VOL. 1 OCTOBER 7, 1897. NO. 48
Copyright, 1897, by THE GREAT ROUND WORLD Publishing Company.
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The peace negotiations are settled; that is to say, the plans suggested by Lord Salisbury, and agreed to by the Powers, have also been accepted by the Sultan.
On the 18th of September, after a conference of three hours, the ambassadors and Tewfik Pasha signed their names to the treaty. As soon as this was done, Tewfik carried the document to the palace and obtained the Sultan's signature also.
According to the terms of the treaty, the troops are to be withdrawn from Thessaly within one month after it goes into effect, and the Powers are to control the income of Greece until the war indemnity of fifteen million dollars shall be paid.
Nothing now remains but for Greece to agree and for King George to sign his name beside that of the Sultan.
Though every one must feel glad that peace has been made between these two warring nations, yet the terms are so hard for Greece that if she signs the treaty she will practically be signing away her independence as a nation.
There is a very shameful story behind the Greco-Turkish war. In the histories that will be written about it, it will be recorded that Greece was sacrificed by Europe for the sake of Turkish gold.
We have told you before of the money difficulties in Turkey, and that the Sultan has been called the "Sick Man of Europe" because of the unfortunate condition of his affairs, which were in such a deplorable state that it seemed as though the kingdom of Turkey must soon be swallowed up by the more powerful nations of Europe.
The Turkish nation has been on the verge of bankruptcy for many years. To help the struggling Government along loans of money have been made at different times, and all that was of value in the country pledged as security for the repayment of the loans. Bonds were issued on these securities, but owing to the impoverished condition of the country they were of very little value, and at one time the Turkish bonds were the joke of the stock market. Still, the bonds existed, and their holders hoped at some time to get their money back.
Few governments are wealthy enough to support themselves without borrowing money. In Europe most loans are arranged by the wealthy bankers, who demand security in return. We explained this matter to you in speaking of the quicksilver mines and the Rothschilds, on page 1023.
Transactions of a similar character to that of the quicksilver mines have been entered into by almost all of the European countries, and the consequence is that there is hardly a foreign nation that is not under obligations to its moneyed men, or financiers, as they are called.
The power of the financiers has become so great that they are now able to dictate the policy of Europe. Behind the will of kings and emperors is the will of these financiers. If the moneyed men refuse to lend their gold to a country, they may prevent its going to war, the erection of fine buildings, or the doing of many things that are necessary to keep up its proper position as a nation.
When Greece, enraged that her Christian brothers should be under the thraldom of the heathen Turk, went to the rescue of Crete, all the brave men of Europe applauded the gallant little country for her pluck. But the brave men of Europe did not represent the money of Europe. The financiers who were at the back of the various Powers distinctly disapproved of the war. If Greece succeeded in whipping the Turks all the money invested in Turkey might be lost.
In was well understood that Greece could not succeed in the struggle with Turkey unless some of the Powers came to her aid, and so the financiers warned the statesmen that Greece must not be helped; and because of the power of the financiers, and for the sake of the money involved, Greece was sacrificed, and Turkey permitted to be the victor.
The whole situation was thoroughly understood by the Sultan, who laughed in his sleeve at the dilemma the Powers were in; and knowing that he was perfectly safe, and that they dare not declare war against him, he delayed the peace negotiations for months, and settled his army in Thessaly, to destroy the prosperity of the country.
The position of Greece is now something deplorable. When she has given her consent to the terms of the treaty she will no longer be a free and independent nation, but a slave to the countries that control her treasury. While she still has her King seated on the throne, his power is no longer what it was. He can carry out no great schemes for his country's good, for he can enter into no plans, that involve the spending of money, without the consent of the Powers that are to manage his affairs.
The plan that the Powers should control the treasury of Greece was not agreed upon until Germany, prompted by the financiers, insisted that Greece must lay money by to take care of her old debts, as well as of the new war payment.
This is the story of the Greco-Turkish war. The great Powers stood quietly by and let Greece be sacrificed, and then insisted upon a shameful treaty, that will bring ruin and distress to a sister country, because the financiers were unwilling to lose money they had invested.
The Powers are, however, by no means satisfied with the result of their fifteen weeks of deliberation and discussion. They feel that the Sultan has got much the best of them at every point, and even though he has agreed to do so, they are uncertain whether he intends to keep faith with them about either Crete or Thessaly.
