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The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 2, No. 24, June 16, 1898 - A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT

Vol. 2—No. 24, June 16, 1898. Whole No. 84. [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second class matter]



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The Great Round World

And What Is Going On In It

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Vol. II., No. 24. JUNE 16, 1898 Whole No. 84

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CONTENTS.

With the Editor 745 New Books 746 Lieutenant Hobson's Brave Deed 749 News from Havana 753 Landing Effected in Cuba 755 Origin of the Red Cross Society 756 The "Plimsoll Mark" 758 The International Date Line 758 News from the Philippines 760 Lieutenant Carranza's Missing Letter 761 Life in Skaguay, Alaska 763 Interview with Senor Moret 766 Removal of Political Disabilities 767 Story of the Sierra Leone Massacre 767 The Hawaiian Flag 770 Bombardment of Santiago Forts 771 LATEST NEWS 774

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[Sidenote: With the Editor]

We have received a number of inquiries from our young subscribers in reference to what they may do for the soldiers and sailors. The following circular letter which has just been received will, we feel sure, interest all of our subscribers. The work outlined is certainly to be commended, and we hope to hear of branches of this society being started in other parts of the country.

FIRST NEW YORK AMBULANCE RED CROSS EQUIPMENT SOCIETY.

(Auxiliary to American Red Cross Relief Committee.)

Honorary President, Treasurer, Bishop Potter. Robert Bacon (J. P. Morgan & Co.).

"Orange, N. J., May 31, 1898.

"The First Dearborn-Morgan School Auxiliary of the New York Ambulance Red Cross Equipment Society has been organized for the purpose of interesting boys and girls in the present relief work of the Red Cross. The Red Cross is an international society which was formed to give help to the wounded in war-time, irrespective of friend or foe.

"The purpose of the New York Ambulance Red Cross Equipment Society is to assist the Red Cross during this war between America and Spain by providing ambulances and ambulance launches for moving sick or wounded soldiers to field hospitals or hospital ships.

"All contributions to the First Dearborn-Morgan School Auxiliary may be sent either to the President or to the Treasurer.

"It is earnestly hoped that all boys and girls will assist in this national work."

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New Books

"The General's Double," by Captain King, and "Trooper Ross and Signal Butte," by the same author, come to us from the press of J. B. Lippincott Company. The former is a capital story of the Civil War, the plot being based upon the remarkable likeness existing between two men in the Union army. It has all of the charm of the works of this favorite author.

The second book contains two stories, the heroes of both being boys. The first, "Trooper Ross," describes the adventures of an officer's son, his exciting experiences with Indians on the plains as a little chap, taking his part at boarding-school later; then, failing to obtain his admission to West Point, he works his way through the ranks to his commission. "Signal Butte" covers a series of exciting adventures in Arizona, in which two boys are the central figures. This book will prove a great favorite with the boys especially.

EDITOR OF THE GREAT ROUND WORLD:

"I take the liberty of recommending as an excellent book for the young, 'Cuore, An Italian Schoolboy's Journal; A Book for Boys,' by Edmondo de Amicis.

"It is a very admirable and spirited work, as good for old as for young people, and ought to be in every home.

"From one of your subscribers at Great Neck, Long Island."

This book is published by Crowell & Co., Boston, and is indeed well worth reading. There are two editions—one illustrated, price $1.50; the other without illustrations, price 60 cents.



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Current History

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In our last number we mentioned in the "Latest News" the sinking of the Merrimac at the entrance of the harbor of Santiago; since then a number of accounts have come, which we are sure you will be interested to hear. The brave fellows who were with Lieutenant Hobson were Daniel Montague, George Charette, Osborn Diegnan, George F. Phillips, Francis Kelly, J. C. Murphy, and Randolph Clausen.



