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THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER UPON HISTORY 1660-1783
A. T. MAHAN, D.C.L., LL.D.
Author of "The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812," etc.
Boston Little, Brown and Company
Copyright, 1890, by Captain A. T. Mahan.
Copyright, 1918, by Ellen Lyle Mahan.
Printed in the United States of America
The definite object proposed in this work is an examination of the general history of Europe and America with particular reference to the effect of sea power upon the course of that history. Historians generally have been unfamiliar with the conditions of the sea, having as to it neither special interest nor special knowledge; and the profound determining influence of maritime strength upon great issues has consequently been overlooked. This is even more true of particular occasions than of the general tendency of sea power. It is easy to say in a general way, that the use and control of the sea is and has been a great factor in the history of the world; it is more troublesome to seek out and show its exact bearing at a particular juncture. Yet, unless this be done, the acknowledgment of general importance remains vague and unsubstantial; not resting, as it should, upon a collection of special instances in which the precise effect has been made clear, by an analysis of the conditions at the given moments.
A curious exemplification of this tendency to slight the bearing of maritime power upon events may be drawn from two writers of that English nation which more than any other has owed its greatness to the sea. "Twice," says Arnold in his History of Rome, "Has there been witnessed the struggle of the highest individual genius against the resources and institutions of a great nation, and in both cases the nation was victorious. For seventeen years Hannibal strove against Rome, for sixteen years Napoleon strove against England; the efforts of the first ended in Zama, those of the second in Waterloo." Sir Edward Creasy, quoting this, adds: "One point, however, of the similitude between the two wars has scarcely been adequately dwelt on; that is, the remarkable parallel between the Roman general who finally defeated the great Carthaginian, and the English general who gave the last deadly overthrow to the French emperor. Scipio and Wellington both held for many years commands of high importance, but distant from the main theatres of warfare. The same country was the scene of the principal military career of each. It was in Spain that Scipio, like Wellington, successively encountered and overthrew nearly all the subordinate generals of the enemy before being opposed to the chief champion and conqueror himself. Both Scipio and Wellington restored their countrymen's confidence in arms when shaken by a series of reverses, and each of them closed a long and perilous war by a complete and overwhelming defeat of the chosen leader and the chosen veterans of the foe."
Neither of these Englishmen mentions the yet more striking coincidence, that in both cases the mastery of the sea rested with the victor. The Roman control of the water forced Hannibal to that long, perilous march through Gaul in which more than half his veteran troops wasted away; it enabled the elder Scipio, while sending his army from the Rhone on to Spain, to intercept Hannibal's communications, to return in person and face the invader at the Trebia. Throughout the war the legions passed by water, unmolested and unwearied, between Spain, which was Hannibal's base, and Italy, while the issue of the decisive battle of the Metaurus, hinging as it did upon the interior position of the Roman armies with reference to the forces of Hasdrubal and Hannibal, was ultimately due to the fact that the younger brother could not bring his succoring reinforcements by sea, but only by the land route through Gaul. Hence at the critical moment the two Carthaginian armies were separated by the length of Italy, and one was destroyed by the combined action of the Roman generals.
On the other hand, naval historians have troubled themselves little about the connection between general history and their own particular topic, limiting themselves generally to the duty of simple chroniclers of naval occurrences. This is less true of the French than of the English; the genius and training of the former people leading them to more careful inquiry into the causes of particular results and the mutual relation of events.
There is not, however, within the knowledge of the author any work that professes the particular object here sought; namely, an estimate of the effect of sea power upon the course of history and the prosperity of nations. As other histories deal with the wars, politics, social and economical conditions of countries, touching upon maritime matters only incidentally and generally unsympathetically, so the present work aims at putting maritime interests in the foreground, without divorcing them, however, from their surroundings of cause and effect in general history, but seeking to show how they modified the latter, and were modified by them.
The period embraced is from 1660, when the sailing-ship era, with its distinctive features, had fairly begun, to 1783, the end of the American Revolution. While the thread of general history upon which the successive maritime events is strung is intentionally slight, the effort has been to present a clear as well as accurate outline. Writing as a naval officer in full sympathy with his profession, the author has not hesitated to digress freely on questions of naval policy, strategy, and tactics; but as technical language has been avoided, it is hoped that these matters, simply presented, will be found of interest to the unprofessional reader.
A. T. MAHAN
History of Sea Power one of contest between nations, therefore largely military 1 Permanence of the teachings of history 2 Unsettled condition of modern naval opinion 2 Contrasts between historical classes of war-ships 2 Essential distinction between weather and lee gage 5 Analogous to other offensive and defensive positions 6 Consequent effect upon naval policy 6 Lessons of history apply especially to strategy 7 Less obviously to tactics, but still applicable 9
ILLUSTRATIONS: The battle of the Nile, A.D. 1798 10 Trafalgar, A.D. 1805 11 Siege of Gibraltar, A.D. 1779-1782 12 Actium, B.C. 31, and Lepanto, A.D. 1571 13 Second Punic War, B.C. 218-201 14
Naval strategic combinations surer now than formerly 22 Wide scope of naval strategy 22
DISCUSSION OF THE ELEMENTS OF SEA POWER.
