[**Transcriber's notes: Some spellings were corrected. Notations follow specific paragraphs where corrections were made.]
THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT
Vol. 1 JUNE 17, 1897 No. 32. [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second class matter]
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VOL. 1 JUNE 17, 1897. NO. 32
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There is a rumor that Spain will appeal to the Powers to help her in her Cuban war.
It is said that she cannot conquer the Cubans without some aid, and, as she can look for none from the United States, she will appeal to the Powers.
Spain, therefore, will try to convince Europe that she ought to receive the same kind of help that was given to Turkey, and that the Cuban Question is of the same nature as the Cretan Question.
It is stated that an endeavor is being made to convince the Powers that Spain's retention of Cuba is necessary for the peace of Europe.
The assertion is made that, if the United States obtains possession of the island, serious trouble may result to the English in Jamaica, and to the holders of the other West Indian Islands.
A similar appeal was made two years ago, and, if it is indeed renewed, it will be interesting to see what action the Powers will now take.
Mr. Calhoun's work in Cuba is nearly done. It is expected that he will leave Cuba about June 3d, and when he returns he will put the President in possession of what information he has gathered.
Very little light has been thrown on the cause of Dr. Ruiz's death by the inquiry which, as we told you, was the object of Mr. Calhoun's visit to Cuba.
Before the inquiry was commenced, General Lee said that it would be quite impossible to get at the truth of the matter. He declared that the people dared not tell what they knew for fear of Weyler.
His words have proved absolutely true. Not a single witness who had any important testimony to give appeared before the Committee.
The jailers and people around the prison who had had the care of Dr. Ruiz came forward and made statements as to the extremely kind treatment the doctor had received from them, and of the many privileges he had been given.
These accounts General Lee declared to be entirely false. He said he had several witnesses who could have proved the truth of his assertion; but he did not call them for fear of turning the anger of the Government against them.
The result of the inquiry was to have been in a written report, signed by both the American and Spanish Commissioners. The two parties, however, do not seem to be able to agree as to the facts to be stated in this paper. Each objects to signing the report prepared by the other. It is therefore supposed that two reports will be made; one by General Lee to the United States, and one by the Spaniards to the Government in Madrid.
Of course these reports will not agree with each other, and the two governments will, after they get them, be no wiser than before the Commission began its work.
It is stated that, under General Lee's guidance, Mr. Calhoun has seen a great deal of the sufferings of the people, especially of the unfortunates who have been driven into the towns.
The Cubans in Havana say that he has been much affected by the misery he has seen, and that his report to the President is likely to urge the necessity for immediate action.
The news that the United States is going to send relief to the starving people has got abroad in Cuba. The poor Cubans think that the help will be given to them as well as to the Americans, and they are crowding the doors of the United States consulates, begging for food.
Poor souls, it seems impossible to make them understand that the Consuls are bound to send them away empty-handed, in order to avoid trouble between this country and Spain.
Several victories have been reported for the Cubans during the last few days. They appear, however, to have been of no greater importance than the majority of the battles that have taken place during the war.
Several filibustering expeditions have reached Cuba in safety, but the Dauntless has had the misfortune to get into trouble again.
Word was sent to Washington that she was taking on men and arms for Cuba, and the United States cruiser Marblehead was sent down the coast after her.
A few miles south of Miami, Florida, the Marblehead came upon a tug carrying a cargo out to the Dauntless, which was lying out at sea, with steam up ready to start at a moment's notice.
The Marblehead seized the tug, and sent her back to port. The Dauntless, realizing what had happened, started off down the coast as fast as she could steam, the Marblehead in hot pursuit.
At last, after a very long chase, the cruiser captured the filibuster, and took her to Key West, where she will be placed under arrest, and treated as the Three Friends was.
It seems as if the time had come for the governments of Spain and the United States to find a means of settling the Cuban question. This idea is so strongly impressed on people's minds that the news of battles and filibustering expeditions is not half so eagerly listened to as are the debates on Cuba in the Spanish Cortes and the American Congress.
* * * * *
The Porte, as the Turkish Government is called, lost no time in sending a reply to the note from the Powers.
Turkey said she would be quite willing to talk over the terms of peace with the Powers, provided certain formalities about signing the armistice and the treaty of peace were followed by the Greeks.
The European situation grows more serious daily. There is little hope of peace being arrived at, even though the armistice has been extended beyond the seventeen days first agreed upon. It has now been arranged that the armistice shall last for a further period of two weeks, and should the peace discussions not then be concluded the Porte will grant still another two weeks.
