The Illustrated War News, Number 15, Nov. 18, 1914
Author: Various
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_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—II

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Tobacco and Cigarettes


From all quarters we hear the same simple request: "SEND US TOBACCO AND CIGARETTES"


It would be well if those wishing to send Tobacco or Cigarettes to our soldiers would remember those still in Great Britain. There are thousands of Regulars and Territorials awaiting orders and in sending a present now you are assured of reaching your man.

Supplies may be obtained from the usual trade sources and we shall be glad to furnish any information on application.


John Player & Sons, Nottingham, will (through the Proprietors for Export, The British-American Tobacco Co., Ltd.) be pleased to arrange for supplies of these world-renowned Brands to be forwarded to the Front at Duty Free Rates.


Castle Tobacco Factory, Nottingham.

P.438 Branch of The Imperial Tobacco Co. (of Gt. Britain & Ireland), Ltd.


_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—1

The Illustrated War News.

_____________ 2—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.


* * * * *

Our gracious Sovereign—more so even than his deceased father, who had also a conspicuous gift that way—has ever shown a singular felicity in voicing the sentiments of his people, but never more so than when he sent this message to Sir John French: "The splendid pluck, spirit, and endurance shown by my troops in the desperate fighting which has continued for so many days against vastly superior forces fills me with admiration." That sovereign message to his heroic soldiers—such as his ancestor Henry V. might have addressed to his 10,000 long-enduring conquerors on the night of Agincourt—was nobly supplemented by this passage from the following day's Speech from the Throne: "My Navy and Army continue, throughout the area of conflict, to maintain in full measure their glorious traditions. We watch and follow their steadfastness and valour with thankfulness and pride, and there is, throughout my Empire, a fixed determination to secure, at whatever sacrifice, the triumph of our arms and the vindication of our cause."

The Admiralty stated on Nov. 11, "This search resulted on Oct. 30 in the 'Koenigsberg' being discovered by H.M.S. 'Chatham' (Captain Sidney R. Drury-Lowe, R.N.) hiding in shoal water about six miles up the Rufigi Ritter.... (German East Africa) ... She is now imprisoned, and unable to do any further harm."—[Photo. by Elliott and Fry.]

Captain Glossop received the following message from the First Lord of the Admiralty: "Warmest congratulations on the brilliant entry of the Australian Navy into the war, and the signal service rendered to the Allied cause and to peaceful commerce by the destruction of the 'Emden.'"

Photograph by Lafayette.

While it fell to H.M.A.S. "Sydney" to bring the "Emden" to action, another vessel of the Australian Navy, the "Melbourne," also joined in the pursuit. The Admiralty stated that a "large combined operation by fast cruisers against the 'Emden' has been for some time in progress. In this search, which covered an immense area, the British cruisers have been aided by French, Russian, and Japanese vessels working in harmony. H.M.A.S. 'Melbourne' and 'Sydney' were also included in these movements."

Photograph by Sport and General.

At whatever sacrifice! And that promises to be terrible. For what will be the sacrifice entailed by two years of war—to put its duration at a moderate estimate—if our casualties in life and limb alone (compared with which our millions of money are as nothing) amounted, according to an official statement in Parliament, to about 57,000 of all ranks up to the end of October, and it is believed that 10,000 at least must be added for the first ten days of November? Of course, by far the larger portion of those casualties are "wounded," of whom, according to one of the Netley authorities, nine in ten at least ought to recover; while those casualties also include "missing," or "prisoners," of whom the Germans claim to have now more than 16,000 in their keeping. In the Boer War our "wounded" amounted to 22,829, of which only 2018 proved fatal cases; while our total casualties for over two and a-half years of warfare, including 13,250 deaths from disease—which, in every campaign, is always far more fatal than lead or steel—figured up to 52,204, as compared with 57,000 in France and Belgium for only three months, or considerably more than twice the number of men (26,000) whom we landed in the Crimea; while the purely British contingent of Wellington's "Allies" at Waterloo was returned at something like 24,000.

[Continued overleaf.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—3

Much has been said of the elaborate character of the German entrenchments, and of the British genius for comfort developed in our own lines, but it is doubtful whether anything done by either side in that direction has surpassed the chef-d'oeuvre of an ingenious French engineer shown in our illustration. At one point in the French trenches not seven hundred yards from those of the enemy, and within two miles of the German artillery, he constructed an up-to-date bathing establishment, with a heating apparatus and a shower-bath! The apartment was fitted with a stove, benches, clothes-pegs, and curtains; and adjoining the salle de douches, or shower-bath room, was fitted up a salle de coiffure. There was even talk of enlivening the bathing hour with music and a topical revue.

_____________ 4—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

It was stated recently that two Zeppelins, armed with machine-guns, circle continually on guard above the Kaiser's private apartments in his headquarters at Coblentz.

It must be remembered, too, that the casualties referred to—being confined to "the western area of the war"—do not include our losses at sea, which comprise few "wounded" and no "missing." At sea it is either neck or nothing, sink or swim: a modern battle-ship, if holed and exploded, like the Good Hope and the Monmouth off the coast of Chile, going to the bottom, and most of her crew with her, like Kempenfelt's oaken Royal George—

Brave Kempenfelt is gone, His victories are o'er; And he and his eight hundred Will plough the waves no more.

