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The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 34, July 1, 1897 - A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT

Vol. 1 JULY 1, 1897 No. 34. [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second class matter]



Subscription $2.50 per year $1.25 6 months

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON. PUBLISHER NO. 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

Copyright, 1897, by WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON.

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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

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ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY.

NORMAL, ILL. June 16, 1897.

To whom it may concern:—

I have examined the publication "The Great Round World". It seems to me to be admirable in its design and also in its execution. It abandons the formal style of the newspaper in the narration of events, substituting instead a style that is at once conversational and free. I commend it to the consideration of school men.



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AS A SPECIAL INDUCEMENT

for our subscribers to interest others in "The Great Round World," we will give to each subscriber who sends us $2.50 to pay for a year's subscription to a new name, a copy of

Rand, McNally & Co. 1897 Atlas of the World.

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The Great Round World.

Those not subscribers should secure the subscription of a friend and remit $5 to cover it and their own. A copy of the atlas will be sent to either address.

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GREAT ROUND WORLD, 3 and 5 West 18th Street, . . . . . . . .New York City.

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ANNOUNCEMENT

IN THIS NUMBER OF THE GREAT ROUND WORLD IS BEGUN THE STORY OF "THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, AND THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED ON IT," BY MME. ZENAeIDE A. RAGOZIN, AUTHOR OF THE STORY OF "CHALDEA," "ASSYRIA," "MEDIA AND BABYLON," "VEDIC INDIA," ETC., ETC.

FROM TIME TO TIME THE GREAT ROUND WORLD HAS PUBLISHED BRIEF HISTORICAL SUPPLEMENTS EXPLANATORY OF THE NEWS; SO MANY QUESTIONS HAVE ARISEN THAT REQUIRE A KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENT PEOPLES OR BEGINNINGS OF HISTORY, THAT IT HAS BEEN DECIDED TO FURNISH THIS SERIES OF ARTICLES. WE HAVE ARRANGED WITH MME. RAGOZIN, TO WRITE THESE FOR THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. SHE IS THE ACKNOWLEDGED AUTHORITY AND MOST BRILLIANT WRITER OF THIS CLASS OF HISTORY. MME. RAGOZIN NEEDS NO INTRODUCTION TO THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY; HER WORK HAS MADE HER WORLD-FAMOUS, AND HER ABILITY AS A TEACHER IS UNIVERSALLY RECOGNIZED. WE FEEL THAT THIS SERIES SHOULD PROVE INVALUABLE TO OUR READERS.



VOL. 1 JULY 1, 1897. NO. 34

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The troubles between Turkey and Greece do not show any signs of reaching a peaceful settlement. In fact, from the news this week, the Powers seem to be growing angrier as the days go by.

England has boldly declared that she will never allow Thessaly to be placed under Turkish rule again.

It is said that the British Ambassador, Sir Philip Currie, told this to Tewfik Pasha, the Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the presence of Monsieur Nelidoff, the Russian Ambassador.

Sir Philip Currie is reported to have stated the decision of his Government in such very determined words, that both the Turkish and Russian Ministers were speechless with surprise. Tewfik Pasha listened in silence, while the Englishman announced that unless Turkey gave back Thessaly to Greece, Great Britain would withdraw from the concert of the Powers. The Turkish Minister could not conceal his surprise and dismay, but left the room without making any reply, the Russian Minister following him.

A few days later the Turkish Cabinet met in council, and after a very long discussion they decided that under the circumstances it was impossible for Turkey to leave Thessaly, and that, as Turkey is in possession of Thessaly, and able to wait patiently while the terms of peace are being arranged, there is no need to take any immediate steps in the matter.

The council decided to continue preparations for war, so that, if terms of peace cannot be arranged, Turkey will be ready for any emergency.

The next time Tewfik Pasha met the Ambassadors after his conversation with Sir Philip Currie, he was able to say that his Government would not give up Thessaly.

The Powers made answer that Thessaly must be given up, and that the Turks must retire to their own side of the frontier immediately.

Finding that the Powers remained firm, the Sultan ventured on an act so bold and astonishing, that Europe has not yet recovered from it.

He appealed to the Czar of Russia and the Emperor of Germany, asking them to help him in his efforts to make Thessaly a part of the Ottoman Empire.

The other ambassadors were most indignant when they learned of the Sultan's action, and one and all refused to consider any further the treaty of peace, until the question of the Turks leaving Thessaly had been settled.

After the news of Turkey's appeal reached them, a meeting, which lasted four hours, was held by the diplomats, but the result of this conference was not made public.

Mr. Gladstone has written a very bitter letter against Turkey, in which he again refers to the Sultan as the Grand Assassin.

He is said to have stated in his letter that he should not be surprised if the Sultan had the audacity to send representatives to the Queen's Jubilee; and to have added that he hoped the British Government would prevent any such thing, as the Turkish envoys might meet with a reception that would not be agreeable to them.

This cannot be true, for so great a man as Gladstone would not stoop to rousing his countrymen to riotous and discourteous acts. Should the Sultan send over envoys to honor the Queen, they will be the nation's guests, and as such should be treated with respect.

Mr. Gladstone is such a fine old man, that we are sure that this report will be proved false.

* * * * *

There is a report that the Sultan has broken the armistice, by sending fresh troops into Thessaly and continuing to fortify the towns of Volo and Prevesa.

Word has also reached us that the Governor of Volo has issued a proclamation, ordering the people who ran away from the town when the Turks entered it to return. Unless these people go back within two weeks, all the property they left behind them will be seized and confiscated by the Turks.

The unfortunate inhabitants of Thessaly seem to be having a very hard time of it. It is said that the province is full of brigands, and that many people who fled to the mountains to avoid the Turks have been seized by these vagabonds and held for ransom.

For years Greece was a very unsafe place for travellers on account of robbers.

In the days before railways, when people had to travel by coach, brigands infested most of the mountains and forests in Europe.

It was their habit to keep a regular lookout for travellers, and, as soon as they approached, rush out upon them and rob them. If any important person happened to be in the party, the brigands would make him captive and hold him until his friends paid a large sum for his freedom.