The cause of the delay is the disposition to be made of Thessaly.
The Powers insist that Turkey shall not keep possession of this province, and Turkey seems determined to hold it.
[**Transcriber Note: possesson changed to possession]
Troops are being sent into Thessaly daily, and it is said that Edhem Pasha has now a force of 200,000 men under his command in the disputed territory.
The Greeks are very much alarmed at this, and have sent an appeal to Russia, begging her to prevent the Turks from fortifying Thessaly.
At present Russia has not had time to take any action, and Turkish troops and arms are being hurried through the mountain passes; and fresh volunteers are being called for in the Turkish cities. Six ships laden with soldiers have been despatched from Constantinople, thirty-two battalions of troops have been ordered to Thessaly from Syria, and others have been sent to the seat of war from the Servian and Bulgarian frontiers.
This does not look as if the Sultan intended to give up Thessaly. It is indeed reported that he has taken a hint from the Greek occupation of Crete, and, having seen how incapable the Powers then were to dislodge the Greek army, he means to stay where he is and see whether they will be any more successful in dislodging the Turkish army.
In Constantinople the feeling is running very high about keeping possession of the coveted land. It is said that all classes, from the Ministers to the porters on the streets, are against giving up the conquered territory. Every possible influence is being brought to bear upon the Sultan, to persuade him to keep Thessaly.
The Sheik, about whom we spoke last week, has again been to the Sultan, and declared that the land conquered from the enemy must not be given back to them.
The Sultan, meanwhile, lets no one know what he intends to do, but carries out his own plans without letting a hint of what these plans are escape him.
The general opinion is that Turkey will hold Thessaly and if Europe wants her to give it up she will have to fight for it. The conviction is growing daily that Turkey's newly found power cannot be curbed without a great European war, the terrible European war which it was thought the sacrifice of Greece would prevent.
Germany is very unpopular in Europe at this moment.
When the Powers were made aware of the fact that the Porte declined to discuss the subject of giving up Thessaly, and only agreed to submit certain parts of the treaty of peace to their consideration, they were greatly astonished. When it was further learned that his Ministers had urged the Sultan to regard the Powers as enemies of Turkey, Europe began to open her eyes.
That Turkey should suddenly show such disrespect to the Great Powers seemed impossible to believe, until it was learned that Germany was supporting Turkey, and had assured the Sultan that if he refused to give up Thessaly the Powers could not put him out of the conquered country.
All the rest of the Powers at once began to abuse Germany; but, if the blame for this disgraceful situation is to be properly bestowed, it will only be right for each of the Powers to take an equal share of it.
Had the Powers not upheld Turkey in the Cretan trouble, the chances are that there would have been no war, and Thessaly would now be peacefully and prosperously gathering in her harvest, instead of being robbed and plundered by a cruel foe.
Once having joined together to assist Turkey to regain her position among nations, it seems foolish for the Powers to try and throw the blame on any one of themselves; they are all equally blamable.
* * * * *
It is said that King George is preparing to leave Greece.
There has been a bitter feeling against him since the failure of the war. The people declare that the disgrace of the Greek arms was due to the fact that the King officered his army with Court favorites, who had had little or no military experience.
It is stated on good authority that the King is now barricaded in his palace, and that the Powers have been appealed to, to protect him from his people. It is feared that nothing but the presence of foreign warships in the Piraeus prevents the people from rising and trying to overthrow the monarchy.
The captains of these ships are under orders to land the men under their command at the first sign of trouble, and join with the police in restoring order.
A special guard of the most trusted citizens has been recruited to help the police in their daily work, and it is hoped that as soon as the keen edge of their disappointment has worn off the people may return to their old affection for their king.
* * * * *
The Naniwa, with the Japanese Commissioner on board, has arrived safely in Honolulu.
There was considerable excitement among the crowds of Japanese that lined the streets and the docks to greet the Commissioner, but there was no disturbance of any kind. The Commissioner was politely received by the Hawaiian Government, and no unfriendly feeling was shown by any one.
The Commissioner, whose name is Mr. Akiyama, stated that he had come on a friendly errand. His Government had been told that the Hawaiian Government had refused to allow Japanese emigrants to land on the Sandwich Islands, and he had come over to investigate the matter.
He felt sure that if it should be proved that the Hawaiian Government had acted unfairly to the emigrants, or had broken the treaty between the two countries, there would be no trouble in arranging that a reasonable money claim for damages should be paid to Japan.
