THE GREAT ROUND WORLD
AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT
SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. MAY 6, 1897 Vol. 1. NO. 26 $2.50 PER YEAR [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second-class matter]
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD NATURAL HISTORY STORIES.
A Series of True Stories
BY JULIA TRUITT BISHOP.
Attractively Illustrated by Barnes.
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These stories will be issued in parts. Price, 10 cents each. Subscription price (12 numbers), $1.00. Part 1. issued as supplement to GREAT ROUND WORLD. NO. 20.
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The stories published in this little volume have been issued from time to time in the Philadelphia Times, and it is at the request of many readers that they now greet the world in more enduring form. They have been written as occasion suggested, during several years; and they commemorate to me many of the friends I have known and loved in the animal world. "Shep" and "Dr. Jim," "Abdallah" and "Brownie," "Little Dryad" and "Peek-a-Boo." I have been fast friends with every one, and have watched them with such loving interest that I knew all their ways and could almost read their thoughts. I send them on to other lovers of dumb animals, hoping that the stories of these friends of mine will carry pleasure to young and old.
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A great deal is expected of the teachers in our public schools at the present day in the way of keeping the pupils conversant with the political and scientific questions of the day. While this is as it should be, we believe that if parents would look well to the quality of reading-matter placed before their children better results would be obtained from the teachers' efforts in this line. THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT, is the name of a newspaper for children, and without exception it is the finest one of its kind ever published. It comes in magazine form, and is overflowing with interesting subjects written in such a bright and yet simple manner that the whole household unwittingly becomes interested in it.—Omer, Mich., Progress, Jan. 8, 1897.
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VOL. 1 MAY 6, 1897. NO. 26
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Now that the war between Greece and Turkey has really commenced, people are much interested in comparing the strength of the two armies, and wondering which side will gain the victory.
The Greek regular army numbers one hundred and twenty-five thousand, the Turkish one hundred and fifty thousand. When all the reserves are called out, it is thought that both countries can put twice if not three times as many men in the field.
The Turkish army is considered the finer of the two, because it is so well drilled, and so perfectly armed. It is said that German officers have been teaching the Turkish soldiers the modern methods of war.
The Turks, however, are the weaker in two important points: their means of providing food for their soldiers, and in facilities for carrying them quickly from one point to another.
An army that is weak in these two very important points loses a good deal of its usefulness.
As we have seen in Cuba, men cannot fight well when they are hungry. It is also a fatal thing to have no good roads or railroads, along which large bodies of men may be sent when they are needed.
The Greek army is not nearly so well drilled as the Turkish, nor so well officered. The Turks have in Edhem Pasha a splendid leader, while the Greeks have no great general to lead them, and at present no general who seems even particularly clever. But that need not worry the friends of Greece. The history of the world has taught us that every great occasion has brought with it a great man capable of dealing with it. The French Revolution brought forth Napoleon, the War of Independence gave us Washington. We can therefore trust that what has happened before may occur again, and that the Greek crisis may produce its Washington, to lead the brave little country safely to success.
The great strength of the Greeks lies in their navy, which is one of the finest in Europe. The Greek ships are modern, well manned, and well armed. The Turkish navy, on the other hand, has been the joke of Europe for many years.
Since the invention of the great guns that will send a cannon ball through the side of a wooden ship as easily as you can pierce an egg-shell with a needle, all the warships have been fitted with strong steel armored hulls and water-tight compartments, such as we told you about on page 75 of Vol. I. of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.
Turkey has none of these new ships. She has been bankrupt for so many years that she has not had the money to buy any of them.
It is supposed that the Turks will be more successful on land than the Greeks, but that the Greek navy will win back on the sea as much as the army loses on land.
It is also said that the Turkish arrangements for feeding the soldiers are so bad, that, if the war runs on into months instead of weeks, the Turks will not be able to hold out.
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The Senate has not yet taken any action on the Cuban Bill.
Senator Morgan again brought it before the House, hoping that he would be able to bring it to a vote. He was, however, obliged to agree to hold it over for a day or two until Senator Hale should be able to be present, as Mr. Hale has some very important things he wishes to say on the subject.
From Cuba there is very little news of interest.
Much indignation is felt against General Weyler, because he has sent out soldiers to destroy the Cuban hospitals, and in the last few days several have been burned and the sick soldiers in them murdered.
