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The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 38, July 29, 1897 - A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT

Vol. 1 JULY 29, 1897 No. 38. [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second class matter]



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VOL. 1 JULY 21, 1897. NO. 38

England is preparing to send an expedition into the Soudan to reconquer the province of Dongola, which was lost during the revolt of the Mahdi in 1881-85.

Many of you have probably heard all about the Soudan war, in which the brave General Gordon lost his life. But that you may understand the matter fully, it will perhaps be as well to go over it again.

The Soudan is a vast tract of land in Africa, the boundaries of which are not very clearly defined. Roughly speaking, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Abyssinia (King Menelik's country) on the east; and from the desert of Sahara on the north, southward to the Guinea Coast and the Congo Basin.

Part of this country was owned by Egypt. If you look at the map you will see that Egypt borders on the Soudan.

The portion of the Soudan owned by Egypt comprised Lower and Upper Nubia, the White Nile region, and the territories around the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, Dongola being one of these Soudanese provinces.

Egypt is now a dependency of Turkey, and is ruled by a Khedive, who is a subject of the Sultan. Egypt pays a yearly tribute to Turkey.

In 1859 the building of the Suez Canal was begun. This canal extends across the Isthmus of Suez, and connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, opening a waterway between Europe and Asia.

To accomplish the enormous task of building the canal it was necessary to have a great deal of money.

France subscribed one-half, and the Khedive of Egypt the other half.

But Egypt was not rich enough to advance such a large sum, so after a while the Khedive sold the shares he owned in the Suez Canal Company to the British Government, and the canal was then owned half by England and half by France.

Having such a heavy financial interest in the country (the cost of the canal was about one hundred million dollars), both England and France were anxious to have some control of the government of Egypt to prevent any legislation that might be hurtful to the development of their enterprise.

For some years England and France exercised a joint supervision over Egypt, but later it was arranged so that England assumed sole charge.

Much was done by England to develop the natural resources of the country, and all went well until the rebellion of the Mahdi in 1881.

The Mahdi claimed to be a Moslem prophet.

The prevailing religion of Egypt and its provinces is Mohammedanism.

Now the Mohammedans believe that a great prophet, or Mahdi, will come to lead them. Under his generalship they expect to gain possession of the whole world.

More than one ambitious man has come forward and claimed to be the Mahdi.

Whenever such a leader has appeared the people have flocked to his standard, and through blind faith that success must attend their cause under his leadership, have done some brave deeds.

The most important of all the Mahdis was the chief who came forward in 1881, declared himself to be the long-expected prophet, called the people to his standard, and, taking the field against the British and Egyptian troops, overthrew the Egyptian power in the Soudan.

At first the rising of this new Mahdi was not considered serious, but after a time the rebellion assumed such serious proportions that it became evident that Egypt alone could no longer hold her provinces in the Soudan.

She appealed to England for help, and in 1884 the famous General Gordon was sent out by the British Government to help the Khedive.

There were many military posts scattered throughout the Soudan, and the object of General Gordon's mission was to relieve these garrisons, and withdraw them safely from the troubled territory.

General Gordon was known as "Chinese" Gordon, on account of a brilliant campaign he made in China, for which he was decorated with the yellow jacket and peacock feather by the Emperor of China. He was chosen to go to the aid of the Khedive because he had had long experience in Egypt, having been in the service of the Khedive as Governor-General of the Provinces of the Equator from 1874 to 1876, and of the Soudan from 1877 to 1879.

The story of the stand he made against the forces of the Mahdi at Khartoum, and of the long-delayed expedition which was sent to his relief, are among the saddest annals of modern history.

Khartoum was the capital of the Soudan, and an important commercial center.

General Gordon was forced to make a stand here against the Mahdi, and was besieged in Khartoum from March, 1884, to January, 1885. The city which had held out so bravely was at last taken by storm and General Gordon killed. The relief expedition which he had been expecting and hoping for arrived just two days after the city had fallen.

With the fall of Khartoum the Egyptian power in the Soudan was overthrown.