It is said that as soon as the first five million dollars is paid he will invent some fresh excuse for keeping his soldiers in Thessaly a little longer, and that he will lengthen the time little by little, until, in the end, he will retain possession of Thessaly altogether.
He has already hinted that he does not mean to keep faith about Crete.
He told the Italian ambassador the other day that in return for the good terms he had made with Greece he expected the Powers to be very lenient in regard to Crete.
The ambassador, much surprised at this remark, ventured to remind the Sultan that Home Rule for Crete had already been agreed on.
The crafty Sultan smiled and shrugged his shoulders, and intimated to the ambassador that the settlement of affairs in Crete was not quite so sure as he seemed to think.
The conclusion of the peace has left every one weary and annoyed. The Powers evidently feel ashamed of the part they have taken in the affair, and are seeking to find an excuse for their own wrongdoings by blaming their representatives. It is therefore rumored that all the ambassadors at Constantinople are to be changed, because the Powers feel that they have been outwitted by the Sultan, and can no longer have any influence with him.
It must not be supposed that the Greeks are taking the matter quietly.
A feeling of intense indignation prevails throughout Greece. Mass-meetings have been held protesting against the treaty, bonfires have been built at which the people have eased their feelings by burning copies of the hated peace document. It is even thought that the Greek Congress, the Boule, may refuse to accept the treaty as it stands.
Some of the Greeks declare that the signing of the treaty will mean that Greece will cease to be a nation and become nothing more than a name.
Were Greece a little stronger than she is, it is certain that she would reject the terms of peace, and continue the war with Turkey, but unfortunately she is in such a feeble condition that it looks as if she would have to do just as the Powers dictate.
In spite of the anger and indignation of her people, Greece has very little choice but to accept the treaty as it stands.
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Some excitement was caused last week by the rumor that General Woodford had informed the Spanish minister of foreign affairs that unless the war with Cuba was brought to a close in October, the United States would interfere.
As you may suppose, this report caused a good deal of surprise. If it were true it could only mean that war was about to be declared with Spain.
The rumor came from Paris, and there was much telegraphing back and forth to Washington, and interviewing persons in high positions, to know if this report was really true.
It was a relief to everybody when word came from the Duke of Tetuan that his talk with General Woodford had been a very pleasant one, and that nothing but kind and friendly words had passed between them.
It seems that General Woodford told the Duke that the United States considered the present state of affairs in Cuba most pitiable, and offered her good offices to bring the war to an end.
The Duke of Tetuan, in repeating what our minister had said to him, stated that the whole conversation was most satisfactory, and that he was ready to talk further on the subject with General Woodford whenever he was prepared to do so.
He absolutely denied that there was any talk of war, and General Woodford, on his part, declared that war would not be thought of until every other means had been tried.
Spain's troubles are increasing daily, and it seems more than likely that she will be willing to accept our friendly intervention, and allow the cruel and expensive war in Cuba to cease.
The report that more troops are to be sent to the island has been confirmed, but it is now said that only 6,000 will be sent, instead of the 27,000 promised.
The reason for this is that Spain is having trouble in raising money. Money she must have, as her treasury is empty, and the enormous expenses of the war still continue.
The new government that was formed after the death of Canovas does not seem to have the strength to deal with the situation. It is constantly rumored that it is about to resign, and that Senor Sagasta, who has such liberal views about Cuba, is to be called to form a new government.
While things are in this state of uncertainty and public confidence is thus shaken, it is but natural that the financiers should be unwilling to loan Spain more money, lest they should not get it back.
To add to the uncertainty it is rumored abroad that there is to be an immediate attempt by the Carlists to overthrow the Government and seize the throne of Spain.
The poor Queen Regent is much worried with all this trouble. The loss of Canovas at the most critical moment of the Cuban war seems to have taken away all her courage, and it is said that she is very unhappy, and is constantly weeping over her boy, the young King Alphonso, for the poor mother fears she may not be strong enough to hold the crown of Spain for him.
There is a story that in her distress the Queen Regent has sent a personal message to Don Carlos, begging him not to begin a civil war at a moment when Spain has so many other enemies to fight.
A civil war is a war carried on between citizens of the same country.
It is said that Don Carlos sent a very unkind reply to the Queen, and said that he should come forward just as soon as he felt that the country needed him.
It is stated that he believes that war with the United States cannot be avoided, and that he intends to wait till war is declared, and then offer to save Spain if he is made king.
