THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT
SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. MAY 20, 1897 Vol. 1. NO. 28 $2.50 PER YEAR [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second-class matter]
A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER FOR BOYS AND GIRLS
WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON. PUBLISHER NO. 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY
Copyright, 1897, by WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON.
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Revised List, with Prices, of School-Books that will be taken in Exchange for Subscriptions to "The Great Round World."
READERS Appleton's Primer 5 " First 10 " Second 10 " Third 10 " Fourth 15 " Fifth 25 Baldwin's Classics 10 Barnes' First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 " Fourth 20 " Fifth 25 Butler's First 5 " Second 10 " Third 15 Cyr's Primer 10 " First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 Davis' First 5 " Second 10 " Third 15 Eggleston's Great Americans 15 Eng. Classics (Am. Bk. Co.) 10 Gilmour's Revised First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 10 " " Fourth 20 Harper's New First 10 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 20 " " Fifth 30 Hazen's First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 " Fourth 20 " Fifth 25 " Child's First Book 10 Holmes' New First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 20 " " Fifth 20 Interstate First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 King's First Book 20 " Second " 20 " Third " 20 " Fourth " 20 Lippincott's First 5 " Second 10 McGuffey's Revised Primer 5 " " First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 15 Monroe's New Primer 5 " " First 10 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 New Franklin Primer 5 " " First 10 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 20 " " Fifth 25 New Graded First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 Pollard's Revised Primer 5 " " First 8 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 Sheldon & Co.'s First 5 " Second 10 " Third 15 " Fourth 15 Stickney's New First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 10 " " Fourth 15 " " Fifth 20 Swinton's Primer 10 " First 10 " Second 15 " Third 20 " Fourth 20 " Fifth 25 Thompson's 10 Union First 5 " Second 5 Watson's First 5 " Second 10 Werner's Primer 10
SPELLERS Babcock's 5 Bailey's Scholar's Compan. 10 Farrell's Grammar School 10 Gilbert's School Studies 5 Graves' (cloth cover) 10 Harrington's Complete 5 McGuffey's Revised 5 Monroe's 5 Morse's 10 New American Primary 5 " " Pronouncing 5 Patterson's Com. School 5 Reed's Word Lessons 10 Swinton's Word Primer 5 " " Book 5 Town's Word Analysis 10 Watson's Complete 5
HISTORIES Allen's Rome 35 Anderson's New General 45 " " Gram. Sch. (N.Y. ed.) 25 " Eng. (1895 or later) 35 Barnes' Primary U.S. 15 " Brief (after 1890) 35 " General 60 Eggleston's First Book 20 " Large U.S. 35 Fiske's 35 Gardiner's England 35 Greene's Short Hist. of Eng. 40 Hansell's History 20 Hendrick's Empire State 15 Higginson's (after 1895) 30 " England 30 Johnston's Shorter U.S. 20 " Larger " 35 Montgomery's Begins. U.S. 20 " Large " 35 " France 35 " England 35 Mowry's U.S. 30 Myer's Greece 35 " Rome 35 Myer's Medieval 50 " General 50 " Ancient 50 Parley's Universal (718 pp.) 25 Ploetz' Epitome 40 Pratt's History Stories 10 Sheldon's Amer. History 30 " General " 40 Swinton's Outlines " 40 " N. School " 30 Thomas' United States 30
ARITHMETICS Atwood's, Part 1 10 " " 2 15 Bailey's Mental 10 Barnes' National 20 Bradbury's Practical (with Answers) 20 Brooks' New Series 15 Butler's, Part 1 5 " New Practical 20 Davies' Written 10 " New Practical 20 " University 25 Fish's, Part 1 (Am. B'k. Co.) 10 " " 2 " " 20 Franklin, Part 1 15 " " 2 25 Greenleaf's Common School 15 " Complete (with Answers) 20 Milnes' Elementary 15 " Standard 25 Prince's, Parts, each 10 " Practical 25 Ray's New Primary 5 " " Elementary 10 " " Practical 20 " " Higher 25 Robinson's Rudiments 15 " Practical 20 " Higher 25 Sanford's Primary 10 " Common School 20 " Higher 25 Sheldon's Elementary 10
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VOL. 1 MAY 20, 1897. NO. 28
On Saturday, May 1st, the Tennessee Centennial Exposition was formally opened.
The object of this Exposition is to celebrate the anniversary of the admission of the State of Tennessee into the Union, one hundred years ago.
Tennessee is the first State thus to celebrate its centennial.
The ceremonies at the opening of the Exposition were very simple; they had, however, one interesting feature.