Lord Wolseley made a campaign against the Mahdi's forces, but it was too late.

The Soudanese were lost to Egypt. A strong effort is now being made to reconquer them.

The British officers in the Egyptian army have been ordered back to duty, and it is said that action will be taken in a few weeks. It is expected that the Mahdists will fight to the death, but they will not be as powerful this time as they were before, as they are now no longer united. The tribes south of Khartoum are in open revolt against the Mahdists, and a part of their forces will have to be detached to quell them.

* * * * *

The news from India is still very discouraging.

A fresh outbreak has occurred on the outskirts of Calcutta. Eight thousand workers employed in the silk mills on the Hoogly River have started for Calcutta to help the rioters.

The troops at Barrakpur, fifteen miles north of Calcutta, have been ordered out to intercept the strikers, and prevent their advance upon the city. They are also carefully guarding the bridges which span the Hoogly River. This river is one of the mouths of the Ganges.

While the immediate cause of the outbreak was the quarrel over the mosques, about which we told you last week, it seems that the anger against Europeans is really due to the measures which have been taken to stamp out the plague.

In India there are many races of people who, while they all live under the same rule, have each their own special habits and customs.

These curious customs are rigidly observed. Some must not drink milk, some must not touch lard, none of them must eat food prepared by persons who are not of their religion, and many of them must not leave their own country.

If they neglect these customs they are said to lose caste—which means that they lose their social position among their special tribe, family, and friends.

To lose caste is a very serious thing to a native of India.

Europeans are, as a rule, very careful not to offend the natives in these matters, and are most particular to observe all the customs in regard to caste. But at the time of the plague it was not possible to exercise this care.

When human lives were in danger the doctors did not try to find out what caste sick persons belonged to, but did what they thought best for them.

We know for ourselves, in our own families, that the rules of the Health Board in regard to sickness are not always agreeable to us.

We submit to having our invalids taken to hospitals when they have contagious diseases because we know that we must not endanger other lives.

Imagine, then, how the ignorant Indian natives must have felt, when, for reasons that they could not be made to understand, their sick were carried away by Europeans, and put into hospitals with people of every tribe and caste, all to be treated alike, and forced to eat the food prepared by foreigners.

They regarded the vigorous means which the Government took to stop the plague as a personal cruelty to them, and could not be brought to realize that everything was being done for their benefit.

Many educated Indians, who were perfectly able to understand that the Government measures were right and proper, pretended to side with the people, and, for the sake of stirring up the revolt, published articles in the papers, and circulated handbills denouncing the wickedness and cruelty of the British Government.

This course is likely to give England a great deal of trouble, for the people of India do not love the Europeans.

The telegrams say that there is no reason to fear the overthrow of the British Empire in India, because there are seventy-five thousand white troops in the peninsula, and they are fully able to keep order there.

It is thought that the discontent will lead to a series of outbreaks that will have to be put down by the soldiers, and which will increase the bitterness already existing between the Europeans and the natives.

* * * * *

The Turkish troubles are approaching a crisis.

We told you that the Sultan was doing all in his power to delay matters, in the hope that something might happen which would relieve the situation.

The Powers are, however, determined to settle the affair, so, finding they will submit to no more trifling, the Sultan has been forced to make a move.

He bade his Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tewfik Pasha, inform the diplomats that it was useless for them to hold any further meetings, as he found it impossible to deprive his people of the fruits of their victory, and so could never agree to relinquish Thessaly.

Tewfik Pasha added that the Porte insisted that the line of the Turkish frontier should be established along the river Salammria, which would give Turkey the possession of Thessaly as far south as Larissa.

Having caused this announcement to be made, the Sultan had a circular prepared and sent to his ambassadors abroad, explaining the situation, and why he could not accept the frontier line as demanded by the Powers.

It appears that he is convinced that the Powers will not fight him, and so is determined to defy them and take his own course.

He is said to have remarked that if the Powers could not force Colonel Vassos and his handful of soldiers to obey them in Crete, it is not likely that they will be able to coerce the victorious army of Turkey.

