The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth Knowing - A Manual of Ready Reference
by Joseph Triemens
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[Transcriber's Notes]

This is one of the first books I remember reading as a child. Some of the items are thoughtfully written, like how to write checks. Many others are just rumors or careless opinions. Some are "racy" ads. Many articles are lead-ins to the advertisements. Whatever their truth, they are interesting reading, calculated to draw the attention of drug store customers of 1910.

The text of the advertisements have been reproduced along with the accompanying graphics. Correct grammar and punctuation has been sacrificed to preserving the original format of the ads.

"Mother's Remedies, Over One Thousand Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers of the United States and Canada" (Gutenberg EText 17439) is a book for a similar audience, but without advertisements.

Here are the definitions of some unfamiliar (to me) words.

aperients Laxative.

averment Assert formally as a fact.

biliousness Peevish; irritable; cranky; extremely unpleasant or distasteful.

bill of attainder Legislative determination imposing punishment without trial.

bodkin Small, sharply pointed instrument to make holes in fabric or leather.

carnelian Pale to deep red or reddish-brown.

catarrhal Inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially of the respiratory tract, accompanied by excessive secretions.

cholera morbus Acute gastroenteritis occurring in summer and autumn; symptoms are severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.

conspectus General or comprehensive view; survey; digest; summary.

copperas Ferrous sulfate.

cumulation Accumulation, heap, mass.

diathesis Constitutional predisposition.

disseised Dispossess unlawfully or unjustly; oust.

emercement (amercement) Fine not fixed by law; inflicting an arbitrary penalty.

emoluments Payment for an office or employment; compensation.

Erebus Greek Mythology; the dark region of the underworld through which the dead must pass before they reach Hades.

erraticism Deviating from the usual conduct or opinion; eccentric; queer.

histologist One who does anatomical studies of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues.

impecuniosity Having little or no money; penniless; poor.

indurated Hardened; obstinate; unfeeling.

inheres Inherent or innate.

intendent Title of various government officials or administrators.

Irondequoit Town of western New York on Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay, near Rochester.

lees Sediment settling during fermentation, especially wine; dregs.

luxation Displacement or misalignment of a joint or organ.

Marque (letter of) Commission granted by a state to a private citizen to capture and confiscate the merchant ships of another nation.

meerschaum Fine, compact, usually white clay-like mineral of hydrous magnesium silicate, H4Mg2Si3O10, used for tobacco pipes, building stone and ornamental carvings. Also called sepiolite.

Orfila Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853). Chemist, founder of toxicology.

pearlash Potassium carbonate.

prosody Study of the metrical structure of verse.

Prussian blue Dark blue crystalline hydrated compound, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3.xH2O; ferric ferrocyanide.

putrescible Liable to decay or spoil or become putrid.

quassia Shrub or small tree of tropical America, Quassia amara. Prepared form of the heartwood, used as an insecticide and in medicine as a tonic to dispel intestinal worms

quoits Game; player throws rings of rope or flattened metal at an upright peg, attempting to encircle it or come as close to it as possible.

rotten stone Porous, lightweight, siliceous sedimentary rock; shells of diatoms or radiolarians or of finely weathered chert, used as an abrasive and a polish.

saltpetre Potassium nitrate, KNO3.

sciatica Pain extending from the hip down the back of the thigh and surrounding area.

spatulate Shaped like a spatula; rounded like a spoon.

sustension Sustaining.

Tete d'armee Head of Army.

theine Caffeine.

towardliness Apt to learn; promising; docile; tractable; propitious; seasonable.

[End Transcriber's Notes]

Every Purchase Save You Money AT THE CENTRAL

Save money on your Drug Store Merchandise by buying at the Central. We carry everything in Drugs Toilet Article, Rubber Goods, Sundries, Candies, Cigars, etc.

You will be surprised at our low prices and quick service and pleased with our complete stocks.

We carry a complete line of Burke's Home Remedies. Burke's Home Remedies are sold under the Money Back Guarantee.



Main Store 219 Woodward Ave.

Branch Stores 89 Woodward Ave. 153 Grand River Ave. Detroit, MICH

The Handy Cyclopedia Of Things Worth Knowing

A Manual of Ready Reference

Covering Especially Such Information Of Everyday Use as is often Hardest to Find When Most Needed

"Inquire Within About Everything"

For alphabetical index see page 277

CHICAGO ALBERT J. DUBOIS 1911 Copyright. 1911, by Joseph Trienens


This little book is presented to you to evidence our appreciation of your patronage. We trust you will examine its contents closely, for you will find within its covers many things that will prove entertaining, instructive and useful.

It is new and up-to-date and has been expressly compiled for our patrons. Only matter of real interest and value has been included in its pages.

It is a general experience that answers to those questions which arise most often in every-day life are hardest to find. Information on practical subjects is usually just beyond your reach when it is most desired. You will use this little book every day when you "want to know."

It is equally valuable to all classes, men as well as women; to workers generally as well as people of leisure. It is the book for the busy housekeeper as well as the woman of fashion.

We shall feel amply repaid for the painstaking labor, care and expense which we have bestowed upon this little volume if its constant utility to you more firmly cements your good will to our establishment.

Just a few words about the advertisements. They are from concerns of established reputation whose products we freely recommend with full confidence that they are the best of their respective kinds. The index to the advertising section is on pages 5 and 6.

Sincerely yours, THE CENTRAL DRUG CO.

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS For index of general contents see page Abilena Mineral Water Albany Chemical Co Aleta Hair Tonic Alexander's Asthma Remedy Allen's Cough Balsam Ankle Supports Arch Cushions Astyptodyne Athlophoros Australian Eucalyptus Globulus Oil Bath Cabinets Blair's Pills Blood Berry Gum Page facing inside back cover "Bloom of Youth," Laird's Blue Ribbon Gum Blush of Roses Bonheim's Shaving Cream Borax, Pacific Coast Borden's Malted Milk Brown's Asthma Remedy Brown's Liquid Dressing Brown's Wonder Face Cream Brown's Wonder Salve Bryans' Asthma Remedy Buffalo Lithia Springs Water Buffers, Nail Burnishine Byrud's Corn Cure Byrud's Instant Relief Cabler's (W. P.) Root Juice Calder's Dentine Carmichael's Gray Hair Restorer Carmichael's Hair Tonic Celery-Vesce Chavett Diphtheria Preventive Chavett Solace Chocolates and Bon Bons Coe's Cough Balsam Consumers Company Corsets Coupons Crane's Lotion Crown Headache Powders Daisy Fly Killer "Dead Stuck" for Bugs Delatone Dennos Food Digesto Dissolvene Rubber Garments Downs' Obesity Reducer Drosis Duponts Hair Restorative Dyspepsia Remedy, Graham's Elastic Stockings El Perfecto Veda Rose Rouge Empress Hair Color Restorer Empress Shampoo Soap Euca-Scentol Femaform Cones Golden Remedy for Epilepsy Golden Rule Hair Restorative Goodwin's Corn Salve Goodwin's Foot Powder Gowans Pneumonia Preparation Graves' (Dr.) Tooth Powder Gray's Ointment Great Western Champagne Grube's Corn Remover Guild's Asthma Cure Harvard Athletic Supports Heel Cushions Hegeman's Camphor Ice Hill's Chloride of Gold Tablets Hoag's (Dr.) Cell Tissue Tonic Hollister's Rocky Mountain Tea Hot Water Bottles Hydrox Chemical Company Hygeia Nursing Bottles I-De-Lite Irondequoit Port Wine Jetum Jucket's (Dr.) Salve Karith Kellogg's Asthma Remedy Knickerbocker Spraybrushes Kondon's Catarrhal Jelly Kumyss, Arend-Adamick Lemke's (Dr.) Golden Electric Liniment Lemke's (Dr.) Laxative Herb Tea Lemke's (Dr.) St. Johannis Drops Leslie Safety Razors Louisenbad Reduction Salt Lune de Miel Perfume "Lustr-ite" Toilet Specialties Luxtone Toilet Preparations Mando, Depilatory Manicure Goods Mares Cough Balsam Martel's (Dr.) Female Pills Marvel Syringes Mayr's Stomach Remedy "Meehan's" Razor Stropper Mey's Poultice Mixer Medicine Company Mt. Clemens Bitter Water Musterole Nardine New Bachelor Cigars Noblesse Toilet Preparations Obesity Gaveck Tablets Obesity Reducer, Downs' Olive Oil Orange Blossom Orangeine Ordway (Dr. D. P.) Plasters Oriental Cream Orthopedic Apparatus Palmer's Perfumes Paracamph Peckham's Croup Remedy Perry Davis Painkiller Physiological Tonicum Pinus Medicine Co. Piso's Remedy Planten's Capsules Plexo Toilet Cream Poland Water Pozzoni's Complexion Powder "Queen Bess" Perfume Rat-Nox Razor Stropper, "Meehan's" Razors Rex Bitters Riker's Tooth Powder Roachine Rossman's Pile Cure Saliodin Salted Peanuts Salubrin Samurai Perfumes Sandholm's Skin Lotion Sanford's Inks "Sanitas," Disinfectant Scheffler's Hair Colorine Seguin et Cie Sharp & Smith Shoes for the Lame Shoulder Braces Simplex Vaporizers Skidoo Soap Soaps, Stiefel's Medicinal Solo Rye Sorority Girl Toilet Requisites Sponges Stiefel's Medicinal Soaps St. Jacob's Oil Strong's Arnica Jelly Strong's Arnica Tooth Soap Sweet Babee Nursing Bottle Tailoring for Men Tanglefoot Fly Paper Toilet Paper Tooth Brushes Typewriters Tyrrell's Hygienic Institute Villacabras Mineral Water Virgin Oil of Pine Whittemore's Polishes Wright's Catarrhal Balm Wright's Rheumatic Remedy Young's Victoria Cream


Manners and Customs of Good Society


It is a growing custom in America not to announce an engagement until the date of the marriage is approximately settled. Long engagements are irksome to both man and woman, and a man is generally not supposed to ask a girl to marry him until he is able to provide a home for her. This, however, does not prevent long friendships between young couples or a sentimental understanding growing up between them, and it is during this period that they learn to know each other and find out if they are suited for a life's partnership.

