The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI
Author: Various
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[Transcriber's Note: Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other inconsistencies. Text that has been changed to correct an obvious error is noted at the end of this ebook.

Also, many occurrences of mismatched single and double quotes remain as they were in the original.]
















In the preceding volume a full account is given of the forty years' continuous effort to secure an amendment to the Federal Constitution which would confer full suffrage on all the women of the United States possessing the qualifications required of men. Antedating the beginning of this effort by thirty years was the attempt to enfranchise women through the amendment of State constitutions. After 1869 the two movements were contemporaneous, each dependent on the other, the latter a long process but essential in some measure to the success of the former. There is no way by which the progress of the movement for woman suffrage can be so clearly seen as by a comparison of the State chapters in this volume with the State chapters in Volume IV, which closed with 1900. The former show the remarkable development of the organized work for woman suffrage, especially in the last decade, which brought the complete victory.

In Volume IV it was possible to give a resume of the Laws specifically relating to women and one was sent with each chapter for this volume. The space occupied by the account of the work for the suffrage, however, made it necessary to omit them. It required thousands of words to record the legislation of the last twenty years relating especially to women in some of the States and the large part of it to women in the industries, which they had scarcely entered in 1900. The same is true of child labor. Every State shows a desire for protective legislation. Many States provide for mothers' pensions, a modern tendency. About half of the States now have equal guardianship laws. There is a gradual increase in those enlarging the property and business rights of married women. The "age of consent" and the age for marriage have been raised in most States where they were too low. In every State for a number of years the large organizations of women have made a determined effort to obtain better laws for women and children and Legislatures have yielded to pressure. In every State as soon as women were enfranchised there was improvement in laws relating to their welfare and that of children.

The Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment went into effect in August, 1920, and the following winter there was a greater amount of advanced legislation in the various States than had taken place in the preceding ten years collectively, and the resume of existing laws that had been prepared for this volume was soon at least partially obsolete in many of them. A brief statement of Office Holding was incorporated but its only value was in showing that in all States this was almost exclusively limited to "electors." When the Federal Amendment was proclaimed it carried with it eligibility to the offices. In some States it included Jury service but in others it was held that for this special legislation was necessary. In all States the professions and other occupations are open to women the same as to men. In the way of Education every State University admits women, and the vast majority of institutions of learning, except some of a religious character, are co-educational. A few of the large eastern universities still bar their doors but women have all needful opportunities for the higher education. Some professional schools—law, medicine and especially theology—are still closed to women but enough are open to them to satisfy the demand, and the same is true of the technical schools. To meet the lack of space every chapter had to be drastically cut after it was in type.

Women now have in a general sense equality of rights, although in every State they have learned or will learn that this is not literally true and that further effort will be required, but now, as never before, they are equipped for accomplishing it. It will be a long time before they have equality of opportunity in the business and political world but for the majority this will not be needed. Women will find, however, that in the home, in club life and in all lines of religious, philanthropic, educational and civic work the possession of a vote has increased their influence and power beyond measure.




Position of women in regard to laws, office holding, education, etc.



Early work — Progress of organization — Conventions held, reports and speeches made, activities of the association — Officers and workers — Legislative action — Campaigns — Help of the National Association — Action on ratification of the Federal Suffrage Amendment — Interest taken by President Wilson, National Committees and party leaders — Celebrations.

[This form is followed in all the State chapters, with names of officers, workers, friends and enemies and many incidents; also results where woman suffrage exists. The chapters are alphabetically arranged, I to XLIX.]




Legislature gives suffrage to women — Privileges to Indian women —Other laws — Women in prohibition campaign — Women's war work.


Congress refuses to let its Legislature control the suffrage —National Suffrage Association protests — Its president, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, at Honolulu — Mrs. Pitman, of Brookline, Mass., holds meetings there — Legislature sends resolution to Congress — Senator John F. Shafroth gets Bill through Congress — Efforts of Hawaiian women with their Legislature.


The National Suffrage Association demands franchise for their women — Governor General Taft and Archbishop Nozaleda support the demand —The U. S. Congress ignores it — Position of Filipino women —Commissioner's wife describes their efforts for the suffrage.


Status of suffrage for men — They demand their own Legislature — National Suffrage Association asks that women may share in the suffrage — Senator Shafroth shows that it can not be put into the Bill — Efforts of Porto Rican women with its Legislature.



Situation as to woman suffrage at commencement of the present century — Status of the Bill in Parliament in the first decade — Premier Campbell-Bannerman advises "pestering" — Strong hostility of Premier Asquith — Beginning of "militancy" — Its effect on the suffrage movement — Mrs. Fawcett's opinion — Constitutional societies repudiate it — Labor party supports woman suffrage —Treachery in Parliament — The Conciliation Bill — Women left out of the Franchise Reform Bill — Deputation to Premier Asquith — Lloyd George's attitude — Speaker Lowther kills Bill — Suffragists go into politics — Great suffrage "pilgrimage" — Outbreak of war —Important war work of the suffrage societies — Coalition Government — Conference Committee on Electoral Reform Bill — Premier Asquith supports Woman Suffrage — Lloyd George becomes Premier — Suffrage clause in Bill gets immense majority in House of Commons — Big fight in House of Lords but goes through — Royal assent given — Two women elected to House of Commons — Oxford University opened to women.





First Woman Suffrage Society in Ontario — The gaining of Woman Suffrage in Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. Efforts of the Women to secure action from the Legislature of each Province — Victory in Ontario after long struggle — War time Woman Suffrage Act of the Dominion Parliament — Granting of complete suffrage in 1918 — The Legislatures of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia give Provincial suffrage — Quebec refuses — Women of Newfoundland still disfranchised.


The National Parliament persistently declines to enfranchise women —Their strong efforts for the vote — Granted in several of the States — Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, spends several months in South Africa conferring with the women.






Desire of Early Leaders — International Council of Women — Miss Anthony and Mrs. Catt call Conference in Washington on International Suffrage Alliance — Ten Countries represented — Proceedings of Conference — Plan of Temporary Organization — Declaration of Principles — Valuable Reports on the Status of Women.


Conference and Congress in Copenhagen in 1906 812 Delegates present, addresses, Memorials for Miss Anthony, reports, social entertainments, Badge adopted.


Welcome of Dr. Aletta Jacobs, president of the National Suffrage Association — Mrs. Catt's president's address — "Militants" present — Entertainments — Victories in Finland and Norway — Jus Suffragii established — A day in Rotterdam.


Mrs. Catt's address — Mrs. Fawcett, president of the British Suffrage Association, speaks, refers to "militants" — Mass meetings in Albert Hall — In touch with Queens — Flag and Hymn selected —Resolutions adopted — Officers elected — Dr. Shaw in the pulpits.


Honors to Mrs. Catt — Many delegates and eminent guests — Dr. Shaw preaches in State church — Selma Lagerloef speaks — Growth of Alliance — Non-partisanship declared — Men's International League formed — Beautiful outdoor entertainments —Tributes to Sweden.


Great number of delegates — Official welcome in Academy of Music —Mrs. Catt's president's address — Dr. Jacobs presents Banner from women of China — Royal Opera House opened for the Congress — Many excursions — "Militant" methods discussed — Resolution on commercialized vice — Activity of Men's League — Rosika Schwimmer, national president, speaks — Officers elected.


First meeting of Alliance after the World War — Miss Royden preaches in National church — Mrs. Catt uses the War as text for great speech — It brought Woman Suffrage to many countries — Women present from thirty-six, including five members of Parliament — Delegates entertained by the Municipality — Treasurer's report tells of help of United States — Congress votes to continue the Alliance.


Anti-suffrage Manifesto of Nebraska men.





In 1902 Miss Frances Griffin of Verbena sent to the national suffrage convention the following report as president of the State suffrage association: "Two clubs in Alabama, in Huntsville and Decatur, are auxiliary to the National American Woman Suffrage Association. The State president did some aggressive work within the year, speaking in many different towns before women's clubs and at parlor meetings. She devoted much time to work of this character in Montgomery, hoping to bring to bear sufficient influence upon members of the Constitutional Convention to secure some concessions for women citizens. The results were bitterly disappointing, for it not only refused to grant suffrage to tax-paying women but it gave to the husbands of tax-payers the right to vote upon their wives' property! Women in the larger towns are taking an interest in municipal and educational affairs. Some have been placed on advisory boards in State institutions, such as the Girls' Industrial School, the Boys' Reform School and others. All this means a gradual advance for the suffrage sentiment, a general modifying of the anti-sentiment."

There were also short reports for 1903 and 1904, which, while showing no practical, tangible results of the efforts of that earnest pioneer worker, are interesting as evidences of the backward, unprogressive spirit against which the women of Alabama have had to contend. These reports mark the end of the first period of suffrage activity in the State, which had been maintained by a few devoted women. The new era was ushered in by the organization in Selma in 1910 of an Equal Suffrage Association which was the beginning of an aggressive, tireless fight. Miss Mary Partridge, after seeing the defeat of a constitutional amendment for prohibition in Alabama despite the earnest but ineffectual efforts of the women who besieged the polls begging the men to vote for it, decided that the time was ripe for a woman suffrage organization and wrote for advice to Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, who answered in part: "I cannot express to you how happy I am that you are willing to begin the work in your State where very little has been done for suffrage because of the great conservatism among the women of the South. I am very glad if they are now beginning to realize their absolutely helpless and unprotected position. We have the temperance agitation to thank for arousing a great many women over all the country...."

Shortly after the receipt of this letter Miss Partridge sent out a "call" in the Selma papers and on March 29, 1910, Mrs. Frederick Watson, Mrs. F. T. Raiford, Mrs. F. G. DuBose, Mrs. F. M. Hatch and Miss Partridge met at the Carnegie Library and organized the association. This action was reported to Dr. Shaw and she extended the greetings of the National Association with "thanks and appreciation."