After the Governor of the State and other important persons had spoken, Mr. Thomas, the President of the Exposition company, came forward and dictated the following telegram:
"To the President of the United States of America, Washington, D.C.
"The people of the State of Tennessee send greetings, and request that you now put in motion the machinery of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition."
There was a pause after the message was flashed over the wire. The people waited breathlessly, and then, amidst tremendous applause, the machinery began to move. President McKinley had received the message and answered it.
To make this great feat possible, wires had been laid, connecting the Exposition with Washington; and they had been so arranged that the pressure of the President's finger on an electric button would start the current and put the machinery in motion.
Like the World's Fair, the Tennessee Exposition was not quite completed when opened; but it appears to be a great success from an artistic standpoint.
The various buildings are modelled after the most celebrated specimens of Greek and Roman architecture. The grounds are beautifully laid out, and the spot selected for the Fair abounds in natural beauties which the gardeners have used to the very best advantage.
One of the wonders of the Fair is the great see-saw.
This is described as being an iron tower seventy-five feet high, across which a great beam of iron is balanced. To each end of this a large car is attached; and the beam see-saws, lifting the cars up and down. When one car is on the ground, the other is lifted ever so high up in the air.
Each car is made to hold fifty people.
The see-saw is not allowed to move quickly, for fear of frightening people, but is arranged so that it lifts the cars very slowly into the air, gives the passengers a good opportunity to look at the magnificent view of the surrounding country, and then carries them gently down to the ground again, with a motion so slight that it can hardly be felt.
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The Leeward Isles have just been visited by a series of earthquakes, which have been felt throughout the entire chain of islands.
The Leeward Islands are a part of the group of islands which form the West Indies. They are in the Caribbean Sea, and lie to the southeast of Cuba.
The first shocks were felt on April 22d, and continued throughout the entire week. The most severe quakings were felt three days later, when great damage was done.
The people of Antigua were so badly frightened that all business was brought to a standstill. Special services were held in the churches; and when the shocks had passed over, a thanksgiving was offered to the Almighty.
So great was the terror throughout the islands that the people deserted the land, and went to sea in small boats. But even the sea was unfriendly to them, for the earthquake was accompanied by a tidal wave, which wrecked many of the small craft. The seas rose to a great height, and swept over the land, doing much damage.
Hundreds of people are supposed to have been killed during this catastrophe, but the full extent of the damage is not yet known.
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Hawaiian affairs are occupying a good deal of attention at this time.
In No. 26 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, we spoke of the invasion by Japanese immigrants, and how the government of the Sandwich Islands sent the last few shiploads back to their own country.
The Japanese are extremely indignant at this action on the part of Hawaii.
The newspapers in Japan are calling upon the government to send war-ships to teach the Hawaiians that Japan insists upon fair treatment for her citizens.
In Japan, there is some talk of sending the emigrants back to Hawaii, with a demand that they be permitted to land. It is suggested that the Japanese Minister in Honolulu shall demand money damages from the Hawaiian government if these emigrants are refused the right of entry.
The Japanese think that the action of the Hawaiian government was suggested by the United States, and that it is only the first step to the annexation of these islands by us.
Japan declares herself opposed to such a union, and will do her best to prevent it.
The Japanese in the islands have become very bold and defiant.
They have been holding mass-meetings, and denouncing the action of the government in very strong terms.
It would seem that the Hawaiian government had acted none too soon in the Japanese immigration question, for, were the Japanese stronger in numbers, the indications are that they would try and take possession of the Sandwich Islands for themselves.
The cruiser Philadelphia has arrived in Honolulu. She has been sent to this post to protect our citizens in the islands, in case of trouble with Japan.
The Marion is also stationed at Hawaii, and the Secretary of State considers the situation so serious that he will keep two of our war-vessels on duty there, until all fear of disturbance is passed.
The people of Hawaii, as we have already told you, are most anxious to be annexed to the United States; and it appears as if President McKinley were willing to consider the proposal, though he has said nothing publicly to that effect.
It is, however, fully understood that he will take no steps whatever until after the Tariff Bill has been disposed of.
In Hawaii, they seem to be expecting that each incoming steamer will bring a Minister from the United States, who will be authorized to conclude the annexation treaty.
A story is told that an officer of the Hawaiian National Guard wished to resign his commission. The President of the Hawaiian Islands, Mr. Dole, hearing of it, urged him to remain.
The officer said he had seen enough service, and would prefer to retire and make way for a younger man.
The President is said to have answered him:
"I shall consider it a personal favor if you will remain until after the annexation."
"How long will that be?" asked the officer.
"It is very close at hand," was the President's reply.
This looks as if we would have great news from the Sandwich Islands ere long.