When a "young man goes a-courting" it generally means that he has some particular girl in mind whom he has singled out as the object of his devotion. A man a-courting is generally on his best behavior, and many a happily married wife looks back on her courting days as the most delightful of her life. At that time the woman is the object of a devotion to which she has as yet conceded nothing. She is still at liberty to weigh and choose, to compare her lover to other men, while the knowledge that she is the ultimate girl that some man is trying to win gives her a pretty sense of self-importance and a feeling that she has come into the heritage of womanhood.

Whether it is one of the fictions about courtship or not, it is generally assumed that a young woman is longer in making up her mind than is the young man. When a man finds the right girl he is pretty apt to know it, and it is his business then to start out and persuade her to his point of view. "Neither willing nor reluctant" is the attitude of the young girl.

Gifts and Attention.

Just what attention a man is privileged to show a young woman to whom he is not engaged, and yet to whom he wishes to express his devotion, is a point a little difficult to define.

If she is a bookish girl she will be pleased with gifts of books or the suggestion that they may read the same books so they may talk them over together. She will probably feel complimented if a man discusses with her his business affairs and the problems that are interesting men in their life work. When a man begins to call often and regularly on a girl it is best to have some topic of conversation aside from personalities.

When a man is led to spend more money than he can afford in entertaining a girl it is a bad preparation for matrimony. Courtship is a time when a man desires to bring gifts, and it is quite right and fitting that he should do so within reasonable limits. A girl of refined feelings does not like to accept valuable presents from a man at this period of their acquaintance. Flowers, books, music, if the girl plays or sings, and boxes of candy are always permissible offerings which neither engage the man who offers them nor the girl who receives them. This is the time when a man invites a girl to the theater, to concerts and lectures, and may offer to escort her to church. The pleasure of her society is supposed to be a full return for the trouble and expense incurred in showing these small attentions.

The Claims of Companionship.

A man cannot justly complain if a girl accepts similar favors from other men, for until he has proposed and been accepted he has no claim on her undivided companionship. An attitude of proprietorship on his part, particularly if it is exercised in public, is as bad manners as it is unwise, and a high-spirited girl, although she may find her feelings becoming engaged, is prone to resent it. It should be remembered that a man is free to cease his attentions, and until he has finally surrendered his liberty he should not expect her to devote all her time to him.

At this period it is a wise man who makes a friend of a girl's mother, and if he does this he will generally be repaid in a twofold manner. No matter how willful a girl may be, her mother's opinion of her friends always has weight with her.

Moreover, what the mother is the girl will in all probability become, and a man has no better opportunity of learning a girl's mental and moral qualities than by knowing the woman who bore and reared her.

Engagement and Wedding Rings.

The form and material of "the mystic ring of marriage" change but little, and innovations on the plain gold band are rarely successful. The very broad, flat band is now out of date and replaced by a much narrower ring, sufficiently thick, however, to stand the usage of a lifetime. It is generally engraved on the concealed side with the initials of the giver and the date of the marriage. The gold in the ring should be as pure as possible, and the color, which depends on the alloy used, should be unobtrusive, the pale gold being better liked now than the red gold. Many women never remove their wedding ring after it has been put on and believe it is bad luck to do so.

There is but one choice for an engagement ring, a solitaire diamond, and clusters or colored stones are not considered in this connection. As after the wedding the engagement ring is used as a guard to the wedding ring, it should be as handsome as possible, and a small, pure stone is a far better choice than a more showy one that may be a little off in color or possess a flaw.

Correct Form in Jewelry.

On the wedding day the groom often makes the bride a wedding present of some piece of jewelry, and if this is to be worn during the ceremony it should consist of white stones in a thin gold or platinum setting, such as a pendant, bracelet or pin of pearls and diamonds. If a colored stone is preferred—and a turquoise, for instance, adds the touch of blue which is supposed to bring a bride good luck—it should be concealed inside the dress during the services.

As a memento of the event a groom often presents his ushers with a scarf pin or watch or cigarette case ornamented with the initials of the bride and groom, and the bride generally makes a similar present to her bridesmaids of some dainty piece of jewelry. Whether this takes the form of a pin, bracelet or one of the novelties that up-to-date jewelers are always showing, it should be the best of its kind. Imitation stones or "silver gilt" have no place as wedding gifts.

Wedding Customs.

There is no time in a woman's life when ceremonies seem so important as when a wedding in the family is imminent. Whether the wedding is to be a simple home ceremony or an elaborate church affair followed by a reception, the formalities which etiquette prescribes for these functions should be carefully studied and followed. Only by doing so can there be the proper dignity, and above all the absence of confusion that should mark the most important episode in the life of a man or woman.

Wedding customs have undergone some changes of late years, mostly in the direction of simplicity. Meaningless display and ostentation should be avoided, and, if a girl is marrying into a family much better endowed in worldly goods than her own, she should have no false pride in insisting on simple festivities and in preventing her family from incurring expense that they cannot afford. The entire expenses of a wedding, with the exception of the clergyman's fee and the carriage which takes the bride and groom away for their honeymoon, are met by the bride's family, and there is no worse impropriety than in allowing the groom to meet or share any of these obligations. Rather than allow this a girl would show more self-respect in choosing to do away with the social side of the function and be content with the marriage ceremony read by her clergyman under his own roof.

Invitations and Announcements.

In the case of a private wedding announcement cards should be mailed the following day to all relatives and acquaintances of both the contracting parties.

Evening weddings are no longer the custom, and the fashionable hour is now high noon, although in many cases three o'clock in the afternoon is the hour chosen. Whether the wedding is to be followed by a reception or not, the invitations to it should be sent out not less than two weeks before the event, and these should be promptly accepted or declined by those receiving them. The acceptance of a wedding invitation by no means implies that the recipient is obliged to give a present. These are only expected of relatives and near friends of the bride and groom, and in all cases the presents should be addressed and sent to the bride, who should acknowledge them by a prettily worded note of thanks as soon as the gifts are received or, at the latest, a few days after the marriage ceremony.

Silver and Linen.

The usual rule followed in the engraving of silver or the marking of linen is to use the initials of the bride's maiden name. The question of duplicate gifts is as annoying to the sender as it is to the young couple who are ultimately to enjoy the gifts. Theoretically, it is bad form to exchange a gift after it has been received, but, in truth, this is often done when a great deal of silver is given by close friends or members of the family it is a comparatively easy matter to find out what has already been sent and to learn the bride's wishes in this matter.

Prenuptial Functions.

After the wedding invitations are out it is not customary for a girl to attend any social functions or to be much seen in public. This gives her the necessary time to devote to the finishing of her trousseau and for making any necessary arrangements for the new life she is to take up after the honeymoon is over. Family dinners are quite proper at this time, and it is expected of her to give a lunch to her bridesmaids. The wedding presents may be shown at this occasion, but any more public and general display of them is now rarely indulged in and is, in fact, not considered in good taste.

The groom, as a prenuptial celebration, is supposed to give a supper to his intimate bachelor friends and the men who are to act as ushers at the marriage ceremony. The ushers are generally recruited from the friends of the groom rather than those of the bride, but if she has a grown brother he is always asked to act in this capacity. Ushers, like bridesmaids, are chosen among the unmarried friends of the young couple, although a matron of honor is often included in the bridal party.

The Bride's Trousseau.

The bride's trousseau should be finished well before the fortnight preceding the wedding. Fashions change so quickly now that it is rarely advisable for a bride to provide gowns for more than a season ahead. If the check her father furnishes her for her trousseau is a generous one it is a wise provision to put a part of it aside for later use, and in so doing she has the equivalent of a wardrobe that will last her for a year or more.

Custom has decreed that the bride's wedding dress shall be of pure white, and, as the marriage ceremony is a religious one, whether it takes place in a church or in a private house, that it shall be made high in the neck and with long sleeves. Orange blossoms, the natural flowers, form the trimming to the corsage and a coronet to fasten the veil. A bride's ornaments include only one gift of white jewelry, pearls or diamonds, from her future husband, and the bouquet he presents her.

So many awkward moments have been occasioned in wedding ceremonies by removing the glove that brides are dispensing with wearing gloves at this time. The bride's appearance is by no means affected by this custom, and the slipping of the ring on the third finger of the left hand is made simpler and thereby more graceful. The engagement ring, which up to the time of the wedding ceremony has been worn on this finger, afterwards serves as a guard for the wedding ring.

The Bridesmaids.

Millinery is a most important question in discussing a wedding, and we cannot dismiss the question with the gown worn by the bride. A most serious consideration is what the bridesmaids are to wear, and this is generally only settled after long and serious consultation with the bride.