The Birmingham Equal Suffrage Association was the outgrowth of a small group of women who had been holding study meetings in the home of Mrs. W. L. Murdoch. The enthusiasm and earnest conviction resulting from them found expression in a "call" for a woman suffrage organization and on Oct. 22, 1911, the association was formed at a meeting held in the Chamber of Commerce, where the following officers were elected: President, Mrs. Pattie Ruffner Jacobs; first vice-president, Miss Ethel Armes; second, Mrs. W. L. Murdoch; third, Mrs. W. N. Wood; corresponding secretary, Miss Helen J. Benners; recording secretary, Mrs. J. E. Frazier; treasurer, Mrs. A. J. Bowron.

Special mention is made of these two societies because they constituted the nucleus on which the State organization was formed. An urgent "call" was sent out by the officers of the Birmingham society to "all men and women who wish to further the cause of woman suffrage to unite in a State organization at a meeting in Birmingham Oct. 9, 1912." Selma sent six delegates who met with the Birmingham suffragists at the Parish House of the Church of the Advent, where the Alabama Equal Suffrage Association was organized and a constitution and by-laws adopted. Mrs. Jacobs was elected president; Miss Partridge, first vice-president; Mrs. Raiford, second; Mrs. Murdoch, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Julian Parke, recording secretary; Mrs. C. M. Spencer, treasurer; Miss Partridge, State organizer.[2]

The following delegates were appointed to attend the national convention in Philadelphia in November; Mrs. Jacobs, Miss Amelia Worthington, Mrs. O. R. Hundley, Mrs. DuBose, Miss Partridge, Mrs. Chappel Cory. The new State organization affiliated at once with the National Association.

The first annual convention was held in Selma Jan. 29, 1913, with twenty-five representatives from Selma, Birmingham, Huntsville and Montgomery. Mrs. Jacobs was re-elected president and a splendid program of constructive work was outlined for the ensuing year. The association was represented at the meeting of the International Suffrage Alliance held in Budapest in June of this year by Mrs. T. G. Bush of Birmingham.

The second State convention, held in Huntsville Feb. 5, 1914, was made notable by the inspiring presence of three of Alabama's pioneer suffragists—Mrs. Annie Buel Drake Robertson, Mrs. Humes, and Mrs. Virginia Clay Clopton. The following local societies were represented by their presidents, named in the order in which they were organized: Selma, Mrs. Parke; Birmingham, Mrs. Hundley; Montgomery, Mrs. Sallie B. Powell; Huntsville, Mrs. Clopton; Cullman, Mrs. Ignatius Pollak; Greensboro, Miss S. Anne Hobson; Tuscaloosa, Mrs. Losey; Vinemont, Miss Mary Munson; Pell City, Miss Pearl Still; Coal City, Mrs. J. W. Moore; Mobile, Miss Eugenie Marks. Mrs. Jacobs was re-elected despite her wish to retire from office and her report of the past year told of a great amount of work done by all the members of the board.

In January, 1915, a resolution to submit a woman suffrage amendment to the State constitution to the voters was for the first time introduced in the Legislature. It was referred to the Committee on Privileges and Elections in the House and the Legislature afterwards adjourned until July. In the meantime the women worked to secure pledges from the members of the committee to report the bill favorably and 14 of the 16 gave their promise to do so. Instead of this it was "postponed indefinitely." The women did not rest until they persuaded the House to compel a report and then a hearing was granted to them. Among those who worked in the Legislature were the legislative chairman, Mrs. O. R. Hundley; Mrs. Jacobs, the State president; Mrs. Chappel Cory, president United Daughters of the Confederacy; Miss Mollie Dowd, representing the wage earners, and Miss Lavinia Engle of Maryland, field organizer for the National Association. The bill came to a vote late in the session, when Representative Joe Green, who had asked for the privilege of introducing it, spoke and voted against it. The vote stood 52 ayes, 43 noes, a three-fifths majority being necessary to submit an amendment. As the Legislature meets only once in four years this was the only action ever taken on a State amendment.

At the State convention, held in Tuscaloosa in February of this year, reports were made from 19 auxiliary branches and the organization of 23 non-auxiliary branches was reported. The address of Dr. Shaw, the national president, gave a great impetus to suffrage work in the State. Mrs. Jacobs and the other officers were re-elected, except that Mrs. Frederick Koenig was made auditor.

On Feb. 9, 1916, the State convention was held in Gadsden and the evidences of the growth of the suffrage movement were most heartening, 26 local associations sending reports. Mrs. Parke was chosen for president, Mrs. Jacobs having been elected auditor of the National Association.

The State convention was held in Birmingham Feb. 12-13, 1917, and the officers re-elected except that Miss Worthington was made recording secretary. It was followed by a "suffrage" school conducted by representatives of the National Association, who generously gave the valuable help that a course of study under such able instructors afforded. Over 200 pupils attended. It was reported that there were now 81 suffrage clubs in the State, which were being merged into political organizations with the county as a unit, and there were chairmen in 55 of the 67 counties. There were also chairmen in nine of the ten congressional districts. A paid organizer had been at work. State headquarters were maintained on the principal street in Selma and a bi-weekly press bulletin issued which was used by thirty-four newspapers, while eight published weekly suffrage columns. The Birmingham News got out a suffrage edition. Four travelling suffrage libraries were kept in circulation. Automobile parades had been given, a mass meeting held in Birmingham and street meetings in every part of the State.

The State convention was held in Selma May 7-8, 1918. The reports made by local and State officers showed that the suffragists had lent themselves and all their machinery of organization to every form of war work. Mrs. Jacobs had been appointed by Mr. McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury, State chairman of the Woman's Liberty Loan Committee. Suffrage work was in no wise suspended but the more active forms of propaganda were held in abeyance. The Federal Amendment was endorsed in no uncertain terms and the following resolution was adopted: "Whereas, the Senate will soon vote on the Federal Suffrage Amendment, therefore, be it resolved, by the suffragists of Alabama assembled in their sixth annual convention, that the U. S. Senators, John H. Bankhead and Oscar W. Underwood, be, and they hereby are, earnestly petitioned to forward the march of democracy, to carry out the policy of the Democratic administration and to represent truly the wishes of the women of their own State by supporting this amendment and voting for it when it comes up in the Senate."

It was reported that the State association had energetically cooperated with the National in all its suggestions and plans and notwithstanding the efforts made to raise money for the purposes of the war it had collected over $10,000 for State suffrage work and more than paid its pledge of $1,000 to the national treasury. Thousands of copies of U. S. Senator Shafroth's speech, the gift of the Leslie Suffrage Commission, had been mailed to the rural voters. The clergy had been requested to speak on woman suffrage in their sermons on "mothers' day" and many responded. Miss Lola Trax, the State organizer, reported a chairman in all but two counties. Each of the State's representatives in Congress had been interviewed. Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, the national president, had lectured in seven places and Mrs. Walter McNab Miller, national vice-president, in five. The petitions for the Federal Amendment were being circulated.

The Alabama delegates to the national convention in March, 1919, learned while there that the Federal Amendment was likely to be passed by Congress in time for action to be taken on its ratification by the Legislature of the State, which had been called to meet July 8. They went before the National Board and secured the promise of definite help, which was to consist of literature, press work and organizers, and certain obligations were undertaken on the part of the State. The National Association did more even than it promised and the State suffragists made heroic efforts to live up to their part of the contract.

On May 1 the campaign was under way although the amendment had not yet been submitted. A Ratification Committee was appointed by the president consisting of Mrs. John D. McNeel of Birmingham, chairman; Mrs. W. D. Nesbit of Birmingham, vice-chairman; Mrs. Bibb Graves of Montgomery, resident member, and Mrs. Jacobs, ex-officio member. County chairmen were appointed in 53 counties and a Men's Committee of One Hundred was organized. Headquarters were equipped with some paid and much faithful volunteer help and the distribution of literature and press work was started. Early in the month Mrs. Albert McMahon, Miss Edna Beveridge and Miss Josephine Miller, organizers, were sent by the National Association, to which group Miss Mary Parke London of Birmingham was added and contributed her services throughout the entire campaign as an organizer and lobbyist. Press work was systematically carried on, some of the material sent from national headquarters but most of it originating in Birmingham. Speakers covered all important public meetings to which access could be had; Governor Thomas E. Kilby and other prominent men were interviewed and a poll was taken of the legislators before they convened.[3] At the joint hearing, which was arranged almost immediately after the Legislature met, John C. Anderson, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; W. D. Nesbitt, State chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee; ex-Senator Frank S. White; Judge S. D. Weakley, legal adviser of the Governor, and others spoke for ratification.

RATIFICATION. The Federal Amendment was submitted by Congress June 4 and the Legislature met July 8. For days before the vote was taken it occupied almost exclusive attention at the capital, many of the newspapers saying that the opposition were placing the State and the Democratic party in a grave position. The Republican party was claiming credit for the submission and Democratic leaders felt it to be very necessary that the Alabama Legislature should ratify. On July 12 President Wilson telegraphed to Governor Kilby as follows: "I hope you will pardon me if I express my very earnest hope that the suffrage amendment to the constitution of the United States may be ratified by the great State of Alabama. It would constitute a very happy augury for the future and add greatly to the strength of a movement which, in my judgment, is based upon the highest consideration both of justice and expedience."