The Powers are now entirely of one mind. Turkey must obey their wishes, and obey them quickly.

On hearing of the Sultan's action, Russia immediately protested, and the other Powers joined in a collective note to the Turkish Government, demanding that their terms of peace be complied with.

The note was very severe in its tone, and insisted that the frontier line between Greece and Turkey should be fixed according to the wishes of the Powers, and also that the Powers were determined that peace should be concluded without further delay.

It was at first intended that the note should fix a date by which the Sultan was bound to send his reply, and should state what the Powers would do in case their request was refused.

But the note that was sent contained neither of these clauses, and so the Sultan is not yet convinced that the Powers really mean to fight him if he remains obstinate.

The Sultan, who seems to be a very wily diplomat, has in the mean while been trying to find out the individual feelings of the Powers.

He sent notes to the various rulers, asking their friendly assistance in the settlement of the frontier question.

None of them gave him any encouragement or reason to suppose they would uphold him in case the matter was brought to an issue.

The Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, having assured him of his friendship, advised him, in very plain language, to conclude peace on the terms dictated by the Powers.

He added: "The concert of the Powers is firm and united in its decisions. Therefore I request your Majesty to take my advice into earnest consideration."

The Sultan's great friend, Emperor William of Germany, has also intimated to him that it would be wise for him to obey the wishes of the Powers, and not resist the demand for the withdrawal of the Turkish troops from Thessaly.

The Russian sentiment is also strongly against Turkey. The official newspaper of St. Petersburg utters a warning to the Sultan that if he remains obstinate, the Powers will resort to decided measures to enforce obedience to their commands.

France has sent him a very decided refusal to interfere in the matter.

All this time Turkey has been pushing her war preparations forward, and is ready to take prompt action in case the peace negotiations should fall through; indeed, the Turks have already recommenced hostilities.

Two thousand Turks besieged the town of Kalabaka in Thessaly, the Greeks defending the place until they were overpowered.

A great number of the inhabitants fled to the mountains for safety, but those who were not fortunate enough to escape were cruelly massacred by the enemy.

* * * * *

The Powers have agreed upon the conditions for self-government in Crete.

A Christian Governor is to be appointed and an annual tribute of $50,000 is to be paid to Turkey.

The payment of the tribute will not be commenced until five years have passed, because Crete has been so laid waste by the war that she will not be in a position to pay her tribute until she has had time to recover.

The foreign troops are to remain on the island until a Cretan militia has been organized. This militia is to be commanded by European officers.

The Turkish troops that remain on the island are to be gradually withdrawn as peace is restored.

The Governor is to have the right to appoint and dismiss all government officials.

The Assembly, which will manage the affairs of the island, is to be composed of an equal number of Christians and Mohammedans.

The affairs of Crete seem thus to be happily settled. It is to be hoped that brave little Greece, who so recklessly went to her aid, may fare as well.

* * * * *

There is a report from Havana that General Weyler has at last been recalled to Spain. It has not so far been confirmed, and so may not be true, but it states that the Spanish Government, disgusted with Weyler's failure to pacify Santiago de Cuba, has determined to recall him.

Weyler is said to have declared that to conquer the rebellion he will need 200,000 more soldiers, and a fresh supply of money amounting to $200,000,000.

President Canovas, however, merely promises that in case the Spanish army suffers very severely in the rainy season, he will send 20.000 men in October "to inflict a final blow on the insurgents."

The report from Madrid says that General Ramon Blanco will be Weyler's successor, and that the fact of the latter's recall will be publicly announced as soon as he returns to Havana.

We told you last week that the Cubans were continuing their military operations despite the rainy season.

It is now stated on good authority that the long-threatened attack on Havana is to be made at last.

It is said that orders have been sent to the insurgent generals to concentrate their forces in Matanzas province, and, if all goes well, to advance on Havana.

It appears that the Cubans are making the weather their ally.

Accustomed as they are to the country and its climate, it is possible for them to move their forces despite the muddy roads and the frequent downpours of rain.