Brigandage has lingered longer in Greece than elsewhere, because there are fewer railroads in that country.

* * * * *

There is little likelihood of decided action on Cuban affairs for the present.

It is evident that President McKinley does not mean to do anything rash in this matter.

He is reported to have said that he thinks the subject should be considered with the greatest care, and that no hasty conclusions should be arrived at.

There is a report that he intends to outline his Cuban policy, and then entrust it to the new Minister to Spain. Much thought has been exercised in choosing this official, the President having finally nominated Gen. Stewart L. Woodford for the important mission. It is thought that nothing will be done in regard to Cuba until after General Woodford arrives in Madrid.

The President has received Mr. Calhoun's report, and from the statements which this gentleman made on his return it would seem impossible any longer to deny that actual warfare is being carried on in Cuba.

When Mr. Calhoun was questioned on the subject, he replied:

"War is going on in the island. True, no great battles are being fought, no Gettysburgs or Chickamaugas, but there is war nevertheless."

He was asked if he thought the war would soon be over. He said he could not form any idea about it; all he knew was that a very cruel war was going on, and that both sides were doing their best to ruin the country.

Some people who profess to know say that any action taken by the United States will be in the line of home rule for Cuba. The President questioned Mr. Calhoun very closely as to the possibility of the Cubans accepting home rule, and Mr. Calhoun replied that he thought the Cubans generally would be in favor of such a measure.

Spain is thought to be willing to agree to some arrangement of this character. The rebellion in Cuba is costing her between eight and ten million dollars a month, and it is supposed that she will be willing to get out of her difficulties if she can find a way.

The stumbling-block in the way of home rule is that there has been created a debt of many million dollars as a result of the war. If Spain does not make the payment of this enormous sum of money by Cuba the condition of granting home rule, the matter may soon be arranged. Should Spain insist on the payment of this money, Cuba will have to fight until the end, for it is quite impossible for her to meet any such demand.

There are reports that General Weyler will be recalled to Spain. Some say that he has already been ordered home; others that he has sent in his resignation, but that the Queen Regent will not accept it until she sees what the United States is going to do. If trouble should come with this country she will probably keep Weyler in Cuba.

There is now a very strong party in Madrid which demands the removal of Weyler.

There was some excitement when the news reached this country that Gen. Rius Rivera was to be shot. The news came from Havana, and roused a storm of indignant protests against such a shameful practice as shooting a prisoner of war.

The Spanish newspapers have been saying very unkind things about us since the Senate passed the Morgan resolutions, but in spite of this it would seem that Spain is really anxious to keep our good will. No sooner did the report about General Rivera reach us, than Senor Dupuy de Lome made full inquiries into the matter, and sent word to his Government that the reports were absolutely false, and that the authorities had no intention of shooting General Rivera.

In regard to the Ruiz matter, it is said that our Government will claim that Spain is responsible for the doctor's death, whether he died from injuries received in the prison or not, because they kept him shut up, without the privilege of communicating with anybody, ten days longer than the law permits.

It is expected that our Government will claim $150,000 damages for Mrs. Ruiz and her children, and will demand that Fondeviella, who was in charge of the jail, shall be punished for keeping the unfortunate man in this close confinement for three hundred and fifteen hours, instead of the seventy-two hours named in their law.

The authorities in Madrid are beginning to think that too many Cubans are claiming the protection of American citizenship, to save themselves from punishment.

When Dr. Ruiz was arrested, he claimed American citizenship, and it was on account of this claim that General Lee became interested in his case.

By referring to page 473 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, you will see that Dr. Ruiz was born in Cuba, came to the United States to study, became naturalized, and then went back again to Cuba, where he entered into business as a dentist. His case was so complicated, that the authorities in Cuba thought they had good ground for disbelieving him when he claimed to be a citizen of the United States.

To avoid any such trouble in future, Spain has proposed to make a new naturalization treaty with us. The terms of this treaty will cover just such cases as that of Dr. Ruiz.

One of the articles provides that any Cuban, or other Spanish-born subject, who becomes naturalized in this country, and then goes back to live in Cuba or the land of his birth, will, after two years' residence in the country in which he was born, be once more regarded as a Spanish subject, and must waive his naturalization rights.

If, however, at the end of the two years, he declares his intention to go back and live in his adopted country, he will be allowed to do so, and his naturalization will hold good.

Our Government is in favor of accepting this treaty, because it will save the consuls much trouble and avoid many squabbles between the two governments.

* * * * *

The Dauntless has been on trial for filibustering, and released, no arms or suspicious cargo having been found in her.

It is to be feared that the Dauntless did not deserve her good fortune. If the reports be true, the day after her release from custody she took on a large cargo of war material, and made off for Cuba with thirty-five volunteers on board.

In her cargo she is said to have carried three hundred rounds of ammunition for the famous dynamite-gun, so it is to be supposed that the terrible weapon is once more in working order.

A large expedition landed in Santa Clara the other day.

The report says that the cargo was unloaded in the face of a force of Spanish coast-guards, who had sighted the vessel and hurried to the shore to capture the expedition. A gunboat was sent round to cut the filibuster off by sea, while the coast-guard did the work on land. The Cubans, however, beat off both their foes and landed the cargo safely.

News of a battle near Havana has been telegraphed to Key West, but the press censor has forbidden the details to be published. For this reason it is believed to have been a Cuban victory, with heavy losses on the Spanish side.

* * * * *

There is some very important news about Hawaii this week.

A treaty, whereby Hawaii is to be annexed to the United States, has been prepared, approved by the President, signed by the representatives of both governments, and sent to the Senate for consideration.

The way it all came about was this.

We have been telling you from week to week about the angry feeling that has been growing between Hawaii and Japan.

Last week we told you how threatening the Japanese Minister had become, and that he hinted that diplomatic relations between the two countries would be severed.

The Hawaiian Government became very much alarmed at this, and the two gentlemen who had been sent to the United States to try and bring about the annexation were instructed to go once more to our Government and beg that something be done before it was too late.