On the same date Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels sent a long message to Mrs. McNeel, chairman of the Ratification Committee, and a multigraphed copy to each member of the Senate, setting forth the merits of the amendment and saying: "The South has nothing to fear from the amendment but it would be a loss to southern chivalry and southern prestige if our section of the country halted this great reform. I earnestly hope that the people of Alabama will take the lead of southern States east of the Mississippi and follow the wise leadership of Texas and Missouri and other progressive commonwealths. There is no doubt of its ratification. Let Alabama lead and not follow." Homer S. Cummings, chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and other prominent Democrats added their earnest appeals to the Senate for favorable action.

The ratifying resolution was introduced in the Senate by John A. Rogers and in the House by W. H. Shaw. The date set for the vote in the Senate was July 17 and a hearing before a joint meeting of Senate and House was granted on the 16th. Women journeyed to Montgomery from nearly every county to plead for the amendment but its defeat had already been planned. The vote was 13 ayes, 19 noes.

The House did not act on the measure until September 17 and during the interim every possible pressure was made on its members to obtain a favorable vote. President Wilson sent an urgent telegram to Speaker H. P. Merritt. Chairman Nesbit convened the State Democratic Committee on August 21 to consider the amendment. It adopted a resolution by a vote of 20 to 13, which endorsed the favorable action of the National Committee the preceding May and said: "We pledge our support in every proper way to accomplish the result desired." Mrs. George Bass, chairman of the Women's National Democratic Committee, went to Montgomery for this meeting and remained several days working for the amendment. The Central Labor Union of that city at a mass meeting passed a resolution asking the Legislature to "take steps immediately to ratify the amendment." A majority of the House were pledged to vote in favor of ratification but after it had been defeated in the Senate they considered it useless to keep their promise and the vote was 31 ayes, 60 noes.

The Governor and Lieutenant Governor Nathan L. Miller maintained a neutral position. The mainspring of the opposition from beginning to end was U. S. Senator Oscar W. Underwood. Senator John H. Bankhead was equally opposed. Both Senators had voted against the submission of the Federal Amendment and of the ten members in the Lower House only one, William B. Oliver of Tuscaloosa, had voted in favor.[4]

Because of the campaign no convention took place in 1919. On April 8-9, 1920, the last one of the State Equal Suffrage Association, as such, was held in Montgomery. A large "pioneer luncheon" was given in the Exchange Hotel and a beautiful set of silver baskets was presented to Mrs. Jacobs. The sessions were held in the Senate chamber of the historic Capitol and by unanimous consent the association was merged into the State League of Women Voters. Mrs. A. J. Bowron was elected chairman.

After the amendment was finally ratified by the necessary 36 States there was a victory parade in Birmingham in which 1,500 took part. A brass band headed 36 automobiles, each a mass of banners, flags and flowers, labeled in the order in which the States ratified. Mrs. Jacobs and the pioneers led the marchers, followed by professional and business women, the League of Women Voters, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and other organizations. It ended with addresses and singing in Capitol Park.


[1] The History is indebted for this chapter to Mrs. Pattie Ruffner Jacobs, eight years president of the State Equal Suffrage Association, three years auditor of the National Association and now secretary of the National League of Women Voters; also to Miss Helen J. Benners, research chairman of the State League of Women Voters.

[2] Those who held office in the State association during the next eight years were as follows: Mrs. Milton Humes, Mrs. Frederick D. Losey, Mrs. Parke, Mrs. Angus Taylor, Mrs. J. D. Wilkins, Mrs. W. J. Chambers, Miss Annie Joe Coates, Mrs. John Lusk, Mrs. Leon Weil.

[3] On June 17, 1919, Mrs. James S. Pinckard called a meeting of women of wealth and social standing at her home in Montgomery. With the help of a constitutional lawyer they organized the Southern Women's Anti-Ratification League, with Mrs. Pinckard chairman, Mrs. Charles Henderson, vice-chairman; Mrs. W. T. Sheehan, secretary; Mrs. Marie Bankhead Owen (daughter of the Senator), chairman of the Legislative Committee. Members of the Executive Committee were Mesdames Charles S. Thigpen, Hails Janney, Jack Thorington, J. A. Winter, Ormond Somerville, W. J. Hannah, Clayton T. Tullis, J. Winter Thorington, E. Perry Thomas, William M. E. Ellsberry, J.H. Naftel, W. B. Kelly and Miss Mae Harris. They sent a memorial to the Legislature which began: "We look with confidence to you to protect us from this device of northern Abolitionists." They "worked night and day, personally and by letter," and, after the defeat of ratification in the Alabama Legislature, Mrs. Pinckard and others transferred their efforts to those of Louisiana and Tennessee, where they "lobbied" for many days.

[4] Among the men in the State who were especially active and helpful were: Colonel Bibb Graves and John H. Wallace, of Montgomery; L. B. Musgrove, of Jasper; Judge W. R. Chapman, of Dothan; H. H. Patterson, of Atmore; John W. Abercrombie, of Anniston; John D. McNeel, Phil Painter, Ex-Governor B. B. Comer, James Weatherly, Fred M. Jackson and John R. Hornaday of Birmingham.

Among those especially active in opposition were: Congressman John H. Bankhead, Jr., of Jasper; C. Brooks Smith, Judge John R. Tyson and Ray Rushton, of Montgomery; R. A. Mitchell, of Gadsden; Wiley Tunstall and Len F. Greer, of Anniston; Judge Joe Evans, Martin Calhoun and Joe Green, of Selma; W. W. Brandon, of Tuscaloosa; John D. Leigh, of Brewton; Emmett O'Neal and E. D. Smith, of Birmingham.



Since this chapter is to commence with the year 1900, this will be where Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt and Miss Mary Garrett Hay, chairman and member of the Organization Committee of the National American Woman Suffrage Association left off in the spring of 1899 after they had spent a month laboring with the Territorial Legislature. They succeeded in getting a bill through the Lower House by a vote of two to one but by the deciding vote of Morris Goldwater of Prescott, president of the Council or Upper House, it was sent to a committee and prevented from coming to a vote. The hand of the "boss" of the saloon-keepers was clearly recognized in the game that was played.

Undaunted Mrs. Catt and Miss Hay came back in 1900 and organized the first full-fledged suffrage association in the Territory, with Mrs. Pauline O'Neill, wife of that staunch suffrage friend, the gallant Rough Rider, William O'Neill, as its president; Mrs. Lida P. Robinson, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Frances W. Munds, recording secretary, Mrs. Porter of Phoenix, treasurer. All were inexperienced and the society did not flourish and although 1900 was election year no pre-election pledges were obtained. A Territorial Legislature can extend suffrage to women without referring the question to the voters. A bill for this purpose was introduced in 1901 through a committee of women headed by Mrs. Robinson but it received little support and after creating the usual amount of excitement failed to pass either House.

During the following year suffrage work seemed to lapse and the organization would have died a natural death but for the will of Mrs. Robinson, who called a convention to meet in Phoenix in the spring of 1902, where she was elected president with Mrs. Munds corresponding and recording secretary and Mrs. Ada Irving treasurer. Under Mrs. Robinson's guidance a list was made of all who had previously expressed an interest and they were notified that something was doing in the suffrage line. Dr. Frances Woods of Kansas was sent by the National Association and made a tour of the Territory which was remarkable for the haste in which it was made and the results obtained. She organized clubs in every county and set the women to work obtaining pre-election pledges, with the result that when the Legislature convened in the spring of 1903 it lacked only a few votes of having a majority in both Houses pledged to suffrage. Mrs. Robinson, Dr. Woods and Mrs. Munds constituted themselves a committee to work with the members and succeeded in getting a woman suffrage bill through the Legislature by a two-thirds vote. The rejoicing was short, for the Governor, Alexander O. Brodie, an appointee of President Roosevelt, vetoed the bill. Representatives Kean St. Charles, a newspaper man, and Morrison, a labor leader, were most active in its behalf, while the scheme that finally sent it down to defeat was concocted, it was said, by Joseph H. Kibbey, a lawyer of Phoenix. He was the leader of the Republican minority in the Council and traded its solid Republican vote for one needed vote on another bill, with the understanding that the Governor would veto the suffrage bill.

Governor Brodie afterwards resigned and Mr. Kibbey, the arch-enemy of woman suffrage, was appointed in his place. Mrs. Robinson continued propaganda through a little paper which she published and distributed herself throughout the Territory. This well-edited paper kept alive the favorable sentiment and through it the leading men and women suffragists in Arizona were in touch with each other. In the spring of 1905 Mrs. Mary C. C. Bradford of Denver was sent by the National Association and spent several weeks working with the Legislature but received practically no cooperation from the local women, as it was conceded that the situation was hopeless while Kibbey was Governor. Mrs. Robinson moved from the Territory and the organization was without a head. It languished for about three years and its enemies sang cheerful requiems for the dead. The Legislature that met in 1907 had a peaceful time as far as women were concerned for no suffrage bill was introduced.

In January, 1909, Miss Laura Clay of Kentucky, an officer of the National Association, came to Arizona at her own expense. The last Territorial Legislature was then in session and Miss Clay labored long and faithfully with it but the resident women were apathetic and gave her little assistance. The bill that she had introduced failed in both Houses, the members availing themselves of the excuse that Arizona women did not want suffrage or they would make some organized effort to get it. Miss Clay had the right kind of spirit and gathering a faithful few together they worked out a plan whereby the first really efficient suffrage organization was effected. This plan was the same as the political parties in the Territory used, namely, a State chairman with a chairman in each county and a chairman for each local club. A convention was called in Phoenix under Miss Clay's direction and Mrs. Munds was made Territorial chairman. During the year statehood for Arizona began to loom up and vigorous work was done for that event. The National Association sent the very woman needed, Miss Laura Gregg of Kansas. She made an extensive tour of the Territory and by the time Congress had passed the Enabling Act in June, 1910, it was thoroughly organized with suffrage clubs in every county and in all of the larger towns and cities, with a membership of about 3,000 men and women.