The sea a great common 25 Advantages of water-carriage over that by land 25 Navies exist for the protection of commerce 26 Dependence of commerce upon secure seaports 27 Development of colonies and colonial posts 28 Links in the chain of Sea Power: production, shipping, colonies 28 General conditions affecting Sea Power: I. Geographical position 29 II. Physical conformation 35 III. Extent of territory 42 IV. Number of population 44 V. National character 50 VI. Character and policy of governments 58 England 59 Holland 67 France 69 Influence of colonies on Sea Power 82 The United States: Its weakness in Sea Power 83 Its chief interest in internal development 84 Danger from blockades 85 Dependence of the navy upon the shipping interest 87 Conclusion of the discussion of the elements of Sea Power 88 Purpose of the historical narrative 89
STATE OF EUROPE IN 1660.—SECOND ANGLO-DUTCH WAR, 1665-1667.—SEA BATTLES OF LOWESTOFT AND OF THE FOUR DAYS
Accession of Charles II. and Louis XIV. 90 Followed shortly by general wars 91 French policy formulated by Henry IV. and Richelieu 92 Condition of France in 1660 93 Condition of Spain 94 Condition of the Dutch United Provinces 96 Their commerce and colonies 97 Character of their government 98 Parties in the State 99 Condition of England in 1660 99 Characteristics of French, English, and Dutch ships 101 Conditions of other European States 102 Louis XIV. the leading personality in Europe 103 His policy 104 Colbert's administrative acts 105 Second Anglo-Dutch War, 1665 107 Battle of Lowestoft, 1665 108 Fire-ships, compared with torpedo-cruisers 109 The group formation 112 The order of battle for sailing-ships 115 The Four Days' Battle, 1666 117 Military merits of the opposing fleets 126 Soldiers commanding fleets, discussion 127 Ruyter in the Thames, 1667 132 Peace of Breda, 1667 132 Military value of commerce-destroying 132
WAR OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE IN ALLIANCE AGAINST THE UNITED PROVINCES, 1672-1674.—FINALLY, OF FRANCE AGAINST COMBINED EUROPE, 1674-1678.—SEA BATTLES OF SOLEBAY, THE TEXEL, AND STROMBOLI.
Aggressions of Louis XIV. on Spanish Netherlands 139 Policy of the United Provinces 139 Triple alliance between England, Holland, and Sweden 140 Anger of Louis XIV. 140 Leibnitz proposes to Louis to seize Egypt 141 His memorial 142 Bargaining between Louis XIV. and Charles II. 143 The two kings declare war against the United Provinces 144 Military character of this war 144 Naval strategy of the Dutch 144 Tactical combinations of De Ruyter 145 Inefficiency of Dutch naval administration 145 Battle of Solebay, 1672 146 Tactical comments 147 Effect of the battle on the course of the war 148 Land campaign of the French in Holland 149 Murder of John De Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland 150 Accession to power of William of Orange 150 Uneasiness among European States 150 Naval battles off Schoneveldt, 1673 151 Naval battle of the Texel, 1673 152 Effect upon the general war 154 Equivocal action of the French fleet 155 General ineffectiveness of maritime coalitions 156 Military character of De Ruyter 157 Coalition against France 158 Peace between England and the United Provinces 158 Sicilian revolt against Spain 159 Battle of Stromboli, 1676 161 Illustration of Clerk's naval tactics 163 De Ruyter killed off Agosta 165 England becomes hostile to France 166 Sufferings of the United Provinces 167 Peace of Nimeguen, 1678 168 Effects of the war on France and Holland 169 Notice of Comte d'Estrees 170
ENGLISH REVOLUTION.—WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF AUGSBURG, 1688-1697.—SEA BATTLES OF BEACHY HEAD AND LA HOUGUE.
Aggressive policy of Louis XIV. 173 State of French, English, and Dutch navies 174 Accession of James II. 175 Formation of the League of Augsburg 176 Louis declares war against the Emperor of Germany 177 Revolution in England 178 Louis declares war against the United Provinces 178 William and Mary crowned 178 James II. lands in Ireland 179 Misdirection of French naval forces 180 William III. lands in Ireland 181 Naval battle of Beachy Head, 1690 182 Tourville's military character 184 Battle of the Boyne, 1690 186 End of the struggle in Ireland 186 Naval battle of La Hougue, 1692 189 Destruction of French ships 190 Influence of Sea Power in this war 191 Attack and defence of commerce 193 Peculiar characteristics of French privateering 195 Peace of Ryswick, 1697 197 Exhaustion of France: its causes 198
WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION, 1702-1713.—SEA BATTLE OF MALAGA.
Failure of the Spanish line of the House of Austria 201 King of Spain wills the succession to the Duke of Anjou 202 Death of the King of Spain 202 Louis XIV. accepts the bequests 203 He seizes towns in Spanish Netherlands 203 Offensive alliance between England, Holland, and Austria 204 Declarations of war 205 The allies proclaim Carlos III. King of Spain 206 Affair of the Vigo galleons 207 Portugal joins the allies 208 Character of the naval warfare 209 Capture of Gibraltar by the English 210 Naval battle of Malaga, 1704 211 Decay of the French navy 212 Progress of the land war 213 Allies seize Sardinia and Minorca 215 Disgrace of Marlborough 216 England offers terms of peace 217 Peace of Utrecht, 1713 218 Terms of the peace 219 Results of the war to the different belligerents 219 Commanding position of Great Britain 224 Sea Power dependent upon both commerce and naval strength 225 Peculiar position of France as regards Sea Power 226 Depressed condition of France 227 Commercial prosperity of England 228 Ineffectiveness of commerce-destroying 229 Duguay-Trouin's expedition against Rio de Janeiro, 1711 230 War between Russia and Sweden 231
THE REGENCY IN FRANCE.—ALBERONI IN SPAIN.—POLICIES OF WALPOLE AND FLEURI.—WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION.—ENGLISH CONTRABAND TRADE IN SPANISH AMERICA.—GREAT BRITAIN DECLARES WAR AGAINST SPAIN.—1715-1739.