Annexing means joining to. You know what an annex to a house is—that it is a few extra rooms built beside the house, and joined permanently to it. When one country annexes another it makes it part of itself. The new lands are permanently joined to the old, and are regarded as a part of the whole.

President McKinley has expressed himself as in favor of annexing Hawaii, and has been considering the matter for some time. He did not wish that anything should interfere with the Tariff Bill, and for this reason kept Hawaiian matters in the background, along with Cuban affairs, until the Tariff question should be settled.

The trouble with Japan has forced him to consider Hawaiian Annexation before he intended to, and so the treaty has been drawn up.

He is more willing to give the matter his attention at the present time, because he finds that Hawaiian affairs are really delaying the Tariff Bill.

A great deal of our sugar is imported from the Hawaiian Islands, and under a commercial treaty made between Hawaii and the United States this sugar is brought into our country free of duty.

There is a clause in the treaty which says that the President can terminate it whenever he wishes to, by giving due notice.

In considering the sugar tariff, it was necessary for the Senators to decide whether Hawaiian sugar should still be admitted free of charge, or should be subject to the same duties as other sugars.

The Senators could not come to any agreement until they knew whether the President meant to end the treaty—abrogate it, as it is called.

Not wishing to delay the Tariff Bill, the President thought the wisest thing to do would be to let the Senate know that he was in favor of annexing Hawaii.

With Hawaii a part of this country, the sugar question would settle itself, and the Tariff Bill could go on undisturbed.

Before the President allowed any word of his intentions to become known, he called a Cabinet meeting and laid the treaty before his ministers.

The majority of the Cabinet approved of the draft of the treaty that was read to them, and it is thought that the Senate will also look favorably on the measure, and that the necessary two-thirds vote will be secured without trouble.

The treaty provides that the United States shall become possessed of all the public lands and buildings, ships, ports, etc., belonging to Hawaii, and shall in return assume Hawaii's debts, which amount to $4,000,000.

This treaty does not provide any pension for the ex-queen, Liliuokalani, nor any gift of money for the Princess Kiaulani.

The treaty proposed in 1893, which was rejected by Mr. Cleveland, provided liberally for both. You can read all about it on page 734 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.

Queen Liliuokalani is not at all disturbed by the talk of annexation. She has been in Washington all the winter, trying to make friends of the Senators, so that they will oppose the treaty when it is brought before them.

It is said that she is perfectly serene and happy in the belief that she has enough influence in the Senate to prevent the bill from being passed.

* * * * *

The Committee of Inquiry into the Transvaal Raid has finished its work.

In the course of the inquiry certain cablegrams were mentioned, which had been sent by Cecil Rhodes to some persons in England.

In courts of law you cannot quote from a book, letter, or telegram, unless you produce the actual paper you quote from, and thus prove to the satisfaction of the court that the book, letter, or telegram really exists.

When reference was made to these telegrams, the Committee asked to see them, but they were not forthcoming. Every one supposed that an order would be issued for the production of these messages, but, strange to say, no such order was given.

People began to be suspicious, and it was whispered that these messages contained information that the Committee dared not make public.

At first, the worst that people suspected was that they would show that Mr. Chamberlain, the Colonial Secretary, had known all about the preparations for the Jameson Raid, and that he and Mr. Cecil Rhodes had planned to seize the Transvaal, with its rich gold-fields, and annex it to the English Colonies in South Africa.

Had this been the truth, it would have been bad enough. Mr. Chamberlain was one of the Queen's Ministers, bound to obey the laws and uphold them. That he should have been aware that an attempt was to be made to steal the country of a friendly power, without making an effort to prevent it, would have been disgraceful enough.

Unfortunately, it appears that the blame falls on a personage in much higher position than Mr. Chamberlain.

It is said that no less a person than the Prince of Wales is named in these cablegrams as one of the men who knew all about the preparations for the Raid, and was perfectly willing that they should be carried out. Several other men in high positions in England were also in the plot to seize the Transvaal. (For the story of the plot, see THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, pages 513 and 667.)

The cablegrams were at one time in the possession of Mr. Chamberlain, having been given him by Mr. Cecil Rhodes, in the hope that the names of the men interested in the plot would make him use his influence to prevent any inquiry being made into the Raid.

London is shocked and indignant at these rumors, and insists that the cablegrams shall be produced and the truth known about the Prince of Wales' connection with the matter.

The Committee of Inquiry has, however, decided not to press the demand for the messages, and so the whole affair will be hushed up as far as possible.

Mr. Chamberlain was called before the Committee, and said, in regard to the cablegrams, that he had personally not the slightest objection to their being produced, but that they were unfortunately no longer in his possession. As far as he knew they were now in the keeping of the lawyer for the British South African Company.

Legal proceedings are being taken against this lawyer, to make him give the papers up.

The Committee, after hearing Mr. Chamberlain's evidence, said that the inquiry was at an end as far as they were concerned, but that they would report the refusal to give up the missing cablegrams to the House of Commons.

The chances are that this is the last that will ever be heard about the inquiry into the Jameson Raid.

It has long been suspected that some people in very high position were connected with this very disgraceful affair. One reason for the supposition was that when Dr. Jameson was first put on trial for leading the raid, it was whispered about that he would not be punished very severely, as he had powerful friends in high quarters, who were bound to protect him.

When he and his officers were sentenced to imprisonment in Holloway jail, the rumors died out. They revived again as one man after another was released from jail before his time was up. The various excuses offered were so flimsy that the public began to think that it was true that they had powerful friends protecting them.

All honest Englishmen are feeling shocked that those who ought to be so far above the greed of gain have let their honor be trampled in the mire for the sake of the Johannesburg gold-mines.

There is, however, one gleam of sunshine in the midst of the gloom. It seems that Dr. Leyds, who was sent over from the Transvaal to arrange this unhappy affair, has had several satisfactory interviews with Mr. Chamberlain, and will take back to Oom Paul a proposal from England for the settlement of the troubles.