Mr. Akiyama was most anxious to begin the inquiry as soon after landing as possible, and so no time was lost in getting to work.
He wanted to know on what grounds the emigrants had been refused, and so he was told the Hawaiian side of the trouble.
According to this, it began nearly two years ago, when the Hawaiian Government made a regulation that a certain number of the laborers employed on the plantations must be brought from other countries than Japan.
Japan immediately asked why this regulation was made, and Hawaii replied that she had a right to import laborers from what country she pleased.
This was the commencement of the bad feeling between the two countries on the emigrant question. Japan, however, still continued to send over her laboring class in vast numbers.
Under the immigration laws of Hawaii, every immigrant seeking admission to the country is bound to have not less than fifty dollars in cash in his pocket and a contract in his possession that will guarantee him employment for two years.
It was brought to the attention of the Hawaiian Government by the agents of the two steamship companies that a fraud was being practised upon the country by these same steamship companies; each agent accusing the other company of the misdeed.
The fraud was this:
To enable the emigrants to pass the customs officials safely, the steamship companies agreed to carry the passengers over to Hawaii for so much money per head, in return for which they also loaned them the necessary fifty dollars to show the officials, and they also furnished the required contract for their employment when they landed.
[**Transcriber's Note: funished changed to furnished]
It is hardly necessary to say that the fifty dollars was taken from them after they were safely landed, and that the promised employment was not given. The laborers were turned adrift to look out for themselves, as soon as the formalities of the Immigration Bureau had been complied with.
After the Hawaiian Government had received this information, arrangements were made to inspect the next Japanese emigrant ship very closely.
It was found that the agents had stated the matter correctly. Nearly all the emigrants on board had fraudulent forms of contract. They were refused admission and sent back to Japan.
Of twelve hundred Japanese emigrants to Hawaii in two months, over one thousand were found to have false contracts.
Mr. Akiyama, having been acquainted with the Hawaiian cause of complaint, persisted in declaring that it was wrong to send the emigrants back, because it had caused much trouble and loss of money to Japanese subjects; he further declared that by sending the emigrants back the Hawaiian Government had broken the treaty with Japan.
He demanded that the Government should pay a sum of money to recompense the emigrants, and give Japan an assurance that its emigrants should not be interfered with in future.
After very careful thought, and consultations with the best lawyers in the Sandwich Islands, the Hawaiians absolutely refused to agree to Japan's demands. They denied absolutely that the treaty had been broken, and refused to admit Japanese emigrants unless the laws were properly complied with, stating very clearly that any Japanese who attempted to enter Hawaii on fraudulent contracts would be at once sent back to Japan.
This answer was sent to the Japanese Minister.
This gentleman is, however, very indignant with the Hawaiian Government, and refuses to accept the answer, because of the form in which, it reached him.
It seems that it was given to the afternoon papers at the same time it was sent to him, and that he actually read it in the Hawaiian newspapers before the official document reached him.
He says he shall not regard this as an answer, but will renew his demands for a money recompense, and will keep on renewing them until Hawaii agrees, or gives a good reason for refusing.
Should Hawaii refuse, he declares that he shall leave the islands, and, returning to Japan, cut off all diplomatic relations with the Sandwich Islands.
If he is driven to this action, he declares that there is only one course open to his Government; and he darkly hints that this will be to declare war.
* * * * *
Great preparations are being made in London for the celebration of Queen Victoria's Jubilee.
On the 20th of June she will have reigned sixty years, and the event will be marked by parades and processions and festivities of all kinds.
All the colonies of Great Britain have sent over soldiers and important people to take part in the affair, and all the nations of the world are sending representatives.
There will be kings and princes by the dozen, and great men of all races and shades of color.
With the city filling with strangers, come from all parts of the earth to do honor to the Queen, it has caused a good deal of surprise and pain that Ireland should come to the front as the one nation that will not join in the general festivities.
A resolution has been passed by the Irish party in Parliament, declaring that it is impossible for them to take part in the Jubilee.
The Irish party declares that these rejoicings are not to celebrate the many private and public good deeds of Her Majesty the Queen, but the triumph and prosperity of her government, and that, as Ireland has not shared in the prosperity, Irishmen do not feel called upon to rejoice.
They say that for the sixty years of the Queen's reign, while liberty of thought, speech, and action has been given to all the other nations under the English rule, Ireland has been governed against her will and deprived of her freedom.
They declare that Ireland's population has been reduced one-half, while Great Britain's has been doubled, and that their country has been loaded down with taxes heavier than it could bear.