Death of Queen Anne and Louis XIV. 232 Accession of George I. 232 Regency of Philip of Orleans 233 Administration of Alberoni in Spain 234 Spaniards invade Sardinia 235 Alliance of Austria, England, Holland, and France 235 Spaniards invade Sicily 236 Destruction of Spanish navy off Cape Passaro, 1718 237 Failure and dismissal of Alberoni 239 Spain accepts terms 239 Great Britain interferes in the Baltic 239 Death of Philip of Orleans 241 Administration of Fleuri in France 241 Growth of French commerce 242 France in the East Indies 243 Troubles between England and Spain 244 English contraband trade in Spanish America 245 Illegal search of English ships 246 Walpole's struggles to preserve peace 247 War of the Polish Succession 247 Creation of the Bourbon kingdom of the Two Sicilies 248 Bourbon family compact 248 France acquires Bar and Lorraine 249 England declares war against Spain 250 Morality of the English action toward Spain 250 Decay of the French navy 252 Death of Walpole and of Fleuri 253
WAR BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND SPAIN, 1739.—WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, 1740.—FRANCE JOINS SPAIN AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN, 1744.—SEA BATTLES OF MATTHEWS, ANSON, AND HAWKE.—PEACE OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, 1748.
Characteristics of the wars from 1739 to 1783 254 Neglect of the navy by French government 254 Colonial possessions of the French, English, and Spaniards 255 Dupleix and La Bourdonnais in India 258 Condition of the contending navies 259 Expeditions of Vernon and Anson 261 Outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession 262 England allies herself to Austria 262 Naval affairs in the Mediterranean 263 Influence of Sea Power on the war 264 Naval battle off Toulon, 1744 265 Causes of English failure 267 Courts-martial following the action 268 Inefficient action of English navy 269 Capture of Louisburg by New England colonists, 1745 269 Causes which concurred to neutralize England's Sea Power 269 France overruns Belgium and invades Holland 270 Naval actions of Anson and Hawke 271 Brilliant defence of Commodore l'Etenduere 272 Projects of Dupleix and La Bourdonnais in the East Indies 273 Influence of Sea Power in Indian affairs 275 La Bourdonnais reduces Madras 276 Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748 277 Madras exchanged for Louisburg 277 Results of the war 278 Effect of Sea Power on the issue 279
SEVEN YEARS' WAR, 1756-1763.—ENGLAND'S OVERWHELMING POWER AND CONQUESTS ON THE SEAS, IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND EAST AND WEST INDIES.—SEA BATTLES: BYNG OFF MINORCA; HAWKE AND CONFLANS; POCOCK AND D'ACHE IN EAST INDIES.
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle leaves many questions unsettled 281 Dupleix pursues his aggressive policy 281 He is recalled from India 282 His policy abandoned by the French 282 Agitation in North America 283 Braddock's expedition, 1755 284 Seizure of French ships by the English, while at peace 285 French expedition against Port Mahon, 1756 285 Byng sails to relieve the place 286 Byng's action off Port Mahon, 1756 286 Characteristics of the French naval policy 287 Byng returns to Gibraltar 290 He is relieved, tried by court-martial, and shot 290 Formal declarations of war by England and France 291 England's appreciation of the maritime character of the war 291 France is drawn into a continental struggle 292 The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) begins 293 Pitt becomes Prime Minister of England 293 Operations in North America 293 Fall of Louisburg, 1758 294 Fall of Quebec, 1759, and of Montreal, 1760 294 Influence of Sea Power on the continental war 295 English plans for the general naval operations 296 Choiseul becomes Minister in France 297 He plans an invasion of England 297 Sailing of the Toulon fleet, 1759 298 Its disastrous encounter with Boscawen 299 Consequent frustration of the invasion of England 300 Project to invade Scotland 300 Sailing of the Brest fleet 300 Hawke falls in with it and disperses it, 1759 302 Accession of Charles III. to Spanish throne 304 Death of George II. 304 Clive in India 305 Battle of Plassey, 1757 306 Decisive influence of Sea Power upon the issues in India 307 Naval actions between Pocock and D'Ache, 1758, 1759 307 Destitute condition of French naval stations in India 309 The French fleet abandons the struggle 310 Final fall of the French power in India 310 Ruined condition of the French navy 311 Alliance between France and Spain 313 England declares war against Spain 313 Rapid conquest of French and Spanish colonies 314 French and Spaniards invade Portugal 316 The invasion repelled by England 316 Severe reverses of the Spaniards in all quarters 316 Spain sues for peace 317 Losses of British mercantile shipping 317 Increase of British commerce 318 Commanding position of Great Britain 319 Relations of England and Portugal 320 Terms of the Treaty of Paris 321 Opposition to the treaty in Great Britain 322 Results of the maritime war 323 Results of the continental war 324 Influence of Sea Power in countries politically unstable 324 Interest of the United States in the Central American Isthmus 325 Effects of the Seven Years' War on the later history of Great Britain 326 Subsequent acquisitions of Great Britain 327 British success due to maritime superiority 328 Mutual dependence of seaports and fleets 329
COURSE OF EVENTS FROM THE PEACE OF PARIS TO 1778.—MARITIME WAR CONSEQUENT UPON THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.—SEA BATTLE OFF USHANT.