It is said that the offer made by Mr. Chamberlain is one that will find favor both in England and Africa, and that there is every prospect of the matter being peacefully settled.

Oom Paul, despite the wrong done him by England, has ordered that the day of the Queen's Jubilee shall be observed throughout the South African Republic as a special holiday.

He is certainly a very noble, generous-spirited old man.

* * * * *

We have a good deal to tell you about treaties this week.

The treaty between Great Britain and Venezuela, which was arranged by the United States, has been agreed to by both governments, and now the dispute over the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana will be settled by arbitration instead of war.

You will find all about the treaty on pages 52, 196, and 306 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.

You remember that copies of the treaty were sent by the British Minister and the Minister from Venezuela to their respective governments for approval.

Both countries were satisfied with the treaty, and on the 14th of June, Sir Julian Pauncefote, representing England, and Senor Jose Andrade, for Venezuela, met and exchanged the notes of approval from their governments.

There will be five members of the Arbitration Committee—Baron Herschel and Sir Richard Collins for England, and Chief-Justice Fuller and Justice Brewer for Venezuela.

As in the case of the proposed Arbitration with England, the King of Sweden may nominate the odd man on the Committee. The two sides are to try and agree on a fifth person to act with them, and if they fail to agree the King of Sweden is to have the right to name him.

The Arbitrators are to meet in Paris, and must render a decision within three months after both sides have stated their case.

* * * * *

Several weeks ago we told you about Ellis Island, and the way immigrants were received and handled there.

You will be sorry to learn that the whole of the government buildings on Ellis Island have been destroyed by fire.

No one knows how the accident happened, but just after midnight a watchman noticed smoke coming out of one of the rooms, and gave the alarm of fire.

There were more than a hundred immigrants on the island, as well as a large force of people to care for them. In addition to these people, there were some fifty patients in the hospital. In all, there were two hundred and thirteen people in the buildings when the fire started, but the discipline was so perfect, and the employees of the Island were so well trained, that not a single person was injured.

The patients from the hospital were removed from the wards in quick time, taken on boats belonging to the Island, and brought to the Battery without delay. The rest of the people were put in the tugs and the various kinds of river craft that hurried down the Bay the moment the fire was discovered.

Some anxiety was felt lest the papers and records of the Immigration Bureau had been destroyed in the fire, but it was found that most of them were in safes and had escaped injury.

New buildings will be put up as soon as possible; the work on them will be begun without delay. This time, however, they will be built of brick or stone, and not of wood.

* * * * *

Many of our friends have asked us whether Robinson's Crusoe's Island had really been swallowed up by the sea, according to the report which was given out, and which we mentioned on pages 243 and 290 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.

To make absolutely sure of the matter, we wrote to Mr. James Dobbs, United States Consul at Valparaiso, Chile.

He has sent us a very kind letter, which we copy for you here, and with the letter a picture of one of the ports of the island (see frontispiece).

You will be glad to know that the report was not true, and that Crusoe's Island still rises out of the sea, just as it did in Crusoe's day.

Here is Mr. Dobbs' letter:

CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, VALPARAISO, CHILE, May 7, 1897.

EDITOR "GREAT ROUND WORLD":

Your letter of March 17th was received by last mail, and I take pleasure in replying that there is not the slightest foundation for the report that the Island of Juan Fernandez has been swallowed up by the sea. During the month of April President Errazuriz and his staff made a trip of inspection on one of the Chilean men-of-war to the island, and spent several days there. A passenger steamer also made regular trips back and forth from this city during the past summer (our winter), and the excursionists, upon returning, have invariably expressed their enjoyment of the trip. You may depend Robinson Crusoe's old home remains intact, and still inhabited by goats. I enclose you a copy of the English paper here, containing a cut of one of the little ports of the island, photographed by Spencer & Co., of this city. Thanking you for the two copies of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, I am,

Very truly yours, JAMES M. DOBBS, United States Consul.

* * * * *

The latest news from Miles City tells us that the two hundred Indians are still off the Reservation, and that those who remain under Government control are unruly and hard to manage.

Settlers continue to bring their families into the city for protection. The Indians are reported to be riding all over the country in small parties, destroying everything in their line of march.

So far there has been no bloodshed, but the settlers fear that there will be if they attempt to check the work of destruction.

The Sheriff has gone again to the Reservation with an order for the arrest of White Bull. He will probably have some trouble before he lays hands on the unruly Indian, but there is no doubt that the entire band will be returned to the Reservation ere long.

Runaway Indians are always obliged to return to their home, as they can find neither food nor shelter elsewhere, and are sure to suffer if they do not go back. If they appear at the forts they are captured, and every white settler knows that the Indians have no business off the government Reservations, and endeavors to have them driven back where they belong.

The Indians are thus surrounded by enemies, and they can only hope for a short period of freedom; then they must go back home, and take their punishment for truancy.

* * * * *

Word comes from Mexico that the President, General Diaz, has made a treaty with a tribe of Indians called the Yaquis, who have defied the government rule since the Spanish conquest in the sixteenth century.

These people have, for over two hundred years, refused to pay taxes or obey any laws but their own. They have lived in their own mountainous country, and successfully repelled attempts to dislodge them or make them obey the Mexican laws.

It is said that our troubles with the Indians have been slight when compared with those of the Mexicans with the Yaquis.

President Diaz, who is half an Indian himself, has at last found a means of making peace with them.

He has taken a lesson from his experiences in dealing with the brigands, who at one time infested Mexico.

At first he attempted to conquer these robbers by sending soldiers out after them; but finding that this plan was a total failure, he adopted another, which was the old principle of setting a thief to catch a thief. He offered them pardons if they would enlist in a new body of guards, which he created. The duties of the regiment were half military and half police. The President uniformed them, gave them good pay, and in a very short time found that, instead of numberless bands of dangerous robbers, he had a fine corps of vigilant thief-catchers.

This experiment having turned out so well, Diaz decided to adopt a similar plan with the Yaquis.

He offered to enrol them into a militia corps with uniforms and good pay, and asked them to aid in carrying out the laws.