This probability of annexation explains the reason why Queen Liliuokalani, the Queen of the Sandwich Islands, has been in Washington this winter.
You remember that we told you how President Cleveland tried to restore to her her lost throne, and that he failed to do so.
When the Queen arrived in Washington this season it was at once supposed that she had come for some purpose; and either intended to make friends with the incoming President, or to persuade Mr. Cleveland to make one more effort to help her before he went out of office.
Her suite and advisers kept their counsel so closely, that no one could find out the true reason for her visit. A few days ago, however, her secretary stated that the Queen considered that the republican form of government in the Islands could not last much longer.
She said that it had been hurriedly established when she gave up her throne, and that the people are tired of it.
She declares further that it is this knowledge that is making President Dole so very anxious for annexation.
She thinks that if the United States was made aware of the way in which she was deprived of her throne, and also of the manner in which the Dole government was established, there would be no further talk of annexation, but that our government would help her to regain her throne.
Queen Liliuokalani is apparently in this country so that when the subject of annexation comes up she may be on hand, and have an opportunity to state her case to the Government.
Much interesting news about Hawaii has been brought out by these recent events.
Col. R.H. McLean, who has just returned from the Sandwich Islands, where he has been reorganizing the Hawaiian army, gives a very amusing account of the state of things he found there.
He went to Honolulu in 1895, just after the insurrection to restore Queen Liliuokalani was over.
On his arrival at the palace he found it fortified as if for a siege; the grounds were bristling with big guns, which were all loaded, and ready for instant firing.
Eighteen sentries were on duty, and 200 men were sleeping on their arms in the basement of the building, while 100 more were ready to rush into action at a moment's notice.
A thorough soldier himself, and accustomed to see such preparations only in time of war, Colonel McLean asked what was the matter.
He expected to hear that there was a new revolt; but he was merely told that the Queen was a prisoner inside the palace, and that unless these precautions were taken, another rebellion might break out at any moment.
He had been previously told that the citizens were in a state of panic, and that the natives were sullen and discontented. He thought there might be some grounds for the fear of a revolt, and decided that he had better examine his defences.
Walking round among the guns, he noticed that they were pointed at various groups of houses. He asked what these buildings were that lay in the line of fire.
"Just houses," he was told. "Residences."
"Do rebels or suspected rebels live in them?" he asked.
"Why, no," he was told. "Citizens."
The Colonel was so astonished at this that he did not know what to say.
He didn't wonder that the people were dissatisfied and frightened.
For months they had lived with the knowledge that the big guns were trained upon them, and that at any moment a careless or frightened soldier might pull the lanyard, fire a cannon off, and blow half Honolulu to smithereens.
He did not say much, but felt that he would have to make many changes in affairs, and went to bed to think things over.
He was awakened in the middle of the night by cries of:
"Hi! hi! hi! there! Say! It's half-past two."
It took him some time to realize that this was the soldierly manner in which the Hawaiian army changed the guard, and when the truth finally dawned upon him, he laughed himself to sleep over the comic army he was called upon to reorganize and train.
The next day, to the horror of the people in the palace, he removed the guns, and reduced the number of sentries to four.
There was a terrible outcry against this order. Those in the palace declared their lives were no longer safe. The first night after guns and sentries were taken away, they passed a night of terror, no one apparently expecting to live to see the morning.
When, however, morning came, and they were all alive, they calmed down a little.
So did the townspeople, when the guns were taken away.
When the Colonel made arrangements whereby the imprisoned Queen could get a little fresh air daily, and no terrible consequences followed, he became the most popular person in Honolulu.
The government decided that Colonel McLean was a wonder for quieting the citizens. The citizens were grateful to him for having had sense enough to remove the guns; the supporters of the Queen liked him for making matters more comfortable for her; and the army found that he knew what he was about, and trusted him accordingly.
Colonel McLean has had three years of very hard work getting the soldiers into order, but has left the army in a very different condition from that in which he found it.
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The State Department has sent to Mr. Uhl, the United States Ambassador to Germany, directing him to make a demand on the German Government for the release of an American citizen named Mayer, who has been wrongfully forced to serve in the German army.
This matter is of interest to us, because it shows us our rights as citizens.
The father of this Mayer was a German citizen who came to this country, lived here for a good number of years, and returned to his native land when his son was between eleven and twelve years old.
The elder Mayer never took out his naturalization papers, and therefore remained a citizen of Germany.
The younger Mayer was nevertheless an American citizen because he was born here, and this is the point that interests us.
According to our law, all persons who are born within the boundaries of the United States are American citizens. The nationality of the parents makes no difference whatever, nor does it signify whether the father was a citizen or not. The mere fact of being born in this country is sufficient to make a man an American citizen. The United States claims him, and protects him if he needs protection.