Thus if our casualties at sea, which are mainly of one kind only, be added up, they will probably be found to exceed our deaths on land, which are always much less numerous than other kinds of losses; yet the mortality of our battlefields has been mournful enough, especially among officers—where the death percentage has been higher than in any other war we ever waged.

On the other hand, the Germans have had to pay a fearful price for the death-toll they have exacted of us and our Allies, seeing that, according to their own official admission, their casualties to the end of September amounted to over 500,000 for the Prussian army alone, while the corresponding figures for Bavaria, Wuertemberg, Baden, and other States have to be added; so that the estimate of Mr. Hilaire Belloc that the total losses of the Germans up to date must be somewhere near a million and three-quarters men would appear to be not very far out.

Well now, supposing that the war were to last for two years, it follows that, at the same rate of loss, the German casualties would amount to 12,250,000, which is almost unthinkable. Its very destructiveness should tend to shorten the duration of this terrible war. As Mr. Asquith said at the opening of Parliament, in a curiously cryptic and significant passage: "The war may last long. I doubt myself if it will last as long as many people originally predicted." God grant that this may be so!

But in the meantime there are no signs of any abatement of fury on the part of the Imperial Hun of Berlin, who stamps, and struts, and rages like Pistol on the field of Agincourt; and "Bid him prepare, for I will cut his throat!" is ever the burden of his objurgations. How different from the calm, serene, dignified utterances of our own gracious Sovereign and the despatches of his Generals are the minatory rantings of the Kaiser, his von Klucks, and his Crown Princes of Bavaria, with their vicious appeals to the worst passions of their soldiers against the English as the most bitterly hated of all their foes!

[Continued overleaf.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—5

Full of years and honours, Lord Roberts has met death upon the Field of Honour as surely as though he had died fighting at the head of the brave soldiers whom he loved so well. To enumerate his qualities: indomitable courage, keen intelligence, broad humanity, is to gild refined gold. At the call of duty he visited the Army and the Indian soldiers in France, despite his eighty-two years; there he caught a chill and passed peacefully away. The message to Lady Roberts by Field-Marshall Sir John French will find universal echo: "...Your grief is shared by us who mourn the loss of a much-loved chief ... It seems a fitter ending to the life of so great a soldier that he should have passed away in the midst of the troops he loved so well and within the sound of the guns."

_____________ 6—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

When the "Niger" was torpedoed, Captain Muir was on the bridge and was severely injured by the explosion, but remained at his post till every officer and man had left the ship. He was taken ashore at Deal in a boat and had to be at once placed in hospital.—[Photo. by Russell.]

Most bitterly hated, but at the same time most formidable—as the Germans themselves now generally admit, and hence all those tears of rage—hinc illae lacrymae. Even when the Prussian Guards—not to speak of the vaunted Brandenburgers and Bavarians—can make no impression on the British lines in Belgium, it should at last break in upon the German General Staff that they are somewhat out in their calculations. The word "contemptible" is never used now in relation to Sir John French's army, and it will be used still less when this army shall have been reinforced by the million of men apart altogether from the Territorials which are now under training to supplement it, while a further million has now, in turn, been asked for and will be cheerfully raised, with the help of the additional vote of credit for L250,000,000—which was just about the cost of the Boer War, and L25,000,000 more than the French indemnity of 1870—which will be willingly granted by Parliament for the conduct of a war that is said to be costing us about L7,000,000 a week. When a young man throws all his soul into his training and ardently wants to become a soldier, his progress will be at least three times as quick as that of the dull, driven conscript; and that is why Lord Kitchener has told us that the new million-man'd army which popularly bears his name, though it might just as well be called after the King—has already been making a wonderful advance towards field-efficiency.

The "Niger," a torpedo-gunboat of 810 tons, built in 1892, was torpedoed by a German submarine while lying off Deal about noon on the 11th, and foundered. The Admiralty stated: "All the officers and 77 of the men were saved; two of the men are severely and two slightly injured. It is thought there was no loss of life."—[Photo. by L.N.A.]

The English writer of one of the many war-books now before the public—"The German Army From Within," by one who has served in it as an officer, tells us that he calculates one of our "Tommies" to be at least equal to three "Hans Wursts"; and when the personal equation is taken into account—the value of individual character and initiative—the estimate will not seem to be exaggerated. In fact, it has been proved to be correct by the opinion of all our best judges in the field itself, as well as by the results of the fighting when the odds against us have been invariably three to one, in spite of which we have always managed, not only to maintain our ground, but also to encroach on that of our antagonists.

Hence it follows that a so-called "Kitchener" army of a million men ought to have for us a military value of at least three millions as against the Germans—the more so since their best first-line troops have already been used up, and replaced with beardless boys and most corpulent greybeards. This is not a fanciful description; it corresponds with the reports sent home by "Eye-Witness" at Headquarters and other reliable observers; while there is an absolute consensus of statement that our soldiers enjoy a commissariat system which is at once the admiration of their French friends and the sheer envy and despair of their German foes. The fact alone that our men are better found and better fed than the enemy gives them an advantage over and above their three-to-one equivalent of the individual kind.