The Yaquis decided to accept this offer, as they are a race of warriors who like soldiering, and so the treaty was made.

It is said that the Chief of the Yaquis rode to the conference followed by eight hundred well-armed warriors. The treaty was made, and the ceremonies were followed by a great feast, in which Mexicans and Yaquis both took part.

It is thought that the making of this treaty will be of great value to Mexico.

It is also reported that a new volcano has been formed in Mexico, on the peninsula of Tehuantepec, which is on the southwest coast of Mexico.

Severe earthquake shocks were felt in the region, and finally a new volcano made its appearance.

No one has as yet visited it, for the Mexicans are too much frightened to go near, but smoke and fire can be seen coming out of the mountain.

The Government has sent a party out from the City of Mexico to find out the truth of the matter.

* * * * *

British India, or Hindostan, has also been suffering from earthquake.

A very severe shock, which lasted nearly five minutes, was felt in Calcutta on June 12th. The disturbance extended over a large area of country, and a great deal of damage was done.

In the town of Calcutta the public buildings were damaged, and the spires of several churches fell. In some parts of the city hardly any of the houses escaped damage.

Throughout the country, railways were destroyed, bridges broken, and an immense amount of property ruined. In one place the earth opened, and a railway train was overturned.

Many people were killed by buildings falling on them, and there was great terror and distress in all the provinces visited by the earthquake.

On the same day, word was cabled that a number of British officers and native soldiers had been massacred on the Afghanistan frontier, at a place called the Tochi Valley.

A government officer, Mr. Gee, was travelling through the district under the escort of a body of troops. The party was attacked by a tribe of frontiersmen, and the British obliged to retreat, their enemies following them for several miles.

Some of the officers commanding the troops were killed, and all of them were wounded.

Mr. Gee had been sent to the frontier to fix the site for a new outpost or fort, and to collect fines that had been imposed on the frontiersmen for past misconduct.

The Waziris, as the tribe is called, did not like Mr. Gee's mission, and so lay in wait for his party, and, when it entered the valley, poured down from the hills on all sides and in great numbers.

Great Britain will send out an expedition to punish the Waziris, but it is expected that it will take some severe fighting to overcome these natives.

They are a powerful tribe which can muster about forty thousand fighting men. They are strong, hardy, and well versed in the use of rifles, and are constantly fighting the other tribes around them, so that they are always ready for war.

Their country extends over a vast tract of land, and they are a very formidable people.

England cannot allow her representatives to be attacked by these people without punishing them, and however severe the task may be, it is necessary to give the Waziris a good lesson.

* * * * *

Of late there has been a good deal of angry talk about the seal question.

It is said that the United States has been acting in bad faith, in not paying Canada the sum of $425,000 for unlawfully keeping her ships out of the Bering Sea.

It has also been frequently stated that the Seal Arbitration Committee, which met in Paris in 1893, decided that we must pay this sum. People are inquiring why we don't pay it before we ask for England's help in protecting the seals.

As a matter of fact, the United States does not owe any such sum.

The Paris tribunal said we had no right to prevent other ships from entering the Bering Sea, and that we must pay damages to Canada for having done so.

No sum of money was, however, agreed on.

Lord Salisbury and Secretary of State Gresham decided that, "subject to the approval of Congress," $425,000 would be about a fair sum for us to pay.

When the subject came up before Congress, it was found that many false claims were being made, and that frauds of every kind were being practised to get damages from us. The entire matter was therefore thrown out, Congress refusing to agree to the payment of the $425,000.

A Committee was appointed to look into the matter, and is now holding its sittings in Vancouver. At the present time no one knows what amount we will have to pay.

When the fair and just demand is presented to our Government, there is no doubt it will be settled without delay.

Mr. John W. Foster has been sent to Europe to try and settle the seal fisheries dispute.

He first went to England, but did not meet with success there, so he journeyed on to St. Petersburg, to see if Russia would not help us.

It is said that he has secured an agreement from Russia and Japan, whereby they promise to close the Bering Sea seal fisheries for a number of years.

With this agreement Mr. Foster hopes to convince the British Government that such action is necessary, and obtain England's consent to the measure. Closing the seal fisheries means that no seals will be caught for a certain period.

It is said that the seals are decreasing every year, and that unless something is done, there will soon be none left in the Bering Sea!

GENIE H. ROSENFELD.

* * * * *

Many weeks ago, when the rumors of trouble in the East between Turkey and Greece caused us to turn our attention to these countries, we found that we knew very little about these people, and it was necessary for us to read about them; then THE GREAT ROUND WORLD published the story of the "Ottoman Empire in Europe" and afterward the relations existing between "Crete and Greece"; but these accounts were not sufficient by themselves; we had to go back further still in order to understand how all of these things came to be; a step taken further into the almost forgotten past increased our interest and led us back further still, and finally the story of "Ancient Greece" was told. Even this was not sufficient, and we have now made up our minds to begin as nearly as possible at the beginning and tell the story of the great-great grandfathers and grandmothers of these interesting people. This story will be told by Mme. Ragozin, who has spent so many years in studying the history of these ancient times.

The first part of this story of "The Great Round World, and the People Who Lived On It," is given in this number.



LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.

DEAR EDITOR:

I was ten years old on the 29th of May.

I think THE GREAT ROUND WORLD is fine, and wish it much success.

I wish it was thicker, so I could read more at a time.

It's too bad about Greece and Turkey's war. Do you think there is any chance of Greece winning if the Powers stop their foolishness?

My big brother (who is six feet three inches) was down in Jamaica for a while, and saw a Cuban filibuster and knew the captain of it.

MEREDITH D. GREENWOOD HILL, POTTSVILLE, PA.., June 7th, 1897.



DEAR MEREDITH:

It is very difficult for us to tell anything about Greece and Turkey; many people think that Greece is entirely out of the whole matter, and that if the Powers want Turkey to give up Thessaly they will have to fight her and force her to do so.

EDITOR.

To the Readers of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.