French discontent with the Treaty of Paris 330 Revival of the French navy 331 Discipline among French naval officers of the time 332 Choiseul's foreign policy 333 Domestic troubles in Great Britain 334 Controversies with the North American colonies 334 Genoa cedes Corsica to France 334 Dispute between England and Spain about the Falkland Islands 335 Choiseul dismissed 336 Death of Louis XV. 336 Naval policy of Louis XVI. 337 Characteristics of the maritime war of 1778 338 Instructions of Louis XVI. to the French admirals 339 Strength of English navy 341 Characteristics of the military situation in America 341 The line of the Hudson 342 Burgoyne's expedition from Canada 343 Howe carries his army from New York to the Chesapeake 343 Surrender of Burgoyne, 1777 343 American privateering 344 Clandestine support of the Americans by France 345 Treaty between France and the Americans 346 Vital importance of the French fleet to the Americans 347 The military situation in the different quarters of the globe 347 Breach between France and England 350 Sailing of the British and French fleets 350 Battle of Ushant, 1778 351 Position of a naval commander-in-chief in battle 353
MARITIME WAR IN NORTH AMERICA AND WEST INDIES, 1778-1781.—ITS INFLUENCE UPON THE COURSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.—FLEET ACTIONS OFF GRENADA, DOMINICA, AND CHESAPEAKE BAY.
D'Estaing sails from Toulon for Delaware Bay, 1778 359 British ordered to evacuate Philadelphia 359 Rapidity of Lord Howe's movements 360 D'Estaing arrives too late 360 Follows Howe to New York 360 Fails to attack there and sails for Newport 361 Howe follows him there 362 Both fleets dispersed by a storm 362 D'Estaing takes his fleet to Boston 363 Howe's activity foils D'Estaing at all points 363 D'Estaing sails for the West Indies 365 The English seize Sta. Lucia 365 Ineffectual attempts of D'Estaing to dislodge them 366 D'Estaing captures Grenada 367 Naval battle of Grenada, 1779; English ships crippled 367 D'Estaing fails to improve his advantages 370 Reasons for his neglect 371 French naval policy 372 English operations in the Southern States 375 D'Estaing takes his fleet to Savannah 375 His fruitless assault on Savannah 376 D'Estaing returns to France 376 Fall of Charleston 376 De Guichen takes command in the West Indies 376 Rodney arrives to command English fleet 377 His military character 377 First action between Rodney and De Guichen, 1780 378 Breaking the line 380 Subsequent movements of Rodney and De Guichen 381 Rodney divides his fleet 381 Goes in person to New York 381 De Guichen returns to France 381 Arrival of French forces in Newport 382 Rodney returns to the West Indies 382 War between England and Holland 382 Disasters to the United States in 1780 382 De Grasse sails from Brest for the West Indies, 1781 383 Engagement with English fleet off Martinique 383 Cornwallis overruns the Southern States 384 He retires upon Wilmington, N.C., and thence to Virginia 385 Arnold on the James River 385 The French fleet leaves Newport to intercept Arnold 385 Meets the English fleet off the Chesapeake, 1781 386 French fleet returns to Newport 387 Cornwallis occupies Yorktown 387 De Grasse sails from Hayti for the Chesapeake 388 Action with the British fleet, 1781 389 Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781 390 Criticism of the British naval operations 390 Energy and address shown by De Grasse 392 Difficulties of Great Britain's position in the war of 1778 392 The military policy best fitted to cope with them 393 Position of the French squadron in Newport, R.I., 1780 394 Great Britain's defensive position and inferior numbers 396 Consequent necessity for a vigorous initiative 396 Washington's opinions as to the influence of Sea Power on the American contest 397
MARITIME WAR IN EUROPE, 1779-1782.
Objectives of the allied operations in Europe 401 Spain declares war against England 401 Allied fleets enter the English Channel, 1779 402 Abortive issue of the cruise 403 Rodney sails with supplies for Gibraltar 403 Defeats the Spanish squadron of Langara and relieves the place 404 The allies capture a great British convoy 404 The armed neutrality of the Baltic powers, 1780 405 England declares war against Holland 406 Gibraltar is revictualled by Admiral Derby 407 The allied fleets again in the Channel, 1781 408 They retire without effecting any damage to England 408 Destruction of a French convoy for the West Indies 408 Fall of Port Mahon, 1782 409 The allied fleets assemble at Algesiras 409 Grand attack of the allies on Gibraltar, which fails, 1782 410 Lord Howe succeeds in revictualling Gibraltar 412 Action between his fleet and that of the allies 412 Conduct of the war of 1778 by the English government 412 Influence of Sea Power 416 Proper use of the naval forces 416
EVENTS IN THE EAST INDIES, 1778-1781.—SUFFREN SAILS FROM BREST FOR INDIA, 1781.—HIS BRILLIANT NAVAL CAMPAIGN IN THE INDIAN SEAS, 1782, 1783.