When young Mayer's parents went hack to Germany they educated their boy in German schools, and he grew up as a German boy.
When he came to be twenty-one years of age he was ordered to serve his time in the German army. He refused to do this, on the ground that he was an American citizen.
He was nevertheless claimed by the authorities and forced to join the army.
In Germany there is a law, that every young man who reaches the age of twenty-one must go into the army and serve as a soldier for two years.
The very day the young Germans come of age they are bound to offer themselves for military service.
In many of the towns, advertisements are put in the newspapers giving the names of the lads who are nearing the age of twenty-one, and telling them where to report for duty.
In other places the military authorities send each young man an order to report for duty on the morning of his birthday.
There is no avoiding this service, which was formerly for three years, but has been changed to two.
The young men who do not answer the call are searched for, and, when found, slightly punished.
Lads who are in foreign countries are ordered home. If they do not report for military service within a certain space of time, they are punished with an extra year of service.
When young Mayer was forced to join the German army, he appealed to the American Government to help him.
When the matter was brought to their attention, the German authorities denied the right of the United States to interfere, saying that Mayer was the son of a German subject, and therefore was a German citizen.
This Government has, however, made a formal demand for the release of Mayer, and there is little doubt that the request will be complied with.
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The trouble is not yet over for the trusts. You remember about the Investigating Committee appointed to look into the affairs of the different trusts. The members of this committee had a good deal of trouble with the Sugar Trust.
Seven of the most important persons connected with the trust refused to answer the questions asked them by the committee.
Among these men were such prominent persons as Henry O. Havemeyer and John E. Searles, men who are known as Sugar Kings.
The impossibility of getting any information from these witnesses made the work of the committee very difficult; and when the investigations were over, complaints were made against the men who had given the trouble.
One of them, Mr. E.E. Chapman, a stock-broker, was arrested by the United States Marshal, taken to Washington, and tried for contempt.
His offence was that of breaking the law which binds witnesses to give their testimony before Committees of Congress with the same care that they have to exercise before the judges in the courts of law. A witness in a law court who refuses to obey the court is guilty of contempt of court, and can be fined or imprisoned as the court pleases.
Mr. Chapman was found guilty of this misdemeanor, and sentenced to thirty days' imprisonment.
Having disposed of Mr. Chapman's case, the United States District Attorney has sent word that he intends to try the other six refractory witnesses on May 17th. From the printed accounts at the time of the investigation, they all seem to have given as much trouble as they possibly could, and as Mr. Chapman has been found guilty, the chances are that the others will be also, and that the jail of the District of Columbia may contain some distinguished millionaires before the month is out.
If we are to have Investigation Committees, it is just as well that people should learn they are not to be trifled with.
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New York has just had a visit from Chief Joseph of the Nez Perces Indians.
Next to the old Sioux warrior, Red Cloud, Chief Joseph is the most prominent Indian alive to-day.
He came to New York at the special request of General Miles, and seemed to be much interested in seeing the sights.
His real business East was in Washington.
He came on from the Indian Reservation in Washington Territory, where he lives with 150 of his tribe, to ask permission to join the main body of the Nez Perces in Idaho.
There are 1,000 of the Nez Perces in Idaho, and it is the dearest wish of the old chief's heart that he, and the remnant of the tribe that is with him, may be allowed to go back and end their days in their old homes.
General Miles secured permission for Chief Joseph to come on to Washington and tell the Government the wishes of his people. He obtained an interview for him with Mr. Bliss, Secretary of the Interior, and also with the Indian Commissioner.
The old chief feels sure that his request will be granted, because, as he proudly says, he has come on himself to make it.
While he was in New York he went to see Buffalo Bill, William Cody, who, as you probably know, was one of the most famous scouts the army ever had, and who has done noble service for his country.
The chief saw the Wild West Show from Colonel Cody's box, and after it was over went to the Indian quarters, and smoked the pipe of peace with the Sioux Indians who travel with Buffalo Bill.
The Sioux have a great admiration for the Nez Perces, and their surprise and pleasure at seeing the chief was unbounded.
The language of the two tribes is very different, but the Indians have a sign language which they all understand, and Chief Joseph and his hosts sat on the mats outside the tepee, and had a long session together, communicating by means of signs.
The chief rode in the Grant parade, taking his place beside Colonel Cody.
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King Humbert of Italy had a narrow escape the other day.
He was driving, when a man made a rush at the royal carriage, sprang on the step, and tried to stab the King.