[**Transcriber's Note: heaver changed to heavier]
Under these circumstances they find it impossible to take part in the rejoicings.
* * * * *
There has been another disappointment in connection with the Jubilee.
One of the great princes of Hindustan, the Nizam of Hyderabad, possessed a very wonderful diamond, called the "great white diamond," which it was his intention to present to the Queen during the celebrations.
This diamond was the largest known brilliant in the world.
It is said that it was stolen from the Kimberley Mines in South Africa, and taken to Europe. It was such a big and costly stone that no one could be found who wanted it; and so it was taken to India, because the Hindu princes are very fond of fine stones and are willing to pay a great price for them.
This great white diamond is said to have cost the Nizam of Hyderabad about a million and a half dollars, which he was quite willing to pay to become the possessor of the finest diamond in the world.
A short time ago it is said that he wanted to have the jewel reset before he presented it to the Queen; and on the stone being fetched from his cabinet he made the dreadful discovery that the real gem had been stolen, and a paste imitation put in its place.
The Nizam, therefore, loses his million and a half, and the Queen of England her costly present.
* * * * *
There is an amusing story about King Leopold of Belgium in connection with the Jubilee.
It would appear that King Leopold is a very eccentric monarch, and that it is his habit to disappear from his kingdom every now and then, and wander about the world like an ordinary gentleman.
His little ways are well known by this time, so no anxiety is felt about him, and the Court newspapers put in the usual accounts that His Majesty breakfasted here, and lunched or dined there, just the same, whether His Majesty is in the kingdom or not. Last week affairs of state got to be a little tiresome to him, so, without a word of warning to any one, he packed his grip, went aboard his yacht, and steamed over to England.
He was seen in London eating in cafes, strolling in the Park, and enjoying himself in a quiet, harmless way, watching the preparations for the Jubilee.
None of his royal relatives knew that he was in the country, until Victoria, paying a state visit to the little town of Sheffield, was surprised to see His Majesty the King of the Belgians standing in the front row of the crowd that lined the sidewalks to see her pass.
Finding himself recognized, Leopold followed Her Majesty to Scotland, and paid her a short visit. Immediately his duty was done, he started off again on his yacht, and he has not since been heard from.
If he does not appear in state at her Jubilee celebrations, it will probably be because he has decided to see the sights from the crowd instead of a state carriage.
* * * * *
It will interest you to know that the police have traced the cannon stolen from West Point.
Colonel Ernst's idea, that they were taken from the fort one by one, and carted away in a wagon, proved to be the correct one.
They were sold to a dealer for a few cents a pound as old metal, and apparently two of them have already been shipped to Germany to be melted. The same dealer also bought a couple of boxes of old pieces of brass, and it is therefore feared that the famous Monterey cannon has been destroyed, but the authorities are not quite sure about that point as yet.
It appears that the cannon were stolen by a plumber in Highland Falls, a little village near West Point. This plumber, whose name is Earle, sold them to a dealer in old metal.
The plumber and the man who bought the cannon have both been arrested, and, if the charge is proved against them, they will both be severely punished; the plumber for stealing the cannon and the dealer for buying stolen goods.
* * * * *
Mr. Havemeyer and Mr. Searles have both escaped punishment.
The jury decided that neither of these gentlemen had been guilty of contempt of the Senate, and so they have not shared Mr. Chapman's fate, but have been set at liberty, to return to their homes and business.
* * * * *
The United States Consul at Zanzibar has sent word to the Government in Washington that the Sultan of Zanzibar has issued a proclamation abolishing slavery in the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar.
This good work has really been accomplished by Great Britain, for Zanzibar has been under the protection of England since the year 1890.
The country ruled by the Sultan of Zanzibar is on the East Coast of Africa, and consists of the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar, and a strip of the coast, which runs from the commencement of the Mozambique Channel to Somali Land. The Mozambique Channel is the arm of the Indian Ocean which separates Madagascar from the mainland of Africa.
The slave trade has been carried on very extensively in Zanzibar, and despite the attempts of the British to prevent it ships full of natives have been brought from the mainland to be sold into slavery in Zanzibar.
These slaves were employed in the cultivation of cloves; Zanzibar grows four-fifths of the clove crop of the world.
The inhabitants of the islands are principally Arabs, a race of men who have always been prominent in the slave trade since first the shameful traffic in human flesh began.
These Arabs have pleaded that the freeing of the slaves in Zanzibar will destroy the clove industry, and that their trade will be ruined.
