happy must work honestly and obey the law.

Freeville has its boy policemen, who arrest all evildoers; its jail, where the offenders are locked up; and its gang of convicts, who are only given bread and water, and prison fare, and are kept at work the whole day, instead of from eight-thirty till noon.

The records of the Republic show that boys who have gone into Freeville rough and bad, and have commenced their citizenship with idling and thieving, have in a few weeks become law-abiding citizens.

So successful has this summer Republic been, that Mr. George has made up his mind to keep it going the whole year round.

Over two hundred children were housed there last summer, and thirty-four boys are passing the winter there.

Through the generosity of some wealthy people, a farm of forty-eight acres has been bought for the Republic, and this spring and summer it is intended to make room for a much greater number of "citizens."

The Republic is supported by subscriptions, and the treasurer wants to raise ten thousand dollars, to carry out the many fine ideas Mr. George has in mind for this summer.

England, Germany, and Japan have made inquiries into the work at Freeville, and Mr. George hopes that republics may be started in other countries.

Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Illinois are starting republics of their own, and Mr. George has had word from the Junior Republic of California, that the plan is in working order there, and doing exceedingly well.

GENIE H. ROSENFELD.



THE SCHUBERT CENTENNIAL.

A Schubert celebration was held in Vienna on the hundredth anniversary of the great composer's birth, which occurred on January 31st.

Concerts of Schubert music were given, and an exhibition of his manuscripts and letters.

An old battered piano which he had used was also shown. This is the only article which belonged to him that is known to exist, as he died in extreme poverty. It seems sad that his genius was not properly appreciated until after his death, and that he who was to give so much to the world of music should have been denied all but the barest necessities.

We publish an account of his life, written especially for THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.

FRANZ SCHUBERT.

Eighteen hundred and ninety-seven is the centennial year of Franz Schubert, the great composer, who was born in Vienna on the 31st of January, 1797. He was of humble lineage. His father, who also bore the name of Franz, was the son of a peasant, who studied in Vienna, and became assistant to his brother, a schoolmaster. He married Elizabeth Vitz, who had been in service as a cook in Vienna. Franz Peter Schubert was the thirteenth of a family of fourteen children, nine of whom died in infancy. His love of music was apparent when he was very young. A relative often took him to visit a pianoforte warehouse, and there, and on an old worn-out piano at home, the child studied his first exercises without a master. At the age of seven he had a teacher, Michael Holzer, who used to cry out, "When I wish to teach him anything, he always knows it already." When he was eleven years old he was employed as a solo singer and violin player in a church. A little later his father succeeded in getting him a position in the Emperor's Chapel, and he thus became a pupil in a music school, which was called the "Convict."

It seems that the boys at the Convict endured many privations. The practice-room was unbearably cold in winter, and the young students were allowed to go without food for eight hours and a half, between a "poor dinner and a wretched supper." When he was about fifteen, Franz wrote to his brother, explaining his position, his hungry longing for a roll or an apple, and concluded in these words: "I rely on the teaching of the Apostle Matthew, who says, 'Let him that hath two coats give one to the poor.' Meanwhile I trust you will listen to the voice which unceasingly appeals to you to remember your loving, hoping, poverty-stricken—and once again I repeat poverty-stricken—brother Franz."

His earliest composition for the piano is dated April, 1810. It was his habit to date all his pieces. In March, 1811, he composed a long vocal piece, "Hagar's Lament over Her Dying Son." His boy friends at the Convict were devoted to him, and were eager to play, sing, or copy any of his compositions. One of them, Josef Spaun, who was several years older than Schubert, and better off, helped him to procure all the music paper he needed.

His first mass, in F, was composed and performed in 1814. It is said to be the most remarkable first mass ever produced, excepting Beethoven's in C. In 1815, when he was only eighteen years old, he composed the music for more than a hundred songs. The fine song, the "Erl King," was written in this year, and many of his boyish songs are among his finest productions. When he died in 1828, he left more than 1,100 compositions, the greater number of which had not then been published.