His Majesty happily saw the blow coming, and, rising, struck the man's wrist. The dagger turned, and buried itself in the cushions of the carriage.
There was great confusion for a moment. The crowds which lined the streets rushed forward to the royal carriage; but the King's escort charged them, and drove them back.
The King was very little alarmed, and ordered his coachman to drive on.
The would-be assassin was caught by the soldiers, and proved to be a blacksmith, who is thought to be insane.
The news of the affair reached the palace before the King. When he reached there he was greeted with shouts of welcome, and had to bow again and again to show the people that he was safe and sound.
He appears to have treated the matter very lightly, and is reported to have said to those who congratulated him on his escape:
"Oh, it was only one of the little accidents which happen to people of my profession."
There was the greatest excitement throughout the city of Rome.
A large number of workingmen made their way to the palace, and asked to be permitted to congratulate their sovereign.
Special thanksgiving services were held in the churches, and the entire city gave itself up to rejoicing.
The excitement and enthusiasm must have been very great.
Crowds stood around the royal palace, and both King and Queen were obliged to come out on the balcony to bow to the people, who cheered frantically, and then joined in singing the royal hymn.
A friend of ours witnessed just such a scene as this in England many years ago.
It was just after Queen Victoria had come to the throne.
One day, when she was out driving, a crazy man tried to shoot her.
The people of London were so excited about the matter that they could not be made to believe that the Queen had escaped unhurt.
After her Majesty had bowed from her balcony and shown herself smiling and unhurt, there was still a rumor that she had been wounded; and, fearing some demonstration from the people, the young Queen's advisers thought it best for her to appear in some public place and convince the people of her safety.
It was during the opera season, and it was decided that her Majesty should occupy her box there for a part of the performance.
The house was very crowded; and the opera was half over when Victoria reached her box.
The great singer, Jenny Lind, was singing at the moment of her arrival, and so entranced was the audience with the song, that it did not become aware of her presence, until the singer broke off, silenced the orchestra with a gesture, and walking to the front of the stage, made a low curtsey to the Queen's box, and then lifting up her glorious voice, began to sing the national anthem, "God Save the Queen."
The effect was electrical.
The orchestra took up the strain with her. The chorus rushed on to the stage to join their voices to the hymn. The audience started to its feet, women waved their handkerchiefs and wept with excitement; men shouted and joined their voices to swell the great chorus.
The poor young Queen, whose courage had been tried enough during the day, stood in the front of her box, bowing and smiling, until at last the scene became more than she could bear; then she burst into tears, and had to leave the opera-house.
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The Dingley Tariff Bill was reported to the Senate on Tuesday, May 4th.
A great many changes have been made in it by the committee; and a great many more are expected to be made before it passes through the Senate.
Germany is still declaring that, if the Dingley Bill is passed, she will make such a tariff on American goods that our export trade with Germany will be killed.
One of our consuls, however, writes us that there is a very small market for American goods in Germany, and that our trade will not be very greatly damaged if she does carry out her threat.
It seems, from the accounts given, that Germany buys very little from us besides the raw material which she cannot get elsewhere; and so, if she does make a tariff against our goods, it may not make much difference to us.
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Word comes from India that the plague is gradually dying out, and it is hoped that the worst is over.
The authorities will continue their care in quarantining people from infected districts, and fumigating all the baggage, but the fear that the plague may reach Europe has pretty well died out.
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They make a great deal of use of elephants in India.
You know, of course, that India belongs to England.
The title of Queen Victoria is Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India.
England is obliged to keep a great many soldiers in India, and the elephant has gradually become one of the most important factors in the Indian army.
When the British first occupied India, the soldiers used the elephants to work on fortifications, to haul timber, and to do any work that required great strength.
After a while, as they began to understand the creatures better, the army officers gave them more important tasks, until at last an elephant artillery corps was formed.
It is said of the animals in this company that they know as well what to do as the best artillerymen, and will bring their guns in line with the precision of old soldiers.
Their duty is to drag the heavy batteries and the guns of the siege-train, which are extremely large and exceedingly heavy.
The elephants draw them as if they weighed nothing, and march along, keeping steady pace with the soldiers.
These big beasts trample down and demolish any barriers that are in their way, and pull their loads through heavy mire without the slightest effort.
Before the plan of using elephants was adopted, the guns were drawn by bullocks; but one elephant can easily draw a load which it would take thirty bullocks to move. The elephants are very tractable and clever, while the oxen are stupid, ill tempered, and hard to manage.
The elephants, despite their great strength, will not allow themselves to be overloaded.
If they are worked too hard, or made to draw heavier weights than is pleasant to them, they become sulky and will not obey orders. Their drivers, therefore, have to treat them very kindly; and then they will do all that is asked of them.