[Continued overleaf.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—7

The devastating effect of shell-fire on human habitations is brought out with appealing effect by the photograph which we give above of the scene in one of the ill-fated Belgian townships on the frontier of West Flanders. Wrecked and ruined houses with their walls leaning over and tottering, about to fall in ruin, and the heaps of littered debris in the street tell a fearful tale of what the havoc from a bombardment by heavy projectiles means for the hapless inhabitants of the place. The tremendous force of the impact with which the shells crash down is shown at the same time by the man seen in the foreground of the photograph standing up to the waist in one of the gaping cavities in the ground that the shells make where they strike. In some of the houses they smash through from roof to cellar.—[Photo. by Illus. Bureau.]

_____________ 8—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Major the Hon. William Cadogan, son of Earl Cadogan, and Equerry to the Prince of Wales, was killed while commanding the 10th Hussars in place of the Colonel, who had been wounded. Major Cadogan had been sharing in the work of the infantry in the trenches. He served in South Africa, and last year accompanied the Prince of Wales, who travelled as the "Earl of Chester," on a visit to Germany, where our photograph was taken.—[Photograph by Illus. Bureau.]

Besides, they have sources of inspiration—have our "Tommies"—denied to their Teutonic antagonists. General von Kluck, Commander of the First German Army, has described a visit of the dread War Lord to the line of the Aisne "behind the line of fire"; and the "Hochs" with which he was greeted by a Prussian Grenadier regiment. But what are those guttural "Hochs" compared with the ringing cheers which were evoked by the presence of Lord Roberts on the occasion of his last visit to his old comrades-in-arms of the Indian Army, now confronting those Prussian Grenadiers on the line of the Yser? When Lord Roberts was made a Peer, after his march from Cabul to Candahar, he chose as his heraldic supporters a Gurkha and a Gordon Highlander, who had done so much to help him on to victory; and it is pretty certain that he would have desired no more congenial and appropriate manner of death than he has found, at the age of eighty-two, as an inspiring visitor to the lines of the gallant troops of all kinds whom he himself had so often led to victory. It has been said that no man can be called happy until his death, and certainly no one was ever more felicitous in the manner of his end than the veteran hero, the blameless "Bayard" of the British Army, who has well been called one of Ireland's greatest Englishmen.

Yet his name will continue to serve as an inspiration to the Army which adored him; and doubtless his last moments were soothed by the thought that the soldiers whom he so fervently loved had just added to their laurels by the brave repulse on the Yser of two Brigades, or a Division, of the boasted Prussian Guards, forming the very flower and kernel of the Kaiser's army. And news also must have reached the conqueror of Paardeburg and Pretoria that the German-prompted and German-paid rebellion against the Union of which he had laid the foundation-stone—not with the trowel of an architect, but with the sword of a soldier—was collapsing under the well-directed blows of such an Imperial patriot and statesman as General Botha, proud to wear the uniform of the hero of Candahar.

Thus the last hours of our veteran Field-Marshal must have been consoled with the reflection that, in spite of the fact of all his warnings and his exhortations having fallen on deaf ears, victory was gilding our arms, as well as those of our Allies, all round; and that the loss of two of our cruisers off the coast of Chile had been more than offsetted by the destruction of the notorious commerce-destroyer Emden in the seas of Sumatra and the cornering of the equally elusive Koenigsberg among the palm-trees of an East African lagoon—fit incident for the pages of Captain Marryat or Mr. George Henty, beloved of the boy-devourers of stirring adventure books.

During the last week two rivers have again formed the main scenes of action in the far-extended theatre of war—one the Yser, in Belgium, where the advance of the Germans on Calais has been "stone-walled" by the Allies; and the other on the Vistula, in Poland, where the Russians, by sheer force of numbers and superior strategy, made very considerate progress in their march on Berlin; so that, on the whole, the horoscope remained most favourable to the Allies and the ultimate attainment of their Common object.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—9

In the recent victorious operations of the Russian Army the cavalry have taken a conspicuous part. The Headquarters announcement from Petrograd of November 10 said: "To the east of Neidenburg near the station of Muschaken (in East Prussia, about two miles from the frontier), Russian cavalry defeated a German detachment which was guarding the railway, captured transport, and blew up two bridges over the railway. On the 8th inst. our cavalry forced one of the enemy's cavalry divisions, which was supported by a battalion of rifles, to retreat towards Kalisz (near the border of German Poland)." The above drawing shows an engagement in Hungary between an Austro-Hungarian force and a body of Russian cavalry who had crossed the Carpathians from Galicia.