Strenuous effort was made to have a majority of the members of the Constitutional Convention pledged to vote for a suffrage plank but it succeeded with only about a third of them. It met in October, 1910, with eleven Republican and thirty-three Democratic members. Through the demands of organized labor backed by a heavy labor vote a very progressive constitution was written. Miss Gregg and Mrs. Munds struggled with the delegates during its entire session to have a full, partial or conditional woman suffrage clause incorporated but to no avail. Members who proudly proclaimed themselves the only original "progressives" were far too timid to put anything so "radical" as woman suffrage in the constitution for fear that the voters would not accept it, and yet those same men wrote into it the initiative and referendum, recall of judges and many other far more radical measures and it was adopted by an overwhelming majority. It was plain that a measure was deemed radical or not according to the voting power behind it. The Republicans were in a minority and only two voted for the suffrage clause, although there were enough Democratic pledges to have carried it with the solid Republican support. The Republicans were for a "safe and sane" constitution, something like the one adopted at the same time by New Mexico, under which women never could get suffrage by State process. One Democrat who offered "to do and die for it" in the convention was Senator Fred Colter of Apache County.

Not at all discouraged by the defeat the women, now aroused and interested, began as soon as the constitution was accepted by the voters and statehood was effected to get ready for the first State election, as now it was necessary to have an amendment submitted by the Legislature and accepted by the electors. Headquarters were established in the house of Mrs. Munds at Prescott and a constant stream of literature and correspondence went out in an effort to elect suffragists to the first State Legislature. The men, however, were so pleased with the members of the Constitutional Convention that a little thing like their voting against woman suffrage did not matter and every one who was a candidate for anything was elected, some to the Legislature and others to the various State offices. George W. P. Hunt, who was president of the convention and had vigorously opposed the suffrage plank, was elected the first Governor of the State. He did recommend in his message to the Legislature that it submit a woman suffrage amendment to the voters. Senator John Hughes, son of former Governor and Mrs. L. C. Hughes, who had done so much to obtain woman suffrage in early territorial days, prepared and introduced such a measure but it failed in both Houses. The Legislature was 90 per cent. Democratic.

It was then determined to use the initiative and collect the requisite number of names on a petition that would compel the Legislature to submit the question. Women in every county volunteered to get these signatures, fifty or sixty altogether, and did the drudgery of canvassing until the required number of signatures were obtained.

After a year's continuous educational work, in September, 1912, the National Association was notified that Arizona was ready for the final contest and asked to send Miss Gregg. She came and again campaigned the State and through her efforts every labor organization pledged its support. Mrs. Alice Park of Palo Alto, California, came at her own expense and took charge of the distribution of literature. Mrs. Munds went to Phoenix and opened headquarters in the Adams Hotel and ten weeks were spent in a most strenuous campaign. The National Association contributed Miss Gregg's salary and expenses, nearly $1,000, and $200 in cash. The rest of the campaign fund was raised in Arizona with the exception of voluntary contributions from suffrage organizations in other States. Dr. Shaw came and spoke for a week in the principal cities, making a tremendous impression. The press with one or two exceptions was favorable and gave generous space. The press work was in charge of Miss Sally Jacobs and Mrs. Maybelle Craig of Phoenix. State Senator H. A. Davis did splendid campaign work and loyal men and women too numerous to mention gave freely of their time and money.

On November 5 the amendment received 13,442 ayes, 6,202 noes, a majority of more than two to one. Every county was carried. The vote was small, as most Mexicans were disfranchised by an educational requirement.

The campaign was conducted without parades or demonstrations of any kind and the saloon-keepers, not realizing the strength of the suffragists, paid no attention to them until the closing days, then suddenly woke up and put forth strong efforts to defeat them but they were too well organized. The campaign closed with no deficit on the books. Later a League of Women Voters was formed and Mrs. M. T. Phelps of Phoenix was elected chairman.

The first State Legislature completely revised the civil and criminal codes of Arizona and without any demand on the part of the women incorporated some excellent laws for women and children. Since then others have been added, partly through the efforts of women legislators.

RATIFICATION. Women have taken so active a part and have been so generally accepted in the political life of the State that it caused scarcely a ripple of excitement when a special session of the Legislature was called by Governor Thomas E. Campbell for the purpose of ratifying the Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment. It convened at noon Feb. 12, 1920, and adjourned at 9:30 p. m. of the same day. The resolution for ratification was introduced jointly by the four women members and passed both Houses without a dissenting vote. Protests from Mrs. Mabel G. Millard and Mrs. Frances Williams of the Iowa and Virginia Associations Opposed to Woman Suffrage were listened to in the Senate with good-natured amusement.

In the second Legislature of the new State, the first after women were enfranchised, Mrs. Frances W. Munds of Prescott served as Senator and Mrs. Rachel Berry of St. Johns as Representative. The third had in the Lower House Mrs. Rosa McKay of Globe, Mrs. Theodora Marsh of Nogales and Mrs. Pauline O'Neill of Phoenix. The fourth had Mrs. McKay and Mrs. H. H. Westover of Yuma.

About ten times as many women as men are teachers in the public schools.


[5] The History is indebted for this chapter to Mrs. Frances W. Munds, president of the State Woman Suffrage Association until women were enfranchised and then elected State Senator.



There was little general suffrage activity in Arkansas before 1911; perhaps the only specific work after 1900 was an occasional article written by Mrs. Chester Jennings of Little Rock and published in various papers in the State. She was called "the keeper of the light." Arkansas was not affiliated with the National American Association prior to 1913, there was only correspondence between individual suffragists and national officers.

In January, 1911, the Political Equality League was organized in Little Rock. This organization came about indirectly as a result of an article written by Mrs. D. D. Terry of this city and published on the front page of the Arkansas Gazette, the largest paper in the State. It was in answer to a scathing criticism of women by another paper for attending the trial of a child victim and was a demand that the suffrage should be given to women.

Immediately following this occurrence Mrs. J. W. Markwell called a public meeting in one of the Methodist churches to discuss this question. She was chairman and Mrs. Rice, Mrs. Terry, Mrs. L. B. Leigh, Mrs. Minnie Rutherford Fuller and members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the College Women's Club, almost to a unit suffragists, were among the prominent women present. They were deeply stirred and as the Legislature was in session they asked for a hearing. This was granted by the Judiciary Committee and they were courteously received, as they stated their desire. They went from the hearing into one of the committee rooms of the Capitol and decided to form a woman suffrage society. The same women with a few others met in the home of Mrs. Markwell that evening. Miss Julia McAlmont Warner was made chairman and the following officers were elected: President, Miss Mary Fletcher; vice-president, Mrs. W. P. Hutton; secretary, Mrs. Jennings; treasurer, Miss Warner, and the name adopted was Woman's Political Equality League. It started with $20 in the treasury—of which $3 were paid by men—Dr. J. W. Markwell, Mr. Boyer and Clio Harper.

The semi-monthly meetings were first held in the public library, one in the afternoon, the other at night, so that working women, teachers and men might attend. The president soon went to Europe and the work passed into the capable hands of Mrs. Hutton. One of the most valuable helpers was Rabbi L. Witt, who always attended and helped out many a program. Leagues were formed in Hot Springs and Pine Bluff and these were the only three prior to 1913 when a State association was organized.

In October, 1913, Mrs. O. F. Ellington was elected president of the Little Rock League. At that time it was holding its meetings in the Chamber of Commerce and few people would climb two flights of stairs to hear a subject discussed in which there was little interest, so the executive board secured the parlors of the City Hall. If the women could accomplish as much in the offices of the City Hall as they did in the parlors no fair-minded person would have objected to their occupancy. Important local, State and national affairs were studied and discussed and prominent State and national speakers addressed that eager body of women.

Under the auspices of the league the first national suffrage May day was observed in Little Rock with speeches from the steps of the Old State House. Seventy-five letters were sent out to prominent men in the State, asking them to make five-minute speeches and after ten days Dr. L. P. Gibson, the well-known physician, was the first to accept. The next morning the Arkansas Gazette told that Dr. Gibson of Little Rock would be one of the speakers and then every man who could arrange to be in town that day accepted his invitation. Among the women who spoke were Mrs. George Pratho, Mrs. Fuller, Mrs. C. E. Rose, Mrs. T. T. Cotnam, Miss Julia Warner, Miss Josephine Miller, Mrs. George E. Cunningham, Mrs. Terry, Mrs. S. S. Wassel, Mrs. E. W. Gibb, Mrs. W. G. Whipple, Mrs. A. Marinana. The intensely interested crowd stood two hours and a half earnestly listening to these leading citizens asking the right of suffrage for Arkansas women.

It had been the custom to disband during the summer months but the summer of 1914 the Political Equality League opened a class for the purpose of studying all the questions of the day and learning something about speaking extemporaneously. In response to a call from the president, Little Rock and Hot Springs sent representatives to a conference held in the former city for the purpose of devising ways and means of forming a State association. An organization committee was formed of the following: Mrs. Ellington, Miss Fletcher, Miss Mary House, Mrs. Rose, Mrs. Leigh, Mrs. Jennings, all of Little Rock; Miss Adele Johnson of Hot Springs. In October the State Woman Suffrage Association was formed in Little Rock at Hotel Marion, with six leagues represented by the following presidents: Hot Springs, Miss Mary Spargo; Pine Bluff, Mrs. L. K. Land; Augusta, Mrs. Rufus Fitzhugh; Malvern, Mrs. Mary Jackson; Hardy, Mrs. S. A. Turner; Fayetteville, Mrs. LeRoy Palmer. The officers elected were, President, Mrs. Ellington; first vice-president, Mrs. Fuller, Magazine; second, Mrs. N. F. Drake, Fayetteville; corresponding secretary, Mrs. P. J. Henry, Hot Springs; recording secretary, Mrs. Cunningham, Little Rock; treasurer, Mrs. Cotnam, Little Rock.