His friends are all gathering at Lucerne to hold the council of which we spoke last week. The unhappy Queen Christine is waiting with much anxiety to learn what they decide to do.
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In Cuba, the insurgents continue to be victorious. The Spaniards are being driven out of the inland towns, and their real strength is now only on the seaboard.
Several unsuccessful attempts have been made by the Spaniards to recapture Victoria de las Tunas, and to break the power of the insurgents in Santiago de Cuba. The Cubans have, however, gained victory after victory, and have at last driven the Spaniards over the trocha, and utterly destroyed the town of Las Tunas. They were not strong enough to fortify and hold it, so they decided to burn it to the ground.
In one of the engagements to recapture the town, General Luque, the Spanish commander, again exchanged prisoners with the Cubans, and in a letter to General Garcia, in reference to the matter, addressed him as the Commander-in-Chief of the Cuban forces in the East. The Cubans have sent this letter on to their representatives in Washington with instructions to bring it to the notice of our Government, to convince them that the Spaniards have really acknowledged the belligerent rights of the Cubans.
The indignation in Spain over the loss of Las Tunas gave rise to such very severe comment on Weyler's bad generalship that he made up his mind to offer his resignation to his Government.
The Prime Minister, General Azcarraga, however, replied to Weyler's message that he had perfect confidence in him and in his ability to bring the war to a speedy close, and would not permit him to resign.
Weyler, gratified at this, at once sent one of his boastful and untruthful replies.
He said that the war was all but over. He had still a little work to do before he could consider the West of the island entirely pacified, but that so soon as this was accomplished he would set out for Eastern Cuba and subdue that.
The Government appeared to be perfectly satisfied with this statement, but it is strange that this should be the case.
Months ago General Weyler said that Eastern Cuba was all but pacified, and that he was just about to finish his work there, and proceed to subdue Western Cuba. After a little while he declared Eastern Cuba pacified, and started off for his work in the West.
Now he tells the same story about the West, and seems to forget that according to his own statement Eastern Cuba is subdued.
If the great Spanish general keeps on at his present rate of progress, it will be a long time before he gets both ends of Cuba pacified at the same time.
Weyler complains bitterly about the filibustering expeditions. He declares that the war could have been long since terminated if the United States had not given so much aid to the insurgents by allowing these expeditions to be fitted out in her ports.
The Dauntless has been successful in carrying three expeditions to Cuba lately.
One of them was landed only a few miles from Havana, and passed within gunshot of the great fortress Morro Castle without being seen by any of the gunboats which are supposed to guard the shores.
Weyler was furious that such a daring act should have been safely accomplished, and has written a severe letter to the Admiral in charge of the fleet, upbraiding him for his carelessness.
In the last of her three expeditious the saucy little Dauntless ran short of coal and water, and to the annoyance of the Spaniards the keeper of a lighthouse situated on one of the West Indian keys that belong to England gave the men the supplies they needed, and enabled them to make their third trip in safety.
General Weyler has ordered an investigation of the matter, and intends to make a formal complaint to England about the action of the lighthouse keeper.
The way the Dauntless managed her three expeditions without being caught was very clever. All the stores, ammunition, arms, and men that were to be conveyed to Cuba were gradually gathered on one of the Florida keys. There are a great number of these little banks and islands stretching along the coast of Florida, and some of them are so difficult to reach, for any steamer that draws much water, that they make good hiding-places.
When everything was in readiness the Dauntless went down to the key, and one after the other took off her three loads. The hiding-place was so well chosen that no one knows exactly where it is, and if the Cubans keep their secret they will be able to send other expeditions in the same way.
General Weyler has other anxieties on his mind just now. He is expecting the arrival of a new floating dock which has been built for him in England, at a cost of $900,000.
This great dock is intended to be used as a dry-dock; that is to say, it is so made that ships can be lifted clear out of the water by it, so that they can be repaired, cleaned, or painted.
There is no dry-dock in Cuban harbors, and it is very necessary to have one. Ships that cruise long in tropical waters are very apt to get their hulls covered with barnacles and sea-weed. These growths after a while prevent the ship from cutting easily through the water, and decrease her speed. All ships that are long in these southern seas have to have their hulls scraped every now and then. Many of the war-vessels that are now in Cuban waters have been a year without this necessary cleaning, and to make it possible to do the work in Cuba, without the loss of time necessary to go back to the Spanish navy yards, the Government has gone to the expense of building the floating dock.