The Cubans are not able to have large hospitals, because they cannot spare a sufficient number of men to protect them, so they have been in the habit of building huts in the forests, where they would leave a few wounded men, in the charge of one or two nurses.
These forest hospitals are not guarded. The Cubans have trusted to the woods to conceal them from the enemy.
It seems that the Spaniards have found out the secret of the hospitals, and now General Weyler has sent out parties to make a careful search for them.
As soon as a hut is found the invalids are put to death and the nurses taken prisoner.
To fire upon or in any way attack a hospital is against the rules of civilized warfare, and this new horror of General Weyler's adds one more to the long list of his crimes.
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The Mississippi River has not begun to subside yet, and the floods grow daily more serious, as fresh levees give way, and allow the waters to flow over new districts.
There is, however, some hope that the greatest height of the flood wave has been reached, and that the angry waters may begin to go back in a few days.
There is still fear that the city of New Orleans may be swept by the flood.
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The vexed question of the Bering Sea seal fisheries is coming up again.
The Bering Sea divides America from Asia, and is bordered on the American side by the State of Alaska, and on the Asiatic side by Siberia.
Up to the year 1867, Alaska, or Aliaska, as it was called, belonged to the Russian Government.
In that year it was sold to the United States for $7,200,000.
At the time of the purchase Alaska was looked upon as a very barren land; no one ever dreamt that gold and silver and other valuable minerals would be found in it. The money spent for the purchase was seriously begrudged by many people, and Mr. Seward, the Secretary of State who had made the bargain, was much blamed, people saying that it was a foolish waste of the public money.
The one source of income which Alaska was known to possess in those days was its seal fisheries. A great herd of fur-bearing seals lived in the Alaskan waters, and the Government expected to make these seals very profitable to it.
Under the Russian rule, the fur seal regions had been very carefully protected, and when the United States bought Alaska the Government decided to care for the animals in the same way that the Russians had done, allowing only a certain number of seals to be killed each year.
The fisheries were leased to a company called the Alaska Commercial Company of San Francisco, which had the entire rights to them, under certain rules and regulations laid down by the Government.
Soon after Alaska and its seal fisheries came into the possession of the United States, English and American vessels—the latter not belonging to the Commercial Company—entered the Bering Sea, and slaughtered any seals they could reach, without regard to the proper rules for seal fishing.
The Company complained to the Government, and in 1887 this seal poaching had become such a serious matter that the United States ordered her revenue cutters up to Bering Sea to protect her interests.
Several ships were captured by the revenue-officers, and most of them were British vessels.
This opened the way for the dispute between Great Britain and the United States, which has been going on ever since, and has been one of the most troublesome questions our rulers have had to deal with.
Great Britain claimed that she had a perfect right to fish in Bering Sea, and the United States insisted that she had bought all the rights to the fishing when she bought Alaska.
After the quarrel had dragged on for five years, it was finally, in 1892, decided to arbitrate it.
The Committee appointed for this purpose met in Paris, France, in 1893, and finally decided that Russia had never had any rights in the Bering Sea, beyond the usual rights which all countries have of controlling the seas for three miles out from their borders.
Beyond the three-mile limit, the ocean becomes the "high seas," and is then open to anybody.
It was decided that Russia could not sell the Bering Sea to the United States.
The matter being thus decided, the question of caring for the seals was left as unsettled as ever, and it was most necessary that some arrangement should be made, unless the seals were to be totally destroyed.
The decision at Paris made it necessary that Great Britain should be willing to agree to any plan that should be adopted.
It was therefore shown to the Committee that the seal flocks were in danger of being destroyed, and a set of laws was made that proper care might be taken of the seals. England and the United States agreed to obey these laws, and it was decided that they should go into effect at once.
As it was supposed that in course of time it might be wise to alter these laws, it was further agreed between England and the United States that they should be looked over every five years, and changed if it was necessary.
The five years has still sixteen months to run, but the American Government has thought it advisable to ask that the two countries meet and talk the subject over once more, as the laws are not strong enough to protect the seals.
The United States complains now that Canadian and British fishers are killing the seals in the same careless, ignorant way that they did before the Treaty of Paris, and that unless they are stopped there will be no seals in Alaska in a very few years.
The Government says that the habits of the seals must be studied and understood, so that they may be protected, in order that all the fur necessary for market may be obtained, without interfering with the growth of the herds.
Every year the seals arrive in flocks hundreds of thousands strong, and seek a sandy beach, or some nice sunny rocks, where they can spend the summer. In these places they establish rookeries, or villages, as they are sometimes called.