In October, 1915, the first annual meeting took place in Little Rock, eleven counties being represented, and this board was re-elected. The principal business of this convention was to lay plans for the legislative work early in the following year.

In October, 1916, the second annual convention was held in Pine Bluff, its principal work being to devise ways and means of raising money for continuing the organization of the State. Mrs. Cotman presented a feasible plan for raising money which was accepted by the convention. New officers elected were second vice-president, Mrs. J. D. Head, Texarkana; third vice-president, Mrs. J. H. Reynolds, Conway; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Maud O. Clemmons; recording secretary, Mrs. G. D. Henderson, both of Little Rock. Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the National American Suffrage Association, had come to Little Rock in April and spoken most acceptably to a large audience. She held a conference with the State officers and later the association financed a two-months' campaign for organization. Miss Gertrude Watkins and Miss Josephine Miller of Little Rock gave their services for their expenses only and organized sixty committees.[7]

The new Primary law was almost equal to the full suffrage, as where one party is so largely in the majority the primaries decide the elections, and it gave a great impetus to the movement throughout the country, especially in the southern States.

After the Primary bill passed the suffragists re-organized along the lines of the State Democratic party. Where it had a State Central Committee they had an Equal Suffrage State Central Committee and so on through the organization. The object was to teach women how to work through and with political parties but they were not fully enfranchised and could not give up their suffrage organization, therefore they held together on semi-political but non-partisan lines until such time as they could go into the various parties.

At the close of Mrs. Ellington's administration in August, 1917, seventy-eight papers in the State were handling news items each week. Eighty-five organizations had been completed. The Primary bill had been passed by the Legislature and thousands of women had assessed themselves and paid their poll tax of one dollar a year preparatory to voting in the spring elections. Under the law the assessor can put this tax only on male citizens and the women in asking for the Primary suffrage voluntarily assumed it, as no one can vote until it is paid. This was held to be legal by Attorney General John D. Arbuckle.

Mrs. Ellington left Arkansas on August 1 and Mrs. Cotnam was elected by the State Board to take charge of affairs. On November 28 she was elected chairman of the State Suffrage Central Committee upon the receipt of Mrs. Ellington's formal resignation. Mrs. Cotnam appeared before the State Farmers' Union in August and secured a unanimous endorsement of woman suffrage and in September at the meeting of its executive committee she secured a resolution calling on Arkansas Senators and Representatives to vote for the Federal Amendment. She went to New York City in September to take part in the State suffrage campaign. After six weeks she returned to Little Rock, where the great victory won in New York was celebrated at a luncheon in the Marion Hotel. Governor Charles H. Brough was a speaker and prophesied a similar victory in Arkansas.

Dr. Shaw visited Arkansas for the first time on April 3, 1918, and spoke to an immense audience. She came under the auspices of the National Council of Defense, as chairman of the Woman's Committee, but she won many friends for suffrage and the sincere admiration of all.

Active work to assure the writing of woman suffrage in the new State constitution culminated at the first annual meeting of the Equal Suffrage Central Committee on April 2, 1918, when a close organization covering the State was perfected. At this meeting Mrs. Cotnam was re-elected chairman; Mrs. C. T. Drennen of Hot Springs first vice-chairman; Mrs. Stella Brizzolara of Fort Smith second vice-chairman; Mrs. Frank W. Gibb, secretary; Mrs. R. W. Walker of Little Rock, treasurer. The National American Association contributed $1,675 to the campaign. The constitutional convention met the first Monday in July and the suffrage clause was adopted on the third day of the session. Only one man spoke and finally voted against this clause but it was not acceptable to the majority until amended to make jury service for women optional. The suffragists were consulted and agreed because it was plain that a refusal might cause a long drawn out debate. The constitution was defeated at a special election on Dec. 13, 1918, but it was generally conceded that the opposition caused by the suffrage amendment was negligible.

The first State-wide Primary election in which women had the right to vote was held in May, 1918; between 40,000 and 50,000 voted and all papers commented on the intelligence of the new electors. The State Democratic convention met in Little Rock on July 10 and for the first time women delegates were present from many counties. Fifty were seated and more were present in proportion to their representation than were men. They attended in force all minor committee meetings and controlled the action of some of these committees. The Arkansas Gazette of July 11 commented: "It may safely be said that nothing was put over on them by the wily politicians. There wasn't a chance—not a chance in the world." There were women on the platform, the resolutions and all prominent committees. The suffrage plank, as written by the women, was unanimously adopted and for the first time a woman was elected member of the State Central Committee, Mrs. Brizzolara. The one appointed as a member of the Democratic Women's National Committee was Mrs. Head, chairman of her congressional district for the suffrage organization.

On January 14 resolutions were introduced in the Senate by Senator Lee Cazort and the House by Representative J. D. Doyle, memorializing the Senate of the United States to submit the Federal Amendment. They passed unanimously and later were read into the Congressional Record by Senator W. F. Kirby.

RATIFICATION. As soon as the Federal Amendment passed, letters were sent to legislators asking them to agree to a call for a special session. In less than one week answers were received from a majority expressing willingness and even eagerness to hold the ratification session. Many offered to pay their own expenses and waive the regular per diem. With this support in hand a committee of fifty women went to the State House and asked Governor Brough to call a special session. This he agreed to do and set the date for July 28. While the suffragists were never in doubt of ratification they were genuinely surprised to find a few real enemies in the House and to hear some of the moss-grown arguments of 1911. The Senate ratified by a vote of 29 to two and the House by 74 to 15. Henry Ponder of Lawrence county introduced the resolution in the Senate and said he believed his children would be prouder of that act of his than of anything else he might ever do. An identical resolution was introduced in the House by Representatives Riggs, Joe Joiner, Carl Held, Neil Bohlinger and J. D. Doyle. The Senate resolution passed first and went over to the House. The two Senators who voted against it were W. L. Ward, Lee county, and W. H. Latimer, Sevier county. Many women came from over the State to this special session and filled the galleries.

On Dec. 3, 1919, at the second annual meeting the Equal Suffrage Central Committee was merged into a State League of Women Voters and Mrs. Cotnam was elected chairman.

While the suffragists were working for the vote they confined their organized effort to that one measure but it is significant that the same Legislature that passed the Primary bill, gave women the right to practice law and provided for a Girls' Industrial School; that of 1915 removed all legal disabilities of married women.

Miss Josephine Miller and Miss Gertrude Watkins of Little Rock are on the staff of national organizers and Mrs. Cotnam has served as instructor in suffrage schools and also as a speaker in twenty States.

LEGISLATIVE ACTION: 1911. In January Representatives Grant of Newport and Whittington of Hot Springs introduced an equal suffrage resolution in the House. It was not initiated by the suffragists and apparently not introduced to advance woman suffrage, as it was said to contain a "joker." Nevertheless, when it became known that the bill had been introduced they appealed to Representative Hearst of Fayetteville, chairman of the Judiciary Committee, for a hearing. On the day and hour that it had been promised Mrs. Chester Jennings, Mrs. J. W. Markwell, Miss Julia Warner, Mrs. Rutherford Fuller and Mrs. D. D. Terry went to the Capitol but were unable to find either Mr. Hearst or his committee. On March 11, however, the committee met at the Marion Hotel, as it was customary to hold committee meetings at night in the hotel, and a hearing was granted to the women. Miss Olive Gatlin (now Mrs. Leigh) and Mrs. Fuller made excellent speeches which seemed to make an impression. Later the suffrage resolution was reported to the House and received six favorable votes.

1913. House joint resolution giving women the right to vote was introduced by Robert Martin. This year the suffragists had a most successful hearing before the House Committee on Constitutional Amendments. The president of the Senate, W. K. Oldham, Lonoke; Judge W. L. Moose, Morrillton, and Rabbi L. Witt, Little Rock, made eloquent pleas in addition to those of the women. The committee reported the resolution favorably and the vote was 35 for, 55 against.

Between the two Legislatures the State Woman Suffrage Association was formed and its influence was immediately felt in political circles.

1915. Senator George W. Garrett, Okolona, introduced a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the constitution giving women full suffrage and it passed by 23 to 12. The House called a night session for the third reading. A resolution signed by Representatives Yearger of Chico county, Dunlap of Phillips and Wilson of Jefferson to allow a representative of the Woman Suffrage Association ten minutes in which to present the reasons for the enfranchisement of women passed and Mrs. Cotnam was introduced, the first woman ever given the privilege of the floor. The vote was 51 in favor, 18 opposed, with 31 absent. The amendment failed to get on the ballot, as under the Arkansas law only three amendments could be submitted at one election and the next morning before this one could be properly recorded the Federation of Labor had filed an initiated amendment with the Secretary of State and that for suffrage became the fourth. The suffragists tried to get the Federation of Labor to withdraw their amendment, which had no chance of being adopted, but were unsuccessful and it did fail at the general election.

1917. On January 11 Representative John A. Riggs of Hot Springs introduced a joint resolution for the amendment, signed by himself, C. B. Andrews of Nevada county, Stephen P. Meador of Clark and Carl W. Held of Sebastian. Mrs. Ellington, president of the State Suffrage Association, explained to them that it had entered into an agreement with all other State associations at the last national suffrage convention not to go into a referendum campaign without the consent of the National Board, if they expected financial assistance from that organization, and the resolution was withdrawn. On February 7 Representative Riggs introduced what was known as the Primary Bill, which in brief was as follows: "An Act to provide that women may vote in all primary elections: From and after the passage of this act and subject to all the provisions of the laws of this State as to age, residence, citizenship, payment of poll taxes and otherwise regulating the manner and form of holding the same, but especially exempt from every disqualification, direct or indirect, on account of sex, every woman shall have the right to vote at any primary election held under the laws of this State."