After carefully looking into the matter, the British decided that the industry of the islands would not in any way be injured, and informed the Sultan that they wished him to free the slaves.
The British power in Zanzibar is very strong, and while the Sultan is the ruler of his kingdom in name, in actual fact he has to obey the wishes of the British without hesitation or question.
England, therefore, prepared the decree freeing the slaves in the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, and the Sultan obediently signed it.
This decree states that the slave-owners will be paid for the loss of their slaves; and if the Government has not enough money in its treasury to do this, Great Britain will give what extra money is needed.
It is said that slavery was never abolished in any country with less trouble or disturbance.
No great changes are looked for. The negroes will now be paid for their labor, and have the right to choose their own employers; but it is expected that nearly the whole body of freed slaves will remain on the plantations where they have been working.
It is estimated that about a quarter of a million slaves were liberated.
* * * * *
The United States had a shock of earthquake the other day, which was felt in the States of Ohio, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia. Buildings were shaken, and in Atlanta the shock was so severe that pictures and wall-hangings were thrown violently from the wall.
An earthquake is a movement of the earth's crust, caused by volcanic action. The earth moves as it were in waves, billowing like the waters of the ocean.
The destructive nature of earthquakes depends very much upon the nature of the ground. Sometimes the movement will be felt very slightly, and no damage will be done. At others, a hard bed of rock will lie in the path of the wave; it will not bend and move the rest of the ground, but splits in two, and then a fissure, or opening in the ground, is formed.
* * * * *
There is a new break in the levees near New Orleans.
Since the Mississippi River began to fall, the danger was supposed to be over, and the guards and inspectors who had been patrolling the levees became a trifle careless.
The present break, therefore, found the people quite unprepared to deal with it; and it was some hours after the trouble had occurred before help could be obtained.
This new crevasse is said to have been caused by the caving in of the bank, a thing which often happens as the waters subside.
The engineers had been warned that this might happen, but unfortunately did not heed the warning.
The direct result of the Mississippi floods will be an appeal to the United States Government to take charge of the levees along the entire length of the river.
These matters at present are managed by Levee Boards, who control the banks of the river for certain distances, and through certain districts.
Each Board has the power to do the work for its own district in the manner that seems best to it.
There has, so far, been no general meeting of the various Boards to decide on the best kind of levee to build, but each has done the work independently of the other, and put up the best levees it could afford with the funds it had.
In view of the widespread distress caused by the floods this year it is thought that some better system should be adopted, and that all the levees should be under one board of management.
Daring the recent floods, it was found that certain levees were able to withstand the force of the waters better than others, and the farmers all along the river are insisting that when the new levees are built they shall be of the kind that withstood the flood.
It has been felt that the work should be taken in hand by some one body which should have control of both banks of the river throughout its entire length. Want of money prevents the dwellers of the Mississippi Valley from doing this for themselves, and so the appeal to the Government has been made.
Should the request be granted the dwellers along the river will be relieved of one great anxiety. When the waters run very high the people along each bank would be glad if the bank on the opposite side would break and relieve the pressure on their side, and so several times men have been wicked enough to cut the levees opposite, and allow the floods to pour over their neighbors' lands.
This has resulted in bad feeling and distrust, and now, whenever the river rises, men patrol the banks, carrying loaded guns, and shoot without mercy any persons who are suspected of having evil designs on the levee.
In New Orleans, during the late flood, a strong demand was made that some of the country levees might be cut, so that the town would be safe from the fear of a flood.
You can imagine the bad feeling that this caused. The farmers did not see why they should be ruined to save the city, and the city people did not see why the farmers should mind having their fields under water, to save the misery and distress of a flood in the city.
If the Government took charge of the work all this trouble would be ended. The levees would be properly built, kept in repair, and guarded, and no one would dare to interfere with the property of the Government.
It will be a splendid thing for the dwellers in the Mississippi Valley if it is arranged that the Government controls the levees, but it will cost the country a great deal of money. Twenty-five million dollars to begin with, and more than five millions every year afterward, is the estimated cost.
* * * * *
An experiment to make gold out of other metals has been attempted in Washington.
Ever since the world was young, men have been trying to discover a means of making gold.
The old alchemists, who were accused of being magicians, and having dealings with the powers of evil, were always trying to make gold. Apparently no one ever succeeded.
Lately, a man from Chicago, a Mr. Brice, went to the Government and asked for a patent on a method of making gold, which he offered to sell the Government.
It has long been known to scientists that the precious metals, silver and gold, are present in many of the baser metals, such as antimony and lead.