Neglect of India by the French government 419 England at war with Mysore and with the Mahrattas 420 Arrival of the French squadron under Comte d'Orves 420 It effects nothing and returns to the Isle of France 420 Suffren sails from Brest with five ships-of-the-line, 1781 421 Attacks an English squadron in the Cape Verde Islands, 1781 422 Conduct and results of this attack 424 Distinguishing merits of Suffren as a naval leader 425 Suffren saves the Cape Colony from the English 427 He reaches the Isle of France 427 Succeeds to the chief command of the French fleet 427 Meets the British squadron under Hughes at Madras 427 Analysis of the naval strategic situation in India 428 The first battle between Suffren and Hughes, Feb. 17, 1782 430 Suffren's views of the naval situation in India 433 Tactical oversights made by Suffren 434 Inadequate support received by him from his captains 435 Suffren goes to Pondicherry, Hughes to Trincomalee 436 The second battle between Suffren and Hughes, April 12, 1782 437 Suffren's tactics in the action 439 Relative injuries received by the opposing fleets 441 Contemporaneous English criticisms upon Hughes's conduct 442 Destitute condition of Suffren's fleet 443 His activity and success in supplying wants 443 He communicates with Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore 443 Firmness and insight shown by Suffren 445 His refusal to obey orders from home to leave the Indian Coast 446 The third battle between Suffren and Hughes, July 6, 1782 447 Qualities shown by Hughes 449 Stubborn fighting by the British admiral and captains 449 Suffren deprives three captains of their commands 449 Dilatory conduct of Admiral Hughes 450 Suffren attacks and takes Trincomalee 450 Strategic importance of this success 451 Comparative condition of the two fleets in material for repairs 451 The English government despatches powerful reinforcements 452 The French court fails to support Suffren 452 The fourth battle between Suffren and Hughes, Sept. 3, 1782 453 Mismanagement and injuries of the French 455 Contrast between the captains in the opposing fleets 456 Two ships of Suffren's fleet grounded and lost 457 Arrival of British reinforcements under Admiral Bickerton 458 Approach of bad-weather season; Hughes goes to Bombay 458 Military situation of French and English in India 459 Delays of the French reinforcements under Bussy 460 Suffren takes his fleet to Achem, in Sumatra 460 He returns to the Indian coast 461 Arrival of Bussy 461 Decline of the French power on shore 461 The English besiege Bussy in Cuddalore by land and sea 462 Suffren relieves the place 462 The fifth battle between Suffren and Hughes, June 20, 1783 463 Decisive character of Suffren's action 463 News of the peace received at Madras 463 Suffren sails for France 464 His flattering reception everywhere 464 His distinguishing military qualities 465 His later career and death 466
EVENTS IN THE WEST INDIES AFTER THE SURRENDER OF YORKTOWN.— ENCOUNTERS OF DE GRASSE WITH HOOD.—THE SEA BATTLE OF THE SAINTS.—1781-1782.
Maritime struggle transferred from the continent to West Indies 468 De Grasse sails for the islands 469 French expedition against the island of St. Christopher, January, 1782 469 Hood attempts to relieve the garrison 470 Manoeuvres of the two fleets 471 Action between De Grasse and Hood 472 Hood seizes the anchorage left by De Grasse 473 De Grasse attacks Hood at his anchorage 474 Hood maintains his position 475 Surrender of the garrison and island 475 Merits of Hood's action 476 Criticism upon De Grasse's conduct 477 Rodney arrives in West Indies from England 479 Junction of Rodney and Hood at Antigua 479 De Grasse returns to Martinique 479 Allied plans to capture Jamaica 479 Rodney takes his station at Sta. Lucia 480 The French fleet sails and is pursued by Rodney 480 Action of April 9, 1782 481 Criticism upon the action 483 The chase continued; accidents to French ships 484 The naval battle of the Saints, April 12, 1782 485 Rodney breaks the French line 488 Capture of the French commander-in-chief and five ships-of-the-line 489 Details of the action 489 Analysis of the effects of Rodney's manoeuvre 491 Tactical bearing of improvements in naval equipment 493 Lessons of this short naval campaign 495 Rodney's failure to pursue the French fleet 496 Examination of his reasons and of the actual conditions 497 Probable effect of this failure upon the conditions of peace 498 Rodney's opinions upon the battle of April 12 499 Successes achieved by Rodney during his command 500 He is recalled by a new ministry 500 Exaggerated view of the effects of this battle upon the war 500 Subsequent career of De Grasse 501 Court-martial ordered upon the officers of the French fleet 502 Findings of the court 502 De Grasse appeals against the finding 503 He is severely rebuked by the king 503 Deaths of De Grasse, Rodney, and Hood 504
CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF THE MARITIME WAR OF 1778.
The war of 1778 purely maritime 505 Peculiar interest therefore attaching to it 506 Successive steps in the critical study of a war 507 Distinction between "object" and "objective" 507 Parties to the war of 1778 507 Objects of the different belligerents 508 Foundations of the British Empire of the seas 510 Threatened by the revolt of the colonies 510 The British fleet inferior in numbers to the allies 511 Choice of objectives 511 The fleets indicated as the keys of the situation everywhere 513 Elements essential to an active naval war 514 The bases of operations in the war of 1778:— In Europe 515 On the American continent 515 In the West Indies 516 In the East Indies 518 Strategic bearing of the trade-winds and monsoons 518 The bases abroad generally deficient in resources 519 Consequent increased importance of the communications 519 The navies the guardians of the communications 520 Need of intermediate ports between Europe and India 520 Inquiry into the disposition of the naval forces 521 Difficulty of obtaining information at sea 521 Perplexity as to the destination of a naval expedition 522 Disadvantages of the defensive 523 England upon the defensive in 1778 523 Consequent necessity for wise and vigorous action 524 The key of the situation 525 British naval policy in the Napoleonic wars 525 British naval policy in the Seven Years' War 527 Difficulties attending this policy 527 Disposition of the British navy in the war of 1778 528 Resulting inferiority on many critical occasions 528 Effect on the navy of the failure to fortify naval bases 529 The distribution of the British navy exposes it to being out-numbered at many points 531 The British naval policy in 1778 and in other wars compared 532 Naval policy of the allies 535 Divergent counsels of the coalition 536 "Ulterior objects" 537 The allied navies systematically assume a defensive attitude 538 Dangers of this line of action 538 Glamour of commerce-destroying 539 The conditions of peace, 1783 540
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
LIST OF MAPS.
I. Mediterranean Sea 15 II. English Channel and North Sea 107 III. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon 257 IV. North Atlantic Ocean 532
PLANS OF NAVAL BATTLES.