DEAR BOYS AND GIRLS:—The first part of this letter is for you little ones whose hunger for "stories" is often unappeased because of the lack of books suitable for you—whose ages may be represented by single figures.

If you are not yet ten years old you will be sure to enjoy "The Adventures of a Brownie." It is written by Miss Mulock, and is a delightful tale of a most fascinating Brownie, who lived behind a piece of coal in a dark cellar, but who ventured out occasionally to tease, play with, protect, and amuse six merry little people. He proved to be a kind and ever welcome friend to them, although he was often naughty and played sorry tricks on careless people.

"Little Prince Fairyfoot," by Frances Hodgson Burnett, will prove interesting to all lovers of fairyland, and all who enjoyed "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" will be sure to like "Davy and the Goblin," by Charles Carryl.

You girls whose skirts have almost reached the tops of your boots will find "Mrs. Overtheway's Remembrances," by Mrs. Ewing, very interesting. "Unknown to History," by Miss Yonge, and "Number XIII., the Story of the Lost Vestal," by Emma Marshall, are slightly historical in character, and are stories of absorbing interest, the one containing old English, and the other old Roman characters.

For boys of a corresponding age, no book could be found more enjoyable than "Some Strange Corners of Our Country," by Charles Lummis. The book is comparatively a new one, and should be read by every American boy and girl, as it describes some of the curious customs of our great West, and explains many of the freaks of Nature in this only partially known "New World."

Wishing the readers of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD a bright and happy vacation,

I am your sincere friend, EDITH CHESTER. BENSONHURST, L.I.

WILLIAM BEVERLY HARISON, ESQ. PUBLISHER "THE GREAT ROUND WORLD."

MY DEAR SIR: If, by your valuable paper to be published next week, you will kindly inform me where I can enter into communication with some official of the schoolship St. Mary's as to becoming a pupil of same, and who is the proper person, and particularly if at any place in this city, you will confer a great favor on me, and greatly oblige, Yours very truly,

HARRY B. PHILADELPHIA, PA., June 4th, 1897.



MY DEAR HARRY:

In reply to your inquiry about the schoolship St. Mary's we print the following letter from Mr. McMullin, the Clerk of the Board of Education.

Mr. McMullin has also been kind enough to send us the rules for admission to the schoolship. If you will send us your address we will be pleased to forward them to you.

As your letter was dated from Philadelphia we thought that you might not be eligible for admission to the St. Mary's, and made further inquiries as to the maintenance of a similar vessel in your city.

EDITOR.

EDITOR "GREAT ROUND WORLD":

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 10th inst., and in reply would say that the schoolship "St. Mary's" is open to admission only to boys whose parents reside in New York City, or who have a guardian appointed here.

The vessel is now at New London, Connecticut, and will leave there about the 23d inst. for a cruise in foreign waters. No applicant will be received, however, after the 15th inst.

I am not able to say whether the city of Philadelphia maintains a vessel similar to ours or not. A letter to the Clerk of the Board of Education in that city would probably obtain the information you desire.

Respectfully, ARTHUR MCMULLIN, Clerk.

DEAR EDITOR:

My sister takes THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and I read it and like it very much. In—I have forgotten the number of the paper—you said that the Queen of the Hawaiian Islands people did not like her rule. Well, one of my friends went there some years ago, and when he was there they loved her just as much as anybody. Will you please explain this? It was the people who ruled for her that they did not like.

Good-by. I live at Willowbrook, Auburn, N.Y.

GEORGE W.M. P.S.—I am nine and a half years old.

DEAR GEORGE:

It is said that the Queen of the Hawaiian Islands allowed herself to be influenced by bad advisers, and after a while ruled her people so badly, that they ceased to love her.

EDITOR.

DEAR EDITOR:

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD interests me very much. I am very glad that the children here in the United States can work so prettily in sewing, and I think that we people ought to be proud to think that the children in this country can really accomplish the best work done in the world.

I would like to know if those American sailors who were arrested in Siberia are free, or were they rearrested.

I think General Weyler is very mean for treating the wounded soldiers of Cuba so cruelly, but I am glad that Cuba is getting the best of the war.

Yours truly, NANCY J. NEW YORK CITY, June 7th. 1897.

DEAR NANCY:

You will find the latest news about the American sailors in last week's issue of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. Thank you for your letter.

EDITOR.

DEAR EDITOR:

I am very anxious to know if you can tell me who the Turkish Consul in New York and the United States Consul in Constantinople are, and how to address a letter to each. I read your paper every week, and enjoy it very much.

HARRY A.S.

DEAR HARRY:

The Turkish Consul in New York is Chefik Bey. Address your letter:

His Excellency Chefik Bey, Turkish Consulate, 24 State Street, New York.

The United States Consul in Constantinople is Mr. Luther Short. Address your letter to him:

The Honorable Luther Short, American Consulate, Constantinople, Turkey.

EDITOR.

DEAR EDITOR:

Our teacher reads to us your nice paper, and we like it very much. Will you tell us something more about the Freeville Junior Republic, and what did they do with the insane Empress, Carlotta of Mexico?

Your unknown friend, RAYMOND C. CHARLESTOWN, S.C., June 9th, 1897.

DEAR RAYMOND:

You will find something about the Junior Republic in the next number of the Magazine.

About the ex-Empress Carlotta of Mexico, we have no fresh news for you. EDITOR

DEAR EDITOR:

Our teacher in the Germantown Academy reads to us the paper which you call THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. THE GREAT ROUND WORLD and Harper's Round Table I consider the best papers for boys of which I have any knowledge. I would like to know whether the whale could walk on land, as other animals do. My father told me that the whale was in its former condition a land animal, which had changed its home to the water.

Yours respectfully, FRANZ W. GERMANTOWN, PA., June 14th, 1897.

DEAR FRANZ:

Whales are in many respects the most interesting and wonderful of creatures. It would seem that at one time they may have been land creatures, and able to walk on land as other animals do. That is, however, so very remote that we have no record of it. Scientific men base their arguments in favor of this theory on the facts that whales are not true fish, but are indeed land mammals adapted to living in the water.