Mr. Brice claimed that he could extract the gold from these metals, and that he could also make gold.
When he applied for his patent it was refused to him, on the ground that he had not shown that the work could really be done. He continued to ask for the patent; and, as the laboratory of the Patent Office was too small for him to show his process to the authorities, he was allowed to use the laboratory of the Mint Bureau for his experiments.
A committee of scientists was appointed to conduct the experiments, and Mr. Brice furnished them with his formula for making the gold.
The first experiments were tried with metals that were known to contain gold and silver. From these, by Mr. Brice's process, eighty-four per cent of the gold was recovered and fifty-six per cent of the silver.
They then tried to make gold from minerals that were free from the precious metals, but this experiment failed; no gold resulted.
In making their report of the attempts to make gold, the committee pronounced them failures.
They said, first, that in the attempt to extract gold from metals known to contain gold and silver, Mr. Brice's process had only extracted a portion of this metal.
Second, that the claim of making gold was entirely without foundation.
Mr. Brice replied to this, by complaining that the commission did not follow his formula.
He declared that certain chemicals had been used which he had expressly stated would ruin his process if added to his formula. He said that the commission had also declined to use a certain apparatus which he insisted was absolutely necessary to obtain the desired results.
Mr. Brice says he will go to England and try his experiments there, and offer Great Britain the wonderful secret which the United States has refused.
* * * * *
A new method for using electricity instead of steam has been tried on the railroad.
It has proved to be such a success that many people declare that the days of the steam locomotive are numbered, and electricity will soon be used in its stead.
The plan was tried on the New England Railroad, between Hartford and New Britain.
It is called the "third-rail system," and consists of a third rail, laid down in the centre of the tracks, between the ordinary supporting rails.
This third rail looks like a capital A, flattened down. It is laid on blocks of wood, and through it the electric current passes to the cars.
An arrangement is made by which the current is carried from the rail to the motor, which is in the truck of the passenger-car.
A great rate of speed can be gained with the third-rail system, ten miles having been made in thirteen and a half minutes.
It is rumored that the elevated road will most probably adopt the third-rail system, and if this is done the journey from Harlem to the Battery may be made in fifteen minutes.
The great drawback to this system is that the current is exposed, and persons crossing the tracks are liable to get a very severe shock.
The current used will be six hundred volts, and, while the company insists that this will not kill any one, they are of the opinion that it would be better to avoid the shock if possible.
* * * * *
A new school was opened the other day in East Twenty-first Street, New York City.
Though girls will be admitted into it, it is especially a school for boys, as you will understand when you learn that it is a Truant School.
It is one of the laws of our country that children must attend school. Parents who do not send their children are fined, and children who play truant when they are sent to school are also punished.
For years it has been the custom to arrest all truants, or children who will not attend the public schools. If the magistrate found that the culprit was a bad boy, who continually stayed away from school, he would commit him to a Reformatory.
Many people have felt that this was not the right thing to do, for, while boys who play truant are certainly very naughty, they are not necessarily wicked boys who need to be sent to a Reformatory. The truant school has therefore been founded to prevent this. This school is in fact a big boarding-school. The truants who are brought in are housed and fed and taught. They are treated with the greatest kindness, but are constantly under the eye of the teacher, and forced to study.
Any boy who misconducts himself in the Truant School is sent to a Reformatory; but the other lads are kept at their work for a certain period, and then allowed to go back to their homes, if they agree that they will attend school regularly in future.
Boys who behave nicely are given leave of absence to go home and see their parents from Saturday to Monday.
The boys are treated exactly as if they were at boarding-school, the only difference being that they are never allowed to go outside the walls of the school.
They have every comfort, with playrooms, and gymnasiums, and yards for exercising; but out into the street they cannot go.
On the upper floors are neat white dormitories and bathrooms, and washrooms.
Their only hardship is that they must study. They cannot escape their daily lessons, nor the certainty of being sent to a Reformatory if they give trouble.
The truants will have to stay in school till late in July, several weeks longer than the regular schools. This is to teach them that it pays boys better to be good and go to school at proper times.
GENIE H. ROSENFELD.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
My teacher takes THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and reads it to us every week. We like it very much, and it is always welcomed in our school room. As you have answered some questions, would you please tell me, in the next number, which State of the United States has the most miles of railroad, which the least, and how many miles of railroad has each? Wishing success to your little paper, I remain,
Respectfully yours, E.R. BALTIMORE, MD., May 1897.