_____________ 10—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Dixmude, after a comparative lull since it was first bombarded by the Germans, recently became once more the objective of a fierce attack and fell into the enemy's hands. The afternoon communique issued in Paris on November 11 said: "At the end of the day (i.e., the 10th) the Germans had succeeded in taking possession of Dixmude. We are still holding on to the outskirts of this village, on the canal from Nieuport to Ypres, which has been strongly occupied. The struggle has been very fierce at these points." The late French communique issued the same night said: "The enemy throughout the day continued his effort of yesterday without achieving any fresh results.... He made vain attempts to debouch from Dixmude on the left bank of the Yser."—[Photo. by Newspaper Illustrations.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—11

Although the Germans undoubtedly scored a slight success by their occupation of Dixmude, they did so at enormous cost. It was reported from Amsterdam on the 11th that 4000 Germans severely wounded in the fighting round Dixmude had reached Liege. Dixmude was for three weeks gallantly defended by French Marines. The town is now little more than a heap of ruins. As our photographs show, the fine old church of St. Jean has been almost completely wrecked, and the Hotel de Ville has suffered great damage. It has been pointed out that the military value of Dixmude to the Germans is not very great, as it does not form part of the Allies' defensive line, but was held as a bridge-head on the east bank of the Yser.—[Photo. by Newspaper Illustrations.]

_____________ 12—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Dixmude, on the Yser, suffered terribly during the earlier stages of the great battle in West Flanders. It was stated on October 27 that French Marines holding the town had withstood a continuous attack lasting forty hours, at the end of which the place was in ruins. Mr. E. Ashmead Bartlett, who visited Dixmude on October 21, wrote (in the "Telegraph"): "The town is not very big, and what it looked like before the bombardment I cannot say.... An infuriated German army corps were concentrating the fire of all the field guns and heavy howitzers on it at the same time. There was not an inch that was not being swept by shells. There was not a house, as far as I could see, which had escaped destruction."—[Photo. by Newspaper Illustrations.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—13

Some idea of the destruction wrought by German shells in Nieuport may be gathered from this photograph of the interior of the church, another example of the fact, pointed out under a drawing on another page, that the German gunners do not respect the House of God. The church at Nieuport, which dated from the fifteenth century, was restored in 1903, and its massive baroque tower, visible from afar, could be easily avoided by artillerymen capable of accurate aim and desirous of sparing a sacred building. Nieuport has at least twice before in history been the scene of conflict. In 1489 it made a stubborn resistance to an attack by the French, and near it, in July 1660, was fought the Battle of the Dunes between the Dutch and the Spaniards.—[Photo. by Newspaper Illustrations.]

_____________ 14—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

The bursting shrapnel marking the line of flight of that dread "steel dove," the Taube, comes from a new kind of anti-aircraft gun at the front. This weapon, generally used to fire a stream of shrapnel, also fires shells containing a composition for setting aircraft on fire, and its range-finder marks both the height of an aeroplane and its speed.—[Drawn by A. Forestier from a Sketch by H.C. Seppings Wright.]

We see here the finale of a fierce air-fight near Rheims. A German "Aviatik" biplane passed overhead and a French biplane with a machine-gun went at it, There was a hot contest until suddenly a French shot struck the "Aviatik's" motor. Taking fire instantly, the German craft fell blazing to the ground, where it burned to a cinder with its airmen.—[Drawn by Georges Scott from an Eye Witness's Sketch.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—15

The German base hospital for the troops in the coast battles and at Ypres was stationed at Bruges when our photograph was taken. The illustration shows two wounded Belgians—one who has just been lifted out from an ambulance-wagon is on a stretcher; the other stands, a grimly picturesque, overcoated and "hooded" figure, in the centre. Among the group of soldiers are sailor-garbed men of the Marine brigade, brought to Flanders to aid in garrisoning Antwerp and hold the coast batteries near Ostend and Zeebruggen. For the time being the entire city of Bruges, it is stated, has been converted into one immense hospital owing to the crowds of German wounded almost hourly arriving there, while trains with wounded soldiers are continually leaving for Germany.—[Photo. by Record Press.]

_____________ 16—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

In our last issue we gave a photograph of a Galician town bombarded by the Russians, proving that they carefully avoid the destruction of churches. The German gunners, on the contrary, show no respect for the House of God, although their Emperor so often claims Divine approval. The havoc wrought by German shells in French and Belgian churches and cathedrals stands recorded in countless photographs and other illustrations, to form a permanent Indictment of Germany's methods of warfare that will make her name execrated by posterity. In the present instance not only the church itself was destroyed, but the very graves were torn open, and the bodies and bones of the desecrated dead flung from their places of rest—[Facsimile Drawing by H.C. Seppings Weight Special War Artist.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—17

It has been pointed out by a Naval correspondent that the German bayonet of which one edge is a saw is not really quite the barbarous weapon it seems, but is similiar to that carried by pioneers in British naval landing-parties, for use in sawing wood. The toothed edge, he mentions, is so far from the point that only by the rarest chance could it enter the body of an enemy. It would be interesting to know whether the two bayonets British and German—are exactly similar. Another account of the German weapon states that the saw-edge begins only six inches from the point, quite near enough thereto, one would imagine, to "enter the body of an enemy." Inset is an enlargement of the German saw-bayonet—[Photo. by L.N.A.]