Their fore-limbs, though reduced to mere paddles, have all the bones, joints, and even most of the muscles, nerves, and arteries of the human arm and hand. The rudiments of hind-legs are found buried deep in the interior of the animal, and in the young whales bristles about the chin and upper lip give evidence that the whales have once been covered with hair like other mammals.

The blubber is also arranged by nature as a means for keeping their bodies warm. True fishes are cold-blooded animals, and not sensible to differences of temperature.

All these different facts make people think that at some very remote period whales were land animals.

EDITOR.



THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED ON IT.



CHAPTER I.

There was once a man who lived with his family on a large farm in a fine valley sheltered by high mountains. The farm had need to be large, for the family was numerous. There were the old man's children and grandchildren, and these again had sons and daughters, and they all lived together, in many huts, which made a village or town. Of course they all were more or less nearly related to one another, and all called the old man father. He was their head and chief—their king, and his word, his commands, were their only laws. He was assisted and advised by the oldest and wisest among the men, who met regularly to discuss the family's affairs, and formed a sort of senate or council of elders. When great things had to be talked over and settled, things which interested everybody alike, the whole family was called together, and had a mass-meeting after working hours.

The family knew nothing of the great round world but their own farm. In fact, they did not care whether there was any world outside of their mountains, because they had no need of any. All they wanted, for food, clothing, or shelter, they found or raised on their own land. They had pure running water to drink and to fish in; woods to hunt in and cut down for fuel and building timber; meadows for the flocks and herds which gave them milk and flesh, hides and wool; broad fields stretched under the sun, green with the tender sprouting crops or golden with the ripening harvest.

The family had no idea how long they and their forefathers before them had owned and lived upon the farm. If they ever thought of it at all, they probably thought they had been there always. Really, it must have been a very, very long time—they were so thoroughly settled, so well acquainted with the land and everything on it; then they were so numerous and knew so much. It must have taken a tremendous length of time to learn all about farming and dairy work, about building, and weaving, and making things,—to have found out so much about the stars, the coming and going of the moon, the years and months which it makes,—to have so many set customs, and a religion with prayers and worship,—and lastly, to have invented writing and no end of useful arts, requiring skill and long practice.

There came a time when it was no longer a family, but a great many families, which could not go on living so close together. So they began to build separate homesteads, all around the old home, but farther and farther away from it. They went on living exactly in the same way, only each new homestead had its own head. The tie of blood was strong and the separated families kept it sacred, even if they quarrelled now and then, as neighbors and relatives will at times.

At last the valley became too crowded. There was no longer enough of everything for all, so that quarrelling and even fighting grew almost into a habit; the heads of families and the wise elders did their best to keep the peace, but were not much listened to. At the same time the younger people were beginning to wonder what there was on the other side of the mountains. Once in a while a huntsman, in the excitement of following his game, would climb to some high point, from which he would look down into other valleys, with more mountains beyond. Then he would take up some comrade with him, and they would stand there long, gazing and wondering. Then some of the bolder, more curious boys and youths had followed the river into the narrow passage it had broken for itself through the mountains. The first who ventured had not gone very far. They had felt dreadfully frightened and lonesome in that dark, wild pass, between the two rugged rocky walls, so high that they seemed to join at the top, showing only a little strip of blue sky, and with the water foaming and roaring deep down below, and they had been glad to get back into the safety and sunshine of their own valley. But they had gone again, many together, and got farther,—for many will be brave where one is scared,—and it became known for a positive fact that there was a way out of the valley. Of course there was much curiosity to know whither it led and what the land on the other side might be like.

So it came to pass that some young families, who were going to set up new homesteads of their own, instead of crowding into some of the scantily measured lots of poor soil which were all that was left in the valley, collected the household goods and the domestic animals which were their due share of the community's property, and started off through the mountain pass, following the river. They were never heard of more.

Others did the same. And still others, again and again. It was like bees swarming. From time to time children, brothers, cousins said good-by and went. None ever came back. None ever were heard from. All that was known of them was that they did not all go the same way. Some went west, and some south; and some northwest or southwest. And they never met or heard from one another, either. They became and remained total strangers; did not even know of one another's existence. But all treasured memories of the old home—the latest gone, of course, more than those that went first, who naturally forgot most in the course of time.

The years went by—many hundreds of years; and great changes came over the world and the people that lived in it. They who used to keep much to themselves and look on one another with distrust and dislike were brought together in many ways; they made war, they traded, they travelled, and, either as friends or foes, learned to know and take interest in one another. What struck people most at first was how different they were, in looks and in manners, in mind and in language. Some were dark and some very fair; some quick and fierce, others slow and persistent. Those who lived in the South, where the sun is seldom clouded and the sea is bluer than the sky, were fond of all bright things, loved luxury and ease; those whose homes were in the North, where sad, dark woods sigh in the wind, where lanes and fields are wrapped in mists and snow half the year, were themselves sad and dreamy, rough of manner, but strong of heart.

But if people from different countries wondered at the differences between them, they began to make other discoveries as they were brought together more often and more closely.

There had been a great storm. A ship was wrecked and the pieces were carried away on the dancing waves. Almost all the sailors were drowned; only a few had been thrown out on the beach alive and taken in by poor fishermen. They were sad and lonely, for they could not understand their hosts and had no hope of being picked up soon by another ship of their own country, it was so far away. To while away the time and to feel less strange among the people, they began to learn the language, asking the names of things as they went. Fancy how astonished they were when they found out, as the sounds of the foreign words grew more familiar, that the names of most things in common use were almost the same as in their own language, also a great many of the most ordinary words: just a letter or two changed, or a little difference in the way of pronouncing—as, for instance, mleko for milk, sestra for sister, tre or drei for three, and so on, sometimes more like, sometimes less. And there were more surprises in store for the guests. When they had made progress enough to understand a great deal, they took much pleasure in listening to the songs which the women sang to the small children and the stories they told to the older ones. And these stories were not new to them! They were the same songs and stories that had been used for years by their mothers and grandmothers to amuse the children, and had always been known in the country. There was the little girl and the wolf, and the sleeping beauty, and the wicked stepmother, and the girl whom the prince knew by her tiny foot, and many, many more. The shipwrecked guests wondered much, and at last came to the conclusion that they and their hosts were distant cousins; for they remembered hearing from some aged men that they were themselves descended from a branch of a very old family—one of many which at different times left the old stock, long, long ago, and now, surely, here were the descendants of another branch.