Before submitting his plans to Admiral Sampson, Lieutenant Hobson had worked them out to the smallest detail. Shortly before starting he told his plans to one of his companions. He said: "I am quite sure that we can reach to within three or four hundred yards past Estrella battery behind Morro Castle. I do not think that they can sink me before I can get there. When I reach this, the narrowest part of the channel, I shall swing the vessel around, stop the engines, open the sea valves, touch off the torpedoes, and leave the vessel lying across the channel, which is not as broad as the Merrimac is long. There are to be ten torpedoes below the water-line placed against the bulkheads and connected with each other by a wire under the ship. These torpedoes connect with the bridge, and they should do their work very quickly. I shall have four of the men on the deck with me, and in the engine-room two others. We will all be in our underclothing, with our revolvers and ammunition, in water-tight cases, strapped to our waists. Near the anchor forward I shall have one of the men placed, with an axe, and around his waist a light line which will be attached to the bridge where I stand. The minute that I order the engines stopped I shall jerk this cord; this will be a signal to him to cut the lashing and let go the forward anchor. He will then jump overboard and swim to the boat at the stern. The men in the engine-room, after stopping the engines, will open the sea connections, and then join the rest and throw themselves overboard. I shall fire the torpedoes the last thing, and this will insure the rapid sinking of the vessel." When Hobson was asked if he expected to escape alive, he said: "Well, I suppose the batteries on shore will make it pretty hot for us; but they will not be able to see very clearly, and I think we have a fair chance of getting away. We certainly shall not allow ourselves to be taken prisoners without fighting for it." All Wednesday night the crew were at work on the Merrimac to get her stripped for her final resting-place. Early Thursday morning a start was made, but the vessel was ordered back, as the delays in getting her ready had made it impossible to take advantage of the darkness. Very early Friday morning the second start was made, and this time she succeeded in getting well in shore before the first glimmer of daylight; but soon the crews on the ships, who were anxiously waiting, saw the flash of the first gun on shore, and then a brisk firing began from both batteries and fort, which was kept up for some time. Of the Merrimac, nothing more was seen until broad daylight, when the top of her mast was discovered protruding from the water in just the position that Hobson had planned to place her.



Admiral Cervera sent a boat out with the news that the men had been captured, and to make arrangements for their exchange. Lieutenant Hobson's exploit has received universal praise from all parts of the world; he will unquestionably be promoted and receive special distinction from the Government.

One of the young officers on the New York, Cadet Powell, also displayed great bravery. He was detailed to command the New York's steam launch, which accompanied the Merrimac to pick up Hobson and his men if they succeeded in escaping from the harbor; he was the last man to see them. Speaking of the start, he said: "Hobson was as cool as a cucumber; when I shook hands with him, he said: 'Powell, watch the boat's crew when we pull out of the harbor. We will be cracks, rowing thirty strokes to the minute.' We followed about three-quarters of a mile astern of the Merrimac. When about two hundred yards from the harbor the first gun was fired from the eastern bluff; we were then about a half mile from shore. The firing increased very rapidly, and we lost sight of the Merrimac in the smoke which the wind carried off shore. The western battery finally was used and began firing. They shot wildly, and we did not see where the shots struck. We then ran in closer to the shore. Then we heard the explosion of the torpedoes on the Merrimac. Until daylight we waited, just outside the breakers, about half a mile from Morro Castle, keeping a sharp lookout for a boat or swimmers. Hobson had arranged to meet us off that point; but thinking that some might have drifted out, we crossed in front of Morro. About five o'clock we crossed the harbor again, and in passing saw one spar of the Merrimac sticking out of the water; we hugged the shore just outside the breakers; the batteries saw us and opened fire; it was then broad daylight; and finding nothing, we finally made for the New York; the men behaved splendidly." Great admiration is expressed at the Navy Department in Washington at the coolness and pluck shown by Cadet Powell; he is likely to profit by his great courage. Young Powell is one of the cadets from the Naval Academy whom Lieutenant Hobson secured permission to take with him; they were in the class which Hobson instructed, and he wished them to accompany him in order that they might have practical experience in the effect of explosives on ships. At Annapolis young Powell was considered one of the brightest cadets; he graduated at the head of his class.

Spanish accounts of the blowing up of the Merrimac are exceedingly amusing. The official announcement is made that an American vessel, trying to enter the harbor of Santiago, "was sunk by the batteries"; the affair is described as a brilliant Spanish victory; it is also added that Admiral Cervera personally saved an American officer from drowning, as his ship was in close proximity to the cruiser during the engagement. The official report goes on to say that the mines guarding the harbor were exploded simultaneously with the opening of the fire from the ships, forts, and batteries; congratulations were sent to Admiral Cervera.

[Footnote: Authority for pronunciation of proper names: Century Dictionary.]