The Spanish soldiers, weakened by the fevers of the island, are in no condition to withstand these hardships, and every march they make causes them as heavy a loss as an engagement would.

The Cubans are perfectly aware of this fact and are using it to their own advantage.

There was a report during the week that General Gomez was hemmed in by a Spanish column near Sancti Spiritus, and was in great danger. It was further stated that several of the rebel bands hurried to their chief's aid as soon as they heard of his peril.

There would appear to have been little truth in these rumors, for he is reliably reported to be advancing on Havana.

A story has reached us about a certain swamp in Matanzas province, which the Cubans used a great deal in the early part of the war, but have since been obliged to abandon for want of a guide to lead them through it.

This swamp is remarkable for the many beautiful and healthful spots that are situated in its interior, notwithstanding that it is surrounded by almost impassable bogs.

The entrance to the swamp is so little known that in the whole Cuban army there was but one man who could guide the insurgents through its intricacies to safety.

This man, Colonel Matagas, had lived in the swamp for many years, and was thoroughly familiar with it.

He was, however, killed in battle, and after his death the Cubans abandoned all idea of using the swamp.

The insurgents have lately been joined by a South American named Avelino Rosas, to whom General Gomez confided the leadership of a portion of the army.

This man set himself to learn the secret of the swamp, and after much patient work discovered it. He immediately devised a means of putting it to military use, and has besides established a number of Cuban hospitals in its depths, confident that they will there be safe from molestation by the Spaniards.

The insurgents are showing such extreme activity that some stirring action may be looked for ere long.

We must not expect a pitched battle, for the insurgents are too wise to attempt to face the enormous force of Spain in a decisive engagement. They have been highly successful in their plan of harassing detachments of the Spanish army while on the march, destroying supplies, capturing outposts, and thwarting the plans of its leaders.

Captain-General Weyler has decided to give up the town of Bayamo in Santiago de Cuba. He has ordered the inhabitants to move to the town of Manzanillo, and has asked permission of the war department to burn Bayamo to the ground.

His reason for giving up Bayamo is that there is so much sickness among the troops in Santiago that they are not equal to the strain of checking the activity of the rebels and holding the town.

We have already told you how the rebels intercept every train of supplies that is despatched to the outlying cities, and it is easy to believe that the Spaniards have no light task in trying to hold these towns.

You will be glad to know that the crimes against the unfortunate soldiers are not to be allowed to go unpunished.

We told you of the shameful system of robbery that prevailed in the Spanish army; how the unprincipled officers took the money apportioned by the Government for the soldiers' food, and, pocketing one-half of it, kept the poor fellows on the short rations they could purchase with the other half.

Two hundred Spanish officers and contractors for the army are now imprisoned at the fortress of La Cabana in Havana, under charges of fraud in provisioning the army.

Among these men are some of the highest officers: Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels, Majors, and Captains.

The amount stolen by these men during the two years of the war is estimated at several millions. The truth of this wholesale robbery came to light when the soldiers protested against the bad food that was being given them. When they found their complaints were being unheeded they deserted in large numbers to the Cubans.

General Weyler then ordered the arrest of the robbers, and, as we have said, some two hundred Spaniards were accordingly imprisoned.

The Cubans have of late acquired so much war material through various successful filibustering expeditions that they now have more arms than soldiers for the insurgent army.

We told you some time ago that General Gomez had said that he could nearly double his force if he had weapons to put in the hands of the thousands who volunteered to join him, but that he had been obliged to refuse many of the men who flocked to his standard because he could not arm them. Now, however, that the situation has changed, a circular has been issued from the revolutionary headquarters, calling upon every insurgent at work in the towns to come and join the army.

The announcement also asks all Cuban sympathizers to be ready to assist the insurgents in case they attack the towns.

This appears to have had a very good effect as far as the insurgents are concerned, for volunteers are hurrying to the Cuban camp in great numbers.

A report from Spain says that an uprising in Alicante is feared. Alicante is a seaport on the south-east coast of Spain.

The trouble is on account of the new war taxes which the Government has levied and to which the people are much opposed.