In these plans, when the capital letters A, B, C, and D are used, all positions marked by the same capital are simultaneous.
I. Four Days' Battle, 1666 119 II. Four Days' Battle, 1666 124 III. Battle of Solebay, 1672 146 IV. Battle of the Texel, 1673 153 V. Battle of Stromboli, 1676 161 V a. Pocock and D'Ache, 1758 161 VI. Battle of Beachy Head, 1690 183 VI a. Battle of La Hougue, 1692 183 VII. Matthews's Action off Toulon, 1744 265 VII a. Byng's Action off Minorca, 1756 265 VIII. Hawke and Conflans, 1759 303 IX. Battle of Ushant, 1778 351 X. D'Estaing and Byron, 1779 368 XI. Rodney and De Guichen, April 17, 1780 378 XII. Arbuthnot and Destouches, 1781 386 XIII. Suffren at Porto Praya, 1781 423 XIV. Suffren and Hughes, February 17, 1782 431 XV. Suffren and Hughes, April 12, 1782 438 XVI. Suffren and Hughes, July 6, 1782 447 XVII. Suffren and Hughes, September 3, 1782 454 XVIII. Hood and De Grasse, January, 1782 470 XIX. Hood and De Grasse, January, 1782 472 XX. Rodney and De Grasse, April 9, 1782 482 XXI. Rodney's Victory, April 12, 1782 486
SEA POWER UPON HISTORY.
The history of Sea Power is largely, though by no means solely, a narrative of contests between nations, of mutual rivalries, of violence frequently culminating in war. The profound influence of sea commerce upon the wealth and strength of countries was clearly seen long before the true principles which governed its growth and prosperity were detected. To secure to one's own people a disproportionate share of such benefits, every effort was made to exclude others, either by the peaceful legislative methods of monopoly or prohibitory regulations, or, when these failed, by direct violence. The clash of interests, the angry feelings roused by conflicting attempts thus to appropriate the larger share, if not the whole, of the advantages of commerce, and of distant unsettled commercial regions, led to wars. On the other hand, wars arising from other causes have been greatly modified in their conduct and issue by the control of the sea. Therefore the history of sea power, while embracing in its broad sweep all that tends to make a people great upon the sea or by the sea, is largely a military history; and it is in this aspect that it will be mainly, though not exclusively, regarded in the following pages.
A study of the military history of the past, such as this, is enjoined by great military leaders as essential to correct ideas and to the skilful conduct of war in the future. Napoleon names among the campaigns to be studied by the aspiring soldier, those of Alexander, Hannibal, and Caesar, to whom gunpowder was unknown; and there is a substantial agreement among professional writers that, while many of the conditions of war vary from age to age with the progress of weapons, there are certain teachings in the school of history which remain constant, and being, therefore, of universal application, can be elevated to the rank of general principles. For the same reason the study of the sea history of the past will be found instructive, by its illustration of the general principles of maritime war, notwithstanding the great changes that have been brought about in naval weapons by the scientific advances of the past half century, and by the introduction of steam as the motive power.
It is doubly necessary thus to study critically the history and experience of naval warfare in the days of sailing-ships, because while these will be found to afford lessons of present application and value, steam navies have as yet made no history which can be quoted as decisive in its teaching. Of the one we have much experimental knowledge; of the other, practically none. Hence theories about the naval warfare of the future are almost wholly presumptive; and although the attempt has been made to give them a more solid basis by dwelling upon the resemblance between fleets of steamships and fleets of galleys moved by oars, which have a long and well-known history, it will be well not to be carried away by this analogy until it has been thoroughly tested. The resemblance is indeed far from superficial. The feature which the steamer and the galley have in common is the ability to move in any direction independent of the wind. Such a power makes a radical distinction between those classes of vessels and the sailing-ship; for the latter can follow only a limited number of courses when the wind blows, and must remain motionless when it fails. But while it is wise to observe things that are alike, it is also wise to look for things that differ; for when the imagination is carried away by the detection of points of resemblance,—one of the most pleasing of mental pursuits,—it is apt to be impatient of any divergence in its new-found parallels, and so may overlook or refuse to recognize such. Thus the galley and the steamship have in common, though unequally developed, the important characteristic mentioned, but in at least two points they differ; and in an appeal to the history of the galley for lessons as to fighting steamships, the differences as well as the likeness must be kept steadily in view, or false deductions may be made. The motive power of the galley when in use necessarily and rapidly declined, because human strength could not long maintain such exhausting efforts, and consequently tactical movements could continue but for a limited time; and again, during the galley period offensive weapons were not only of short range, but were almost wholly confined to hand-to-hand encounter. These two conditions led almost necessarily to a rush upon each other, not, however, without some dexterous attempts to turn or double on the enemy, followed by a hand-to-hand melee. In such a rush and such a melee a great consensus of respectable, even eminent, naval opinion of the present day finds the necessary outcome of modern naval weapons,—a kind of Donnybrook Fair, in which, as the history of melees shows, it will be hard to know friend from foe. Whatever may prove to be the worth of this opinion, it cannot claim an historical basis in the sole fact that galley and steamship can move at any moment directly upon the enemy, and carry a beak upon their prow, regardless of the points in which galley and steamship differ. As yet this opinion is only a presumption, upon which final judgment may well be deferred until the trial of battle has given further light. Until that time there is room for the opposite view,—that a melee between numerically equal fleets, in which skill is reduced to a minimum, is not the best that can be done with the elaborate and mighty weapons of this age. The surer of himself an admiral is, the finer the tactical development of his fleet, the better his captains, the more reluctant must he necessarily be to enter into a melee with equal forces, in which all these advantages will be thrown away, chance reign supreme, and his fleet be placed on terms of equality with an assemblage of ships which have never before acted together. History has lessons as to when melees are, or are not, in order.