This form of suffrage is unique and deserves some explanation. William Hodges, Associate Justice of the Court of Civil Appeals, Texarkana, Texas, suggested the idea to Senator O. S. Lattimore of Fort Worth, who formulated the bill of which the Arkansas bill is substantially a copy. The Texas Legislature defeated it. Mr. Riggs wired for a copy of the bill, had a similar one drawn and submitted it to U. S. Senator Kirby and a number of prominent lawyers, all of whom were unanimous in the belief that it was constitutional. Justice Hodges said, "I have felt deep interest in the suffrage question for several years and the idea of permitting women to participate in Primary elections occurred to me casually as I was thinking of how to meet the stubborn opposition offered in the Texas Legislature to the submission of an amendment to the constitution."[8] Mr. Riggs said his eagerness to pass a suffrage bill was to do justice to the women of Arkansas and to keep a promise to his mother that if he ever was elected to the Legislature he would introduce and work for one.

The Legislature of 1917 was soon discovered to be a progressive assembly and gave promise of success for the bill. Mrs. Ellington decided the time had come to adopt business methods in the suffrage lobby and undertook with Mr. Riggs the whole responsibility of guiding this bill on its eventful journey through the House and Senate. The suffragists held themselves in readiness to do any special work needed, which they did quietly and effectively, seeing legislators when necessary, but the Legislature was not harassed by a large and conspicuous lobby.[9]

Sufficient pledges were secured in both House and Senate before the bill was allowed to come even to a test vote. Judge Josiah Hardage, Arkadelphia, assisted by W. J. Waggoner of Lonoke and James A. Choate of Floyd, led the opposition in the House and conducted the bitterest fight waged during the session. Sixteen men stood solidly with them in all parliamentary tactics in hopes of killing the bill. Nineteen men could delay it but they were destined to defeat when 78 men, led by the astute floor leader, J. O. Johnson of Sebastian county, were determined that it should pass. After several hours' debate the House passed the bill February 15 by 71 ayes, 19 noes, 10 absent.

When the bill came up in the Senate Walker Smith of Magnolia led the opposition, although several days before he had promised Mrs. Head and Mrs. Ellington to vote for it. Senator Houston Emory of Hot Springs guided it to a successful vote on February 27—17 ayes, 15 noes. Senators George F. Brown of Rison, George W. Garrett of Okolona, H. L. Ponder of Walnut Ridge, J. S. Utley of Benton and R. Hill Caruth of Warren aided materially in passing the bill. The first time during the session that every man in the Senate was in his seat to vote was when the Primary bill came up. Two Senators unalterably opposed to woman suffrage had been expelled for bribery and this made its success possible.

The Senate slightly amended the bill and returned it to the House, which accepted it March 6. Never did a man serve the cause of suffrage more loyally or more efficiently than John A. Riggs and the women of Arkansas owe him a lasting debt of gratitude. Governor Brough signed the bill in the evening at a public meeting amid great enthusiasm.

The Legislature met Jan. 13, 1919, after thousands of women had voted at the Primary election. Not one member had been asked to present a resolution proposing a constitutional amendment for woman suffrage. In fact the women were following closely the advice of the National Association and were ardently hoping to avoid a State campaign. They were reckoning from past experiences but times had changed. Twenty-five men came ready to propose a full suffrage amendment; Representative Riggs, the father of the Primary bill, was the first man on the floor after the House was organized and his bill got first place on the calendar. It passed the Senate January 30 by 27 to one, and the House February 3 by 73 to three. In November it went to the voters and was defeated. It received the largest favorable vote of any of the amendments submitted but not a majority of the largest number cast at the election, as required by the constitution. The women had felt certain that this would be impossible. In August, 1920, full suffrage was conferred by the Federal Amendment.


[6] The History is indebted for this chapter to Mrs. O. F. Ellington, president of the State Woman Suffrage Association, 1914-1917, and Mrs. T. T. Cotnam, State treasurer during these years and chairman of the State Suffrage Central Committee from 1917.

[7] The following officers were elected: Chairman, Mrs. Ellington; secretary, Mrs. Gibb, Little Rock. Finance Committee: Chairman, Mrs. Cotnam; Mrs. C. C. Cate, Jonesboro; Mrs. Land, Mrs. William Ells, Texarkana; Mrs. W. H. Connell, Hot Springs. Committee that framed constitution: Mrs. Fuller, Magazine; Mrs. Head, Mrs. Blaisdell, Hot Springs; Congressional chairman, Mrs. Ada Roussans, Jonesboro; Mrs. Fitzhugh, Mrs. H. E. Morrow, Mrs. Head, Mrs. W. L. Moose, Mrs. Drennan, Mrs. Garland Street, district chairmen.

[8] In June, 1912, Miss Kate Gordon offered a Primary bill as a substitute for the constitutional amendment in the Louisiana Legislature, but it never came out of committee. Miss Gordon said: "The idea came to me as a solution of the woman suffrage question in a flash and it struck me as a good one. The Primary idea was mine as early as 1912."

[9] Most of the women whose names are mentioned in this chapter, with the addition of Mrs. John P. Ahmand, Mrs. De Mott Henderson and Miss Jennie De Neler, did valuable legislative work during this and other sessions.



The first ten years of the new century—Woman's Century—were years of laborious effort in California to educate the public mind and familiarize it with the idea of "votes for women." At the beginning of the second decade the State had given them the complete suffrage and at its close the women of the entire nation were enfranchised by an amendment to the Federal Constitution.

A resubmission of the question in California could not be expected for several years after the defeat of a constitutional amendment in 1896, although no subsequent Legislature met without discussing the subject and voting on some phase of it. The liquor interests continued a persistent opposition but the suffrage association had a powerful ally in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, with its franchise department and its well organized army of workers, and, although somewhat discouraged for a few years, held its annual convention and reorganization was gradually effected. The State convention of 1900 met December 14, 15, in Golden Gate Hall, San Francisco, with the president, Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, in the chair. A resolution was adopted commending the former State president, Ellen Clark (Mrs. Aaron A.) Sargent, for instituting suit against the tax collector for the return of her taxes paid in San Francisco under written protest. [See Volume IV, page 504.] The members were urged to file a protest when paying taxes because they had no representation. It was declared that the time was opportune for organized effort to have the Legislature again submit an amendment to the voters. A vote of thanks was given to Miss Clara Schlingheyde for her success in obtaining donations for the national suffrage bazaar in New York and appreciation expressed for the generous response of California people, especially for the donation of William Keith, the artist, of his picture, Spring in the Napa Valley. Mrs. Swift having served four years as president declined to hold the office longer and Mrs. Mary S. Sperry retired as treasurer after serving seven years. The following board was elected: Honorary presidents, Mrs. Sargent of San Francisco and Mrs. Ellen Knox Goodrich of San Jose; president, Mrs. Annie R. Wood, Alameda; first, second and third vice-presidents, Mrs. Lovell White, San Francisco, Mrs. E. O. Smith, San Jose, Mrs. Annie K. Bidwell, Chico; corresponding secretary, Miss Carrie Whelan, Oakland; recording secretary, Mrs. Dorothy Harnden; treasurer, Miss Schlingheyde, both of San Francisco; auditors, Mrs. A. K. Spero and Mrs. Keith.

A visit in 1901 from Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the National American Suffrage Association, greatly encouraged the clubs. Acting upon her urgent request, Mrs. Keith revived the Berkeley club, which soon doubled its membership and with the Oakland and Alameda clubs became a strong influence. There were three clubs in San Francisco and an active organization in Santa Clara county, made up of San Jose, Palo Alto and other clubs. Mrs. May Wright Sewall, president of the International Council of Women, came for an extended course of lectures in the interest of women's advancement. Women's organizations urged many changes in the unjust community property law, the W. C. T. U., the Women's Parliament of Southern California and the State Suffrage Association sending representatives to plead with the legislators. A School suffrage bill passed the House and was defeated by only seven votes in the Senate and there was constant agitation. The State convention this year was held at San Francisco in Yosemite Hall, Native Sons' Building, October 18, 19, with a large number of delegates and an interesting program. Executive board meetings had been held throughout the year and it was reported that eighty papers were publishing suffrage matter sent them. Mrs. Leland Stanford in an interview in the San Francisco Examiner had declared herself in favor of woman suffrage and a letter of appreciation was sent to her.

The annual convention met October 24, 25, 1902, in Century Hall, San Francisco, with a large attendance and many excellent speakers, among them Dr. David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University, and B. Fay Mills, the noted revivalist. Greetings were read from Miss Susan B. Anthony, Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton, the national treasurer, and Mrs. Caroline M. Severance, the loved pioneer, now in her 83rd year, who had come from the East to Los Angeles over twenty years before. The reports showed that the board had been in constant communication with the national officers; an organizer, Mrs. Florence Stoddard, had been engaged; the treasury receipts were increasing; eighteen new clubs were recorded and there was general progress. Miss Vida Goldstein, a prominent suffrage leader of Australia, had been the guest of the association and a letter was sent to the Woman's Council of Australia, expressing gratitude for the assistance she had been in the United States. Australia's recent enfranchisement of her 800,000 women with eligibility to the national Parliament had given great encouragement to those of California. Mrs. Sperry was persuaded to take the presidency.[11] An interesting event reported was a suffrage meeting of the Sierra Club of mountain lovers one summer evening in King's River Canyon, where it was encamped. In the audience of over two hundred prominent men and women were Professor Joseph Le Conte, John Muir, William Keith, Dr. C. Hart Merriam, head of the U. S. biological department and Dr. Gannett, of the geological department.