_____________ 18—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Dixmude, the name of which little West Flanders town on the Yser all the world knows now, after being heroically defended against persistent night-and-day attacks and bombardments at all hours, was taken by the reinforced Germans after a forty-hours renewed attack on November 11. The defenders, however, held out in the outskirts of the town, and could not be dislodged. The post is not part of the Allied main line, but rather of value as a bridge-head over the river. The French naval officer who sent the photographs shown above was one of the defenders until he had to withdraw wounded. When he was there Dixmude had been defended by 6000 French sailors, reinforced at the end of October by 1500 Algerian soldiers.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—19

One of War's "little ironies" finds illustration in our photograph. A great conflict such as that now being waged is full of contrasts: grins, pathetic, sometimes not without a suggestion of humour. That the German Marine should be told off in a pretty rural district to round up cattle for food for the German troops is a case in point. The sleek and shapely kine which these sturdy fellows are commandeering plod peacefully along in happy ignorance of the fact that they are prisoners of war being led to their doom by an armed guard. If it were not for the significance of the weapons borne by the Marines, the scene would be as purely pastoral as that immortalised by Gray. It suggests the "lowing herd"—with a difference.—[Photo. by Photopress.]

_____________ 20—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

The "Pegasus," an old and small cruiser, was attacked and disabled by the German cruiser "Koenigsberg" (recently trapped by the "Chatham" in an East African river), a modern ship of larger size and much heavier metal, at daybreak on September 20, while anchored in Zanzibar harbour to clean boilers. The "Koenigsberg" stole up during the night, sheltered behind an island off the shore and, easily outranging the guns of the "Pegasus," shelled her helpless opponent. After that the German ship drew off, leaving the "Pegasus" in a sinking condition and with 26 men killed and 53 wounded. Our photograph, which has just been received here, shows the "Pegasus'" wounded being transhipped to the Union Castle liner "Gascon," serving as a hospital-ship to take the injured to the Cape.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—21

The armed liner "Carmania," in her hour and a-half's fight of September 14 with the German armed liner "Cap Trafalgar," was hit by 73 of her opponent's shells, the splinters making, it is stated, some 380 holes all over the vessel. Offering so large a target to gun-fire as did the "Carmania"—a ship of great length, standing 60 feet out of the water—she was saved from suffering more damage by the seamanship of Captain Noel Grant, R.N., her Captain, who kept her end-on to the enemy. Our photograph of the navigating bridge of the "Carmania," with the engine-room telegraphs wrecked and fragments of metal strewn about, will give an idea of what those on board went through. It has just reached this country.—[Photo. by Farringdon Co.]

_____________ 22—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

It is clear that the German incendiary outrages in Belgium and France were premeditated, and German scientists devised special apparatus for setting fire to buildings. Our informant, who bought some incendiary disks from a German soldier near Antwerp, states that every man carries twenty bags, each containing about 300 disks. Mr. Bertram Blount, the analyst, found the disks consist of nitro-cellulose, or gun-cotton. They may be lit, even when wet, with a match or cigarette-end, and burn for eleven or twelve seconds, emitting a strong five-inch flame, and entirely consuming themselves. The Germans throw them alight into houses. The photographs show (1) a bag of disks as supplied to German soldiers; (2) a disk burning; and (3) a disk, actual size, before being used.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—23

The German heavy "batteries of position" are for the most part armed-with the 15 cm., or 6-inch howitzer, throwing a shell of 90 lb. with an approximate range of 6650 yards. The howitzer type of mobile heavy gun is much favoured for defensive work in both the German and the Austrian armies. The howitzer is capable of elevation up to 65 deg., the idea of this high elevation being, it is stated, to obtain a steep angle of descent for the shells at comparatively short ranges, in combination with a high remaining velocity so as to ensure the penetration of overhead cover. These howitzers are also employed in siege and fortress defence warfare. They have been used along the Aisne positions as auxiliaries to the giant Krupp siege-howitzers.

_____________ 24—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Cavalry engaged in the Belgian frontier battles are fighting in all sorts of ways: repeatedly, for example, as infantrymen in the trenches. On occasion, also, they have even charged on foot, with bayonet or with their lances. The Life Guards, according to a letter from the front, charged the German trenches the other day with bayonets. A squadron of French dragoons dismounted and crept through a wood on foot, surprising a German infantry company and overpowering them in close-quarter fight with lances and clubbed carbines. With

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—25

lances, also, as our illustration shows, some of our Bengal cavalry, in action on foot, on October 24, at Ramscapelle, near the Yser, recaptured the village from the Germans. Dismounting near by, they charged the enemy lance in hand, driving him from his trenches. Following up their success, they then forced their way into the village, smashing in doors and windows and storming house after house in spite of fierce resistance until, assisted by other troops, they forced the enemy out, capturing guns and many prisoners. The action was particularly notable.