* * * * *

Each day is taken advantage of by the Spaniards at Havana to add to their defences. Earthworks are being rapidly thrown up in the neighborhood of the city; a signal service has been established to enable them to guard the coast at all the points, and they feel confident that a successful invasion cannot take place in that part of the island, as it is so well guarded with modern rapid-fire guns in the batteries, and quite a large force is concentrated there for the defence of the city.

Little, if any, news comes from the blockading squadron off the north coast of Cuba; there are, from time to time, reports of engagements and the landing of troops; but official news has not yet been given out, and for this we must wait until the Government deems it advisable to publish it. Several regiments have been embarked at Mobile, and by this time are supposed to be off the coast of Cuba; they started in high spirits, and there was a great deal of enthusiasm on the part of the people who saw them start. They have probably gone by way of Tampa, and been joined there by the other transports.

A great quantity of ammunition and supplies will be sent with the troops, so that they may not suffer from lack of material to make the invasion successful.

One of our New York papers publishes a letter, written by a young girl in Havana to a friend in New York; it gives an excellent idea as to the true state of affairs in Cuba. Among other things, she says:

"Our fisherman brought in some papers from New York, and what a lot of lies they contain! My father and all the other officials say that we have food here for five months—flour, codfish, beans, and groceries—all brought down from New York, and salted meat from Montevideo. . . .

"Pa says that if you Americans had attacked Havana when you declared war it would have surrendered in five hours, but that it is now fortified so that it is strong as Gibraltar. You know, they built a great big railroad upon sticks, in front of the forts, and took cars of sand and dumped them down, so that they have a mound in front of all the forts about thirty feet wide and ten feet high. I went over the fortifications yesterday, and I saw fifteen of those immense 12-inch guns. They say they can shoot twelve miles. We have got 50,000 troops here in Havana, and 60,000 in the provinces, and some 40,000 volunteers. These are all veterans, and all the generals say that it would take an army of 200,000 to beat us. The coast is all supplied with telephone and telegraph wires, so that any time your boats attempt to land we can have a big force there in a couple of hours to drive them off. Part of Cervera's fleet is in Santiago. There is so much mystery about this! Whether the admiral is there or not, no one seems to know. The rest of the fleet, some fifteen vessels, is somewhere down in the Antilles, and Captain-General Blanco says they are going to attack your coast in about three weeks.

"The Alfonso XII. has been turned into a hospital ship, and all her guns have been taken out of her. You know she is the boat that was anchored opposite the Maine and had in her the pneumatic torpedoes. They say a man named Arjona had something to do with the blowing up of the Maine, but I guess it was Weyler's orders. . . .

"The whole city is divided up into sections on what they call the 'Humanity Committee's plan.' They find out who are in sympathy with the Cubans or with the United States; and in case Havana is bombarded all these people are going to be thrown into Cabanas or shot. The people are such fools they think nothing is known about what they are doing."

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We told you in a recent number about the unsuccessful result of the attempt to land an expedition in Cuba; this result was largely due, no doubt, to the fact that the Spaniards were advised in advance, through Spanish spies in this country, of the intended departure of the expedition. On May 31st, the steamer Florida returned to Key West, after having successfully landed an important expedition on the island. This time they succeeded in taking their departure without it being known to any one. The expedition, consisting of about four hundred men, with a pack-train and a large quantity of arms and ammunition, sailed for Guantanamo on the night of May 21st. The expedition was under command of Colonel Lacret, with whom was Captain J. A. Dorst, of the United States army. The men were equipped with canvas uniforms furnished by the Government, and had rations sufficient for fifteen days after landing; the pack-train consisted of seventy-five mules and twenty-five horses; the expedition landed on the coast of Cuba, Thursday morning, May 26th. The Florida, escorted by the gunboat Osceola, drew up close to the shore, and first landed scouts to ascertain if all was clear; these scouts were met by a band of 1,500 insurgents, under Captains Vereira and Rojas. There was absolutely no interruption to the unloading of the Florida, as no sign of a Spaniard was seen. This is the largest expedition which has ever been landed in Cuba in aid of the insurgents.

* * * * *

There is a very interesting account of the origin of the Red Cross Society in The Churchman. About forty years ago, M. Henry Dimont, a native of Switzerland, having witnessed the unnecessary suffering of the wounded, from lack of care, at the battle of Solferino, was so much impressed that he published a book, pointing out the necessity of forming a corporation of nurses to work in the cause of humanity in time of war, regardless of nationality of the injured, and who should be permitted to aid the wounded on the battle-field, under the protection of a flag which should be recognized as neutral.