There have been no end of difficulties about the dock. When it was finished it was so big and heavy that it was very doubtful if any ship could safely tow it across the Atlantic. The shipbuilders added a false bow and stem to the dock, to make it cut its way through the water a little, and in this fashion it is now being brought to Cuba; but the gravest doubts are entertained as to the possibility of its ever reaching its destination. It is feared that in case of a severe storm the hawser, or strong rope by which it is towed, will part, and the costly floating dock be left drifting about the ocean, a danger to mariners.
But this is not the half of the trouble over the dock.
The greatest annoyance in regard to it is that it was built without properly considering the amount of water it would draw; that is to say, the depth of water necessary to float it.
Now that the dock is on its way to Cuba, it is found that it draws too much water for the bay of Havana, and cannot be brought in and used there.
When this unpleasant news was communicated to General Weyler, he cabled to his agent in New York, asking him to send a dredging-machine over to Havana immediately. To the General's mind the whole affair was simple enough: he would get a dredging-machine, scoop out a channel, and have the dock in place in no time.
He was therefore much angered to receive a reply that there were several kinds of dredging-machines, and that to send him a machine that would do the work properly it would be necessary to know the nature of the soil of the bottom of the bay.
Now no one has ever dredged Havana Bay since the city was first founded in the sixteenth century, and there are no means at hand of obtaining the desired information. There will therefore be some delay before the required investigation can be made.
Added to this, the New York firm sent him word that a special machine will have to be constructed to dredge to the depth required by the floating-dock, that it will take six months to build such a machine, and another six months to dredge the bay. This makes one year before the $900,000 floating dock now on its way to Cuba can be of any use to Spain.
It seems a cruel waste of money at an hour when Spain is so poor.
* * * * *
The election of Senor Domingo Mendez Capote as President of the Republic of Cuba has been confirmed. Bartolome Maso was made Vice-President, and Cisneros, the ex-president, was made leader of the Congress.
General Gomez was appointed Minister of War, and General Garcia Commander-in-Chief of the army.
The report says that at the commencement of the election it seemed as if there would be some trouble between the various candidates for office. Realizing that it would be fatal to the cause to have any bad feeling among the leaders, General Gomez proposed Senor Capote as a man who would be acceptable to all parties. Every one saw the wisdom of Gomez's suggestion, and Capote was elected.
It is said that the new President has done a great deal to get the laws of Cuba in proper shape.
All the Cubans seem to be satisfied with the result of the election.
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The British have met with serious reverses in their frontier war.
They were successful in relieving the forts in the Samana Hills that were attacked by the tribesmen, but two days after this work had been done they were forced to retreat.
They were attacked by a large body of natives, who surrounded them, and but for a timely charge of cavalry would have routed them. As it was, the British retreat was orderly, and they lost none of their guns or baggage.
The natives are delighted at their success, and especially because the troops they attacked were a portion of the force sent out to punish them for their rebellion.
The Government in England is much distressed that the check should have occurred. For the sake of England's position in India it is necessary that the British should sweep all before them, and show the tribes that they are not to be trifled with. That the punishing expedition should have been beaten and forced to retreat will make the work England has to do in India still harder for her.
The tribesmen are alive to the value of their victory, and have continued to attack the troops with the utmost persistence.
The Haddah Mullah, the priest who has been so active in raising the rebellion, is again leading the tribes, and has roused his followers to such a pitch of enthusiasm that they do not show the slightest fear, and perform the most daring feats.
On one occasion the British were drawn up in battle array, and had formed into the square, which is considered an invincible method of receiving an enemy. The Haddah Mullah and his followers attacked three sides of the square at the same time. The rebels were repulsed, but their wonderful courage was commented on by the British, who, after the engagement was over, found their bodies within a few yards of the muzzles of the guns. Such people are hard to defeat.
It may interest you to know something about the square.
This formation of troops is considered the strongest. It is used principally to repel cavalry or to resist a larger force. It has been in use since the sixteenth century.
To form a square the troops are drawn up into a quadrangle, or square, the soldiers all standing so that they face outward. By this means each side of the square presents a solid front to the enemy, and it is wellnigh impossible for an attacking force to break through.
In the sixteenth century the square was composed of a solid body of men; at the present time it is a hollow formation. The soldiers stand in ranks four or five deep, the officers, colors, and baggage being in the centre.
The English are particularly partial to this formation, and it has long been the boast of the commanders that a British square has never been broken.