The galley, then, has one striking resemblance to the steamer, but differs in other important features which are not so immediately apparent and are therefore less accounted of. In the sailing-ship, on the contrary, the striking feature is the difference between it and the more modern vessel; the points of resemblance, though existing and easy to find, are not so obvious, and therefore are less heeded. This impression is enhanced by the sense of utter weakness in the sailing-ship as compared with the steamer, owing to its dependence upon the wind; forgetting that, as the former fought with its equals, the tactical lessons are valid. The galley was never reduced to impotence by a calm, and hence receives more respect in our day than the sailing-ship; yet the latter displaced it and remained supreme until the utilization of steam. The powers to injure an enemy from a great distance, to manoeuvre for an unlimited length of time without wearing out the men, to devote the greater part of the crew to the offensive weapons instead of to the oar, are common to the sailing vessel and the steamer, and are at least as important, tactically considered, as the power of the galley to move in a calm or against the wind.
In tracing resemblances there is a tendency not only to overlook points of difference, but to exaggerate points of likeness,—to be fanciful. It may be so considered to point out that as the sailing-ship had guns of long range, with comparatively great penetrative power, and carronades, which were of shorter range but great smashing effect, so the modern steamer has its batteries of long-range guns and of torpedoes, the latter being effective only within a limited distance and then injuring by smashing, while the gun, as of old, aims at penetration. Yet these are distinctly tactical considerations, which must affect the plans of admirals and captains; and the analogy is real, not forced. So also both the sailing-ship and the steamer contemplate direct contact with an enemy's vessel,—the former to carry her by boarding, the latter to sink her by ramming; and to both this is the most difficult of their tasks, for to effect it the ship must be carried to a single point of the field of action, whereas projectile weapons may be used from many points of a wide area.
The relative positions of two sailing-ships, or fleets, with reference to the direction of the wind involved most important tactical questions, and were perhaps the chief care of the seamen of that age. To a superficial glance it may appear that since this has become a matter of such indifference to the steamer, no analogies to it are to be found in present conditions, and the lessons of history in this respect are valueless. A more careful consideration of the distinguishing characteristics of the lee and the weather "gage," directed to their essential features and disregarding secondary details, will show that this is a mistake. The distinguishing feature of the weather-gage was that it conferred the power of giving or refusing battle at will, which in turn carries the usual advantage of an offensive attitude in the choice of the method of attack. This advantage was accompanied by certain drawbacks, such as irregularity introduced into the order, exposure to raking or enfilading cannonade, and the sacrifice of part or all of the artillery-fire of the assailant,—all which were incurred in approaching the enemy. The ship, or fleet, with the lee-gage could not attack; if it did not wish to retreat, its action was confined to the defensive, and to receiving battle on the enemy's terms. This disadvantage was compensated by the comparative ease of maintaining the order of battle undisturbed, and by a sustained artillery-fire to which the enemy for a time was unable to reply. Historically, these favorable and unfavorable characteristics have their counterpart and analogy in the offensive and defensive operations of all ages. The offence undertakes certain risks and disadvantages in order to reach and destroy the enemy; the defence, so long as it remains such, refuses the risks of advance, holds on to a careful, well-ordered position, and avails itself of the exposure to which the assailant submits himself. These radical differences between the weather and the lee gage were so clearly recognized, through the cloud of lesser details accompanying them, that the former was ordinarily chosen by the English, because their steady policy was to assail and destroy their enemy; whereas the French sought the lee-gage, because by so doing they were usually able to cripple the enemy as he approached, and thus evade decisive encounters and preserve their ships. The French, with rare exceptions, subordinated the action of the navy to other military considerations, grudged the money spent upon it, and therefore sought to economize their fleet by assuming a defensive position and limiting its efforts to the repelling of assaults. For this course the lee-gage, skilfully used, was admirably adapted so long as an enemy displayed more courage than conduct; but when Rodney showed an intention to use the advantage of the wind, not merely to attack, but to make a formidable concentration on a part of the enemy's line, his wary opponent, De Guichen, changed his tactics. In the first of their three actions the Frenchman took the lee-gage; but after recognizing Rodney's purpose he manoeuvred for the advantage of the wind, not to attack, but to refuse action except on his own terms. The power to assume the offensive, or to refuse battle, rests no longer with the wind, but with the party which has the greater speed; which in a fleet will depend not only upon the speed of the individual ships, but also upon their tactical uniformity of action. Henceforth the ships which have the greatest speed will have the weather-gage.
It is not therefore a vain expectation, as many think, to look for useful lessons in the history of sailing-ships as well as in that of galleys. Both have their points of resemblance to the modern ship; both have also points of essential difference, which make it impossible to cite their experiences or modes of action as tactical precedents to be followed. But a precedent is different from and less valuable than a principle. The former may be originally faulty, or may cease to apply through change of circumstances; the latter has its root in the essential nature of things, and, however various its application as conditions change, remains a standard to which action must conform to attain success. War has such principles; their existence is detected by the study of the past, which reveals them in successes and in failures, the same from age to age. Conditions and weapons change; but to cope with the one or successfully wield the others, respect must be had to these constant teachings of history in the tactics of the battlefield, or in those wider operations of war which are comprised under the name of strategy.