So much interest was taken in the idea that the outcome was a convention held at Geneva in 1864, which was attended by representatives from sixteen of the great nations of the world, who signed an agreement that they would protect members of the association when caring for the wounded on the field of battle. The society adopted for its colors the Swiss cross, as a compliment to its birthplace; they, however, reversed the colors, and the flag is therefore a red cross on a white field, and is the only military hospital flag of civilized warfare; it protects persons from molestation who work under the emblem performing services in aid of the wounded. Great care is used in granting permission to persons to wear this emblem; and in order that it shall not be taken advantage of to spy in the enemies' camp, private marks are added to prevent imitation. The headquarters of the International Committee is at Geneva; the president of the society is M. Gustav Moynier.

In 1882, Miss Clara Barton was delegated by the President of the United States to represent this country at the Congress of the Red Cross Committee, and was made a member of the International Board of Managers when the United States signed the international treaty.

It was decided that the work of the Red Cross Society should not be confined to times of war, but that in case of disasters and calamities, which were always to be apprehended, the organization was to provide aid. During the past seventeen years the American Red Cross Society has served in fifteen disasters and famines, and Russians, Armenians, and Cubans have received aid from this society.

* * * * *

Friday, June 3d, Samuel Plimsoll, known as the "sailors' friend," died in England. Plimsoll was the originator of the famous "Plimsoll mark," and this is what caused him to be called the sailors' friend. Many years ago it was the custom of unprincipled ship-owners to send their vessels to sea very much overloaded; this was done to save the expense of a double voyage, for in those days there were few steam merchantmen, and sailing-vessels oftentimes took months for their voyages. The Plimsoll mark is painted on the vessel to indicate how much cargo she should carry. When a vessel has her full cargo the Plimsoll mark is at the water-line; laws were passed making it illegal to load vessels so deeply as to sink this mark below the surface of the water, and in consequence sailors' lives are not risked in overloaded vessels.

* * * * *

Some very interesting questions have arisen in reference to the difference of time between Manila and New York. The difference between Manila and New York is about eleven hours; when it is five in the morning in Manila, it is four in the afternoon with us. In order to change Manila time to our time we must deduct about eleven hours. This is all very simple so far as hours are concerned; but when we try to find out what day it is we run against a more complicated matter, for there is a certain place, or rather a certain mysterious line, which the great nations have agreed upon as the international date line. This date line is supposed to be the 180th meridian longitude reckoning from Greenwich; but this meridian is not actually followed, for in the case of the Philippine Islands it takes a long sweep, and passes to the west of them, and, in consequence, there is a difference of nearly a whole day between Manila and Hong-Kong, although the actual difference of time is but about half an hour. This difference causes all kinds of complications there, in that Hong-Kong and Manila are so near each other. A telegram dated at Hong-Kong, say, the 1st of May at one o'clock, will reach us April 30th; if sent direct to Manila it would reach there apparently nearly twenty-four hours before it was sent, for when it is Monday in Manila it is Tuesday in Hong-Kong. This will account for the receipt of the despatch in reference to Commodore Dewey's victory dated Hong-Kong, May 2d, stating that the bombardment was then taking place, whereas it was really Sunday, May 1st, in Manila. The necessity for having an international date line can best be understood if you will imagine yourself travelling around the world in some sort of a conveyance which enables you to keep pace with the sun; say, for instance, your start is on a Monday, with the sun directly over your head. If it were not for the international date line it would always be Monday to you; instead of this, each time that you cross the 180th meridian the day changes.

* * * * *



A report has been received from Hong-Kong that the insurgent chief Aguinaldo, at the Philippines, has issued a proclamation that would seem to show that he hopes to make himself leader or dictator over the island. The report goes on to say that he has issued orders that the lives and property of Europeans and all Spanish non-combatants are to be protected. It is said that his treatment of the captives has been very fair, and that he is conducting the campaign against Spain in a very able manner. Since he has taken charge of affairs the Spanish soldiers have lost battle after battle, and it is said that there are now in Aguinaldo's hands over two thousand prisoners, including many officers. Aguinaldo reports that the Governor of Cavite (cae-vē-tā) has surrendered to him. One of the American captains has written to Hong-Kong, stating that it is his opinion "that the rebels have undergone a radical change since the arrival of Aguinaldo; the Spaniards have lost every engagement, and if our people do not hurry, there will be no Spanish army left."