In his lifetime, some of his songs were sold for a few pence, and he lived in poverty nearly all his days. Yet publishers have grown rich by the sale of his compositions, and his work is a delight to the world. The house in which he was born is marked by a marble tablet, and costly memorials have been raised in his honor. Some words that he spoke in the delirium of his last illness made his brother Ferdinand believe that he wished to be buried near Beethoven. This wish was fulfilled, and his grave lies near that of the great musician, for whom from his early boyhood he always had a profound reverence and admiration.

M. BOURCHIER SANFORD.



INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.

There has lately been patented in England a system for making buttons, combs, brush-handles, billiard balls, and such like articles out of milk.

The bone buttons and articles of that kind, which we have been using up to the present time, have been made of refuse from the slaughter-houses. This new process will only require milk.

Any one who knows anything about dairy work knows what loppered milk is. It is the thick soured milk that one finds under the butter cream.

This loppered milk is made into cottage cheese, and many people, in making their cottage cheese, stand it for a moment on the fire to thicken.

Woe to the dairy wife who lets it stay too long!

It becomes like little knobs of rubber, that nothing will soften. When one tries to bite it one's teeth rebound. It is the toughest kind of material.

Mr. Callander, the Englishman who invented the milk buttons, must have had an encounter with some of this cottage cheese, and his trouble in chewing it must have made him wonder whether it wasn't intended for something else instead of food.

He has found a means of making the loppered milk so solid, that three days after he has mixed it with some ingredients, the secret of which he will not tell, it is like celluloid, and is ready to be cut.

It has a glossy surface, and is of a creamy color.

It is said to be less brittle than bone or celluloid, and not likely to chip. Any one who has eaten cottage cheese that has been too long on the stove will believe that the new substance has powers of resistance that are quite unequalled.

G.H.R.



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

The Editor is pleased to acknowledge the letters from John Russell and Fred S. Hall, and to know that THE GREAT ROUND WORLD is enjoyed by them.

It is difficult to answer Fred's inquiry, as to where we get our news. The only true answer is, from all over and everywhere. The Editor has eyes and ears open all the while to gather interesting facts for the paper's young readers.

The Editor was pleased to receive the pleasant letter from I.L.G. Rice. The suggestion of an article on "Casting and Founding" is good, and will be adopted at the earliest possible moment.

I.L.G. Rice must, however, bear in mind that expansion is thoroughly understood by scientists, and that Dr. Moissan was not doing the rough work of a foundry, but conducting a most delicate experiment, in which he brought into play all the scientific knowledge available.

DEAR EDITOR:—I have been thinking that I would write you and tell you how much I like THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. It interests me very much. I have looked for salt in the streets, but have not seen any.

It was funny that the bottle that Mr. McCoy threw into the water made such a journey.

I must stop now, but I still remain,

Your affectionate reader, NEW YORK CITY. JOHN F. RUSSELL, JR.

DEAR EDITOR:—I am very much pleased with your book, THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. My father wrote you to-day. I am very much interested in it.

I want to ask you a few questions.

Can you tell me where you get your news? I see you say that Maceo was shot, after all. Do you think United States will declare war with Spain? Could you send me a copy of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD about the time the news of Maceo's death was first heard of, if you have a spare one?

I must close now. Please direct the letter to

NORTH ADAMS, MASS. FRED S. HALL.

DEAR EDITOR:—Our teacher has been receiving all of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD papers, and she reads to us every morning.

We like the paper ever so much, and have learned a great deal about both the Cuban war and our government. She also read us the little note you had printed in the back, saying you would answer (and be glad to) any question we might ask.

We pupils do not understand about the new platform at the end of Brooklyn Bridge, and I am going to ask a few questions. Will the platform carry you down as well as up? How many will it carry? About how large is it? Is there more than one? If so, please tell me how many.