_____________ 26—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

"Who gives quickly gives twice." That paraphrase of one of Napoleon's war maxims in regard to the conferring of distinctions won in battle as speedily as possible after the event, has been adopted by the nations engaged in the world-war. Recommendations for the "V.C." have been announced as having been laid before our authorities, many grants of the "D.S.O." and "D.C.M." have already been garetted; and our French Allies have awarded the Legion of Honour to several officers and men. Our first photograph shows a French General publicly bestowing the accolade on a newly made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Our second shows a German Commander adorning a German officer with one of the innumerable Iron Crosses the Kaiser is sending round.—[Photos. by Alfieri.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—27

There is something gruesomely appropriate in this photograph of the wreckage of a destroyed German motor-transport wagon train, or convoy, grouped in a sort of hollow square about the graves of the officers and men involved in the destruction of their charge. The place is in the Argonne district, the tract of rough country, between the sources of the Aisne and the Meuse, through which the high road from Paris to Verdun passes. How catastrophe befell this particular German convoy we can guess. More than one of the enemy's transport trains, moving in this part of the country, are recorded to have fallen victims to long-range bombardments by the French artillery as the result of aeroplane reconnoitring activity—[Photo. by Alfieri.]

_____________ 28—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Like his father and brothers, Prince Eitel Fritz, the Kaiser's second son, has received the Iron Cross. It has not been made known over here how the Prince won it. Our illustration, reproducing a picture from a German paper, may solve the difficulty. Says the legend: "The Prince seized the drum of a fallen soldier and led his troops, beating the charge."

One of the curious fictions about England now going round in Germany is one that Sir John Jellicoe's fleet keeps in hiding lest it should meet the German fleet. German war-ships, indeed, scour the North Sea at all hours to give the Grand Fleet battle! Our illustration, from a serious painting published in a German paper, shows them at it.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—29

Early in the war, the Kaiser commissioned various painters to produce battle-pictures of German prowess. The royal house of Bavaria has apparently followed suit. More recently the Kaiser expressed a wish that the British might meet the Bavarians "just once" and his wish was gratified. In depicting a Bavarian cavalry fight with French dragoons, the Bavarian artist naturally represents the enemy as going down like nine-pins. Prince Heinrich, who figures in the drawing, is the only son of the late Prince Francis Joseph of Bavaria, first cousin of Prince Rupprecht, the Bavarian Crown Prince, who recently exhorted his troops to conquer "our most hated foe." He also highly extolled the Bavarian cavalry, who, he said, have fought "with the greatest fearlessness and extraordinary dash."

_____________ 30—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

It is said that the German garrison at Tsing-tau, which surrendered to the Japanese and British on November 7, included five battalions of infantry, fire battalions of marine artillery, one battalion of mechanics, and about 2500 reservists. After the surrender of the garrison a number of German soldiers are said to have escaped in native boats, but were recaptured. The defences were under naval control. Tsing-tau was strongly fortified and had about 600 Krupp guns of various calibre. The photographs show men of the Third Sea Battalion. (1) On the march in Tsing-tau; (2) and (3) Entrenched with a machine-gun. Our correspondent states that the photographs were taken since the siege began; otherwise the dark band round the helmet-covers might be taken for a manoeuvres badge.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—31

At midnight on November 6—seven hours before the German garrison of Tsing-tau surrendered, the central fort was captured by the Japanese, who took 200 prisoners. The Germans had made great efforts to repair their batteries, but the shell-fire from the Japanese guns was too heavy. After the central fort had fallen the Japanese captured at the point of the bayonet other forts and the strong field-works connecting them. It was stated that some 2300 German prisoners were taken when Tsing-tau surrendered. The German garrison, it is said, included four companies of seaman gunners, an equal force of Marines, some cavalry and field gunners, and a company of sappers. Probably the garrison increased after the war began, as Germans from all parts of China gathered at Tsing-tau for protection.

_____________ 32—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Considering the amount of discussion—not to say, in some quarters, apprehension—to which the Zeppelins have given rise, singularly little has been heard of them so far during the war, and, apart from the Antwerp exploits, they have done practically no damage. On the other hand, several have been destroyed: the number has been variously estimated from two to six. One, said to be the "LZ10," was brought down in October at Grandvilliers, ten miles from Belfort. Our photographs show: (1) debris of the shattered framework; and (2) wreckage of the cars. Another Zeppelin was destroyed in October by the fire of Russian batteries near Warsaw, and its broken remains were taken to Petrograd to be examined. The British air-raid on Duesseldorf also accounted for one or possibly two.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—33

The ground occupied by the British troops on the banks of the Aisne consisted, in many places, of steep hill-sides or cliffs penetrated like a rabbit-warren with the workings of old stone-quarries. The officer who sends us the above interesting sketch writes: "This cave afforded shelter both from rain and 'Jack Johnsons' for several weeks to ——, a certain Highland regiment. The cave consisted of three long passages capable of holding a whole battalion. It had two entrances, one of which is shown in the sketch. It was dark and dirty, but with plenty of straw on the ground it made a fairly comfortable refuge. The sketch shows the part of the cave occupied by the officers and headquarters."—[Facsimile Sketch by a British Officer.]