As soon as they have learned the work that is required of them, they will do it at the word of command.
The British soldiers do not attempt to manage these big beasts themselves. Natives are employed for this task, each elephant having his own special attendant.
These Mahouts, as they are called, feed and care for the elephants, who become very much attached to them, and pine terribly if their keepers are changed.
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It is reported that Mr. Henry Havemeyer is trying to build an American Venice in the Great South Bay.
Two years ago he purchased a large tract of marshy land, which he has drained, filled in, and which is now ready to be built on.
He will construct some handsome villas, facing a grand canal, and separated from one another and also from the mainland by various other water-ways.
Mr. Havemeyer's charming idea is not entirely original, however. His Venice already has a very lovely rival in the West.
A charming little village has been built on sandbanks formed by the delta of the St. Clair River, which delta reaches put into Lake St. Clair, about thirty miles from Detroit, Mich.
The houses of this village are all built upon piles, some rising clear out of the lake, some having small yards around them.
A few trees and such flowers as will grow are carefully cultivated by the inhabitants, and add to the charm of the place.
The only means of communication is by boat.
Steamers go down from Detroit at short intervals, many of the business men in that city having their summer homes in this Western Venice.
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Spain is going to try to raise more money to carry on the war in Cuba and the Philippine Islands. The Queen Regent has authorized the raising of about $40,000,000 for this purpose, and the Bank of Spain is to undertake the task. The loan is to be secured by the customs duties of Spain.
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After more than three months of consideration, the General Treaty of Arbitration with Great Britain was rejected by the Senate on Wednesday, May 5th.
From the moment the Treaty was first proposed it met with great opposition in the Legislature, and many people predicted that the Senate would never ratify it.
The feeling of the public was, however, so strongly in favor of the Treaty, that it was thought it would surely be ratified after certain objectionable clauses were changed.
The Committee on Foreign Relations took the Treaty in hand to make these alterations; and when it was reported back to the Senate, people hoped that it was in a form that would be found acceptable.
This has not proved to be the case.
The Constitution of the United States requires a two-thirds vote for the ratification of a treaty, which of course you understand means that two-thirds of the Senators present must vote for it, or it is lost.
On Wednesday, the 5th, there were sixty-nine present when the vote was called. Forty-three voted for ratification, twenty-six against it.
You will see by this that the Treaty was defeated by only three votes.
When this Treaty was signed at Washington in January, everybody rejoiced. The United States was praised by all Europe for being the first nation to take such an important step in the advancement of peace.
The leading papers declare that, in spite of the rejection of the Treaty by the Senate, the American people are still in favor of it; and that, had the matter been given to the people to decide, the result would have been different.
* * * * *
The war in the East is practically over.
Report says the Greeks have appealed to Europe for help, and are now willing to withdraw from Crete.
It was felt from the first that the struggle between Greece and Turkey would be an unequal one, but the well-known courage of the Greeks, and the righteousness of their cause, made people hope that success would crown their efforts.
Such has not been the case.
Disaster has followed disaster. At the critical moment the Greeks always appear to have lost faith in their leaders, and to have behaved in a disorderly and insubordinate manner.
The retreat from Epirus seems to have been very little better than the flight from Larissa.
From Pharsala, after their fine and determined stand at Velestino, the Greeks again retreated to Dhomoko.
Whether it be from fatigue, want of military training, or lack of proper leaders, the Greeks seem to have been unable to withstand the advances of the enemy.
At the time of writing, it is too soon to say what action the Powers will take in the settlement of Greek affairs. It is only certain that the situation in Europe has been made very much more difficult by the apparent sympathy of the Powers with Turkey.
The success of the Turks will certainly make them more difficult to handle.
There is a rumor that some of the Powers would like to remove King George from the throne of Greece.
An alliance is also spoken of between Russia, Germany, and Austria against England and France.
It would certainly seem as if the troubles in Greece had stirred up so much bad feeling that another and much more serious European war must soon follow.
As for poor little Greece, if she has been obliged to appeal to the Powers for help, she will have to be content with whatever terms they make for her.
It is said that Turkey will not be satisfied unless she gets Thessaly back again, and the boundaries of Turkey are made the same as they were before the Treaty of Berlin.
Some people think that Turkey will not demand the return of Thessaly, but that she will insist that Greece shall pay all the expenses of the war.
It is said that Russia and Germany will support Turkey in her claims.
GENIE H. ROSENFELD.
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
Some clever person has thought of a very novel advertising scheme.
It is for use at night, and consists of a sign made entirely of small electric lights, which is sent up into the air and held there by means of balloons.