The force of insurgents led by the Haddah Mullah attacked the English camp soon after nightfall. The soldiers were at once formed into a square around their baggage, and though, as we have said, the attack was fiercely made on three sides at once, the famous square stood firm, and the tribesmen were forced to retire.
Ten batteries of artillery and eight regiments of cavalry have been ordered out from England to help suppress the insurrection in India.
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It is reported from the Soudan that a treaty of peace is about to be made between the Mahdi and Great Britain.
The terms of the treaty are said to be that the Mahdi will not oppose the British forces advancing as far as Khartoum, and that they may station troops to keep possession of the land they have gained, but that they must not attempt to go a step farther. The Mahdi is to remain King of Khartoum.
It is not yet known whether the terms of peace will be accepted by England.
An interesting find was made at Berber. When the British troops entered the town they found on one of the boats in the river a uniform-case marked Gordon Pasha.
The English officers to whom it was brought were much moved at the sight of an article that had once been the property of the unfortunate General Gordon, who was killed by the Mahdists at Khartoum on January 26, 1885.
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There is news of Professor Andree.
You remember that he started from Spitzbergen in a balloon, hoping to sail across the North Pole.
A report from Arctic Russia says that on the night of September 14th the inhabitants of a little village saw a balloon which was believed to be that of Andree's.
A day or two after this a carrier-pigeon brought a despatch from the traveller.
The tidings brought by this bird were that Andree was making a good voyage to the eastward, and that all was going well.
There is no doubt that this message is a genuine one from the explorer. The pigeon bore on its wings the same markings as on those which the adventurer carried with him. Scientists have, however, expressed their opinion that Andree has failed to reach the Pole. The message of the bird and the direction in which the balloon was seen to be going have convinced them that Andree has been carried eastward, and not across the Pole, as he had hoped.
It is thought that by this time the gas in the balloon must have become exhausted, and that Andree and his companions have had to cut loose from it, and are on the ice somewhere near Spitzbergen, and that they may perhaps be so fortunate as to drift near enough to civilization to be picked up and rescued.
* * * * *
Interesting news has reached us about Lieutenant Peary.
He left Boston in July to see if he could not establish a settlement far to the north in Greenland, which should serve him as a base of supplies, or a place where he could leave the main part of his baggage, and to which he could send or return at will.
Lieutenant Peary's plan for reaching the North Pole, when he sets out in 1898, is to establish a number of Esquimau colonies at certain distances apart, and leave supplies with each colony on which he can fall back in case of need.
He reports that he will have no difficulty in carrying out his plan. He met a number of old friends among the Esquimaux, all of whom were eager to help him in his work of exploring the north of Greenland and searching for the North Pole. He has every hope that the new trip which he is about to undertake will be a successful one.
Lieutenant Peary reports that he is bringing with him the great Cape York meteorite, which he intends to place in the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
A meteorite is a fallen meteor or star, a mass of metal that has fallen upon the earth from space. It is often called a fallen star.
From the earliest times to the present there is a record of 520 meteorites having fallen upon the earth; 142 of this number fell in the United States; 13 were seen to fall.
Forty-five years ago a traveller visiting Greenland noticed that the natives used some kind of metal with which they put tips and edges on their weapons. On inquiry they told him that they obtained it from some large stones, but they could not or would not show him where the stones were to be found.
Lieutenant Peary determined to find them, as he suspected that they were meteorites, and after a long and careful search he found them on Melville Bay, a little east of Cape York.
There were three rocks, all of uncommonly large size, and on examination they proved to be meteorites, one of them being the largest ever found.
In 1895 the two smaller ones were brought back by Lieutenant Peary; but before he was able to move the larger one, the ice began to form in the bay, and not wishing to be blocked in for the winter, he had to leave the prize where it was.
Last year he made another effort to secure the big stone, but the machinery he was using to raise it got out of order, and he again had to abandon the attempt.
Now a message comes from Sydney, a port on Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, which says that he has arrived safely, bringing with him the famous meteorite.
When his vessel, the Hope, steamed into port she was in a very battered condition. She had encountered so many storms and such furious seas that her bulwarks had been washed away.
In addition to this she was burning her last ton of coal as she steamed into port, and so her crew must have been very glad when they sighted land.
We have not yet heard how the big meteorite was wrenched from its icy bed, and it is probable that when the Hope reaches New York we shall have an interesting story to tell you about it.