The State convention of 1903 met in Golden Gate Hall, San Francisco, November 18, 19. Among the addresses of welcome was one by the Rev. Bradford Leavitt of the Unitarian church and one by President Benham of the city Labor Council. Mrs. Sargent and Mrs. E. O. Smith paid tributes to the memory of the association's honorary president, Mrs. Sarah Knox Goodrich, a devoted supporter of the cause for the past thirty-five years. Greetings were read from Miss Anthony, Henry B. and Alice Stone Blackwell, Mrs. Upton and Mrs. L. F. Darling, president of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. Miss Gail Laughlin, a young lawyer from the East, who was now State organizer, was among the speakers, and Albert H. Elliott, a San Francisco lawyer, gave an instructive talk on California Laws for Women. The executive board made the excellent appointment of Dr. Alida C. Avery of San Jose as historian. One hundred dollars were sent to the national board for use in the New Hampshire campaign. The State association endorsed Mrs. Sargent's protest against a referendum vote on the issuing of San Francisco's city bonds in which women were not allowed to take part.

A question considered at many board meetings had been the advisability of trying to obtain from the Legislature another submission of an amendment. The Los Angeles Suffrage League was waiting to know what action would be taken. Mrs. Catt had written that it might be well to make the effort and so a resolution was unanimously adopted to ask this of the session of 1905. A letter had been sent by Mrs. Catt suggesting plans of work to this end for the coming year and one was received from Miss Anthony asking that Mrs. Stanton's birthday be celebrated on November 12.

The Los Angeles Equal Suffrage Society had not affiliated with the State Association because of the long distance to San Francisco and the announcement by Mrs. Sperry that the affiliation had now been made was enthusiastically received. The movement had been active in Southern California, where federations, parliaments and societies of many kinds flourished, and the Woman Suffrage League had held monthly meetings. Besides Mrs. Severance, another pioneer suffragist had come there from the East many years ago, Mrs. Rebecca Spring, now past 90 and still alert and interested. Mrs. Clara Shortridge Foltz, Mrs. Alice Moore McComas and Mrs. Almeda B. Grey were still among the capable and valued workers.

In answer to an invitation from the Los Angeles city and county suffrage leagues the State convention of 1904 was held in the Woman's Club House, October 6, 7, with three sessions daily. Articles of incorporation had been drawn by George C. Sargent of San Francisco and filed with the Secretary of State, and the State organization had been incorporated under the name of the California Equal Suffrage Association. The convention was welcomed by Mrs. Ada J. Lingley and Mrs. Mabel V. Osborne, county and city presidents. Mrs. Sperry in responding expressed her great pleasure that Northern and Southern California would now work together for woman suffrage. The report of Miss Laughlin, State organizer, showed that fifty-two new clubs had been formed and that the membership had more than doubled in the past year, and the treasurer, Miss Schlingheyde, told of $2,063 contributed for organization work. Subscriptions to the amount of $1,110 were made, Mrs. Keith leading with $500. Miss Amanda Way, an Indiana pioneer, now of Whittier, made her offering. Mayor M. P. Snyder, Judge Waldo M. Yorke, the Rev. Eliza Tupper Wilkes and a long list of able speakers addressed the evening meetings. Strong resolutions presented by the chairman of the committee, Mrs. Nellie Holbrook Blinn, were adopted. Mrs. Severance and Mrs. Spring were made honorary presidents.

The work for the coming months was to secure a large petition to the Legislature for the submission of a woman suffrage amendment and Mrs. Osborne was appointed chairman of the committee. Heading the 15,000 names which were eventually obtained were those of Governor George C. Pardee, President David Starr Jordan, U. S. Senator George C. Perkins, W. S. Goodfellow, T. C. Coogan, Fred S. Stratton, A. A. Moore, George A. Knight, Henry J. Crocker, William H. Mills, Lovell White, M. B. Woodworth, Congressman James G. Maguire, Judge Carrol Cook and F. J. Murasky, all men of influence. The amendment was endorsed by the State association of 1,000 teachers. With the aid of the National Association 10,000 copies of Mrs. Catt's leaflet, Do You Know? were circulated.

The suffrage leaders made a vigorous effort at Sacramento at the next legislative session in 1905 but the measure was defeated in both Houses. California's full delegation of fourteen was in attendance at the annual convention of the National American Suffrage Association in Portland, Ore., in June. On the way from Portland Miss Anthony, Dr. Anna Howard Shaw and several other eastern delegates stopped at Chico, the home of Mrs. Bidwell, vice-president of the State association, where Miss Anthony spoke at the dedication of a magnificent park of 2,200 acres which she was presenting to the town. They were royally entertained in California, beginning with a public reception at the Sequoia Hotel in San Francisco. This was followed by others in Oakland, East Oakland and Berkeley, attended by hundreds. A mass meeting of 1,500 was arranged by the Equal Suffrage League in the Alhambra Theater, San Francisco.[12] Similar meetings and receptions awaited them in Southern California and they addressed an audience of 10,000 at Venice, the noted seaside resort.

The State convention met in Wheeler's Auditorium, San Francisco, in October. Deep interest had been felt in the campaign for a woman suffrage amendment carried on in Oregon during the summer and the association had wished to assist with money, organizers and speakers. For this purpose the entire contents of the treasury, about $500, were contributed and clubs and individuals sent more than that amount. Mrs. Keith gave $1,000 in the name of the State the following year.

The year 1906 opened auspiciously. In all parts of the State the clubs were holding public meetings, supplying columns of suffrage matter to the newspapers, now largely willing to publish them, and preparing for a siege of the next Legislature. In April the city was almost destroyed by fire and earthquake. One month afterwards the State board of officers met with a full quorum, ready to begin the effort to obtain woman suffrage planks in the platforms of the political parties at the approaching State conventions. This was accomplished in all but that of the dominant Republican party. The work was continued throughout the State of securing resolutions of endorsement from various kinds of organizations and by the end of the year these included a dozen State associations, and with societies other than suffrage in the different cities the list filled two pages of a leaflet sent out from the headquarters. The annual convention was held in Calvary Presbyterian Church, San Francisco, October 5, 6, with an attractive program of men and women speakers. The initial number of The Yellow Ribbon, a monthly magazine edited by Mrs. Katharine Reed Balentine in the interest of woman suffrage on the Pacific coast, was distributed among the delegates.

The State convention of 1907 met in October in the Ebell Club House of Oakland, where excellent arrangements had been made by the various committees, and it was the most satisfactory yet held. There was a program of very good speakers, well-known men among them, and Mrs. Maud Wood Park of Boston was a guest of the convention. The chairman of the Press Committee, Mrs. Mabel Craft Deering, reported that 203 newspapers were using all the suffrage matter sent them. The chairman of the State Central Committee, Mrs. Lillian Harris Coffin, said that all the labor leaders were standing for woman suffrage. It was announced that headquarters for pushing the submission of an amendment would be established in Sacramento as soon as the Legislature opened in January. There was a resolution on the death of Mrs. Laura de Force Gordon, the pioneer lawyer and suffragist. The work conference conducted by Mrs. Coffin was a valuable feature of the convention. Over 5,000 clubwomen outside of the suffrage clubs had now declared for suffrage.

In January, 1908, Mrs. Maud Wood Park was invited to address the students of the State University in Berkeley at the Friday morning meeting and Professor Morse Stephens said he never heard as able a presentation of any subject in so short a time. She organized branches of the National College Equal Suffrage League here and at Leland Stanford University. All conventions during the year were asked through Mrs. Keith's committee to adopt woman suffrage resolutions and many of them did so. Steps were taken through the State Central and Legislative Committees to interview candidates for the Legislature and pledge them after they were elected. The convention was held at the California Club House, San Francisco, October 2, 3. The work conference was conducted by Mrs. Keith.

In 1909 strenuous work was done with the Legislature but it again refused to submit the suffrage amendment, which it was the general opinion the voters would adopt if given an opportunity. The official board sent a telegram to President Roosevelt asking him in the name of 10,000 California women to recommend woman suffrage in his last message to Congress but without effect. Committees were appointed for Northern and Southern California and a chairman in each county to collect signatures to the petition of the National Association to Congress to submit a Federal Amendment. The State convention was held in Stockton September 30-October 2, one of the largest on record. It was welcomed by the Mayor and the president of the chamber of commerce with a response by Mrs. Sperry and there were greetings from a number of organizations of various kinds. The addresses were of a high order and among the speakers were Franklin Hichborn, J. N. Stuckenbruck, member of the Legislature; Mrs. Sturtevant Peet, for sixteen years president of the State W. C.T. U.; Thomas E. Hayden, president of the San Francisco Board of Education; Mrs. Elinor Carlisle of the Berkeley board and Mrs. James B. Hume, president of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. Mrs. Sperry, who had filled the office of president for seven years, insisted upon retiring and Mrs. Elizabeth Lowe Watson, a minister, lecturer, writer and philanthropist, president of the Santa Clara Club, was prevailed upon to accept the office. Mrs. Sperry, Mrs. Swift, Miss Sarah Severance and Dr. Jordan were added to the list of honorary presidents. A full delegation had attended the national convention at Seattle in July.