In answer to the questions in your letter, we would refer you to Poor's "Manual of Railroads."
I see in THE GREAT ROUND WORLD the notice of a handless brush. Where can it be bought. Who are the manufacturers? Please inform me, and oblige a reader of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. Respectfully yours,
G.W. CURRIN. BLOOMSBURG, PA., June 3d, 1897.
We are very sorry to be unable to give you the information you desire.
Our Invention and Discovery Department is not in any sense an advertisement column.
We have facilities for learning of all the latest inventions, and we give our readers those that we think would be of interest to them. We can, if you wish, give you the name and address of the inventor of the brush, but we cannot tell you if it is already on the market. EDITOR.
I am much pleased with THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.
Do you think that the Cubans will take Havana soon? I hope they will because I think it will, end the war.
Do you think that Greece will fight Turkey any more?
I am going to have a new bicycle; it is to be a Remington. Do you think it is a good make? Yours truly,
GEORGE B. TUXEDO PARK, May 31st, 1897.
We think the Remington a first-class bicycle, and hope you will have a great deal of enjoyment with yours. EDITOR.
This is the first letter I have ever written.
I take THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and it is very nice.
Yours truly, GROTON, MASS. JOSEPH W.P.
I am very much interested in your paper, and especially the Cuban war accounts, and I hope that they will get free soon. My teacher gets the paper every week, and soon I hope to get it myself.
I am trying to get a hundred subscriptions for your paper.
Wishing you long success, I remain
Your faithful reader, MERRITT T.W. NEW YORK, May 24th, 1897.
Many thanks to Joseph W.P. and Merritt T.W. for their kind letters. We are very pleased that Merritt is trying to get subscriptions for us, and hope he will succeed, and be able to earn himself a first-class bicycle.
"The Taming of Polly," by Ellas L. Dorcey; published by Benziger Bros., 1897, price 85 cents.
"Harry Dee," by Francis J. Finn; published by Benziger Bros., 1897, price 85 cents.
"Percy Winn," by Francis J. Finn; published by Benziger Bros., 1897, price 85 cents.
"Claude Lightfoot," by Francis J. Finn; published by Benziger Bros., 1897, price 85 cents.
"A Summer at Woodville," by Anna T. Sadlier; published by Benziger Bros., 1897, price 85 cents.
"Three Girls, Especially One," by Marion A. Faggart; published by Benziger Bros., 1897, price 85 cents.
"The Scrape that Jack Built," by C.A. Liljencrantz; published by A.C. McClurg & Co., 1897, price $1.25.
"The Fatal Diamonds," by E.C. Donnelly; published by Benziger Bros., 1897.
"The Boys in the Block," by M. Fegan; published by Benziger Bros., 1897.
"My Strange Friend," by F.J. Finn; published by Benziger Bros., 1897.
We have received from the A.D.F. Randolph Company a copy of a very interesting game called "Kindergarten in Missions,—American Indians" ($1.00). It consists of a number of cards with pictures of Indians and different scenes in an Indian Village; these are to be cut out and put on stands which are also furnished, forming, when complete, an Indian Village. It will be great fun cutting these pictures out and afterward doing the various things with the Indian Village, suggested in the directions.
They also send an attractive "Pocket History of the Presidents," containing portraits, together with a little historical sketch of each. In the book is also a list of States with their estimated wealth, and a number of other details of great interest; price of this little book is 25 cents.
We have received a number of copies of "The Story of Washington," a bright little book, written, and illustrated also, by children, compiled by Jessie R. Smith, of the Santa Rosa Public Schools; price, 20 cents.
Our boys who are contemplating business and are anxious to fit themselves in bookkeeping will be delighted to know of "Waggener's Bookkeeping Simplified." It is the most compact little book for this purpose we have ever seen; everything is condensed in seventy-seven pages, and nothing seems to have been left out that is necessary to a good, clear, practical knowledge of the subject. Publisher's price, $1.00.
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD NATURAL HISTORY STORIES.
A Series of True Stories
BY JULIA TRUITT BISHOP.
Attractively Illustrated by Barnes.
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These stories will be issued in parts. Price, 10 cents each. Subscription price (12 numbers), $1.00. Part 1. issued as supplement to GREAT ROUND WORLD NO. 20.