From your friend, CHEYENNE, WYO. ELSIE K. (age 11).



DEAR ELSIE:

In reply to your letter about the Brooklyn Bridge.

It is only arranged to save people climbing up-stairs. It is easy enough to go down-stairs, but it is the climbing up that people dislike, and the new elevator is to save this trouble.

It will take up three thousand passengers an hour, and if it is the success it promises to be, six of these lazy-man's staircases will be put into use.

It is the same size as the staircase of which it is to take the place.



School Books Wanted

The following school books will be taken in exchange for subscriptions for "Great Round World" at prices named.

Send books by express prepaid. Send none which are much soiled or worn; pages must not be torn nor missing. Mark package—"GREAT ROUND WORLD, 3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City, care William Beverley Harison."

Put your name on package and send a list by mail with your subscription order.

We can use Standard School Books of all kinds, send List of any you may wish to dispose of.

READERS

Barnes' First, 20c. Second, 30c. Third, 40c. Appleton's " 15c. " 25c. " 30c. Cyr's " 20c. " 25c. " 30c. New Franklin " 20c. " 30c. " 35c. McGuffey's Revised " 15c. " 25c. " 30c. Stickney's " 10c. " 15c. " 20c. Swinton's " 20c. " 30c. " 40c. Information " 30c. " 30c. " 30c.

HISTORIES. UNITED STATES

Barnes' Primary, 40c. Large 1890 or later, 75c. Eggleston's First Book, 40c. " 75c. Fiske's " 75c. Johnston's Shorter, 40c. " 75c. Montgomery's Beginner's, 30c. " 75c. Sheldon's " 50c. Thomas' " 50c.

ARITHMETICS

Bailey's Mental, 15c. Brooks' New " 15c. New Written, 30c. Atwood's Part 1, 20c. Part 2, 35c. Milne's Elements, 25c. Standard, 40c. Prince's No. 1 to 7, 15c. each Sanford's Primary, 20c. Common School, 35c. Robinson's New " 10c. Rudiments, 25c.

GEOGRAPHIES—(These must have North and South Dakota)

Appleton's, Barnes', Maury's, or Eclectic Elementary, 35c. Monteith's First, 20c. Introduction 30c. Manual, 50c.

GRAMMARS

Reed & Kellogg's Elementary, 20c. Higher, 40c. Whitney & Lockwood's, 35c. Hyde's First Lessons, 20c. Second Book, 40c. Tarbell's First Book, 25c. " " 40c.

PRIMERS—10 Cents Each

Appleton's, Cyr's, Interstate, McGuffey's Revised, Riverside, Swinton's, Monroe's.

SPELLERS—10 Cents Each

McGuffey's Revised, Gilbert's School Studies, Modern, Harrington's (2 parts in one), Babcock's, Patterson's Common School, Reed's, Sheldon's Word Studies, Swinton's.

We can use, in addition to the ones named in this list, all kinds of dictionaries, late editions of French and German books, Algebras, Latin and Greek books, and in fact all kinds of late text-books. If you send a list, prices will be given.



History and Manuals of Vertical Writing

By JOHN JACKSON

* * * * *

Theory and Practice of Vertical Writing, $1.25 Teaching of Vertical Writing, .50

* * * * *

John Jackson, the originator of this system of vertical writing, is the only teacher who has had the years of practice in teaching it that make these the standard manuals for teachers and students. The adoption of vertical writing abroad and in this country is largely due to his persistent work and the marvellous results of his teaching. His series of copy-books were the first to be used in this country, and are considered by experienced teachers, who are not to be misled by mere beauty of engravers work, to contain the only practical well-graded course of instruction leading from primary work to the rapid and now justly celebrated telegraph hand—for these books are the only ones containing copies in this rapid writing. The telegraph hand is the style used by the best telegraph operators in the country—and these writers are universally acknowledged to be the most rapid writers, and writers of a hand which of necessity must be most legible.