The American vessels have taken no part in the fight between Spain and the insurgents; Admiral Dewey has contented himself with superintending and insisting upon proper conduct of affairs. The news he sends is exceedingly cheerful, and he seems to be quite confident that he can hold out until reinforcements arrive; he anticipates no trouble in capturing the city of Manila.

* * * * *

Lieutenant Carranza's missing letter has been found. You will remember we told in our last number of the arrest of a Montreal detective who had been arrested and accused of stealing it. It was not taken by the Montreal detective, but by a secret service officer of our Government. It seems that the Spanish officials at Montreal have been very carefully watched for some time, for it was known that they were spying upon our Government. The detectives had followed Minister Polo and his staff ever since they left Washington, and had secured absolute proof that Du Bosc and Carranza were collecting information and forwarding it to the Spanish Government. On the pretext of purchasing the house, they were shown all over it, and succeeded in securing a number of important letters, cablegrams, maps, etc., which were forwarded to the Government. The letter which Carranza has made so much fuss about was stolen in a very clever way. The detective took a sheet of fly paper, and in a careless way dropped it over the letter; then took up the fly paper and the letter attached to it, and passed it to another detective, who at once forwarded it to Washington. Part of the letter has been published. It is addressed to his Excellency Don Jose Gomez Imay. In it Carranza expresses his regret that Imay was not appointed to command the Cadiz fleet; he speaks disparagingly of Camara and highly of Cervera; most of this part of the letter is in reference to his personal employment by the Government, and he expresses great anxiety to be away to the front and in active service on the fleet.

Speaking of his spy system, he says: "We have had bad luck because they have captured our two best spies. The Americans are showing the most extraordinary vigilance. I shall be extremely gratified to have a ship or a torpedo-boat to run the blockade, or anything rather than playing second fiddle." These quotations go to show that Carranza was not over-pleased with the work of conducting the spy department in Canada. He takes the trouble to criticize Cervera's actions, and he alludes to him as "Don Pasquale," and says that he cannot believe that the Admiral would do such a stupid thing as to get caught in Santiago, his purpose being to attack the American fleet and delay the invasion of Cuba. This letter demonstrates very clearly the wisdom of the Government in keeping carefully guarded all knowledge of the movements of our army and navy, for Carranza has taken advantage of the statements published and information easily obtained heretofore, and has kept his Government informed, and has also personally been advising Admiral Cervera whenever opportunity offered: he speaks of having cabled to Cervera on 20th of May. Our Government has made application to the English Government for the expulsion of the Spanish spies from British territory.

Kellert, the Montreal detective, has caused the arrest of both Du Bosc and Carranza, in a civil suit for damages for false imprisonment; so the Spaniards are in hotter water than ever, especially as all of their money in the Bank of Montreal has been seized as security.

* * * * *

A very interesting account of life in Skaguay, Alaska, has recently been received. The account is written by a Wisconsin woman who, with her husband, went to Alaska to open a restaurant and hotel in Skaguay. She writes: "I never felt so lonesome in my life; I never worked so hard, but have never been so happy; money comes in so fast that we do not know what to do with it. At first, when there was no bank, we were obliged to hide the money in all parts of the house, and we were in constant terror. We had paper money, silver money, gold money, gold dust, and every form of currency that can be imagined hidden all over the house; and as the town was full of people who were without money, and who would not hesitate to cut one's throat for a dollar, we did not have a single moment free from anxiety. Early in the winter we did succeed in sending a number of thousands of dollars to Seattle, and were very much relieved when we received a receipt from the bank.

"The transportation companies are swindlers. They are persuading thousands of people to come to this awful country who will never be able to go back, and all for the sake of making the profit on transportation.



"Flour that we had shipped from Seattle, and which cost over $5 per barrel, cost as much more for freight to this place. But as we sold it for over $40 a barrel before it left the dock, we had nothing to complain of; and it was very poor flour at that, not fit for bread, and hardly suitable for the plainest kind of cooking.

"As for our restaurant, we started it with the idea of giving people good home cooking, and we can hardly serve the people, they come so fast. The restaurant is open day and night, and the tables always full. At first we got a good price for our meals, that is, from $1.50 to $2.50 for a dinner. But there is more competition now, and prices have gone down.