The fathers of the families come first, arriving in April to seek out comfortable quarters.
In June the mothers come to the island, take possession of the homes provided for them, and pretty soon each seal mother has a nice little seal pup to occupy her home with her.
It is a curious thing about these little seal pups that though they are going to spend their lives in the water, they don't like the idea of it at all, and have to be forced into the water by their mothers, and taught to swim just as though they were little boys and girls.
Baby seals have nearly white fur when they are born, and, strange to say, until this coat falls off and the dark one comes, their mothers never attempt to take them to the water.
The seals are not the gentle things they appear to be, with their soft brown eyes and their sleek coats. On the contrary, they are very fierce and warlike if any attempt is made to interfere with their families.
When the fathers first reach the beach, and set about making the home ready for their families, they will not allow any of the young bachelor seals to land near the rookeries. They force them either to remain in the water, or to go to the highlands above the village.
The bachelor seals think they have as much right to a comfortable home as the older seals, and so they fight hard to enter the villages.
This fighting keeps up the whole summer while the seals are out of the water, and those who have seen these battles say that "night and day, the sound of them is like that of an approaching railway train."
So steadily does the fighting continue that the old seals have no time to eat, and during the three or four months they stay with their families on the beaches they never take a mouthful of food. At the end of the time, when they leave the rookeries, they are thin and miserable, and covered with battle scars.
The killing of the seals should be carefully arranged with a knowledge of these habits.
The proper rules are that no mother seals, baby seals, or father seals shall be killed, but that the hunters shall watch until the badly behaved bachelor seals have got tired with fighting, and gone up above the rookeries to rest. The hunters ought then to creep in between the seals and the water, and making a noise to frighten them drive them inland.
Every hunter should be armed with a wooden club, and when he has chosen a seal that seems to be about two or three years old, he should strike it with this club and kill it.
In this way a large number of seals can be obtained without disturbing the rest of the flock.
The manner of killing that the United States complains of is that the hunters creep into the rookeries and kill the mother seals, leaving the poor little pups to die by thousands for want of their mothers' care.
Because of this wholesale killing of the seals, there are few young seals left to grow up in the place of those that have been taken away, and so after a time there will be no more flocks at all.
The sealskin which we use is made out of the under fur of the animal. The seals which are caught for fur have a very thick, velvet-like undercoat, covered with a quantity of long hair, which has to be removed from the skins before they can be used for market.
The roots of these long hairs grow much deeper into the skin than those of the short, thick fur, and so the pelts can be laid face downward, and pared away very carefully at the back until the roots of the long hairs are cut through. The long hairs are then pulled out of the skin, and the beautiful soft fur is left.
It is to be hoped that, in the discussion of this matter between England and the United States, the proper rules for killing the seals may be very strictly laid down, that they may be enforced. It will be too bad if this splendid fur is lost through ignorance and carelessness.
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Another of the old questions that have vexed our Government is being brought to the front again. This one is the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands.
The reason why this subject has come up again is that the Japanese have been emigrating to these islands in such vast numbers of late, that an invasion is feared, and the Government is anxious to have American protection.
A little while ago word was sent that the Hawaiians had turned back four hundred Japanese emigrants who sought to land at Honolulu. Japan immediately sent war-ships to inquire into the matter, and the United States also sent a cruiser.
It soon became evident that the affair was much more serious than at first appeared.
The Japanese have been emigrating to Hawaii in such vast numbers that, unless something is done to stop them, there will soon be more Japanese than natives in the islands.
The Government of Hawaii, awakening to the danger that threatened, has made fresh advances to the United States, asking once more to be annexed to this country.
This question of annexation has been talked about since the year 1893.
In January, 1893, there was a revolution in Hawaii, because the people had found cause to dislike their queen, Liliuokalani. This queen's behavior had been very bad, and her rule had been a disgrace to the islands for some time. At last the people would stand it no longer, and so removed her from the throne.
The people who revolted against the Queen were either Americans or people born of American parents settled in Hawaii.
They formed a government, and after many troubles asked the United States to take possession of the Hawaiian Islands, and, in return, to pay over $3,000,000 of debts which Hawaii had contracted, and a yearly income of $20,000 to the deposed queen, and also a lump sum of $150,000 to her daughter, Princess Kaulani.
Mr. Cleveland, who was President, opposed the idea of taking possession of the islands, and endeavored to restore Queen Liliuokalani to her throne.