* * * * *

The Tariff Bill has been passed by the Senate.

It was passed on July 7th by a majority of ten. Thirty-eight Senators voted for the bill, and twenty-eight against it.

There was great excitement in the Senate Chamber during the closing debate on this bill.

It had been expected that a vote would be reached on the 7th, and so the members of the House of Representatives flocked into the Senate Chamber during the entire day.

The Tariff Bill was taken up at 11:15 in the morning and at 4:15 P.M. it was finally passed.

Mr. Allen, of Nebraska, offered an amendment declaring all combinations and contracts to restrict labor unlawful, but his motion was lost, and there is no clause against Trusts in the new bill.

After it had passed, a joint conference was called, and the Vice-President appointed eight Senators to take part in the discussion on behalf of the Senate.

This conference is to settle with the House of Representatives the changes that the Senate has made in the bill.

You remember that the Dingley Tariff Bill was passed by the House of Representatives before it was sent to the Senate.

Now the Tariff Bill, as it stands to-day, differs in many respects from the bill as it was received by the Senate. It has therefore been found necessary to call a conference of members of both Houses to discuss these points of difference, and arrive at some conclusion in regard to them.

The Senate's version of the Tariff Bill will be copied and sent to the House at once. It has been agreed that it shall be handed over to the members of the conference without being first discussed in the House.

The Senators who are opposed to the bill declare that it is the worst ever framed, while those who favor it insist that it is going to bring back prosperity.

* * * * *

The latest news from the Sandwich Islands is that Hawaii has offered to arbitrate the immigration matter.

The Japanese minister has, however, stated that he does not think his Government will ever consent to arbitration, and so it is not likely the difficulty will be settled by that means.

Feeling is running very high in Honolulu. There have been some unfortunate conflicts between Americans and Japanese there.

It is reported that an American lady has been severely beaten while trying to assist her brother, who had been attacked by a number of men from the warship Naniwa.

While walking in the town with her brother, this lady encountered two sailors, who stood in her way and would not make room for her to pass. Her brother pushed the men aside, whereupon they turned on him and began to beat him.

When she endeavored to help her brother the Japanese sailors beat her unmercifully.

The discussion between the United States and Japan seems no nearer a peaceable settlement.

The Secretary of State has made public the official grounds for Japan's protest.

They are:

First, that it is necessary for Hawaii to remain an independent state, in order to preserve a good understanding between the Powers that have interests in the Pacific Ocean.

Second, that annexation will endanger the rights which Japan has acquired through her various treaties and contracts with Hawaii.

Third, that annexation might lead to the postponement by Hawaii of the settlement of claims which Japan already has against her.

In Hawaii there is a strong desire that the Senate shall ratify the treaty immediately, and put an end to all further question on the subject.

Hawaii mistrusts Japan, and fears that she will do something to prevent annexation unless our Government is prompt.

It is rumored in Washington that Japan and Spain are forming an alliance to embarrass the United States in her dealings with both Hawaii and Cuba.

It is felt that speedy action may be the best thing to prevent complications.

The Government is seriously considering the advisability of sending another ship to Honolulu. It is possible that the battleship Oregon and the gunboat Concord may both be sent to Hawaii.

The Navy Department realizes that annexation will necessitate a largely increased navy, and Secretary Long will ask Congress to arrange for the building of more cruisers and torpedo-boats.

* * * * *

On the occasion of the British naval review at Spithead, an illustration was given of the short time it takes to turn a merchant vessel into an armed cruiser.

England, despite her large navy, often has use for more ships than she possesses.

To meet this demand she has placed a certain number of merchant vessels on her Naval Reserve list. By this arrangement the Government has the right to call out any of these ships when she has need for them.

At the time of the great naval review it was thought that it would be a good thing to put this system to a test, and so several of the Naval Reserve merchantmen were ordered to fit out as gunboats.

One of the vessels thus put into use was the Teutonic of the White Star line, one of the regular ocean steamers that ply between England and America.