"The town is still filled with gamblers, and is a mining town in every sense of the word, although the troops keep the rough element in fairly good order. The town is particularly lonely for refined women, as there are very few here, and very little in the way of amusement for them.

"It is not so very cold. I have seen as severe weather in the States; and the thermometer rarely goes below 15 degrees below zero, and that is not so bad. But there is very little sun, and this we miss the most. We work by lamplight day and night.

"Whatever people may say about the Klondike, there is still plenty of gold there; and although we are making a barrelful of money here at this business, we will very probably 'up stakes' and go to the diggings. Every boat that arrives is loaded with gold-hunters, and Skaguay is crowded. Hundreds of people are camped between here and Chilkoot Pass, and are scattered all along the trail. This year will bring many improvements in the line of travelling, and, in consequence, there will be less hardship."

* * * * *

Much interest has been awakened by the report of an interview with Senor Moret, ex-Secretary of the Colonies of Spain. He is reported to have said that "the Government does not know where it is going. There is no person in Spain who can tell the outcome of the present situation. The Government is not a fixed one, and allows matters to run in their own course heedless of the effect; in other words, matters are allowed to drift their own way. It is useless to conceal the fact that the Cabinet is not solid. Its members are working at cross purposes, the ministers lack energy, and, in fact, are absolutely incompetent, and simply trust to chance to get out of their present troubles.

"A campaign in favor of peace has been begun, and is progressing among the people. I am convinced that if the people were allowed to state their wishes, even the soldiers would advocate peace.

"It is difficult to say whether the regency will be overthrown, nor can I say what will happen to a country that is without guidance and with a foreign war on its hands. If the regency is overthrown it will be an immense misfortune to Spain. The affairs of Spain are in complete disorder."

This report comes by way of London, and would seem to confirm reports previously published as to the condition of matters in Spain.

* * * * *

A bill for the removal of all political disabilities arising from the Civil War, recently presented in Congress, has passed and is now a law, as President McKinley has formally approved it. This bill refers to Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

This amendment made it impossible for any person to hold a political position in the United States who had taken up arms against the Government, if he had previously held a political position and had declared his allegiance to the United States. The law that has just been passed declares that "disabilities imposed by Section 3, Amendment 14, of the Constitution, heretofore incurred, are hereby removed."

* * * * *

Some of the survivors of the terrible massacre at Sierra Leone reached New York during the past week. The story of their escape is a very thrilling one. It seems that among the natives in that part of Africa there is a secret society. When the natives feel that they have any grievance against a particular tribe or people, they send word to all members of the society that "pura" is declared against the offenders; this means that they are condemned to death.

As a result of the hut tax, which we told you about in a recent number, "pura" was declared against all English people in Africa. News soon reached the different missionary stations that this had been done; but the attack on the Rotufunk mission came almost without warning. Mr. Ward, who is the only one of these missionaries left alive, went in the latter part of April to Freetown for supplies, and at that time there was not any sign of danger. Through natives the story of the massacre has been obtained. It seems that early on the morning of May 3d native women came running to the mission house and cried that an armed force was coming to capture the place. The missionaries had no means of defence; their only hope of safety was in flight; but, unfortunately, they were too late. When the tribesmen arrived and found that the whites had left, they started through the bush, and soon captured all of the unfortunate missionaries. The tortures to which they put these poor men and women are too terrible to repeat. Death put a welcome end to their sufferings.



In the mean time, the colony of Americans at Shengeh received news that the natives had rebelled. A friendly native visited the mission and told Dr. Burtner that the tribes had declared "pura" against this mission, and that he had better fly. Immediately the work of getting boats in readiness was begun, and the missionaries, together with the friendly natives, finally succeeded in reaching Freetown.

Miss Mullins, whose station was at Momliga, where she was the only white person, had a very narrow escape. April 29th, a band of natives came there shouting and singing. Miss Mullins ran to the river in the hope of finding a boat in which she could escape. The boats had all been taken by the natives, who had either fled or gone to join the war tribes. Knowing that there was no chance of her hiding in the bush, the brave girl decided that if she was to die she would die at her post.