His efforts were not successful. The Hawaiians would not have her back, and having had time to establish a government for themselves, they felt as if they could do without the United States as well as their dark-skinned Queen. So the question of annexing the islands fell through.
Now it is before us again with greater force than before.
It is evident that if we don't want Hawaii, Japan does, and the time is drawing near when some decided step must be taken.
The Japanese plan for securing Hawaii seems to be similar to the English plan for getting possession of the Transvaal.
It seems to be their idea to fill the islands with Japanese, until the number of Asiatics is far greater than that of the Hawaiians. Then they will demand a voice in the government, and when once they have secured that, it will be only a question of time when they will have the government of the islands under their control.
The people of Hawaii became suspicious of this plot when they found that the Japanese who came over in such hordes (sometimes as many as fifteen hundred in one week), were not laborers seeking work, as is the case with most immigrants.
It was found that the new arrivals belonged to the student class, and that after they arrived in the islands, they made no attempt to get anything to do, but seemed to be living on their incomes.
This made the Hawaiians suspicious that these emigrants were being sent over at the expense of their Government, and that the Mikado was supporting them until he had gained his ends, and secured the islands for himself.
Just lately there was a scare of fever in Honolulu, the port of Hawaii, and the baggage of the incoming people had to be carefully fumigated. While doing this work the officers found to their surprise that nearly every Japanese immigrant had a soldier's uniform done up in his baggage.
The Government does not know what to make of this, but has become so thoroughly alarmed that it is seeking the protection of the United States.
A prominent lawyer from Honolulu has come over here to assist the officials who are already in Washington laying their case before our Government.
The Japanese treat the matter very lightly, and pretend that it is a foolish scare that amounts to nothing. They insist, however, that the Japanese immigrants shall not be turned back from Hawaii but allowed to land, as they have a right to do, according to the treaty existing between Hawaii and Japan.
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Some fresh news has come about the uprising in Brazil.
The insurgents it would seem are led by a man named Antonio Conselhiero, who appears to be a very extraordinary kind of person.
He first made his appearance last November, when one day he marched through the streets of a small town in Bahia, followed by a well-drilled, orderly band of men and women.
These people went through the streets singing the old songs and hymns of the empire, and every now and then they would halt, and Conselhiero would address the crowd that gathered around him.
From the descriptions of him that have been sent from Brazil, he seems to be an enormously tall man, with black eyes, and long black hair and beard. He is broad and big as well as tall, and looks like a giant.
He seemed to have such an influence over the crowds who listened to his words, that they flocked to his standard, and followed him, promising to help him in his crusade against the government, and his attempt to restore the monarchy.
The Governor ordered the police to send the crowds back to their homes, and drive Conselhiero and his band out of the city. But this was easier said than done. The strange man's followers, women as well as men, attacked the police, killing some, and wounding many.
Then Conselhiero made his way to a mountain, where he encamped with his followers, and prepared to defy the authorities.
The Governor, still thinking the whole affair was but an insignificant riot, sent a small body of soldiers after the insurgents, with orders to make them break up their camp and move off.
When the soldiers arrived at Conselhiero's encampment, they made very light of being sent out to disperse a body of tramps and vagabonds.
Their amusement did not last long. A number of women, armed with heavy swords, rushed out upon them, and attacked them so furiously that they were forced to run for their lives.
More troops were sent out by the Governor, and three times were they beaten by Conselhiero's strange army of women and men.
The authorities refused to believe that there was anything serious in these defeats, and persisted in thinking "the fanatics," as Conselhiero's followers are called, a parcel of crazy lunatics who would soon come to their senses.
At last when it was found that Conselhiero was preaching the return of the monarchy to the people, and that peasants and soldiers were alike flocking to his standard, in the hope of seeing a prince on the throne of Brazil, they began to see that this man was by no means crazy, but that he was a very serious enemy who must be seriously treated.
There is a very strong wish in the hearts of many Brazilians for the return of the monarchy, and numbers of influential people are joining Conselhiero, who is gaining ground every day.
The revolution has indeed gained such a strong hold in Brazil that it will be a very difficult task to put it down.
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The Greater Republic of Central America does not seem to be having a very pleasant time of it.
If you remember, it was only recognized by our Government in December last, and already there is trouble.
On page 220 of Vol. I we told you that the Greater Republic of Central America was formed by the union of the three republics of Honduras, San Salvador, and Nicaragua.