_____________ 34—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

After the fall of Tsing-tau on November 7 the Admiralty cabled to the Japanese Minister of Marine: "The Board of Admiralty send their heartiest congratulations to the gallant Army and Navy of Japan on the prosperous and brilliant issue of the operations which have resulted in the fall of Tsing-tau." The Japanese began the blockade on August 27, occupying some neighbouring islands as a base. Mine-sweeping was the first task, and then, on September 18, the Japanese troops landed safely at Lao-shan Bay. They fought with great valour and suffered considerable losses. Their casualties up to November 6 were given as 200 killed and 878 wounded. In the final assault they had 14 officers wounded and 426 men killed and wounded. The number of Germans captured was 2300.—[Photo. by C.N.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—35

In his telegram to the Japanese Minister of War after the capture of Tsing-tau, Lord Kitchener said: "Please accept my warmest congratulations on the success of the operations against Tsing-tau. Will you be so kind as to express my felicitations to the Japanese forces engaged? The British Army is proud to have been associated with its gallant Japanese comrades in this enterprise." The British force, under Brigadier-General N. Barnardiston, Commanding the Forces in North China, landed in Lao-shan Bay on September 24. Some Indian troops also took part in the fighting. The Emperor of Japan sent a message to the British force saying that he "deeply appreciates the brilliant deeds of the British Army and Navy co-operating with the Japanese."—[Photo. by C.N.]

_____________ 36—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Our first photograph shows where the "Emden" met her fate after landing a party to destroy the wireless station, the pole of which is seen to the left centre of the photograph. The Cocos group are a British possession, and lie in the Indian Ocean, south-west of Sumatra. Our second photograph shows the "Emden," whose depredations have cost nearly two and a quarter millions sterling. She was a light cruiser of 3350 tons and 25 knots speed, carrying ten 41-inch guns. Captain Karl von Mueller, the "Emden's" Captain, who carried out his enterprises with a fine spirit of chivalry and daring which we acknowledge, was a native of Blankenburg, in Brunswick, and was formerly a captain in the Hansa Line. He is a prisoner, unwounded, and keeps his sword.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—37

H.M.S. "Sydney" (No. 1) caught the commerce-raiding "Emden" at Keeling Cocos Island and forced a sharp action upon her, with the result that the German ship was driven ashore and burnt. The "Chatham" (No. 2) found the "Koenigsberg," the ship, it will be recalled, which attacked the "Pegasus," hiding in shoal water up the Rufigi River, German East Africa, with part of her crew entrenched on the banks. Unable to get at her, she bottled up the "Koenigsberg" by sinking colliers in the only navigable channel. The "Sydney" is a light cruiser of 5600 tons, launched, as was the "Chatham," in 1911. The "Chatham" was practically a sister ship of the "Sydney," but rather smaller, displacing 5400 tons, The "Emden" was of 3650 tons; the "Koenigsberg" displaced 3400 tons.—[Photos. by Symonds.]

_____________ 38—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

"In this quarter," says Eye-Witness of the fighting near Ypres on October 29, "we experienced ... the action of the 'minenwerfer,' or trench-mortar. This piece, though light enough to be wheeled by two men, throws a shell weighing 187 lbs. The spherical shell has a loose stem which is loaded into the bore and drops out in flight. It ranges about 350 yards at 45 deg. elevation. The shell is a thin-walled mine-shell containing a large charge and is intended to act with explosive effect, not splinter-effect." The diagram on the left shows one of the shells and its stem in their most up-to-date form; in the centre is the trench-mortar (its wheels off) with a shell in place; below this are three shells without their stems; on the right is a shell and its stem.

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—39

The Germans, according to paragraphs from their newspapers reprinted here, sneer at the way London is guarding against hostile aircraft by mounting quick-firing guns and searchlights and putting out many street lamps. They are doing much the same themselves, however, in the cities nearest their western frontier. At Cologne, ever since August, there has been constant nervousness as to possible air-raids, and searchlights from elevated points in the city have swept the sky nightly, and machine-guns have been set up on tall buildings. At Duesseldorf when our airmen destroyed a Zeppelin, the aviators were fired at by machine-guns from all over the city. Our illustration shows German machine-guns in temporary use as anti-aircraft guns.—[Photo. by Photopress.]

_____________ 40—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Among the French Colonial troops, the Senegalese have done excellent work, both on the Aisne and, more recently, in Belgium. Our photograph was taken near Pervyse, a village on the railway between Dixmunde and Nieuport, which has been the scene of many fierce encounters. In the Battle of the Aisne, when much night fighting took place, the Senegalese, it was reported, whose dark complexions rendered their faces less visible, proved very useful, and showed extraordinary daring. A favourite ruse was to send them forward at night, and when they had crawled near to the German lines, to turn powerful searchlights on the enemy, who, blinded by the glare, could not see whence the attack came. The Senegalese would then charge with the bayonet—[Photo. by Newspaper Illustrations.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—41

Martial Law was officially proclaimed by the British authorities in Egypt on November 2, as the first and immediate result of the outbreak of hostilities with Turkey. For some time before that, however, the authorities had been taking precautionary measures in consequence of the ubiquity and restless activity of the horde of German secret agents and spies known to be busily at work, seeking to spread sedition and disaffection among the natives. To prevent the transmission of military and other intelligence to Constantinople by their emissaries, severe restrictions have had to be imposed along the land-frontiers and in particular at ports such as Alexandria, Port Said and Suez on all persons entering or leaving the country. All passports and credentials are subjected to a close scrutiny.—[Photo. by C.N.]