She turned back from the river into the clearing, where the superstitious natives stood aside to let her pass. One of them seized her as she was passing, and asked her what she was going to do. She said: "I am going inside; I cannot escape you, you are too many for me. Leave me to myself for a short time." The man brandished a spear in her face, and said: "See, that is the blood of your friends; yours will soon cover it." But she did not falter, and the savages probably left her untouched for this reason. They are very superstitious, and must have thought that there was something supernatural about her. Shortly after this she heard the tramp of feet outside, and an English voice calling to ask if there was anybody inside; running out, she found that the British commissioner and a large force had arrived. And with them she made her escape.

When the Americans arrived at Freetown, a large force of volunteers had been concentrated, and it is hoped that the uprising will soon be at an end.

* * * * *

In our previous number we mentioned the name of one of the missionaries killed at the massacre as "Kane"; it should have been "Cain."

* * * * *

One of our subscribers has asked why the flag of Hawaii has eight stripes and three crosses. There is a very interesting story told in reference to this peculiar flag. It seems that about twenty-five years ago, when the country was still a monarchy, it was quite frequently visited by war-ships of different nations. It is said that one morning the King discovered a French war-ship anchored safely in the harbor of Honolulu, and fearing that the French were there for purpose of seizing the island, sent for his Prime Minister, who advised him to raise a flag, and in this way advise the visitors that the islands belonged to some one. But the island did not possess a flag of its own; the only one the King could find at first was an old British flag. This he had run up to the top of the highest flag-pole. The flag had hardly been raised, when one of his chief advisers came running to him, and told him he must take the flag down immediately, for a British man-of-war was expected, and would be sure to claim ownership of the islands if the British flag was seen flying over the palace. So the King started on another flag hunt. This time he found an American flag, and, with great ingenuity, took the two flags, cut them up, and made a combination. Therefore the first Hawaiian flag had thirteen red and white stripes, and the English jack in the corner. Later, it was decided that eight stripes, to represent the eight islands of the nation, would be more appropriate; therefore the extra stripes were cut off, and now the flag has eight stripes, four red and four white, and still carries the St. George's, St. Andrew's, and St. Patrick's crosses, the same as the English flag.

The superstitious natives believe that the ascendency of the white people over the colored is due to the fact that the white stripe was left uppermost on the flag. They have frequently tried to have the flag changed for this reason, for they believe that, if the red is given prominence, the natives will again have the ascendency.

* * * * *

On the morning of June 8th, the first definite confirmation of the news of an engagement off Santiago was published. The vessels which are reported to have taken part in the engagement were the Brooklyn, Marblehead, Texas, and Massachusetts forming the first division; the New York, New Orleans, Yankee, Iowa, and Oregon the second division. Very early on the morning of the 6th, they steamed in toward the entrance of the harbor in double column, the first division to the left, the second to the right, the vessels being in the order named above. When about three thousand yards off shore the first division turned toward the west and the second division toward the east; the little vessels Vixen and Swanee remaining far out on the left of the first division to watch the riflemen on shore, and the Dolphin and Porter occupying similar positions on the right for the same purpose. The fight was started by a 12-inch shell from the Iowa, which struck the base of the Estrella battery and tore up the works. This was a signal for all of the vessels to begin firing, and from that time until the firing ceased the bombardment was terrific. The vessels had run up in the beginning at the point where the range of the forts and batteries was known, and, in consequence, although the smoke hung so thickly about the ships that the forts could not be seen, the shots were very effective. The vessels of the first division had been instructed to concentrate their fire at the fortifications at the left or west side of the entrance to the harbor; those of the second division attacking Morro Castle and fortifications to the right, and the Spanish vessels in the harbor which were within range. The Spanish gunners on shore replied promptly, but their marksmanship was of no better quality than in previous engagements, and it is reported that practically no damage was done to our fleet. It is reported that one Spanish shell struck the military mast of the Massachusetts, but nobody was hurt. One man on the Swanee was slightly wounded, and it is said that he is the only one who was hurt on our side. As the bombardment proceeded, Commodore Schley's ships moved nearer to the shore, and the effect of their fire at such short range was tremendous: earthworks were simply blown to pieces, and the Spanish gunners soon forced to stop firing. The Estrella fortification, which was probably the strongest one there, was given particular attention by Schley's column. The fort offered great resistance, but when the vessels had moved to closer range the heavy guns of the Texas and Marblehead were turned upon it. The Spanish guns were soon silenced and the fortification set on fire. The Cayo battery was silenced by the New York and New Orleans after a terrific fire of about half an hour. Many of the American shells were wasted for the reason that the fortified points on the shore could not be accurately located in the thick weather. There was a heavy rain and fog at the time, and this made marksmanship much less accurate. Shortly after nine o'clock the firing from shore ceased, and a signal was hoisted by Admiral Sampson to cease firing. It was then seen that the earthworks and the Estrella and Catalina fortifications were so damaged that it is doubtful whether the Spaniards will be able to use them again.