It is generally agreed that all of these gowns shall be made by the same dressmaker so that they may conform to the colors and styles decided on, the gown of the maid or matron of honor differing slightly from the general scheme. At a church wedding bridesmaids wear hats and carry baskets or bouquets of flowers, but, if bouquets are carried, they should be quite unlike the one borne by the bride. It is customary for the bride to give her bridesmaids some souvenir of the occasion, and it is expected that the groom provide the gloves and ties for the ushers.

Duties of the "Best Man."

The duties of the "best man" are arduous, and it is indeed wise, as it is general, for a man to ask his best and most devoted friend to serve in this capacity. The best man is supposed to relieve the groom of all the details of the ceremony and to take on his shoulders all the worry incident to its success as a social function. It is he who purchases the gloves and ties for the other ushers and sees that they are coached in their duties; he procures the marriage license, if that is necessary, and has the ring ready for the groom at the critical moment. After the ceremony he is supposed to hand the clergyman his fee, and at the same time be in readiness to conduct the line of bridesmaids and ushers to their carriages. He must be at the bride's home, in case there is a wedding reception, before the principal actors in the ceremony are there. It is he who sends the notices of the event to the newspapers, and, if there is a formal breakfast with speech-making, it is the best man who proposes the health of the newly-married pair and replies to the toast in behalf of the bridesmaids. He is the one member of the wedding party who sees the happy couple off at the station and bids them the last farewell as they depart on their honeymoon. This is perhaps the time and moment when his good sense and social tact is the most needed, The foolish custom of decorating bridal baggage with white ribbon, and of throwing a superabundance of old shoes and a rain of rice after the departing pair, may be mitigated by a little care on his part.


There has been of late years a healthy revolt against the excessive use of crepe or the wearing of mourning for an undue period. Mourning is first of all a protection, for in these busy days and in a large city a death affecting our acquaintances is not always known to us. If we meet a friend wearing black we are instantly apprised that she has suffered the loss of a near member of her family. It is easy to say under such circumstances, "I am very sorry to see you in black," or "I am afraid I have not heard of your loss."

For a father or mother full mourning, that is, black unrelieved by any touch of white, is worn for a year, and at the end of that period half mourning, consisting first of white with black, and then violet and gray, is worn for the second year. For a brother or sister or grandparent black is worn for six months, and then half mourning for the six months preceding the wearing of ordinary colors. What is called complimentary mourning, put on at the death of a relative by marriage, consists of the wearing of black for a period of from six weeks to a year, depending on the closeness of the personal relationship. For instance, in the case of the death of a mother-in-law residing in a distant city, it would only be necessary for a woman to wear black for a few weeks following the funeral. If, on the other hand, she resides in the same place and is a great deal in the company of her husband's family, it would show more tact and affection on her part to refrain from wearing colors for a longer period.

Crepe is no longer obligatory in even first mourning. Many widows only wear the crepe-bordered veil hanging from the conventional bonnet for the funeral services and for a few weeks afterward, when it is replaced by an ordinary hat and veil of plain black net bordered with thin black silk. Widows wear neck and cuff bands of unstarched white book muslin, this being the only sort of white permitted during the first period of mourning. Young widows, especially those who must lead an active life, often lighten their mourning during the second year and discard it at the end of the second year. Of course the conventional period of mourning for a widow is three years, but, if there should be any indication that a second marriage is contemplated, black should gradually be put aside.

However, the discarding of mourning is no indication that a woman is about to change her name, and the wearing of black is so much a matter of personal feeling that a woman should not be criticised for curtailing the conventional period.

In this country it is not the custom for young children to wear mourning, and with men the wearing of a black band about the hat or on the left arm is all that is deemed necessary.

A woman wearing full mourning refrains from attending the theater or any large functions. She may properly be seen at concerts, club meetings or lectures, and she may receive and visit her friends informally.


The prevailing shape for a woman's card is nearly square (about 2-1/2 by 3 inches), while the correct form for a man's card is slightly smaller. The color should be pure white with a dull finish, while the engraving, plain script or more elaborate text, is a matter of choice and fashion varying from time to time. It is safe to trust the opinion of a first-class stationer in this matter, for styles fluctuate, and he should be constantly informed of what polite usage demands.

A woman's card should always bear the prefix "Miss" or "Mrs." There is no exception to this rule save in the case of women who have regularly graduated in medicine or theology and who are allowed therefore the use of "Dr." or "Rev." before the name. "Miss" or "Mrs." should not be used in addition to either of these titles.

The card of a married woman is engraved with her husband's full name, such as Mrs. William Eaton Brown, but she has no right to any titles he may bear. If he is a judge or colonel she is still Mrs. James Eaton Brown and not Mrs. Judge or Mrs. Colonel Brown.

A widow may with propriety retain the same visiting card that she used during the lifetime of her husband, especially if she has no grown son who bears his father's name. In that case she generally has her cards engraved with a part of her full maiden name before her husband's name, such as Mrs. Mary Baker Brown. In this country a divorced woman, if she has children, does not discard her husband's family name, neither does she retain his given name. For social purposes she becomes Mrs. Mary Baker Brown or, if she wishes, Mrs. Baker Brown.

The address is engraved in the lower right corner of the visiting-card, and, if a woman has any particular day for receiving her friends, that fact is announced in the lower left corner. As a rule even informal notes should not be written on a visiting-card, although when a card accompanies a gift it is quite proper to write "Best wishes" or "Greetings" on it. This is even done when a card does not accompany a gift, but it should be borne in mind that a card message should not take the place of a note of thanks or be used when a more formal letter is necessary.

A man's visiting-card should bear his full name with the prefix "Mr." unless he has a military title above the grade of lieutenant or is a doctor or clergyman. In these cases the proper title should be used in place of "Mr." Courtesy titles, although they may be common usage in conversation and a man may be known by them, are best abandoned on the visiting-card.

During the first year of marriage cards are engraved thus:

Mr. and Mrs. William Eaton Brown

and this card may be used in sending presents, returning wedding civilities or making calls, even when the bride is not accompanied by her husband. After the first year these cards are discarded, and husband and wife have separate visiting-cards.

In some communities it is not the custom for a young girl to make formal calls without her mother. To meet this requirement the girl's name with the prefix "Miss" is engraved on her mother's card, below her mother's name.

It is no longer considered necessary to leave a number of cards at the same house when calling in person or sending cards. If there are several women members of the family one card suffices. If a woman wishes to leave her husband's card she should leave two, one for the mistress and one for the man of the house. A woman never leaves a card for a man unless she has called on him on a matter of business and wishes him to be reminded of the fact.

At a tea or large afternoon reception a card should be left in the hall as a guest departs, so as to enable the hostess to preserve a record of those who have called on her. If she is not able to attend she should send her visiting-card so that it may arrive on the day of the function. After a dinner or any formal function she should make a personal call or leave her card in person.

When making an ordinary call it is not necessary to send one's visiting-card to the hostess by the servant who opens the door. Pronouncing the name distinctly is sufficient, but, if it is a first call, and there is danger that the hostess may not be familiar with the caller's address, it is best to leave a card on the hall table when leaving, no matter if the hostess herself conducts her visitor to the door.

When one is invited but unable to attend a church wedding it is necessary to send, on the day of the ceremony, cards to those who issue the invitations. An invitation to a wedding reception or breakfast demands a more formal acceptance sent immediately on receipt of the invitation and couched in the same manner in which the invitation reads.

A newcomer in town or a young married woman may receive a card from an older woman indicating her receiving days and hours. This is a polite invitation to call, and if she is unable to make a call at the time indicated she should send a card on that day.

Cards of condolence are left as soon as possible after learning of the affliction. It is not necessary to write anything on the card; in fact, it is better not to do so, for, if the acquaintance warrants a personal message, it should take the form of a letter. On the other hand it is quite proper in felicitating a friend on a happy event, such as the announcement of an engagement in the family or the arrival of a new baby, to send a visiting-card with "Congratulations" written on it.

There are times when it seems necessary to send cards to practically all one's acquaintances, This is wise after a long absence or a change of residence, and when one is leaving town for a long period it is proper to send cards with the French expression, "Pour prendre conge."


"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy" was old Polonius' advice to his son, and he counseled suitability as well. It is this question of suitability that is the hall mark of correct dressing. A safe rule to follow, especially in the case of a young woman, is not to be conspicuous in attire and to conform to the standards of dress as set down by older women of recognized standing in the town in which she lives and the community in which her social or business life is spent.

A young girl needs little adorning. Her school or college dresses should be characterized by their neatness, freshness, correctness of cut and utility rather than by elaborate trimmings or costly materials. Her party gowns are simpler than those of a girl who has left school, and she wears less jewelry. At the end of school life, if her parents are able and willing to give her a coming-out party, she begins her social career under the pleasantest auspices, and this is the opportunity for her first elaborate gown.

The Debutante.

The character of this gown depends largely on the nature of the entertainment given her.

It most commonly takes the form of an afternoon tea or reception to which her mother invites all of her friends as well as the younger set. The debutante receives with her mother and wears an elaborate frock of light material and color, made high in the neck and with elbow sleeves. Long white gloves are worn, and her hair is more elaborately arranged than it was during her school-girl period. In fact, she is now a full- fledged young lady and is dressed accordingly. Such a gown may serve later as an informal evening gown, or, if it is made with a detachable yoke, it may be worn as a dancing-frock or for any evening occasion for which a full evening gown is expected.