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The stories published in this little volume have been issued from time to time in the Philadelphia Times, and it is at the request of many readers that they now greet the world in more enduring form. They have been written as occasion suggested, during several years; and they commemorate to me many of the friends I have known and loved in the animal world. "Shep" and "Dr. Jim," "Abdallah" and "Brownie," "Little Dryad" and "Peek-a-Boo." I have been fast friends with every one, and have watched them with such loving interest that I knew all their ways and could almost read their thoughts. I send them on to other lovers of dumb animals, hoping that the stories of these friends of mine will carry pleasure to young and old.
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WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON, 3 & 5 West 18th Street.
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FOUR FAMOUS BOOKS
Every boy and girl is interested in what is going on about them. The authors of this series have gathered together the most interesting kind of information, and have told it in a most entertaining way.
Copies will be sent post-paid to any address upon receipt of price named.
1. Foods and Beverages, by E.A. BEAL, M.D. Contains reading lessons on the various kinds of Foods and their hygienic values; on Grains, Fruits, and useful Plants, with elementary botanical instruction relating thereto; and on other common subjects of interest and importance to all, old and young. 281 pages. Cloth, 60 cents.
2. Every-Day Occupations, by H. WARREN CLIFFORD, S.D. Quantities of useful facts entertainingly told, relating to work and workers. How Leather is Tanned; How Silk is Made; The Mysteries of Glass-Making, of Cotton Manufacture, of Cloth-Making, of Ship and House Building; The Secrets of the Dyer's Art and the Potter's Skill—all and more are described and explained in detail with wonderful clearness. 330 pages. Cloth, 60 cents.
3. Man and Materials, by WM. G. PARKER, M.E. Shows how man has raised himself from savagery to civilization by utilizing the raw material of the earth. Brings for the first time the wonderful natural resources of the United States to the notice of American children. The progress of the Metal-Working arts simply described and very attractively illustrated. 323 pages. Cloth, 60 cents.
4. Modern Industries and Commerce, by ROBERT LOUIS, PH.D. Treats of commerce and the different means of conveyance used in different eras. Highways, Canals. Tunnels, Railroads, and the Steam Engine are discussed in an entertaining way. Other subjects are Paper Manufacture, Newspapers, Electric Light, Atlantic Cable, the Telephone, and the principal newer commercial applications of Electricity, etc. 329 pages. Cloth, 60 cents.
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Natural History Readers.
By the REV. J.G. WOOD, M.A.,
Author of "Homes without Hands," etc.
First Reader. Short and simple stories about Common Domestic Animals 25 cts.
Second Reader. Short and simple stories about Animals of the Fields, Birds, etc. 36 cts.
Third Reader. Descriptive of Familiar Animals and some of their wild relations 50 cts.
Fourth Reader. The Monkey Tribe, the Bat Tribe, the Mole, Ox, Horse, Elephant, etc 65 cts.
Fifth Reader. Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, etc. 65 cts.
Sixth Reader. Mollusks, Crustacea, Spiders, Insects, Corals, Jelly Fish, Sponges, etc. 65 cts.
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WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 West 18th Street, - - - - NEW YORK
* * * * * ...PREMIUMS...
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TO ANY ONE SENDING US 4 NEW SUBSCRIBERS
The Lens is of the fixed focus type, and of sufficient length of focus (2-1/2 inches) to avoid distortion.
Has improved rotary shutter and set of three stops for lens. The slides for changing stops and for time exposures are alongside of the exposure lever and always show by their position what stop is before the lens and whether the shutter is set for time or instantaneous exposures, thus acting as a warning.
In the quality of the work they will do, Pocket Kodaks equal the best cameras on the market. They make negatives of such perfect quality that enlargements of any size can be made from them.
The Pocket Kodaks are covered with fine leather, and the trimmings are handsomely finished and lacquered. They are elegant, artistic, and durable.
For one more subscription we will send with this camera a bicycle carrying-case
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TO ANY ONE SENDING US 9 NEW SUBSCRIBERS
Fitted with an achromatic lens of superior quality, having a set of three stops; has two finders, one for vertical and one for horizontal exposures; and is also provided with two sockets for tripod screws, one for vertical and one for horizontal exposures. Fitted with improved rotary shutter, for snap-shots or time exposures. Can be loaded in daylight. Handsomely finished and covered with leather.
Both of the above cameras are manufactured by the Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y., and this is a guarantee of their worth
THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY
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In connection with our offer of any BICYCLE you wish for 100 new subscriptions, we have prepared a
This contains a list of selected articles which will be given to those who may obtain a smaller number of subscriptions
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Those who fail to secure the necessary number for the bicycle may make selection from this catalogue.
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Copy mailed on receipt of 5c.
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 & 5 West 18th St, New York City