* * * * *
The news from the Sandwich Islands is of a very pleasant character.
The Hawaiian Senate met in extra session, and agreed to the annexation of the islands to the United States. There was not one vote against it, and so the treaty was ratified by a "unanimous vote" of the Senate.
Every Senator was in his seat as the roll was called, and nearly every one had a good word to say for annexation.
A protest against the treaty was handed to the President, and considered by the Senate before the treaty was ratified.
The Senators did not regard the protest as worthy of much consideration, as it was signed by but fifteen persons, all of whom were friends of the ex-queen. They therefore regarded it as a political scheme arranged by those royalists who still have hopes of restoring the monarchy.
It is said that Liliuokalani has a new plan for the throne of Hawaii. She has come to the conclusion that the people of the Sandwich Islands want neither her nor her rule any longer. She did so many bad things while she was queen that the people who would like to see the monarchy restored would not be willing that she should be queen again.
Liliuokalani has therefore decided to resign the throne in favor of her niece, the Princess Kaiulani.
This young lady is a charming and well-educated person, and the old Queen is wise enough to know that none of the objections which people have to her could apply to Kaiulani.
If the plan is successful, the young Queen is to make ample provision for Liliuokalani.
Meanwhile Japan has agreed to arbitrate the immigration question, but refuses to consider the matter from the Hawaiian point of view.
The complaint which was made against Japan in the first instance was that she evaded the law which provided that every immigrant must have a contract for labor and fifty dollars in cash in his pocket, by giving false contracts and lending the required fifty dollars, which immigrants gave back as soon as they were safely landed.
The Japanese refuse to enter into the question whether this fifty dollars was fraudulently supplied. They say that so long as each man had fifty dollars in his possession, it was nobody's business where or how he got it. They persistently refuse to arbitrate this point, which seems to be the most important of all the questions involved.
The Japanese are continuing to send large numbers of emigrants to Honolulu, and the Hawaiians have become very much alarmed about it.
They insist that the new colonists are Japanese soldiers disguised as laborers, and that the Mikado is sending them over to be in readiness to fight for the possession of the country in case the United States decides to annex it.
* * * * *
The strike in Hazleton is now over, but the settlement has not been made without a good deal of trouble and anxiety.
When the state troops ordered out by the Governor arrived in the town, some of the men decided to go to work under the protection of the troops. The spirit of the strikers had been broken by the firing of the Sheriff and his posse, and many of the men who were peaceably inclined thought the best thing to do was to go back to work.
The women did not agree with them. The wives and mothers of the unfortunate men who had been killed declared that their dear ones should not have been sacrificed for nothing; and as the men refused to continue the strike, the women decided to go on with it for them.
A strike is of no use unless all the men stand together and hold out for their point. The women understood this perfectly, and they determined that the men should stand together.
Arming themselves with sticks, they set out in a body for the mines that were being worked, and under the very noses of the soldiers raided the works and drove the men out.
The next morning the men, still determined to go to work, started out in a body for the mines. On their way they were met by a body of women, who drove them back with threats and scoldings to their homes again.
The general in command of the state troops then decided that it was time for him to interfere, and on the third day, when the women attempted to stop the men, the troops were ordered to disperse them.
To frighten the women the officers ordered their men to fix their bayonets and advance on the women as if they meant to charge them.
The two bodies met—the women brandishing their sticks, and the men with their glittering bayonets pointed at this unusual foe.
The women were, however, not deceived. They refused to believe that the soldiers would charge them, and when they saw the men advancing they began to laugh. This laugh was rapidly taken up by the soldiers; and the two parties facing each other, brandishing their weapons and laughing, must have been a curious sight.
For some time the women stood their ground, but finally became convinced that, though the soldiers were not going to do them any harm, they did not mean to allow them to pass or to do any mischief of their own. They then fell back, and returned to their homes; and the women being disposed of, the miners went peaceably to their work.
* * * * *
The sheriff and the deputies who did the shooting in Hazleton have been arrested.
At the first hearing the judge decided that there was a grave cause of complaint against the men, and so he ordered that they should be tried before a jury to find whether they were guilty of murdering the rioters.
As they were all respectable men, who were not likely to run away, the judge allowed them to furnish bail. That is to say, he said that if they could each find a friend who would give the court $6,000 as a surety that they would come up for trial when their case was called, they might go free in the mean time.