The receiving party at an afternoon function generally includes near relatives of the debutante, and a number of her intimate girl friends are asked to assist in various ways. These receive with her and her mother in the early part of the afternoon and later assist at the tea table or mingle among the guests. The ladies assisting do not wear hats, and the young girls in the party are gowned much like the debutante, except that their gowns may be less elaborate if they choose, and they do not carry flowers.

A popular girl or one with many family connections may count on a good many floral offerings on the occasion of her coming-out party. These are scattered about the room, either left in bunches or arranged in vases. One large bunch she generally carries in her left hand, and it is a wise girl who avoids singling out anyone of her men friends by carrying his flowers. A gift from her father or brother or the flowers sent by some friend of the family is the better choice. The success a girl makes during her first year in society depends more on her general popularity than on the devotion of any one man.

Afternoon Reception.

For an afternoon reception light refreshments, consisting of tea, coffee, chocolate, perhaps a light claret cup, with cakes and delicate sandwiches, are sufficient, and these are set out on a long table in a room adjoining the reception parlors.

If a large number of guests are expected it is necessary to have a maid or two in attendance to remove cups and saucers, keep the tea urn replenished with hot water and to bring additional cakes and sandwiches if the supply on the table is in danger of running short. Two women friends are generally asked to preside at the refreshment table, one at each end to pour tea and chocolate, and, as this task is an arduous one and much of the success of the entertainment depends on its being well done, it is advisable to relieve the ladies in charge during the afternoon. This, however, like every other feature of the entertainment, should be arranged beforehand. The charm of an afternoon reception lies in its apparent informality, but every detail should be considered in advance and all contingencies provided for. The debutante, and especially her mother, should be relieved from all such responsibilities before the guests begin to come.

The mother's duties consist in welcoming her guests and presenting her daughter to them. If many people are arriving the guests are quickly passed on to some one of the ladies assisting, whose duty it is to see that they meet some of those who are already in the room and are eventually asked to the tea table. A part of the receiving party, and certainly the hostess and her daughter, should remain together in a place where they may be easily found as the guests enter the room.

No more sympathetic act of friendship can be shown a debutante than to contribute toward the success of her party. Girls who are asked to assist should remember that their first duty is not to entertain their own friends who may happen to be present, but to see that everyone is welcome and that especially those who are not acquainted with many in the room have an opportunity to become so. Anyone asked to assist at a function of this sort is in a sense a hostess, and it is quite within her province to enter into conversation with any unoccupied guest whether she has been introduced or not.

The usual hours for an afternoon tea are from four to six, but in the case of a coming-out reception the hour is often prolonged to seven so as to allow more men to be present than would be the case if the time were restricted to the early afternoon. In these busy days few men are at liberty to make afternoon calls, and it is always a compliment to a girl if her tea includes a sprinkling of black coats. Whatever hours are decided on, they should be engraved on the cards sent out two weeks before the tea. These are of the form and size of an ordinary visiting-card and include the daughter's name below that of her mother's. If she is the eldest unmarried daughter or the only girl in the family the card reads as follows:

Mrs. Geo. Baker Blank Miss Blank

December 9, 1911 4 to 7 o'clock

The daughter's given name is only used in case she has an older unmarried sister.

Ball and Evening Reception.

A more elaborate form of coming-out party consists of a ball or of an evening reception followed by dancing, and in this case the card contains the word "Dancing" below the date of the entertainment and the hours at which it is given. Few homes are large enough to provide for even a small dance, and so a party of this sort is generally given at a hotel. The guests as well as the receiving party wear evening gowns without hats, and men are expected to come in full evening clothes, which means the long-tailed coats and not the popular Tuxedo, white gloves, and, although this is not obligatory, white waistcoats.

After a girl has been introduced into society she has her individual visiting-cards, makes her own calls and is allowed to receive her own friends. Social customs differ with locality, and the chaperon is less customary in the West than in the East. In many cities girls are allowed to go to the theater and to evening parties with a man friend without a married woman being included in the party. A wise girl, however, is careful that any man she meets shall be introduced as soon as possible to some older member of her family and to introduce a young man calling for the first time to either her mother or father. Also when she accepts an invitation to an evening's entertainment she insists that her escort shall call for her at her own home and bring her directly home at the close of it. Dining or supping at a restaurant alone with a young man is sure to expose a girl to criticism.

A Woman's Lunch.

There are many pleasant forms of entertainment offered to a young girl entering society in which men are not included, and the most popular of these is a woman's lunch. This is a favorite form of entertainment for a young married woman to give in honor of some girl friend who has just come out in society or whose engagement has just been announced. One o'clock or half after is the usual hour, and the meal is served in courses and is as elaborate as the household resources may allow. The decorations of the table are important, and three courses are sufficient if they are carefully arranged. Handsome street costumes are worn for a function of this sort, and the guest of honor, if there is one, dresses as the others do. Outer wraps are left in the hall or in a room put aside for this purpose, and, as a rule, hats are retained and gloves removed when the guests sit down at table.

The custom of wearing a hat during lunch is not an arbitrary one, and it is not universal. In France, for example, where social customs are most carefully observed, it is the custom to wear handsome afternoon gowns if invited for the noon meal and to remove hats. The noon meal there is a social function, and certain formalities are observed. In London, on the contrary, no matter if a number of guests are expected, lunch is an informal occasion, and women dress for lunch as they would for an afternoon tea.

Hats are worn and women are prepared to rush off afterwards to meet other engagements. The English custom prevails now in the large cities in America, and, moreover, women seem disinclined to remove their hats after they are once dressed for the round of the day's social obligations.

It is simpler and really quite conventional to leave the wearing of hats to the individual. The hostess should ask her guest if she wishes to take her hat off or retain it, and she can at the same time intimate to her guest, if she is a stranger in the town, what the others will probably do in this connection. True hospitality on the part of the hostess is to make her guests at ease, and true politeness on the part of the visitor is to conform to the rules governing the community that she is visiting.


American gentlemen are no longer dependent on English tailors or on English fashions as they were some years ago. The American type of physique is a distinct one, and London tailors have never been able to fit American men as well as they do their own clients. Moreover social life is so different in the United States from what it is in England that men really need different clothes.

Practically all American men are business men for the working hours of the day, and few of them have any time or inclination for anything save business clothes while daylight lasts. For dinner or for the evening what are generally called evening clothes are permissible, and in fact obligatory in large cities for anything beyond the most informal home functions.

For the evening there is the informal and formal dress suit. The former consists of the long-tailed coat worn with either a white or black waistcoat. For a dancing party or formal dinner the white waistcoat is generally preferred, and, if it is worn, it must be accompanied by a white lawn tie. A made-up bow is considered incorrect. The accompaniments to a suit of this sort are patent-leather shoes and white kid gloves if dancing is a part of the evening programme.

The informal evening suit includes the shorter dinner jacket or Tuxedo, as it was formerly called, and, strictly speaking, this is only considered proper for the club or for parties where ladies are not expected to be present. However, men who commonly dress for dinner in the home circle generally prefer the dinner jacket to the long coat, and well-dressed men are often seen wearing it at small dinner parties, at the theater or at any informal evening event. This coat is always worn with a black tie and waistcoat, and it is not a suitable apparel for a dance or any large formal evening affair.

The correct dress for a daytime wedding is a black frock coat with light trousers, light fancy waistcoat and gray gloves and gray Ascot or four-in-hand tie, and the frock coat with black waistcoat proper for church or when making afternoon calls. Many young men are adopting for afternoon wear the English morning suit, which consists of a cutaway coat with trousers and waistcoat to match and made of some other color save black.


First Anniversary Cotton Wedding Second Anniversary Paper Wedding Third Anniversary Leather Wedding Fifth Anniversary Wooden Wedding Seventh Anniversary Woolen Wedding Tenth Anniversary Tin Wedding Twelfth Anniversary Silk and Fine Linen Wedding Fifteenth Anniversary Crystal Wedding Twentieth Anniversary China Wedding Twenty-fifth Anniversary Silver Wedding Thirtieth Anniversary Pearl Wedding Fortieth Anniversary Ruby Wedding Fiftieth Anniversary Golden Wedding Seventy-fifth Anniversary Diamond Wedding


The Natural Laws of Tints, Tones, Shades and Hues.

Some combinations of color are pleasing to the eye, and some are discordant. The reasons for this are based on natural laws and are explained in a very simple manner in a learned article by Dr. W. K. Carr which originally appeared in Shop Notes Quarterly. Impressions continue upon the retina of the eye, says Dr. Carr, about one-sixth of a second after the object has been moved. For this reason a point of light or flame whirled swiftly around appears as a continuous ring. Or take a piece or red ribbon, place it on white paper, look intently at it for thirty seconds and suddenly remove the ribbon. The portion of the paper which was covered by the ribbon will then appear green. The explanation is that the color sensation in the eye is caused by the almost unthinkably rapid whirling of electrons around their atoms, and that the retina, becoming fatigued by the vibration of the red, is therefore less sensitive to them. When the ribbon is suddenly removed, the eye sees, not the blue, yellow and red which produce the white surface of the paper, but, because of the fatigue of the eye to the red, it sees only the blue and yellow constituents of the white light. But blue and yellow produce green; hence the tendency at the eye to see the complementary of a color. This may be referred to as the "successive contrast of colors."

Colors for Blondes and for Brunettes.

Now, for a practical application of this knowledge.

The hair of the blond is a mixture of red, yellow and brown. As a rule the skin is lighter, that is, it contains not so much orange, and the tinges of red are lighter. Nature, therefore, very properly made the blond's eyes blue, since the blue is complementary to the orange of her hair.