_____________ 42—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

On Sunday, November 15, that brave soldier Albert King of the Belgians was thirty-nine, and a solemn Mass was celebrated at Westminster Cathedral. Cardinal Bourne assisted at the service, and the ceremonial was of a most impressive and ornate character, gorgeous vestments, beautiful music, and the gleam of many lights combining to make a tout ensemble that suggested some great occasion of national thanksgiving, as, indeed, it was. Scarlet and green were the brilliant colour-notes of the function. The celebrant of the Mass was Mgr. Canon Moyes, other dignitaries taking part in the service. Amongst the congregation were the children of the King of the Belgians—Prince Leopold, Duc de Brabant; Prince Charles, Comte de Flandre; and Princess Marie-Jose, of all of whom we give portraits.—[Photo. by C.N.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—43

The King recently presented the white goat shown in the above photograph to the 7th Battalion (Reserve) Royal Welsh Fusiliers, who, since they were raised, have been in training at Newtown, Montgomeryshire. The Welsh Fusiliers have always had a white goat as a mascot, drawn from the famous herd of Cashmere goats which also supplied the King's gift. The animal given by his Majesty to the new battalion was taken from Windsor to Newtown under escort, and was received at the station by two men of the 7th Royal Welsh Fusiliers, who stood with fixed bayonets. On the left in the photograph are Lady Magdalen Herbert, sister of the Earl of Powis, and the Earl's young daughter, Lady Hermione Herbert. On the right are Captains J.H. Addie and Oswald Davies.—[Photo. by Griffiths.]

_____________ 44—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Nothing could give a better idea of shell-fire than the remarkable photograph here reproduced. It is a panoramic view of a German artillery bombardment of advancing infantry, and was taken in three sections, well within a hundred and fifty yards of some of the bursting shells. The locality of the battle is in the Argonne country between the Upper Aisne and the Meuse, where the French are having continuous and stiff fighting. Men of the French infantry keeping under cover in one of their advanced trenches are seen in the left foreground of the picture. The object of the actual fighting on the occasion was to keep apart the Third German army as it fell back towards prepared positions near the Meuse and a force of reinforcing troops coming up from the direction of Metz. "To impede the persistent advance of our —— corps."

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—45

writes a French correspondent on the spot, the enemy resisted vigorously and with his heavy artillery. He treated us to shells with a veritable prodigality, but without causing us very serious losses. In the forward movement, led by the —— infantry regiment, on an important position that had to be taken, practically every soldier engaged was saluted by six shells. There was, though, no 'shyness' among our men. They laughed and joked with one another as they quitted the trenches to move forward over the open. By the evening the enemy's position had been taken." Both ordinary shrapnel and high-explosive 15-c.m. shells from the German heavy position-batteries of howitzers, which weapons the Germans prefer for such work, although they also use guns of the same calibre, are seen bursting in front of the French troops.

_____________ 46—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Nieuport has been badly damaged by the German bombardment, and it is said that half the houses in it appear to have been struck by shells, yet that it has not been so utterly ruined as some of the surrounding villages. The worst loss as regards buildings at Nieuport has been the destruction of the church, which, as many photographs show well, has been almost completely demolished. It was a fine specimen of one of the few stone churches found in that part of the country, with twelfth-century Gothic windows. The walls and pillars stand bare, the roof has gone, and half the tower, whose bells lie buried on the ground amid the wreckage. Desultory fighting continued at Nieuport after the main German attack shifted south to Ypres.—[Photo. by C.N.]

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—47

The inhabitants of those parts of France and Belgium which are still groaning under the German incubus are greatly to be pitied. Beyond the terrible agony inflicted by the invaders upon defenceless populations, in the form of executions and house-burnings and various forms of outrage, there is a great mass of less drastic but still intolerable misery to be borne by those unfortunate householders who are compelled to house and feed the soldiers of the enemy. Some idea of the nature of the infliction to which they are subjected can be gathered from such a drawing as that here reproduced. It shows some officers of the motor-corps of the Nineteenth German Army Corps asleep in a house upon which they have been billeted. The drawing is by a German artist.

_____________ 48—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914.

Much hard fighting on the Yser and elsewhere in West Flanders has fallen to the lot of the French bluejackets of the Naval Brigade, a strong force of whom were brought up from Brest to reinforce the Belgians in their defensive battles near the coast after the retreat from Antwerp. Attacking side by side with the British, they retook Ypres on October 13, and after that held Dixmude for weeks.

"The Kaiser," according to an American who was recently permitted to visit the Imperial headquarters in a "small city" on the Meuse, is a good deal altered in his appearance. "He wears a dirty green-grey uniform, and has an intense earnestness of expression that seemed to mirror the sternness of the times." He "lives in a little red-brick house such as one would rent in a London suburb for L50."

_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—III



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_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, NOV. 18, 1914—IV

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