She arrived in Liverpool on June 21st, and immediately received orders to transform herself into a war-vessel, and take her place in the naval review at Spithead.

As soon as her passengers and freight had been landed her crew set to work to take her war supplies on board.

A British naval officer had been sent from Portsmouth to superintend the work, and under his direction magazines and armories were arranged, gun platforms were built, and sixteen guns were taken on board and mounted.

In the crew of the Teutonic were some fifty sailors who were members of the British Naval Reserve. To them rifles and cutlasses were supplied, and they in their turn were transformed into regular man-of-war's men.

The rest of the crew was made up from sailors drafted from other warships, and then the Teutonic was ready to take her place in the great Jubilee naval parade.

So fine an appearance did she make that she was put at the head of one of the seven lines of vessels in the review, and Captain Cameron, her commander, received a flattering letter from the flag-officer of his division, congratulating him upon having the neatest merchant vessel in the parade.

It took just forty hours to change the Teutonic from a merchantman into a war-vessel.

Captain Cameron is highly delighted at the praise he received. He also is a member of the Naval Reserve, having the rank of lieutenant.

* * * * *

Sandy Hook, which is the first point of land sighted in entering New York Harbor, has been again converted into an island.

This strip of beach is a continuation of the New Jersey coast. The curious thing about it is that it has never been definitely settled whether it is a peninsula or an island, as it is continually changing its character.

The first mention of the Hook, says a writer in one of our current journals, appears in the diary of Robert Juet, who was the companion of Hudson during his third voyage in 1609. It was then an island.

On maps and charts in the possession of the New York Historical Society it is represented both as an island and a peninsula.

It was certainly an island in revolutionary times, for when Lord Howe retreated from the battle of Monmouth by the Navesink road he built a bridge to Sandy Hook Island.

Twice during the last century it has tried to get away from the mainland.

In 1870, the New Jersey Southern Railway laid a track along the west beach for a distance of three miles.

This trestle is now the only connecting link between the island and the mainland, the water for more than a year having been washing away the neck of land which joined Sandy Hook to the coast-line.

The War Department owns part of the Hook. A proving-ground for guns, armor, etc., has been established there.

The Assistant Secretary of War has sent word to Speaker Reed asking that a joint resolution be passed to enable the Department to protect its property.

An appropriation of $75,000 was set aside some time ago to repair the breach made by the sea at the Hook, but the work could not be commenced until certain laws had been complied with, and the consent of New Jersey had been secured, or Congress had passed a resolution instructing the War Department to proceed with the work.

It will be a great advantage to the Government to close the inlet, as the heavy guns can then be transferred to the proving-grounds on the Hook by a railroad built on solid ground, and not liable to give way under their extreme weight.

The property-owners in the neighborhood, however, are anxious that the inlet should remain open, as they say that the Shrewsbury River has been some two feet deeper since the Hook became an island, the boating and fishing have much improved, and, above all, the current has become so much stronger that the river can now drain itself, and has become much healthier in consequence.

The Secretary of War has been asked to give the matter his careful consideration before he allows the work of closing the inlet to be commenced.

* * * * *

Our Government has had cause to complain of England in reference to the seal question.

It seems that Great Britain makes hardly any effort to stop the destruction of the seals, maintaining but two vessels in Bering Sea, while the United States maintains five.

We have lately had some correspondence with England on the seal question, but it has not been made public for fear of causing bad feeling.

Mr. Foster, who, as we told you, has been on a special mission to London and St. Petersburg to arrange the dispute, has met with a friendly reception in Russia. He hopes that the success of his mission in St. Petersburg may induce Great Britain to look favorably on it also.

It is desired that all the countries interested in the matter shall send delegates to a conference to be held in Washington in October.

At the conference it is intended to discuss the whole subject anew and make fresh arrangements.

The difficulty has been that the Treaty of Paris is still in operation, and Great Britain is not willing to open the matter until the treaty has expired.

The Canadian sealers are much averse to the plan of branding the seals. We told you about this a few weeks ago.