Another time, and in another country, there had been a great battle. A brave army, led by a famous general, had come into a rich and powerful country, to make its people subject to their own king. But the people, too, were brave; besides, they fought for their liberty and their homes, and that made them doubly strong. They had driven the enemy from before their capital city after an obstinate siege and had made many prisoners. Both nations were civilized and enlightened; therefore there was no bad feeling after the fighting was over, and the prisoners were treated more like guests, waiting for the signing of the treaty of peace, when they would be exchanged. The sick and the wounded were taken care of at the hospitals; as to the others, the private soldiers were placed in well-kept barracks, and the officers were quartered in private families and left free "on parole," i.e., on their promise not to try to escape. Friendships were formed, and the unwilling guests employed their forced leisure in studying the customs, laws, and society of the nation into which they were thus thrown. There were highly cultivated and scholarly men among the captive officers; yet they were naturally a little prejudiced, so that they were not a little astonished when they found the customs and laws not only not inferior to their own, but in many cases almost exactly the same. More than that, they continually came upon little habits, sayings, even superstitious customs at births, weddings, funerals, and other occasions, which they had been familiar with at home from childhood, and which they had been told by nurses and old servants should be observed and respected because they were family peculiarities, handed down from times so ancient nobody could have counted the years. Still greater was the astonishment of those who discovered that a great many of the religious ceremonies, prayers, hymns, which were held particularly sacred in their native country for the same reason, were observed and treasured with only slight differences by those whom they had always looked upon as the merest strangers. When the holy books and the sacred laws of both nations, also the stories of favorite ancient heroes, were found to be so much alike that it was clear they were all heirlooms from the same family treasure, no more proof was needed for those who had so recently fought—and might fight again any time—to say: "We are kin; years and years ago, our fathers were brothers and lived in one common home."

It was not in one place, or two, or three, that such discoveries were made, but in many and all over the world. For after chance had led to the first, people became interested and began to look for forgotten kindred to turn up. The well-known signs were watched, and compared, and verified, till nowadays no one doubts that the descendants of the families who once upon a time recklessly migrated from the long-forgotten valley are scattered over the face of the earth and can know one another by the token of their languages, their customs, stories, songs, their sacred legends and laws.

* * * * *

What family is this whose history we have briefly sketched? Is it a real family, and a true history? Or is it just a "made-up" story, the fancy of an idle moment? No: the history is a true one, and it is the history of a real family—the family to which we all belong, and the name of which is—MANKIND.



* * * * *

"The Great Round World" PRIZE CONTEST

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD is now over six months old, and it feels some anxiety to know just how much interest its readers have taken in the news and how much information they have gained from its pages. To ascertain this, it has been decided to offer ten prizes for the best answers to the following:

Name ten of the most important events that have been mentioned in "The Great Round World" in the first 30 numbers, that is, up to number of June 3d.

In mentioning these events give briefly reasons for considering them important.

This competition will be open to subscribers only, and any one desiring to enter the competition must send to this office their name and the date of their subscription; a number will then be given them.

All new subscribers will be furnished with a card entitling them to enter the competition.

In making the selection of important events, remember that wars and political events are not necessarily the most important. If, for instance, the air-ship had turned out to be a genuine and successful thing, it would have been most important as affecting the history of the world. Or if by chance the telephone or telegraph had been invented in this period, these inventions would have been important events.

Prizes will be awarded to those who make the best selection and who mention the events in the best order of their importance. Answers may be sent in any time before September 1st.

The Great Round World does not want you to hurry over this contest, but to take plenty of time and do the work carefully. It will be a pleasant occupation for the summer months.

We would advise you to take the magazines starting at No. 1, look them over carefully, keep a note-book at your side, and jot down in it the events that seem to you important; when you have finished them all, No. 1 to 30, look over your notes and select the ten events that seem to you to be the most important, stating after each event your reason for thinking it important.

For instance: suppose you decide that the death of Dr. Ruiz was one of these important events, you might say, "The killing of Dr. Ruiz in the prison of Guanabacoa—because it brought the cruelties practised on American citizens to the attention of our Government," etc., etc.

In sending your answers put your number and the date only on them, for the judges are not to know names and addresses of the contestants, that there may be no favoritism shown.

It is important to put date on, for if two or more are found of similar standing, the one first received will be given preference.

Address all letters to REVIEW PRIZE CONTEST DEPARTMENT, GREAT ROUND WORLD, 3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City.

Write answer on one side of the paper only Prizes will be selections from the premium catalogue

No. 1. Premiums as given for 15 Subscriptions No. 2. " " " " 12 " No. 3. " " " " 10 " No. 4. " " " " 9 " No. 5. " " " " 8 " No. 6. " " " " 7 " No. 7. " " " " 5 " No. 8. " " " " 5 " No. 9. " " " " 5 " No. 10. " " " " 5 "

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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD

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(Containing Nos. 16 to 30)

IS NOW READY

Handsomely bound in strong cloth, with title on side and back. Price, postage paid, $1.25. Subscribers may exchange their numbers by sending them to us (express paid) with 35 cents to cover cost of binding, and 10 cents for return carriage.

Address 3 and 5 West 18th Street, . . . . . . New York City

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A Good Agent Wanted In Every Town for "The Great Round World"

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PREMIUM LIST

In connection with our offer of any BICYCLE you wish for 100 new subscriptions, we have prepared a

Premium Catalogue

This contains a list of selected articles which will be given to those who may obtain a smaller number of subscriptions

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Those who fail to secure the necessary number for the bicycle may make selection from this catalogue.

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Copy mailed on receipt of 5c.

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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 & 5 West 18th St, New York City

THE END

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