Now there is a revolution in Honduras; one of those toy revolutions we spoke about in No. 22 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.
In all the small South American Republics, revolution and rebellion is as the breath of life to the people.
If a general gets popular with his soldiers he at once plots to overthrow the government, and with the help of the army become president himself.
Every man who is either clever or ambitious gets up a toy revolution to depose somebody, and take his place.
The present revolution appears to be of the usual kind.
The President has become unpopular, and it is said that one of the former presidents, Dr. Soto, thinks he would like to have another term of office, and so he has incited the people to revolt.
A new government has been formed to take charge of affairs until they become more settled, and things seem to be shaping themselves to suit the doctor's wishes.
San Salvador and Guatemala, though by their new ties they are bound to assist their sister republic, have declined to interfere, and it looks as if the life of the Greater Republic of Central America would not be nearly as long as its name.
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On page 134 of Vol. I. we spoke about the unfortunate Russians who are exiled to Siberia, and of the thousands of miles they are forced to march across the continent before they reach their place of punishment.
It has just been reported that the Czar has issued a decree that persons who are exiled to Siberia shall, from this time forth, be carried by train to the convict settlements.
In the days when the poor unfortunates had to make the journey on foot it took ninety days of steady marching to reach the journey's end, and women and children as well as men took their places in the long, sad procession that wound its way across the dreary steppes of Russia.
This decree must have caused much rejoicing among the Russian people, and if the Czar continues to rule his people so mercifully and kindly, we may all live to see the day when there will be no more Nihilism or hatred between the ruler and the ruled in Russia, and when it will no longer be necessary to send anybody to Siberia.
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The boys of the Cambridge Manual Training School have a new lesson which has become very popular with them.
This is a fire drill.
The pupils are taught to go through the whole process of fighting a fire in the same way that the firemen do.
Before the boys are allowed to join the fire battalion they have to be drilled, taught to march, and are obliged to attend lectures on surgery, and how to help injured people until the doctor comes.
After the boys have gone through this first course of study, they begin their real fireman's training. They attend more lectures in which they learn how to handle the various ladders and machines which firemen use. They have to learn how a fire engine is put together, what are the uses of every wheel and valve, and how to clean and care for each separate part of the engine; and when they are quite familiar with the various things used by firemen they pass on to the last stage of training.
This begins on March 1st, and from this time on the work is done out of doors.
A wooden building forty feet high, and provided with doors and windows exactly like a three-story house, is put up in the schoolyard, and it is with this building that the lessons are given.
Every Thursday afternoon an imaginary fire takes place in it. The hose is run out, the ladders are raised, and the lads go to work with a will, saving imaginary lives, and fighting imaginary flames.
Each week some new complication is supposed to take place, and some extra machine has to be brought into use, until by the end of the school term they can handle every machine and ladder with the greatest ease.
When first the fire drill was introduced into the school, the boys were not obliged to take the study unless they wanted to; but it has become so popular that they are eager and anxious to take it, and now is part of the regular course of the school for all boys who are strong enough to stand the hard work it necessitates.
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Some time ago we talked about the moving of the village of Katonah. Our friends in California can do better than that. While New York moves houses, California moves mountains.
A dam is being built at San Diego, Cal., to gather water for the city. Where the water supply for a city is not quite sufficient, darns are often built, to stop small rivers from flowing away to waste; and the water gathered by the barrier of wood, stone, or earth, as the case may be, is turned into the city to be used by the people.
In the San Diego work, a huge mass of rocky hillside overhung the canon which was to be dammed, and at the bottom of which the river flowed.
A canon is, as you doubtless know, a deep gorge or ravine, formed by the river that flows through it, and which little by little has worn away its bed until it has cut deep down into the heart of the land, hundreds of feet below its original level.
As we have said, the plan for the San Diego work was to build a dam across the canon, and keep the waters from flowing away.
The engineers thought that if they could only take this huge mass of rocky hill and drop it into the canon, it would make their work very much easier, as the task of getting enough stone down to the bottom of the gorge to build their dam was by no means an easy one.
They thought the matter out, and finally decided to try and move the mountain-side into the canon.
They laid their plans, and for two months were busy preparing for the great move.
They tunnelled the hillside in all directions over the section which they desired to move, and in these tunnels laid mines of giant powder or dynamite.
These mines they connected with electric wires, and when all was ready, the various wires were gathered into one bunch, and taken across the gorge that was to be filled up.