The brunette's skin, on the other hand, has more orange in it, and hence a color favorable to one would not be becoming to the other.

What would be the effect of green upon a complexion deficient in red? It would certainly heighten the rose tints in the cheeks, but the greatest care should be exercised in the selection of the proper shade of green, because the brunette's complexion contains a great deal of orange, and the green, acting upon the red of the orange, could readily produce a brick-dust appearance. Green, therefore, is a risky color for a brunette, and so is violet, which would neutralize the yellow of the orange and heighten the red. But if the orange complexion had more yellow than red, then the association of violet would produce pallor. Yellow, of course, is her color, since its complementary violet neutralizes the yellow of the orange complexion and leaves the red.

But with the yellow-haired blond the conditions are very different. The complementary of blue is orange, which improves the hair and freshens the light flesh tints. A blond, therefore can wear blue, just as a brunette can wear yellow.

In arranging flowers the same law holds. Complementary colors should be placed side by side; blue with orange, yellow with violet, red and rose with green leaves. And anyone who successfully selects his wall paper and house furnishings is drawing unconsciously, perhaps, on an intuitive knowledge of these fundamental facts. Dark papers are bad, especially in rooms with a northern exposure, because they absorb too much light. The complementaries of red and violet are exceedingly trying to most complexions, and orange and orange-yellow are fatiguing to the eye. The most pleasing effects are to be had with yellow, light blue and light green, for the latter freshens the red in pale skins, and the blue heightens blond complexions, and goes well with gilding and with mahogany and cherry furniture.


The following tables will be found useful in selecting colors for dress, decoration, or any other purpose in which the proper application of the true laws of contrast and harmony in color is desirable:

Contrasts in Color.

Yellow contrasts with— Purple, russet, and auburn. Red contrasts with— Green, olive, and drab. Blue contrasts with— Orange, citrine, and buff.

Harmonies in Color.

Yellow harmonizes with— Orange, green, citrine, russet, buff, and drab. Red harmonizes with— Orange, purple, russet, citrine, auburn, and buff. Blue harmonizes with— Purple, green, olive, citrine, drab, and auburn.


Decay of the teeth, or caries, commences externally, appearing upon the enamel or bony structure of the teeth. Usually it is the result of chemical action produced by decomposition of food. Acids found in some fruits will cause decay if allowed to remain in contact with the teeth. Then there are the natural mouth acids, which, although not strong, are none the less effective if allowed to remain long enough around the teeth. Microscopical examinations have shown that the secretions of almost every person's month contain more or less vegetable and animal life that will withstand the application of acids and astringents and will only succumb to alkalies. A dentifrice or mouth wash should be alkaline.


Toothache is not always due to an exposed nerve, for in the majority of teeth extracted because they are painful the nerve is dead. Inflammation is often the cause of the trouble.

A toothache due to inflammation is a steady, aggravating pain, overspreading the affected side of the face, sometimes even the neck and shoulder. As there is no nerve to kill in a case of this kind, the tooth should be treated until cured, or removed upon the first symptom of trouble. Its extraction would be unattended by any danger and would afford welcome relief.

Tartar, a creamy, calcareous deposit, supposed to be from the saliva, will sometimes cause toothache. It accumulates around the necks of the teeth and eventually becomes hard and dark-colored. It also causes foul breath and loosens the gums from the teeth, causing them to present an unsightly appearance.

The Teeth of Children.

Children have twenty temporary teeth, which begin making their appearance about the sixth or seventh month. The time varies in different children. This is the most dangerous and troublesome period of the child's existence, and every parent will do well to consult a reputable dentist. About the second or third year the temporary teeth are fully developed. They require the same care to preserve them as is exercised toward the permanent set.

About the sixth year, or soon after, four permanent molars, or double teeth, make their appearance. Some parents mistakenly suppose these belong to the first set. It is a serious error. They are permanent teeth, and if lost will be lost forever. No teeth that come after the sixth year are ever shed. Let every parent remember this.

At twelve years the second set is usually complete, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which appear anywhere from the eighteenth to the twenty-fourth year. When the second set is coming in the beauty and character of the child's countenance is completed or forever spoiled. Everything depends upon proper care at this time to see that the teeth come with regularity and are not crowded together. The teeth cannot have too much room. When a little separated they are less liable to decay.

Dentifrices—Useful and Injurious.

The habit of caring for the teeth daily, and if possible after each meal, should be established early in life.

Those who have neglected to do so should lose no time in consulting a reputable dentist, and then persistently caring for their teeth day by day. Children especially should be taught to use the tooth-brush and some reliable dentifrice. The more pleasant the preparation the easier it will be to teach them its daily use. A fragrant, refreshing liquid is recommended, as it is a mouth wash as well as a tooth cleanser. The habit thus formed, neglected for even a single day, will make the mouth feel decidedly uncomfortable.

Cleansing the Teeth.

Preparations for cleansing the teeth and purifying the mouth should be free from all acids, and should be saponaceous or soapy, containing as one of the principal ingredients an alkali to neutralize the acids and destroy the animal and vegetable parasites which, as the microscope would show us, are in the secretions of almost every person's mouth.

A finely triturated powder having slight abrasive properties, but free from dangerous grit, should be used as the complement of a liquid. One way to use both is to pour on the wet brush or into the palm of the hand a sufficient quantity of powder and moisten it with the liquid. Occasionally the powder or the liquid alone could be employed. Be careful to use a liquid and powder of established reputation.

Beware of thy teeth. Take good care of thy teeth, And they will take good care of thee.


According to the Chicago Tribune, Miss Helen Loewe, a student at the Chicago Art Institute, is credited by art critics with closely approaching the standard of physical perfection set by statues of the goddess Venus. Miss Loewe was posed as a model for a series of photographs issued for the benefit of the playground fund of Oak Park.

Aside from the artistic nature of Miss Loewe, a comparison of measurements with those of the typically perfect figure explains part of the success of these photographic studies.

Miss Loewe. Perfect figure. 5 ft. 7 in Height. 5 ft. 8 in. 138 Weight 140 13-1/2 Neck 13 32 Chest 33 36 Bust 37 22 Waist 23 36 Hips 39 22 Thigh 24 10 Upper arm 11 8-1/2 Forearm 9 14 Calf 15


Dr. Katherine Blackford, of Boston, speaking of men's complexions, arrives at the following conclusions. There are, of course, exceptions to all rules: "As a general rule, the blonds are inconstant. They change their minds too often. They get angry one moment and forgive the next. They are impulsive, and when they do commit crimes they are done on the impulse of the moment. A blond radiates his personality about him. The brunette, on the other hand as a rule, likes to concentrate on one subject. He is a specialist. He prefers his home and family, and his pleasures are more often lectures and kindred entertainments than those of a lighter order. He learns slowly, but he retains what he knows far better than does the blond."


In his book on "The Development of the Intellect," Mr. H. W. Brown presents a conspectus of the observations of Prof. Preyer on the mind of the child which shows chronologically the gradual development of the senses, intellect and will of the growing child and presents in a condensed form the result of a great number of careful observations.

It is recorded that sensibility to light, touch, temperature, smell and taste are present on the first day of infant life. Hearing, therefore, is the only special sense which is not active at this time. The child hears by the third or fourth day. Taste and smell are senses at the first most active, but they are differentiated. General organic sensations of well being or discomfiture are felt from the first, but pain and pleasure as mental states are not noted till at or near the second month.

The first sign of speech in the shape of utterance of consonant sounds is heard about the end of the second month, these consonants being generally "m," "r," "g," or "t." All the movements of the eyes become co-ordinate by the fourth month, and by this time the child begins to have the "feeling of self," that is, he looks at his own hands and looks at himself in the mirror. The study of the child's mind during the first year shows conclusively that ideas develop and reasoning processes occur before there is any knowledge of words or of language; though it may be assumed that the child thinks in symbols, visual or auditory, which are clumsy equivalents for words. By the end of the year the child begins to express itself by sounds—that is, speech begins. The development of this speech capacity is, according to Preyer, in accordance with the development of the intellectual powers. By the end of the second year the child's power of speech is practically acquired.


According to the novel computations of a renowned histologist, who has been calculating the aggregate cell forces of the human brain, the cerebral mass is composed of at least 300,000,000 of nerve cells, each an independent body, organism, and microscopic brain so far as concerns its vital functions, but subordinate to a higher purpose in relation to the functions of the organ; each living a separate life individually, though socially subject to a higher law of function.

The lifetime of a nerve cell he estimates to be about sixty days, so that 5,000,000 die every day, about 200,000 every hour, and nearly 3,500 every minute, to be succeeded by an equal number of their progeny; while once in every sixty days a man has a new brain.


Black is by no means the only color used by man to express grief or mourning for the dead. In the South Sea Islands the natives express sorrow and hope by stripes of black and white. Grayish brown, the color of the earth to which the dead return, is used in Ethiopia. Pale brown, the color of withered leaves, is the mourning of Persia. Sky-blue, to express the assured hope that the deceased has gone to heaven, is the mourning of Syria, Cappadocia, and Armenia. Deep blue in Bokhara. Purple and violet, to express "kings and queens to God," was the color of mourning for cardinals and kings of France. The color of mourning in Turkey is violet. White (emblem of hope) is the color of mourning in China. Henry VIII. wore white for Anne Boleyn. The ladies of ancient Rome and Sparta wore white. It was the color of mourning in Spain till 1498. Yellow is the color of mourning in Egypt and in Burmah. Anne Boleyn wore yellow mourning for Catharine of Aragon.