Professor Starr Jordan, who is passing through Victoria on his way to the Seal Islands, there to recommence the work of branding, has met with a very cold reception from the sealers.

Professor Jordan has taken with him an electric outfit for branding, which will do the work more quickly and effectually than the old method.

* * * * *

We have to record more labor troubles.

The coal miners in the United States have gone on strike, in obedience to the order of the United Mine Workers of America.

The cause of this strike is that wages have been so reduced that the miners can no longer earn enough to support themselves.

The men declare that the strike has been forced upon them by the poor pay they have received, and that they have been expecting and preparing for it for some time past.

They hope to make the strike general, and that it shall be the biggest ever known.

The miners all over the country have been ordered to quit work, and it is expected that they will do so.

The men in West Virginia at first refused, but the latest reports are that they are gradually falling in line with the rest.

In many districts the miners have been offered the price they ask if they will only go back to work. They have invariably refused, saying that they will not resume work until the better rate of wages is made general in all the mines.

There is danger of a coal famine if the strike lasts very long.

Several of the Western manufacturing cities are already running short of coal, and though there is plenty at the pit's mouth, the strikers will not allow it to be handled until their demands are complied with.

Efforts will be made to move this coal, and it is feared that the strikers will then become violent and riotous. Up to the present time they have been very peaceable.

The Governor of Indiana has asked the Governors of Ohio, Illinois, and Pennsylvania to meet him, and discuss plans for arbitrating the difficulty.

England also has her labor troubles. A great strike is going on in London among the engineers.

It is a struggle for an eight-hour working day.

The men do not insist that they shall only work eight hours a day, but that eight hours shall be considered the full day's labor, and all the work they do over that shall be regarded as overtime, and paid for.

The strikers have a large fund in reserve to fall back upon, from which they will each receive a certain weekly sum to give them the necessaries of life until the trouble is adjusted.

The fight promises to be a long and bitter one, for the employers declare that they must hold out till they win, as defeat means ruin to them.

The ship-building trade will be the one most seriously affected by the strike.

G.H. ROSENFELD.



INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.

DETACHABLE SHELVING FOR WINDOWS.—The scent and the sight of flowers are the source of so much enjoyment to most persons, and the means of keeping them in our houses, as a rule, is such a puzzle, that the "detachable shelving for windows" ought to find favor with everybody, young or old.

This shelving is an apparently simple arrangement of three shelves connected by strong braces running from one to another, and attached to the sides of the window in two places by screw-eyes and nuts which are securely fastened in the outer frame of the window. Simple as it appears, it is very ingeniously contrived, and forms a most desirable substitute for the window-ledge itself, which is seldom wide enough for flower-pots to stand on with any degree of safety.

STATION-INDICATOR.—We remember once travelling in the winter in almost the last car of a long train, where we could not see the names of the stations; the conductor shouted out the stopping-places in a way not easy to understand, and we had no time-table and did not know when the train was due. It was the most uncomfortable journey it is possible to imagine. A station-indicator in each car would forever prevent the recurrence of such discomfort and anxiety. Curiously enough, two have been invented within six months; the later one has an endless roll with the names of all the stations on the route, and, by the movement of a simple bar, after passing one station the name of the next one appears in its place.

* * * * *

SIMPLE LESSONS IN THE

STUDY OF NATURE

By I.G. OAKLEY

This is a handy little book, which many a teacher who is looking for means to offer children genuine nature study may be thankful to get hold of.

Nature lessons, to be entitled to that name, must deal with what can be handled and scrutinized at leisure by the child, pulled apart, and even wasted. This can be done with the objects discussed in this book; they are under the feet of childhood—grass, feathers, a fallen leaf, a budding twig, or twisted shell; these things cannot be far out of the way, even within the stony limits of a city.

Nor are the lessons haphazard dashes at the nearest living thing; on the contrary, they are virtually fundamental, whether with respect to their relation to some of the classified sciences, or with reference to the development of thought and power of expression in the child himself.