* * * * *

Copy-Books (10 numbers), 96 cents per dozen Copy-Pads (8 numbers), 96 cents per dozen

BOTH SERIES CONTAIN SIMILAR COPIES.

Sample sets to teachers (post-paid), 75 cents

* * * * *

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City



SIMPLE LESSONS IN THE

STUDY OF NATURE

By I.G. OAKLEY

This is a handy little book, which many a teacher who is looking for means to offer children genuine nature study may be thankful to get hold of.

Nature lessons, to be entitled to that name, must deal with what can be handled and scrutinized at leisure by the child, pulled apart, and even wasted. This can be done with the objects discussed in this book; they are under the feet of childhood—grass, feathers, a fallen leaf, a budding twig, or twisted shell; these things cannot be far out of the way, even within the stony limits of a city.

Nor are the lessons haphazard dashes at the nearest living thing; on the contrary, they are virtually fundamental, whether with respect to their relation to some of the classified sciences, or with reference to the development of thought and power of expression in the child himself.

The illustrations are few, and scarcely more than figures; it is not meant to be a pretty picture-book, yet is most clearly and beautifully printed and arranged, for its material is to be that out of which pictures are made. It will be found full of suggestions of practical value to teachers who are carrying the miscellaneous work of ungraded schools, and who have the unspeakable privilege of dealing with their pupils untrammelled by cast-iron methods and account-keeping examination records.

Sample copy, 50 Cents, post-paid

* * * * *

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 W. 18th St. . . . New York City



KLEMMS'

RELIEF PRACTICE MAPS.

* * * * *

LIST OF MAPS.

Small size, 9-1/2 x 11 { Plain, 5 cents each. { With Waterproofed surface 10 " "

Europe, Asia, Africa; North America, South America, East Central States, New England, Middle Atlantic States, South Atlantic States, Palestine, Australia.

Large size, 10 x 15 { Plain, 10 cents each. { With Waterproofed Surface, 15 " "

United States, British Isles, Roman Empire, Western Europe, North America, South America, Asia.

(POSTAGE ON SINGLE MAPS, 5 CENTS.)

* * * * *

"I would advise Sunday-school teachers to use, in connection with the lessons of 1897, Klemm's Relief Map of the Roman Empire. Every scholar who can draw should have a copy of it. Being blank, it can be beautifully colored: waters, blue; mountains, brown; valleys, green; deserts, yellow; cities marked with pin-holes; and the journeys of Paul can be traced upon it."—MRS. WILBUR F. CRAFTS, President International Union of Primary Sabbath-School Teachers of the United States.

* * * * *

DESCRIPTION OF THE MAPS.

These maps are made in two forms, both with beautifully executed relief (embossed)—the cheaper ones of plain stiff paper similar to drawing paper (these are to be substituted for and used as outline map blanks), the others covered with a durable waterproof surface, that can be quickly cleaned with a damp sponge, adapted to receive a succession of markings and cleansings. Oceans, lakes, and rivers, as well as land, appear in the same color, white, so as to facilitate the use of the map as a geographical slate.

* * * * *

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 W. 18th St. ... New York City



EXTRA EYES

* * * * *

Have you ever seen the beautiful colors in a fly's wing? or the hole through a hair, or the little seed babies in the different seeds? Probably not unless you have some extra eyes to see them with. We call these EXTRA EYES, MICROSCOPES, Microscope is a name made from two Greek words, MICROS, "small," and SKOPEIN, "to view," and is an instrument to look at small things.

A very nice one is shown in the following picture; it has glass plates to put these small things on, a mirror to reflect the light under them, and all of the little instruments necessary. The price is $2.00, and this covers the entire cost of a nice strong box with a place for each part, which will be sent to any address for this price.



William Beverley Harison, 3 and 5 West 18th St., N.Y. City.

THE END

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