Reports of the engagement make particular mention of the good showing made by the naval militia on the Yankee. They worked like old blue-jackets, pouring a savage fire into the enemy, and it was accurate too. They kept close in shore and paid particular attention to the batteries near the beach. This was their first experience under fire, and they showed the stuff they are made of. Indeed, they proved themselves so fond of that sort of thing, that when orders were given to stop the engagement, there was a great deal of amusement on board the larger vessels when it was seen that they hammered away with their stern guns as long as they were within range; even after the order had been signalled to cease firing, they turned slowly and reluctantly away, as if they were sorry to leave.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: Latest News]

June 10th, "Old Glory" was raised on Cuban soil, and the welcome sight was Deceived with rousing cheers by the marines, who had landed.

On Thursday, the 9th, orders were given to a number of the vessels to go to Guantanamo Bay and assist in a landing there.

On Friday, under cover of the guns of the Oregon, Marblehead, Yankee, Yosemite, Porter, Dolphin, and Vixen, six hundred marines of the first battalion landed with small boats near Caimanera in Guantanamo Bay. This place had been shelled several days before, in order that the Spaniards should have no fortifications to aid them in preventing this landing.

No Spaniards appeared, however, and our men had soon landed tents and the necessary implements with which to make an encampment. The site chosen was the hill where the blockhouse had been, as this high spot was considered the most healthful position.

Orders were given to destroy the few houses and huts, to prevent all possibility of catching yellow fever from any germs which might have been lingering there. These hovels made a fine bonfire, as they were built of light materials with thatched roofs.

The men were glad enough to get ashore, for they have been cooped on the transports most of the time since April 22d, knocking about on the ocean. In that hot climate it is not over-agreeable to be on ship-board, even with ample room to move about in; but when crowded as the men on transports are, there is no end of discomfort.

All Friday afternoon and evening the men worked away at their camp, and were tired enough when they were ordered to turn in for the night.

Every precaution was taken to guard against a surprise, although no attack was expected. Saturday the men continued their work, which was getting along finely and almost completed, when late in the afternoon, while a large number of men were hauling water up the hill, and others, who had been working hard all day, were taking a swim in the bay, there was suddenly heard the sharp crack of Mauser rifles, and the men knew that the Spaniards were there.

As a matter of course, the attack came from the thick underwood surrounding the rear of the camp, and soon the air was filled with bullets whistling around the heads of our men.

As soon as the shots were heard the men came running to aid their comrades. Many of them who had been swimming grabbed up their rifles and cartridge-belts, and began firing, without waiting to dress.

With great coolness the men were formed and soon repulsed the Spanish force. Firing was kept up until midnight. In the darkness the Spaniards became bolder and attacked the camp, the white tents making a good mark. If their marksmanship had been better, our losses must have been serious. As it was, however, but four men were killed—Assistant Surgeon J. B. Gibbs, Sergeant C. H. Smith, and two privates, William Dunphy and James McColgan. During the night the vessels off shore kept their powerful searchlights turned upon the heights, and this greatly interfered with the Spaniards, who could not leave the woods without exposing themselves to the fire of our men.

The first news of this, our first land encounter with the Spanish, was published on Monday of this week.

News of the fall of Manila, received Monday, the 13th, came by way of London from our ambassador there. But particulars were not given, and we do not know whether the city was surrendered to the rebels or to Admiral Dewey.

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Transcriber's Notes:

Notation for macron characters is denoted by ē and ā.

Obvious punctuations errors repaired.

Page 758, "sailors's" changed to "sailors'". (the sailors' friend.)

Page 758, "orginator" changed to "originator." (originator of)

Page 762, "expreses" changed to "expresses." (expresses great)

Under Club Rates, "Bazar" changed to "Bazaar." (Harper's Bazaar)

Remainder of archaic spelling retained.

THE END

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