Each of the accused men was able to furnish the required bail, and so they are all at liberty for the present.
* * * * *
Queen Christina of Spain is not the only queen regent in Europe. The Government of Holland is also in the hands of a queen mother, who is guiding the affairs of state for her young daughter, Queen Wilhelmina.
The fact has been brought to our notice by the announcement of Queen Emma that her daughter will be eighteen years old next August, and will then assume the cares of government.
Queen Emma has been Regent of the Netherlands since 1890, when her husband King William III. became insane, and was declared to be incapable of governing.
The little Wilhelmina was then ten years old. She is now a grown-up young lady, and there is quite a stir among the royal families of Europe to find a suitable husband for her.
A marriage has been proposed for her with Prince Alexander of Teck, whose sister is the wife of the Duke of York, and will probably one day be Queen of England. The Duke of York is the son of the Prince of Wales.
The young Prince of Teck has been sent to Holland to visit the young Queen at her castle of Loo, but as yet the Queen has neither refused nor accepted him.
It is rumored that Prince Alexander of Teck hopes that Wilhelmina will refuse him, as he is very anxious to marry a young American of great wealth.
This is a very romantic story, and very pleasing to our national vanity to think that one of the daughters of America may some day be closely related to the Queen of England, but it is a very remote contingency, and not very likely to occur.
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
Tennessee has the latest thing in bicycles.
It seems that the wheel craze is just as rampant there as it is in our own fair city of New York, but that the facilities for owning machines are not as great there as here.
To overcome this, a bright-minded individual has invented a new device, which is certainly the most ingenious we have yet heard of.
It is a "nickel-in-the-slot" bicycle, and probably works somewhat on the principle of the "quarter-in-the-slot" gas-meter, which for every twenty-five cents put in, releases just that coin's worth of gas to illuminate your house.
The bicycle, however, is arranged in such a manner that for every five-cent piece dropped in the slot it will run exactly five miles.
There is not the slightest fear of the rider forgetting to renew the nickel when he has ridden his five cents' worth; nor is there any chance of his cheating the wheel out of an extra mile—or half inch, for the matter of that.
When the end of the five miles is reached the honest wheel stops dead. Whether it throws its rider over its head or not is a matter of no moment to it. It stops then and there, and refuses to move another foot until it is re-fed with a fresh nickel. Then it will bound along again as peacefully as before.
The story does not say whether a device in the form of a small red flag shoots out from any portion of the wheel to give a warning when the next "lap's" rent is due. But without some such plan we should doubt whether this kind of wheel would ever become very popular; for while four miles and three quarters might be ridden with much peaceful enjoyment, the last quarter of a mile would be filled with terrors that would spoil the pleasure of the nicest ride ever attempted.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
Where can the "pocket protector" and scissors-sharpening machine, mentioned in THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, be obtained. MRS. M.F.
NORTHFIELD, MINN., Aug. 4th, 1897.
We are not able to tell you where the above articles are manufactured, but you could obtain them through the agency of any reliable, first-class hardware store. In all such stores they have illustrated catalogues of the various articles manufactured in their line of goods, and you should have no difficulty in finding both the pocket protector and the scissors sharpener.
I have never written to you before, so you don't know my name. Papa is on the school committee, so you sent him a sample copy. I saw it, and was very much interested in it. I am extremely fond of reading and have read at least ten different histories. And with one exception I like your little book best of all. You can imagine how well I like to read when I tell you I am eleven years old, and have read over seven hundred prose books, and the books of ten different poets. I could read primary lessons when I was three years old.
Yours truly, ELEANOR J.L.
P.S.—I am going to earn money so I can subscribe. NEWBURYPORT, MASS., Sept. 7th, 1897.
We are delighted to hear from you, and to have the indorsement of such a bright little critic as you must be after all that you have read.
Would you not like to have our premium list and learn the easiest way for you to become a subscriber?
Your little magazine is of great interest to me, as I am sure it is to many others. I am especially interested in the accounts you give of the search for the North Pole. I do hope that soon somebody will succeed in reaching it, so as to tell us just what kind of a region it is.
I hope that the Cubans will soon gain their liberty for I think they surely deserve it.
Wishing THE GREAT ROUND WORLD great success, and a long life, I remain,
Your most devoted reader, ALISON H.
BREWSTER, CAPE COD, MASS., Sept. 7th, 1897.
Many thanks for your nice kind letter, and for the good wishes contained in it. EDITOR.