The illustrations are few, and scarcely more than figures; it is not meant to be a pretty picture-book, yet is most clearly and beautifully printed and arranged, for its material is to be that out of which pictures are made. It will be found full of suggestions of practical value to teachers who are carrying the miscellaneous work of ungraded schools, and who have the unspeakable privilege of dealing with their pupils untrammelled by cast-iron methods and account-keeping examination records.

Sample copy, 50 Cents, post-paid

* * * * *

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 W. 18th St. . . . New York City

KLEMMS' RELIEF PRACTICE MAPS.

* * * * *

LIST OF MAPS.

Small size, 9-1/2 x 11 { Plain, 5 cents each. { With Waterproofed surface 10 " "

Europe, Asia, Africa; North America, South America, East Central States, New England, Middle Atlantic States, South Atlantic States, Palestine, Australia.

Large size, 10 x 15 { Plain, 10 cents each. { With Waterproofed Surface, 15 " "

United States, British Isles, Roman Empire, Western Europe, North America, South America, Asia.

(POSTAGE ON SINGLE MAPS, 5 CENTS.)

* * * * *

"I would advise Sunday-school teachers to use, in connection with the lessons of 1897, Klemm's Relief Map of the Roman Empire. Every scholar who can draw should have a copy of it. Being blank, it can be beautifully colored: waters, blue; mountains, brown; valleys, green; deserts, yellow; cities marked with pin-holes; and the journeys of Paul can be traced upon it."—MRS. WILBUR F. CRAFTS, President International Union of Primary Sabbath-School Teachers of the United States.

* * * * *

DESCRIPTION OF THE MAPS.

These maps are made in two forms, both with beautifully executed relief (embossed)—the cheaper ones of plain stiff paper similar to drawing paper (these are to be substituted for and used as outline map blanks), the others covered with a durable waterproof surface, that can be quickly cleaned with a damp sponge, adapted to receive a succession of markings and cleansings. Oceans, lakes, and rivers, as well as land, appear in the same color, white, so as to facilitate the use of the map as a geographical slate.

* * * * *

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 W. 18th St. ... New York City

* * * * *

TO ANY ONE SENDING US

...3... New Subscribers



OAK WE WILL SEND A WALNUT Lambie Book-Rest IN CHERRY JAPANNED OR BRONZED

This book-rest holds the book in any position and at any slant, so that you can shift the book when you change your position as freely as you can move your hand. Can be made fast to chair, table, or lounge on either side.

A VERY USEFUL AND CONVENIENT THING

And for 5 Subscribers a

Lambie Dictionary-Holder

Can be used for any dictionary or large book. Keeps book open or shut, as desired. Holder carries the weight and you handle it as if it weighed nothing. Revolves, and is on castors. Can be drawn to you with one hand. Can be raised or lowered.

IN OAK, WALNUT, OR CHERRY JAPANNED OR BRONZED....



THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

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TO ANY ONE SENDING US



4 New Subscriptions

WE WILL SEND EXPRESS PAID

A stem-wind, stem-set, nickel movement, jewelled balances, porcelain dial, highly finished throughout

Gold-Plated Watch

EITHER OPEN FACE OR HUNTING CASE. ENGINE-TURNED (AS SHOWN IN CUT) OR WITH A HANDSOME ENGRAVED DESIGN ON CASE.



These watches are made in one of the best-known American factories, are not clocks but real watches, and are warranted to keep time accurately.



THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

* * * * *



To any one sending us 2 new subscribers

we will send, express paid, any one of the golf sticks shown in cut...

These are the most approved shapes and styles and are made in the best possible manner

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2 special golf balls may be had for ... 1 new subscription

* * * * *

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

* * * * *

PREMIUM LIST

In connection with our offer of any BICYCLE you wish for 100 new subscriptions, we have prepared a

Premium Catalogue

This contains a list of selected articles which will be given to those who may obtain a smaller number of subscriptions

* * * * *

Those who fail to secure the necessary number for the bicycle may make selection from this catalogue.

* * * * *

Copy mailed on receipt of 5c.

* * * * *

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 & 5 West 18th St, New York City

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