The hair of men is finer than that of women.

The average weight of a head of hair is from 5 to 12 ounces.

On an average head there are about 1,000 hairs to the square inch.

Hair will stretch about one-fourth of its length and retract nearly to its original length.

Four hairs of good strength will hold suspended a one-pound weight. A single head of hair, of average growth, would therefore hold suspended an entire audience of 200 people.


Catgut is gut of sheep.

Baffin's Bay is no bay at all.

Arabic figures were invented by the Indians.

Turkish baths are not of Turkish origin.

Blacklead is a compound of carbon and iron.

Slave by derivation should mean noble, illustrious.

Turkeys do not come from Turkey, but North America.

Titmouse is not a mouse, but a little hedge sparrow.

Dutch clocks are of German (Deutsch), not Dutch manufacture.

Salt (that is table salt) is not a salt at all, but "chloride of sodium."

Galvanized iron is not galvanized—simply iron coated with zinc.

Ventriloquism is not voice from the stomach, but from the mouth.

Kid gloves are not kid at all, but are made of lambskin or sheepskin.

Pompey's Pillar, in Alexandria, was erected neither by nor to Pompey.

Tonquin beans come from Tonka, in Guinea, not Tonquin, in Asia.

Fire, air, earth, and water, called the four elements, are not elements at all.

Rice paper is not made from rice, but from the pith of Tungtsau, or hollowplant.

Japan lacquer contains no lac at all, but is made from the resin of a kind of nut tree.

Pen means a feather. (Latin. "penna," a wing.) A steel pen is therefore an anomaly.

Jerusalem artichoke has no connection with Jerusalem, but with the sunflower, "girasole."

Humble pie, for "umbil pie." The umbils of venison were served to inferiors and servants.

Lunar caustic is simply nitrate of silver, and silver is the astrological symbol of the moon.

Bridegroom has nothing to do with groom. It is the old English "guma," a man, "bryd-guma."

Mother of pearl is the inner layer of several sorts of shell, and in some cases the matrix of the pearl.

Sealing wax is not wax at all nor does it contain wax. It is made of shellac, Venice turpentine and cinnabar.

Cleopatra's Needles were not erected by Cleopatra, nor in honor of that queen, but by Thothmes III.

German silver is not silver at all, but a metallic mixture which has been in use in China time out of mind.

Cuttle-bone is not bone, but a structure of pure chalk imbedded loosely in the substance of a species of cuttlefish.

America was named after Amerigo Vespucci, a naval astronomer of Florence, but he did not discover the New World.

Prussian blue does not come from Prussia. It is the precipitate of the salt of protoxide of iron with red prussiate of potass.

Wormwood has nothing to do with worms or wood; it is the Anglo-Saxon "wer mod," man-inspiriting, being a strong tonic.

Honeydew is neither honey nor dew, but an animal substance given off by certain insects, especially when hunted by ants.

Gothic architecture is not that of the Goths, but the ecclesiastical style employed in England and France before the Renaissance.

Sperm oil properly means "seed oil," from the notion that it was spawn or milt of a whale. It is chiefly taken, however, from the head, not the spawn of the "spermaceti" whale.

Whalebone is not bone, nor does it possess any properties of bone. It is a substance attached to the upper jaw of the whale, and serves to strain the water which the creature takes up.


To "strike a flag" is to lower the national colors in token of submission.

Flags are used as the symbol of rank and command, the officers using them being called flag officers. Such flags are square, to distinguish them from other banners.

A "flag of truce" is a white flag displayed to an enemy to indicate a desire to parley or for consultation.

The white flag is a sign of peace. After a battle parties from both sides often go out to the field to rescue the wounded or bury dead under the protection of a white flag.

The red flag is a sign of defiance, and is often used by revolutionists. In the naval service it is a mark of danger, and shows a vessel to be receiving or discharging her powder.

The black flag is a sign of piracy.

The yellow flag shows a vessel to be at quarantine or is the sign of a contagious disease.

A flag at half-mast means mourning. Fishing and other vessels return with a flag at half-mast to announce the loss or death of some of the men.

Dipping the flag is lowering it slightly and then hoisting it again to salute a vessel or fort.

If the President of the United States goes afloat the American flag is carried in the bows of his barge or hoisted at the main of the vessel on board of which he is.


The following is said to be the sentence of death, word for word, pronounced against Jesus Christ:

Sentence pronounced by Pontius Pilate, intendent of the lower province of Galilee, that Jesus of Nazareth shall suffer death by the cross. In the seventeenth year of the reign of Emperor Tiberius, and on the 24th day of the month, in the most holy city of Jerusalem, during the pontificate of Annas and Caiaphas.

Pontius Pilate, intendent of the Province of Lower Galilee, sitting to judgment in the presidential seat of the Praetors, sentences Jesus of Nazareth to death on a cross between robbers, as the numerous and notorious testimonies of the people prove:

1. Jesus is a misleader.

2. He has excited the people to sedition.

3. He is an enemy to the laws.

4. He calls himself the son of God.

5. He calls himself, falsely, the King of Israel.

6. He went to the temple followed by a multitude carrying palms in their hands. Orders from the first centurion Quirrillis Cornelius to bring him to the place of execution. Forbids all persons, rich or poor, to prevent the execution of Jesus.

The witnesses who have signed the execution of Jesus are:

1. Daniel Robani, Pharisee.

2. John Zorobabic.

3. Raphael Robani.

4. Capet.

Jesus is to be taken out of Jerusalem through the gate of Tournes.


To thee, my master, I offer my prayer: Feed, water and care for me; and when the day's work is done, provide me with shelter and a clean, dry bed. Always be kind to me. Pet me sometimes, that I may serve you the more gladly and learn to love you. Do not jerk the reins, and do not whip me when going up hill. Never strike, beat or kick me when I do not understand what you want, but give me a chance to understand you. Watch me, and if I fail to do your bidding, see if something is not wrong with my harness or feet.

Do not overload me or hitch me where water will drip on me. Keep me well shod. Examine my teeth when I do not eat; I may have an ulcerated tooth, and that, you know, is painful. Do not tie or check my head in an unnatural position or take away my best defence against flies and mosquitoes by cutting off my mane or tail.

I cannot tell you when I am thirsty, so give me clean, cool water often. I cannot tell you in words when I am sick, so watch me and by signs you may know my condition. Give me all possible shelter from the hot sun, and put a blanket on me not when I am working, but when I am standing in the cold. Never put a frosty bit in my mouth; first warm it by holding it in your hands.

I try to carry you and your burdens without a murmur, and wait patiently for you long hours of the day or night. Without the power to choose my shoes or path, I sometimes fall on the hard pavements, and I must be ready at any moment to lose my life in your service.

And finally, O, my master, when my useful strength is gone, do not turn me out to starve or freeze, nor sell me to some human brute to be slowly tortured and starved to death, but do thou, my master, take my life in the kindest way, and your God will reward you here and hereafter. Amen.


Every woman has some chance to marry. It may be one to fifty, or it may be ten to one that she will. Representing her entire chance at one hundred at certain points of her progress in time, it is found to be in the following ratio:

Between the ages of 15 and 20 years 14-1/2 percent

Between the ages of 20 and 25 years 52 per cent

Between the ages of 25 and 30 years 18 per cent

Between the ages of 30 and 35 years 15-1/2 per cent

Between the ages of 35 and 40 years 3-3/4 per cent

Between the ages of 40 and 45 years 2-1/2 per cent

Between the ages of 45 and 50 years 3/4 of 1 percent

Between the ages of 50 and 56 years 1/8 of 1 per cent

After sixty it is one-tenth of one per cent, or one chance in a thousand.

Some hae meat and canna' eat, And some wad eat who want it; But we hae meat and we can eat, So let the Lord be thankit.


Learn to shave right.

Don't shave in a hurry.

Have the water hot enough so that it won't cool too quickly.

Wash the face with soap and hot water before lathering, especially if the beard is hard.

Have the lather very soapy—thin enough to spread easily, yet thick enough so it won't drop. Rub well into the face with the brush, then with the fingers. The longer you lather and the more you rub, the easier the shave.

The hair usually grows downward. Shave with the grain, not against it. Use a sliding motion, as well as downward.

If you get a "nick," wash with cold water. Rubbing the cut with a piece of lump alum will stop the bleeding at once and help to heal.

Hold the razor properly. Lay it as flat as possible—the back of razor nearly touching the skin. Have it under easy control. Don't grab it—an easy position means an easy shave.

A poor strop will spoil the best razor ever made.

To buy a good razor and a cheap strop is pour economy.

If you prefer a swing strop, pull it as tightly as you can. Better use a stiff strop—cushion or solid—if in doubt.

A serious mistake made by a number of self-shavers is to hold the strop loose. This bends the invisible teeth and rounds the edge.

Strop your razor before and after shaving. This keeps the edge free from rust.

Dip your razor in hot water before stropping and shaving. This dissolves the accumulation in the invisible teeth.

Press as hard as you like on the back of the blade, but very lightly on the edge.

As you reach the end of the strop, turn the razor on the back of the blade to strop the other side, pulling toward you.

Keep rust away from your strop, and remember that a cut in the strop will ruin your razor. Don't use a strop that is cut.


Telephone invented. 1861.

There are 2,750 languages.

Sound moves 743 miles per hour.

Hawks can fly 150 miles an hour.