Advertisers have used the pavements under our feet for their signs, and have disfigured some of our grandest rocks with their Sapolios and their St. Jacob's Oils; pretty nearly everything on the face of the earth has been made to serve their purpose. The heavens have thus far escaped, but this new invention brings them also into line.
If it proves a success the glaring announcements of the bill-boards, which annoy us by day, may be repeated in the sky at night; and the romantic, peaceful heavens will be dotted all over with "H.O. is the Best;" and the obnoxious "Yellow Kid," with a hideous electric toe, will parade among the stars undaunted and unchecked.
This fruit-cutter seems to be a very clever invention.
As you can see from the sketch, it opens like a pair of scissors. Its blades are very sharp, and as it cuts the fruit, the blades pierce right through the flesh until they meet the pit in the center. The curves in the blade catch the stone and hold it fast, while the points and heels of the blades overlap until they have cut entirely through the flesh.
This invention should save a vast amount of time, and be a boon to the good housekeepers who put up preserves, not to mention the young folks of the household who are called in to help.
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This sketch shows a folding crate for transporting or housing bicycles.
It is a very ingenious affair, folding tightly up when not in use, and taking up very little more room than an umbrella.
Opened, it looks like an ordinary crate—only made of iron instead of wood.
It has a baseboard to which hinges are attached, and if desired it can stand against the wall to hold the bicycle when not in use.
For packing and transporting it is joined by straps, and would seem to be a very useful invention.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
I am a subscriber to THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and read it with great interest every week. In No. 13 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, you published a picture of the iron statue of King Arthur by Fischer. Last summer we stopped for a short time in Innsbruck, and I saw the said statue in the Cathedral of that city.
There was one thing which puzzled me considerably and I know that you will be willing to explain it. Why was the fleur-de-lis placed on the shield supplied to the statue? I can't see what possible connection Arthur could have had with France, for I always thought that the fleur-de-lis was not borne by any British sovereign until after the hundred years' war was begun. Since King Arthur is supposed to have lived in the fifth or sixth century it seems strange to me that he should have been supplied with a shield bearing a device of a so much later period. Since I know nothing of heraldry, I have been much puzzled by this, and would be very grateful for an explanation. I should like to mention three books which I enjoyed so much when I read them that I am sure they would be appreciated by many. They are Miss Yonge's "Dove in the Eagle's Nest," and a "Chaplet of Pearls," and the "Caged Lion."
Wishing THE GREAT ROUND WORLD continued success,
I remain your devoted reader, KATHERINE P. NEW YORK CITY, May 26, 1897.
MY DEAR KATHERINE:
In reference to your question about the fleur-de-lis on King Arthur's shield.
It can have no heraldic meaning whatever, because armorial bearings were not in use in England until long after the Norman Conquest.
The kings and the great barons chose certain devices for their seals; but the same device was not used by the members of a family, nor was it handed from father to son, until armorial bearings came into use.
The use of the fleur-de-lis is not of French origin.
It was used as an ornament on the sceptres, seals, and robes, not only of the French kings, but of Greek, Roman, German, Spanish, and English kings, and was a symbol employed by many noble families in various parts of Europe.
Particular symbols have in all ages been assumed by various families of mankind, civilized and uncivilized, but they have nothing whatever to do with heraldry.
King Arthur was a legendary person, and his story is sung alike by the bards of Wales and the minstrels of France.
According to the Welsh legends he was born in Wales, and went over to Brittany in France, where he fought some of his famous battles.
According to the Breton (French) legends, he was the son of one of the early Britons who fled to France at the time of the Saxons. He was born in Brittany, and with the help of the Bretons went back to England and wrested his kingdom from the Saxon's hands.
The reason for the fleur-de-lis on the shield may therefore be that the sculptor chose to pin his faith to the Breton legend of the hero, and therefore placed the symbol of France on the shield. EDITOR.
The State of Montana has just adopted THE GREAT ROUND WORLD for use in all its public schools.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
I am very much interested about Crete and Cuba, and I always want to see what THE GREAT ROUND WORLD says about them.
I was interested about Princess Charlotte of Belgium. I hope you will tell us more about her.
I hope that Cuba will gain her liberty, and that Crete will free herself from the rule of Turkey.
I think that King George of Greece is a very nice man, and I hope that he will keep the Powers from interfering with Greece.
The kindergarten for the blind is in Jamaica Plain, very near us, and last week I went to an exhibition there.
Sometimes I visit the kindergarten, and I have often seen the girls knitting and sewing.
Our teacher, Miss Cushman, takes THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. She lends it to the girls who do not take it, and they find out about Crete and Greece. We are studying about the Eastern Question, and your magazine helps us to find what we want. Do you know any more about the big python that was found in Florida, or was it just taken to the Smithsonian Institute?