When the explosion was about to take place the workmen and engineers moved ever so far away, until they were at a safe distance from the explosion, and one man, the foreman, was sent to the edge of the canon to touch the wires, and start the firing of the mines.
When he received the signal he touched the wire, and then ran away to safety as fast as he could go, while the others watched the explosion.
It seems to have been a most wonderful sight.
Bowlders and masses of rock rose from their beds on the hillside, and little tongues of dust and smoke shot out from the earth in all directions. Then there was a terrific growl, which seemed to come from the heart of the mountain, the earth shook, the men who were watching were thrown to the ground, and with a roar and a rattle the side of the mountain moved and began to fall.
There was a shower of stones which continued to fall for over an hour, and the dust was so thick that it was impossible to see; but when it finally cleared, it was found that an enormous slice of the side of the mountain had been blown into the canon below.
The engineers said that one hundred and fifty thousand tons of rock had been moved, and to their great pride they found that it had fallen exactly according to their plans, and had bridged the canon and formed the bulwark for the support of the dam.
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The past week has been one of great anxiety for Greece and the Greek cause.
The Turks have been steadily gaining ground in the East; they have swarmed through the pass of Milouna into the plains of Thessaly.
The Greeks fought nobly, and succeeded in driving the Turks a little way back toward Milouna, but the vast army of Turkey was too strong for them, and despite their efforts, the enemy has made its way into Greece, and advanced upon the city of Larissa.
The mayors and governors of Thessaly have called on the peasants and all men capable of bearing arms to come to the defence of their country, and volunteers are flocking in every hour.
The latest news that has reached us states that the Greeks have finally fallen back to Pharsalia, leaving Larissa at the mercy of the Turks.
Now while this looks very badly for the Greeks, and at this time it seems as if their ultimate defeat were sure, it is too soon to offer any very decided opinion.
It may all be a part of a very deep-laid plan of the Greeks.
It must be remembered that the weak points of the Turkish army in regard to provisions and transportation are as well known to the Greeks as to us. The farther the Turks can be enticed away from the place where they keep their stores, the weaker they grow. The Greeks may have planned to lure them over the border, and away from their supplies, and then fight them when they have them at a disadvantage.
This looks the more likely when it is taken into consideration that the Greeks have been successful in invading Turkey and reaching Elassona, the Turkish headquarters, and that they also hold the Pass of Reveni.
The Greek navy has been doing some very fine work, bombarding and destroying towns on the east coast, as well as the west.
The Greek army which was pressing on to the Turkish city of Janina in Epirus has met with a severe reverse.
With information of the defeat comes news that is of such great importance to the Greek cause that the present check may prove to be of very little importance.
This news is that the Albanians have risen against their masters the Turks, and joined with the Greeks.
Albania was at one time a part of Greece, but that was in the early history of the Empire. It at last secured its freedom and became an independent country.
In 1478 the Turks conquered Albania, and it has been under Turkish rule ever since. The Albanians have no love for the Turks, and though they are supposed to be obedient to the Sultan's wishes, he does not dare to appoint any but native Albanians to govern them. The people have always contrived to give him all the trouble possible.
The Greeks hoped that the Albanians would join them, as well as the Macedonians, and so, despite the reverses that the week has brought, with these powerful friends to help them, they must be feeling more sure of success than they were a few days ago.
Bulgaria is also becoming restless and making demands of the Sultan, threatening to revolt against him if he does not give them what they ask for.
The Prince of Bulgaria has made a trip to Berlin to borrow money for the war. And it is likely that the Sultan may soon have so many enemies to fight that he will wish the Powers had allowed him to arrange the Cretan matters for himself, without interfering and bringing this hornet's nest about his ears.
GENIE H. ROSENFELD.
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
With the summer coming on, inventions for swimmers are being brought forward.
The WATER SKATE or shoe is to afford a new and very delightful means of sport.
It is intended to be used when the swimmer is in the upright position assumed in treading water. A swimmer can maintain this position for a long time, but can ordinarily make no headway in the water.
The water skate is invented to enable him to strike out with his feet as in walking. Under the skate there are two "fins." These remain pressed together with the forward movement of the foot, but with the same movement as the hands take in swimming. These fins open out as the foot reaches the limit of its stride, and push back the water exactly in the same way that the arms do.
It is claimed that a high rate of speed can be obtained with this water skate.
CANOPY FOR BICYCLES.—All cyclers complain so of the heat of the sun, that busy brains are at work to find a means of protecting the riders from the fierce heat.