Chinese invented paper, 170 B. C.

A hand, horse measure, is 4 inches.

German Empire re-established, 1871.

Storm clouds move 36 miles an hour.

The first steel pen was made in 1830.

Phonographs invented by Edison, 1877.

Light moves 187,000 miles per second.

Watches were first constructed in 1476.

First steamer crossed the Atlantic, 1819.

Rome was founded by Romulus, 752 B. C.

First musical notes used, 1338; printed, 1502.

The first Atlantic cable was operated in 1858.

The first balloon ascended from Lyons, France, 1783.

Slow rivers flow at the rate of seven-tenths of a mile per hour.

Napoleon I. crowned Emperor, 1804; died at St. Helena, 1820.

Harvard, the oldest college in the United States, was founded, 1638.

The first steam engine on this continent was brought from England, 1753.

The most extensive park is Deer Park in Denmark. It contains 4,200 acres.

Measure 209 ft. on each side and you will have a square acre, to an inch.

Albert Durer gave the world a prophecy of future wood engraving in 1527.

The first iron ore discovered in this country was found in Virginia in 1715.

"Bravest of the Brave" was the title given to Marshal Ney at Friedland, 1807.

The highest bridge in the world, 360 ft. from the surface of the water, is over a gorge at Constantine in Algiers.

The first volunteer fire company in the United States was at Philadelphia, 1736.

St. Augustine, oldest city in the United States, founded by the Spaniards, 1565.

Jamestown, Va., founded, 1607; first permanent English settlement in America.

Books in their present form were invented by Attalus, kind of Pergamos, 198 B. C.

Robert Raikes established the first Sunday-school, at Gloucester, England, 1781.

Oberlin College, Ohio, was the first in the United States that admitted female students.

The first knives were used in England, and the first wheeled carriages in France, in 1559.

The largest park in the United States is Fairmont, at Philadelphia, and contains 2.740 acres.

The highest natural bridge in the world is at Rockbridge, Virginia, being 200 feet high to the bottom of the arch.

The largest empire in the world is that of Great Britain, being 8,557,658 square miles, and more than a sixth part of the globe.

The first electrical signal ever transmitted between Europe and America passed over the Field submarine cable on Aug. 5, 1858.

Paris was known as Lutetia until 1184, when the name of the great French capital was changed to that which it has borne ever since.

The longest tunnel in the world is St. Gothard, on the line of the railroad between Lucerne and Milan, being 9-1/2 miles in length.

Burnt brick were known to have been used in building the Tower of Babel. They were introduced into England by the Romans.

The loftiest active volcano is Popocatapetl. It is 17,784 feet high, and has a crater three miles in circumference and 1,000 feet deep.

The largest insurance company in the world is the Mutual Life of New York City, having cash and real estate assets of over $350,000,000.

The Latin tongue became obsolete about 580.

The value of a ton of pure gold is $602,799.21.

First authentic use of organs, 755; in England, 951.

Ether was first used for surgical purposes in 1844.

Ignatius Loyola founded the order of Jesuits, 1541.

The first newspaper advertisement appeared in 1652.

Benjamin Franklin used the first lightning rods, 1752.

Glass windows (colored) were used in the 8th century.

The largest desert is Sahara, in Northern Africa. Its length is 3,000 miles and breadth 900 miles, having an area of 2,000,000 square miles.

The most remarkable echo known is that in the castle of Simonetta, two miles from Milan. It repeats the echo of a pistol shot sixty times.

The first deaf and dumb asylum was founded in England, by Thomas Braidwood, 1760; and the first in the United States was at Hartford, 1817.

The largest diamond in the world is the Braganza, being a part of the Portugese jewels. It weighs 1,880 carats. It was found in Brazil in 1741.

The "Valley of Death," in the island of Java, is simply the crater of an extinct volcano, filled with carbonic acid gas. It is half a mile in circumference.

The grade of titles in Great Britain stands in the following order from the highest: A Prince, Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron, Baronet, Knight.

The city of Amsterdam, Holland, is built upon piles driven into the ground. It is intersected by numerous canals, crossed by nearly three hundred bridges.

Coal was used as fuel in England as early as 852, and in 1234 the first charter to dig it was granted by Henry III. to the inhabitants of Newcastle-on-Tyne.

The present national colors of the United States were not adopted by Congress until 1777. The flag was first used by Washington at Cambridge, January 1, 1776.

Tobacco was discovered in San Domingo in 1496; afterwards by the Spaniards in Yucatan in 1520. It was Introduced into France in 1560, and into England in 1583.

Kerosene was first used for illuminating in 1826.

Cork is the bark taken from a species of the oak tree.

National banks first established in the United States, 1816.

Introduction of homoeopathy into the United States, 1825.

Egyptian pottery is the oldest known; dates from 2,000 B. C.

Authentic history of China commenced 3.000 years B. C.

The largest free territorial government is the United States.

The Chaldeans were the first people who worked in metals.

Spectacles were invented by an Italian in the 13th century.

Soap was first manufactured in England in the 16th century.

Julius Caesar invaded Britain, 55 B. C.; assassinated, 44 B. C.

Medicine was introduced into Rome from Greece, 200 B. C.

First electric telegraph, Paddington to Brayton, England, 1835.

First photographs produced in England, 1802; perfected, 1841.

First life insurance, in London, 1772; in America, Philadelphia. 1812.

Slavery in the United States was begun at Jamestown, Va. in 1619.

The highest denomination of legal-tender notes in the United States is $10,000.

Postage stamps first came into use in England in the year 1840; in the United States, in 1847.

The highest range of mountains are the Himalayas, the mean elevation being from 16,000 to 18,000 feet.

The term "Almighty Dollar" originated with Washington Irving, as a satire on the American love for gain.

The largest inland sea is the Caspian, between Europe and Asia, being 700 miles long and 270 miles wide.

A span is ten and seven-eighths inches.

First watches made in Nuremberg, 1476.

Pianoforte invented in Italy about 1710.

The value of a ton of silver is $37,704.84.

French and Indian War in America, 1754.

A hurricane moves eighty miles per hour.

Coaches were first used in England in 1569.

The first horse railroad was built in 1826-7.

Electricity moves 288,000 miles per second.

Modern needles first came into use in 1545.

The average human life is thirty-three years.

French Revolution, 1789; Reign of Terror, 1793.

$1,000,000 gold coin weighs 3,685.8 lb. avoirdupois.

Mormons arrived at Salt Lake Valley, Utah, July 24, 1847.

The largest cavern in the world is the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky.

Experiments in electric lighting, by Thomas A. Edison, 1878-80.

Daguerre and Nieper invented the process of daguerreotype, 1839.

First American library founded at Harvard College, Cambridge, 1638.

First cotton raised in the United States was in Virginia, in 1621; first exported, 1747.

First sugar-cane cultivated in the United States, near New Orleans, 1751; first sugar-mill, 1758.

First telegraph in operation in America was between Washington and Baltimore, May 27, 1844.

The largest university is Oxford, in England. It consists of twenty-one colleges and five halls.

The first illumination with gas was in Cornwall, Eng., 1792; in the United States, at Boston, 1822.

Printing was known in China in the 6th century; introduced into England about 1474; America, 1516.

The great wall of China, built 200 B. C. is 1,250 miles in length, 20 feet high, and 25 feet thick at the base.

Glass mirrors first made by Venetians in the 13th century. Polished metal was used before that time.

Meerschaum means "froth of the sea." It is white and soft when dug from the earth, but soon hardens.

In round numbers, the weight of $1,000,000 in standard gold coin is 1-3/4 tons; standard silver coin, 26-3/4 tons; subsidiary silver coin, 25 tons; minor coin, 5-cent nickel, 100 tons.

The highest monument in the world is the Washington monument, being 555 feet. The highest structure of any kind is the Eiffel Tower, Paris, finished in 1889, and 989 feet high.

There has been no irregularity in the recurrence of leap year every four years since 1800, except in 1900, which was a common year, although it came fourth after the preceding leap year.

It is claimed that crows, eagles, ravens and swans live to be 100 years old; herons, 59, parrots, 60; pelicans and geese, 50; skylarks, 30; sparrow hawks, 40; peacocks, canaries and cranes, 24.

The greatest cataract in the world is Niagara, the height of the American falls being 165 feet. The highest fall of water in the world is that of the Yosemite in California, being 2,550 feet.

The most ancient catacombs are those of the Theban kings, begun 4,000 years ago. The catacombs of Rome contain the remains of about 6,000,000 human beings; those of Paris, 3,000,000.

The first English newspaper was the English Mercury, issued in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was issued in the shape of a pamphlet. The Gazette of Venice was the original model of the modern newspaper.

The Great Eastern, at one time the greatest steamer afloat, and twice as long as any other vessel at the time of her launching, in 1858, was 692 feet in length and 118 feet in breadth. She was too large to be handled profitably with the motive power then available, but proved indispensable in the laying of the Atlantic cable. She was broken up and sold as junk, although the Isherwood system, on which she was built, has since been revived, and is now successfully employed in shipbuilding.

The seven sages flourished in Greece in the 6th century B. C. They were renowned for their maxims of life, and as the authors of the mottoes inscribed in the Delphian Temple. Their names are: Solon, Chilo, Pittacus, Bias, Periander, Cleobolus, and Thales.

A "monkey wrench" is not so named because it is a handy thing to monkey with, or for any kindred reason. "Monkey" is not its name at all, but "Moncky." Charles Moncky, the inventor of it, sold his patent for $2,000, and invested the money in a house in Williamsburgh, Kings County, N. Y.