Will you please send me a "Who? When? What?" Chart?
Your devoted reader, FANNY R.H. (aged 12.) BROOKLINE, MASS.., April 28th, 1897.
Many thanks for your kind letter. We have heard nothing further about the python. We understood that it was to be stuffed for the Institute.
Will you please publish an account of the phonographic graphophone—its invention, when, and by whom? We have recently had a concert by this wonderful invention, and I am requested to get all the information I can from whatever source I can. THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, which is read every morning in our schoolroom, is so much appreciated by all that I am sure my schoolmates will be pleased to see your reply. I shall be glad to get this information as early as possible.
Very respectfully, LUCY F. BRENT, GA., April 28th, 1897.
MY DEAR LUCY:
The graphophone is an improved phonograph, the cylinder being of hard rubber instead of wax.
The phonograph was invented by Thomas A. Edison in 1877, and improved by him about 1889.
It operates by means of a thin diaphragm set in vibration by the voice or any other sound. It bears a stylus which records the vibration, on a rotating, wax-coated cylinder, in a faint wavy line.
This line is sufficient, however, to guide the stylus over the same course again, and agitate the diaphragm into reproducing waves of sound, similar to those originally recorded.
The Editor is very much obliged to Dallas S. for his pleasant letter. EDITOR.
In reply to Mrs. C.H. Parkhurst, we suggest that a letter of inquiry to Mr. Ford will be the speediest way to ascertain where the combination tool can be procured. EDITOR.
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GREAT ROUND WORLD GAME OF STATES COPYRIGHT, 1897 By William Beverley Harison
Complete in handsome box, price 50 cents, post-paid
A new and delightful game has just been invented. It is called "The game of States." The directions have been written exclusively for THE GREAT ROUND WORLD; they are as follows:
This game may be played by four, six, or eight players. Two players toss up for the first choice of partners; the winner also has the right for his side to be "call" or to "reply."
After sides are chosen the winner of the toss consults with his side, and they decide whether they will "call" or "reply." "Call" is considered the better position.
The game is played with a map of the United States made of perfectly plain pasteboard with each State a separate piece, and without names or marks of any kind on the pieces.
This map should be large enough to have Rhode Island about one inch long, and the game should be played around a table with the sides named North, South, East, and West.
The side which "calls" takes all of the States in a box. When "time" is called by the "reply" side, the "calls" must put a State on the table, and the "replys" must name it and give the position it occupies before the time-keeper of the "calls" can count 25; if the name or position is not correctly given, the "calls" must themselves name the State and its position, and place it on the table in about the position it will occupy when all the pieces are in place; if they do this, they score.
For instance: The State of Massachusetts is put out, and the "replys" name it "Massachusetts—Northeastern part," and count one. This is continued until the entire map is complete.
As maps may be obtained which have the Great Lakes also cut out, it is great fun to see the mistakes made.
The "calls" or "replys" will frequently in playing it turn a state upside down; this counts against the side making the mistake.
The game may be varied by putting one State on the table and calling for "next North," "next South," "next East," etc., when the name of the State occupying that position must be correctly given.
The side having the greatest number of points wins the game.
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In connection with our offer of any BICYCLE you wish for 100 new subscriptions, we have prepared a
This contains a list of selected articles which will be given to those who may obtain a smaller number of subscriptions
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Those who fail to secure the necessary number for the bicycle may make selection from this catalogue.
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Copy mailed on receipt of 5c.
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 & 5 West 18th St, New York City
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Which Is Your Favorite
You have your choice of any wheel in the market if you send us one hundred regular subscriptions to the
"Great Round World"
Show the paper to your friends, and you will soon find one hundred people who will be glad to subscribe. Send the subscriptions in to us as fast as received, and when the one hundredth, reaches us you can go to ANY dealer YOU choose, buy ANY wheel YOU choose, and we will pay the bill.
Six-months' subscriptions will be counted as one-half, three-months' as one-quarter,
SAMPLE COPIES WILL BE FURNISHED AT HALF PRICE. (SEE OTHER OFFERS)
Great Round World 3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City
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The Special Trial Rate for TEACHERS will expire June 1st
This rate is $1 a year, net Regular rate, $2.50 a year
WE TRUST TO RECEIVE YOUR SUBSCRIPTION BEFORE THE TIME OF EXPIRATION
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A COPY OF THE PAPER WILL BE SENT TO ANY TEACHER WHO HAS NOT SEEN IT
We can use school-books in exchange for subscriptions
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 & 5 West 18th Street, New York City