After the earthquake and fire in 1906 headquarters had been established at 2419 California St., conveniently fitted up in part of a dwelling house adjoining the residence of Mrs. Sargent, who presided and dispensed hospitality at the monthly board meetings. By 1910 larger and more central accommodations were needed and commodious headquarters were secured in the Pacific Building, corner of Market and Fourth Streets. Here the increasing business of the association was transacted and free lectures were given. Mrs. Alice Park, as chairman, superintended the wide distribution of literature throughout the State. The association's committees on Child Labor, Education, Peace and other public questions were actively at work. The committee on Petitions to the Legislature for the submission of a woman suffrage amendment to the voters, of which Mrs. Sperry was chairman, secured 14,000 signatures. Mrs. Lowe Watson said in her report to the national convention that splendid work was being done in organization through the generous financial aid of Mrs. Keith and Mrs. Charles D. Blaney. House to house canvasses were being made and assembly district and precinct clubs formed. Mrs. Keith gave $100 a month during 1909 and 1910 to this and other headquarters work, largely financed the legislative work and frequently bore the principal expense of State conventions.[13] Space was freely granted in most of the newspapers and many were giving editorial endorsement. The College Women's Equal Suffrage Leagues were active and the subject of the universities' intercollegiate debate for the year was: Resolved that the ballot should be extended to women. Men's Auxiliary Leagues were formed in Northern and Southern California. A Votes for Women business club and a Wage Earners' club were organized in San Francisco and did important work. There were five downtown suffrage headquarters. Most of the women's clubs had introduced a civic section. Mrs. Lowe Watson lectured before labor unions, church societies, W. C. T. U.'s, "native daughters," women's clubs and suffrage clubs. The throng on Socialists' "woman's day" filled one of the largest halls in San Francisco and at the close of her address gave a unanimous standing vote for equal suffrage.

The annual suffrage convention took place Sept. 30, Oct. 1, 1910, in the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, the 40th that had been held in the State. The long program of prominent speakers, fraternal greetings, committee and club reports, showed the gathering weight and importance of the movement. J. Stitt Wilson, Mayor of Berkeley and Socialist candidate for Governor, made a most encouraging address and J. H. Braly, an influential citizen of Pasadena, came to tell of what was being accomplished in Southern California. The visits of the national officers, Professor Frances Squire Potter, Mrs. Florence Kelley and Mrs. Ella S. Stewart had greatly inspired the workers and the favorable action of the next Legislature seemed almost certain.

For the past year California had been in the midst of a crucial political campaign. The State government for forty years had been the servant of a powerful political "machine" controlled by large public service corporations. The people had tired of it and public opinion was ripe for a change. The "progressive Republicans," as they were called, came into power at the election of November, 1910, and Hiram W. Johnson was elected Governor to carry out their reforms, woman suffrage being one of them.

The Legislative Committee was composed of Mrs. Coffin, Mrs. Blaney, Mrs. Edson and Mrs. Arthur Cornwall Juilliard. Senator Charles W. Bell of Pasadena had continuously stood for woman suffrage in the face of the opposition of the Senate and in the organization of the Legislature he was made chairman of the Republican caucus. Assemblyman A. H. Hewitt of Yuba City, also a staunch friend of years' standing, took charge of the amendment in the House and when elected Speaker he placed it in the hands of Assemblyman Cattell of Pasadena, who made it his chief interest. The Anti-Suffrage organization of women for the first time maintained a lobby at the Capitol. The amendment was introduced in both Houses the first week of the session. The Judiciary Committee of the Senate granted a hearing on the evening of Jan. 18, 1911. The crowd was so large it had to be held in the Senate chamber, and gallery, aisles and lobby were filled. Mrs. Katharine Philips Edson of Los Angeles introduced the speakers and Mrs. Elizabeth Gerberding of San Francisco made the opening argument. Miss Maude Younger spoke in behalf of the working women; Miss Ethel Moore and Mrs. Cornelia McKinne Stanwood of the College Equal Suffrage League represented the children and the women of the State; Mrs. Coffin, speaking for the State Suffrage Association, urged the legislators to stand by the suffrage plank in their party platforms. Mrs. Shelley Tolhurst closed the appeal. Then Mrs. George A. Caswell of Los Angeles, representing the women anti-suffragists, read a paper of fifty minutes.

Possibly there was no measure before the Legislature in which deeper interest was manifested or which had the urge of stronger public sentiment. Lieutenant Governor A. J. Wallace of Los Angeles was a true friend and Senator A. E. Boynton of Marysville, president pro tem., had for years loyally supported it. The Los Angeles delegation with but few exceptions were pledged in favor. Many opponents of years' standing, feeling the pressure of popularity, were prepared to capitulate. Senator J. B. Sanford of Ukiah, who had long been a thorn in the flesh of the suffrage lobby, attempted to block it but was prevented by Senator Louis Juilliard and a spirited debate was led by Senator Lee C. Gates of Los Angeles, a leader of progressive measures. On January 26 the amendment came up for third reading and final passage. There was no need of further debate but each Senator seemed desirous of paying his tribute. It received 35 ayes and the opposition could muster only five votes. The Senate resolution was submitted in the Assembly and voted on February 2. Gallery and lobbies were thronged and only time limited the oratory. It received 66 ayes, 12 noes. Governor Johnson had insisted on the submission of the amendment as a party pledge.

Pink roses were sent by the committee to Mrs. Johnson, wife of the Governor, and violets to Mrs. Wallace for their helpful cooperation. Cordial appreciation was expressed to the wives of Senators and Assemblymen who did yeoman service, among them Mrs. Bell, Mrs. Gates, Mrs. Henry Ward Beecher Brown, Mrs. Miguel Estidillo and Mrs. Cattell.

After the adjournment of the Legislature a conference was called by the Progressive leaders to outline the plan of campaign for the many amendments which had been submitted and it was decided not to mention the suffrage amendment, as much needed contributions had been made on this condition lest it might cause some of the others to be defeated. There was strenuous objection to this plan by some of its friends but the majority prevailed. Governor Johnson was present at the meeting and carried out its program during the entire campaign, not referring to the suffrage amendment in his speeches. It was said that he expected it to lose and did not want to jeopardize the amendments which would enable the voters to take the law-making power into their own hands and secure all desired reforms. A notable exception among the official speakers was Francis J. Heney, who never failed to include it with the others in his appeals to the voters.

The general political situation in California at the time, however, favored the suffrage campaign. The five parties had put a woman suffrage plank in their platforms and the voters could concentrate their attention on the twenty-three proposed constitutional amendments, for which a special election was called October 10. There were but eight months for what would have to be a "whirlwind campaign." The president of the State association, Mrs. Lowe Watson, said in her report to the next national suffrage convention:

The situation was very different from that of 1895-96. Not only were the suffragists better organized but as a result of the previous campaign, in which the National Association largely participated, there were earnest suffragists in every kind of association in the State, in the Federated Women's Clubs; the W. C. T. U., with a franchise department in every local; the Socialist party, the State Grange and the ever-growing Labor Unions. We determined to make a strenuous effort to get into touch with every progressive element. Our State Campaign Committee, with headquarters in San Francisco, consisted of chairmen of the ten departments of work.... In addition we had an Advisory Council composed of picked men and women over the State. During the two preceding years the State association had been carrying forward organization work under the able supervision of Mrs. Helen Moore as chairman but there still remained much to be done. Our territory was large, a portion of it immensely difficult. It was conceded that a house to house canvass was of the utmost importance, particularly in the large cities.

The suffragists of Southern California, whose work with the Legislature had been of incalculable value, led by J. H. Braly, president of the Los Angeles Political Equality League, assumed the responsibility of caring for the ten counties south of the Tehachapi Pass and nobly did they fulfil all expectations. We realized that the great "interests" were arrayed against us. Untold money was at the command of our enemies and they were schooled in political methods. We had little money and less political experience but we had consecration of purpose and we gave ourselves to the work, North and South, with unbounded enthusiasm....

There was scarcely a corner of the State unvisited by good speakers. Under the supervision of Mrs. Rose M. French, the State association issued 3,000,000 pages of literature, while the College Women's Equal Suffrage League and other organizations in the North, and the Political Equality League of Los Angeles, also published countless thousands of leaflets, besides ordering many from the National Association. Under the tactful management of Mrs. Ringrose, 50,000 Catholic leaflets were distributed at the doors of Catholic churches. The picture slides and stereopticon talks, superintended by Mrs. Lucretia Watson Taylor, were very effective, particularly in the outlying districts. Posters, pennants and banners played a conspicuous part in the campaign. The attendance at the meetings held in theaters, churches, halls and on the street corners was surprisingly large and in many instances splendidly enthusiastic. The attitude of the public generally was respectful and often profoundly sympathetic. Our country clubs and county organizations followed closely the plans recommended by the State association. It was purely an educational campaign, without one shadow of partisanship or militant methods. The victory in the State of Washington in 1910 and the manner in which the enfranchised women used their newly acquired power contributed much to the success in California. The pulpit and the press were also largely with us. We worked hard to make sure of these two great instrumentalities for the education of the people.

Our inland co-workers largely financed their own special lines of propaganda. The generous contributions of the National Association and the smaller personal donations through that body, amounting altogether to about $1,800, and the noble work of the national vice-president, Mrs. Catharine Waugh McCulloch, were a large factor in our success. The Woman Suffrage Party of New York sent us able speakers. Among our many good fortunes was the coming of the National Education Association convention to San Francisco. Miss Gail Laughlin was of immense service as a speaker and as chairman of the Election Committee....

The State association disbursed about $10,000, not counting the expenses in Southern California. Mrs. Keith contributed $3,000 within the year; Mrs. Anna K. Bidwell $1,000 through the State treasury, besides assisting her own county organization. Mrs. Charles D. Blaney gave generous sums, while others in an equally liberal spirit donated from $200 down to one, according to their means; and others again, having no gold or precious stones, gave what was best of all, themselves, nobly, untiringly, out of their love for justice.

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