The "Seven Wonders of the World" are seven most remarkable objects of the ancient world. They are: The Pyramids of Egypt, Pharos of Alexandria, Walls and Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Diana at Ephesus, the Statue of the Olympian Jupiter, Mausoleum of Artemisia, and Colossus of Rhodes.

In 1775 there were only twenty-seven newspapers published in the United States. Ten years later, in 1785, there were seven published in the English language in Philadelphia alone, of which one was a daily. The oldest newspaper published in Philadelphia at the time of the Federal convention was the Pennsylvania Gazette, established by Samuel Keimer, in 1728. The second newspaper in point of age was the Pennsylvania Journal, established in 1742 by William Bradford, whose uncle, Andrew Bradford, established the first newspaper in Pennsylvania, the American Weekly Mercury, in 1719. Next in age, but the first in importance, was the Pennsylvania Packet, established by John Dunlap, in 1771. In 1784 it became a daily, being the first daily newspaper printed on this continent.

"Liberty," Bartholdi's statue, presented to the United States by the French people in 1885, is the largest statue ever built. Its conception is due to the great French sculptor whose name it bears. It is said to be a likeness of his mother. Eight years of time were consumed in the construction of this gigantic brazen image. Its weight is 440,000 pounds, of which 146,000 pounds are copper, the remainder iron and steel. The major part of the iron and steel was used in constructing the skeleton frame work for the inside. The mammoth electric light held in the hands of the giantess is 305 feet above tide-water. The height of the figure is 152-1/2 feet; the pedestal 91 feet, and the foundation 52 feet and 10 inches. Forty persons can find standing-room within the mighty head, which is 14-1/2 feet in diameter. A six-foot man standing on the lower lip could hardly reach the eyes. The index finger is 8 feet in length and the nose 3-3/4 feet. The Colossus of Rhodes was a pigmy compared with this latter-day wonder.

The largest and grandest temple of worship in the world is St. Peter's Cathedral at Rome. It stands on the site of Nero's circus, in the northwest part of the city, and is built in form of a Latin cross. The total length of the interior is 612-1/2 English feet; transept, 446-1/2 feet; height of nave, 152-1/2 feet; diameter of cupola, 193 feet; height of dome from pavement to top of cross, 448 feet. The great bell alone, without the hammer or clapper, weighs 18,600 pounds, or over 9-1/4 tons. The foundation was laid in 1450 A. D. Forty-three Popes lived and died during the time the work was in progress. It was dedicated in the year 1826, but not entirely finished until the year 1880. The cost, in round numbers, is set down at $70,000,000.

The great pyramid of Cheops is the largest structure of any kind ever erected by the hand of man. Its original dimensions at the base were 764 feet square, and its perpendicular height in the highest point 488 feet; it covers four acres, one rood and twenty-two perches of ground and has been estimated by an eminent English architect to have cost not less than 30,000,000 pounds, which in United States currency would be about $145,200,000. Internal evidence proves that the great pyramid was begun about the year 2170 B. c., about the time of the birth of Abraham. It is estimated that about 5,000,000 tons of hewn stone were used in its construction, and the evidence points to the fact that these stones were brought a distance of about 700 miles from quarries in Arabia.

The largest body of fresh water in the world is Lake Superior. It is 400 miles long and 180 miles wide; its circumference, including the winding of its various bays, has been estimated at 1,800 miles. Its area in square miles is 32,000, which is greater than the whole of New England, leaving out Maine. The greatest depth of this inland sea is 200 fathoms, or 1,200 feet. Its average depth is about 160 fathoms. It is 636 feet above the sea level.

The corner stone of the Washington monument, the highest in the United States, and until 1889 the highest structure in the world, was laid July 4, 1848. Robert E. Winthrop, then Speaker of the House, delivered the oration. Work progressed steadily for about six years, until the funds of the monumental society became exhausted. At that time the monument was about 175 feet high. From 1854 until 1879 nothing to speak of was done on the building. In the year last above named Congress voted an appropriation of $200,000 to complete the work. From that time forward work progressed at a rapid rate until December 6th, 1884, when the aluminum apex was set at 555 feet 5-1/2 inches from the foundation and the work declared finished. The foundation is 146-1/2 feet square; number of stones used above the 130-foot level, 19,163; total weight stone used in work, 81,120 tons.

The largest State in our grand republic is Texas, which contains 274,350 square miles, capable of sustaining 20,000,000 people, and then it would not be more crowded than Scotland is at present. It has been estimated that the entire population of the globe could be seated upon chairs within the boundary of Texas and each have four feet of elbow room.

The Mississippi River, from the source of the Missouri to the Eads jetties, is the longest river in the world. It is 4,300 miles in length and drains an area of 1,726,000 square miles. The Amazon, which is without doubt the widest river in the world, including the Beni, is 4,000 miles in length and drains 2,330,000 square miles of territory.


This idea was first formulated by Mr. Henry George in 1879, and has grown steadily in favor. Single-tax men assert as a fundamental principle that all men are equally entitled to the use of the earth; therefore, no one should be allowed to hold valuable land without paying to the community the value of the privilege. They hold that this is the only rightful source of public revenue, and they would therefore abolish all taxation—local, state and national—except a tax upon the rental value of land exclusive of its improvements, the revenue thus raised to be divided among local, state and general governments, as the revenue from certain direct taxes is now divided between local and state governments.

The single tax would not fall on all land, but only on valuable land, and on that in proportion to its value. It would thus be a tax, not on use or improvements, but on ownership of land, taking what would otherwise go to the landlord as owner.

In accordance with the principle that all men are equally entitled to the use of the earth, they would solve the transportation problem by public ownership and control of all highways, including the roadbeds of railroads, leaving their use equally free to all.

The single-tax system would, they claim, dispense with a horde of tax-gatherers, simplify government, and greatly reduce its cost; give us with all the world that absolute free trade which now exists between the States of the Union: abolish all taxes on private issues of money; take the weight of taxation from agricultural districts, where land has little or no value apart from improvements, and put it upon valuable land, such as city lots and mineral deposits. It would call upon men to contribute for public expenses in proportion to the natural opportunities they monopolize, and make it unprofitable for speculators to hold land unused or only partly used, thus opening to labor unlimited fields of employment, solving the labor problem and abolishing involuntary poverty.


A Compend of the General Claims Made by Professional Hypnotists.

Animal magnetism is the nerve-force of all human and animal bodies, and is common to every person in a greater or less degree. It may be transmitted from one person to another. The transmitting force is the concentrated effort of will-power, which sends the magnetic current through the nerves of the operator to the different parts of the body of his subject. It may be transmitted by and through the eyes, as well as the finger tips, and the application of the whole open hands, to different regions of the body of the subject, as well as to the mind. The effect of this force upon the subject will depend very much upon the health, mental capacity and general character of the operator. Its action in general should be soothing and quieting upon the nervous system; stimulating to the circulation of the blood, the brain and other vital organs of the body of the subject. It is the use and application of this power or force that constitutes hypnotism.

Magnetism is a quality that inheres in every human being, and it may be cultivated like any other physical or mental force of which men and women are constituted. From the intelligent operator using it to overcome disease, a patient experiences a soothing influence that causes a relaxation of the muscles, followed by a pleasant, drowsy feeling which soon terminates in refreshing sleep. On waking, the patient feels rested; all his troubles have vanished from consciousness and he is as if he had a new lease of life.

In the true hypnotic condition, when a patient voluntarily submits to the operator, any attempt to make suggestions against the interests of the patient can invariably be frustrated by the patient. Self-preservation is the first law of nature, and some of the best known operators who have recorded their experiments assert that suggestions not in accord with the best interest of the patient could not be carried out. No one was ever induced to commit any crime under hypnosis, that could not have been induced to do the same thing much easier without hypnosis.

The hypnotic state is a condition of mind that extends from a comparatively wakeful state, with slight drowsiness, to complete somnambulism, no two subjects, as a rule, ever presenting the same characteristics.

The operator, to be successful, must have control of his own mind, be in perfect health and have the ability to keep his mind concentrated upon the object he desires to accomplish with his subject.

HOW TO CARE FOR A PIANO. By William H. Damon

The most important thing in the preservation of a piano is to avoid atmospheric changes and extremes and sudden changes of temperature. Where the summer condition of the atmosphere is damp all precautions possible should be taken to avoid an entirely dry condition in winter, such as that given by steam or furnace heat. In all cases should the air in the home contain moisture enough to permit a heavy frost on the windows in zero weather. The absence of frost under such conditions is positive proof of an entirely dry atmosphere, and this is a piano's most dangerous enemy, causing the sounding board to crack, shrinking up the bridges, and consequently putting the piano seriously out of tune, also causing an undue dryness in all the action parts and often a loosening of the glue joints, thus producing clicks and rattles. To obviate this difficulty is by no means an easy task and will require considerable attention. Permit all the fresh air possible during winter, being careful to keep the piano out of cold drafts, as this will cause a sudden contraction of the varnish and cause it to check or crack. Plants in the room are desirable and vessels of water of any kind will be of assistance. The most potent means of avoiding extreme dryness is to place a single-loaf bread-pan half full of water in the lower part of the piano, taking out the lower panel and placing it on either side of the pedals inside. This should be refilled about once a month during artificial heat, care being taken to remove the vessel as soon as the heat is discontinued in the spring. In cases where stove heat is used these precautions are not necessary.

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