A canopy has just been invented, which seems to be the most practical and sensible of any of the coverings offered.
It has a pointed roof to it, and spreads over the rider at a distance that in no way obstructs the view.
One great advantage of this canopy is that it is firmer than any other kind so far suggested.
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THE PORTABLE FIRE-ESCAPE is an invention that should recommend itself to every one. It is small enough to be easily carried, and is so arranged that the person using it to let himself down from a burning building can control the rate of speed at which he descends, and avoid all danger of a sudden fall.
It is firmly hooked on to a clamp that is provided with it, and it consists of a seat attached to two pulleys, through which the ropes pass.
The person seeking to escape from the fire places himself on the seat, and, grasping the pulley firmly, lets himself out of the window. By means of an attachment he is able, as we have said, to regulate the speed of his descent.
This invention ought to be of great service to all those who live in high buildings.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
Being a great reader of your paper, I of course felt inclined to send you some praise, as you deserve it. I am more interested in Cuba than in the affairs of Crete. I have been to see the new Library, and consider it the finest in the world. Hoping much success to the paper, I remain,
Your interested reader, NATALIE C. WASHINGTON, D.C.
Your letter was received with much pleasure.
My teacher, Miss Galbraith, takes your paper, and I used to be looking for it; at last I bought it myself, so I could own it.
Your paper is very interesting and helpful in Geography. All my family are interested in THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, especially my father.
Will you please tell me if General Maceo is dead or not? We got so many different stories it is hard to tell which is true. Or if General Rivera is to be put to death?
I live in New Haven; it is a beautiful city, full of elm trees, with parks. Also Yale College, from which Nathan Hale and Samuel Morse graduated.
Your Reader, JOHN C. NEW HAVEN, CONN.
P.S.—I am glad that you don't publish prize-fights. It is the nature of animals, not human beings.
There is no longer any doubt that General Maceo was killed. The stories that he was still alive were probably made up by the Cubans, for fear their countrymen might lose heart if they knew the truth.
You will see in this number of your paper that General Rivera is not to be shot, according to the present reports. EDITOR.
I enjoy THE GREAT ROUND WORLD immensely, and look forward to its coming every week. I like to read about Greece and Cuba, and if I were Grecian I would gladly join in the war. I hope Greece will win, for I pity the poor Cretans under the cruel rule of Turkey. Wishing your paper many years of success, I am,
Your friend and reader, HAROLD R. NEW YORK, April 8th, 1897
Many thanks for your pretty letter. Write to us again soon. EDITOR.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
I want to ask you about the Cometa. Did the Admiral ever bring her into the Havana harbor as he boasted that he would, with flags flying on her?
Do you think Cuba is going to win? I hope that she will.
Are the Americans going to help them?—and then I know the Cubans will win. Yours truly,
SYDNEY G. BALTIMORE, April 9th, 1897.
MY DEAR SYDNEY:
The Spanish Admiral has never brought the Cometa into Havana harbor. He was just spinning a sailor's yarn, apparently.
We hope that Cuba will win her freedom, and it seems very likely that she will.
You will see in this number of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD that there is a chance that the President will try to settle the troubles between Cuba and Spain.
Our teacher takes THE GREAT ROUND WORLD and reads to us whenever the time will permit. The reading makes an interesting part of the exercises of the day. We are all anxious to hear about the war between Cuba and Spain, and we hope Cuba will soon be free. Can you tell us about how many people pass over Brooklyn Bridge in a day? I think it is wonderful how buttons and such articles are made out of milk. Do they have schools in Freeville? I think we should all be grateful for the interesting news that is printed for us in your paper each week.
Yours truly, NELLIE R. TIFFIN, OHIO, March 24th, 1897.
We are glad that you like THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. Why don't you try and get it for yourself by becoming one of our agents? You can get your own paper free of charge for two subscriptions, and it would be very nice to own it yourself, and be able to read it whenever you wanted to.
In Freeville the children are taught to work.
You ask about the number of persons who cross the Brooklyn Bridge daily. Mr. Martin, the Chief Engineer and Superintendent, has been so kind as to tell us all about it for you. We publish his note.
One hundred and twenty-five thousand people per day ride across the bridge in the cars. Twelve thousand walk over on the promenade. Five thousand vehicles cross the bridge on the roadways.—C.C. MARTIN, Chief Engineer and Superintendent.
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