It is however in these wider operations, which embrace a whole theatre of war, and in a maritime contest may cover a large portion of the globe, that the teachings of history have a more evident and permanent value, because the conditions remain more permanent. The theatre of war may be larger or smaller, its difficulties more or less pronounced, the contending armies more or less great, the necessary movements more or less easy, but these are simply differences of scale, of degree, not of kind. As a wilderness gives place to civilization, as means of communication multiply, as roads are opened, rivers bridged, food-resources increased, the operations of war become easier, more rapid, more extensive; but the principles to which they must be conformed remain the same. When the march on foot was replaced by carrying troops in coaches, when the latter in turn gave place to railroads, the scale of distances was increased, or, if you will, the scale of time diminished; but the principles which dictated the point at which the army should be concentrated, the direction in which it should move, the part of the enemy's position which it should assail, the protection of communications, were not altered. So, on the sea, the advance from the galley timidly creeping from port to port to the sailing-ship launching out boldly to the ends of the earth, and from the latter to the steamship of our own time, has increased the scope and the rapidity of naval operations without necessarily changing the principles which should direct them; and the speech of Hermocrates twenty-three hundred years ago, before quoted, contained a correct strategic plan, which is as applicable in its principles now as it was then. Before hostile armies or fleets are brought into contact (a word which perhaps better than any other indicates the dividing line between tactics and strategy), there are a number of questions to be decided, covering the whole plan of operations throughout the theatre of war. Among these are the proper function of the navy in the war; its true objective; the point or points upon which it should be concentrated; the establishment of depots of coal and supplies; the maintenance of communications between these depots and the home base; the military value of commerce-destroying as a decisive or a secondary operation of war; the system upon which commerce-destroying can be most efficiently conducted, whether by scattered cruisers or by holding in force some vital centre through which commercial shipping must pass. All these are strategic questions, and upon all these history has a great deal to say. There has been of late a valuable discussion in English naval circles as to the comparative merits of the policies of two great English admirals, Lord Howe and Lord St. Vincent, in the disposition of the English navy when at war with France. The question is purely strategic, and is not of mere historical interest; it is of vital importance now, and the principles upon which its decision rests are the same now as then. St. Vincent's policy saved England from invasion, and in the hands of Nelson and his brother admirals led straight up to Trafalgar.
It is then particularly in the field of naval strategy that the teachings of the past have a value which is in no degree lessened. They are there useful not only as illustrative of principles, but also as precedents, owing to the comparative permanence of the conditions. This is less obviously true as to tactics, when the fleets come into collision at the point to which strategic considerations have brought them. The unresting progress of mankind causes continual change in the weapons; and with that must come a continual change in the manner of fighting,—in the handling and disposition of troops or ships on the battlefield. Hence arises a tendency on the part of many connected with maritime matters to think that no advantage is to be gained from the study of former experiences; that time so used is wasted. This view, though natural, not only leaves wholly out of sight those broad strategic considerations which lead nations to put fleets afloat, which direct the sphere of their action, and so have modified and will continue to modify the history of the world, but is one-sided and narrow even as to tactics. The battles of the past succeeded or failed according as they were fought in conformity with the principles of war; and the seaman who carefully studies the causes of success or failure will not only detect and gradually assimilate these principles, but will also acquire increased aptitude in applying them to the tactical use of the ships and weapons of his own day. He will observe also that changes of tactics have not only taken place after changes in weapons, which necessarily is the case, but that the interval between such changes has been unduly long. This doubtless arises from the fact that an improvement of weapons is due to the energy of one or two men, while changes in tactics have to overcome the inertia of a conservative class; but it is a great evil. It can be remedied only by a candid recognition of each change, by careful study of the powers and limitations of the new ship or weapon, and by a consequent adaptation of the method of using it to the qualities it possesses, which will constitute its tactics. History shows that it is vain to hope that military men generally will be at the pains to do this, but that the one who does will go into battle with a great advantage,—a lesson in itself of no mean value.
We may therefore accept now the words of a French tactician, Morogues, who wrote a century and a quarter ago: "Naval tactics are based upon conditions the chief causes of which, namely the arms, may change; which in turn causes necessarily a change in the construction of ships, in the manner of handling them, and so finally in the disposition and handling of fleets." His further statement, that "it is not a science founded upon principles absolutely invariable," is more open to criticism. It would be more correct to say that the application of its principles varies as the weapons change. The application of the principles doubtless varies also in strategy from time to time, but the variation is far less; and hence the recognition of the underlying principle is easier. This statement is of sufficient importance to our subject to receive some illustrations from historical events.
The battle of the Nile, in 1798, was not only an overwhelming victory for the English over the French fleet, but had also the decisive effect of destroying the communications between France and Napoleon's army in Egypt. In the battle itself the English admiral, Nelson, gave a most brilliant example of grand tactics, if that be, as has been defined, "the art of making good combinations preliminary to battles as well as during their progress." The particular tactical combination depended upon a condition now passed away, which was the inability of the lee ships of a fleet at anchor to come to the help of the weather ones before the latter were destroyed; but the principles which underlay the combination, namely, to choose that part of the enemy's order which can least easily be helped, and to attack it with superior forces, has not passed away. The action of Admiral Jervis at Cape St. Vincent, when with fifteen ships he won a victory over twenty-seven, was dictated by the same principle, though in this case the enemy was not at anchor, but under way. Yet men's minds are so constituted that they seem more impressed by the transiency of the conditions than by the undying principle which coped with them. In the strategic effect of Nelson's victory upon the course of the war, on the contrary, the principle involved is not only more easily recognized, but it is at once seen to be applicable to our own day. The issue of the enterprise in Egypt depended upon keeping open the communications with France. The victory of the Nile destroyed the naval force, by which alone the communications could be assured, and determined the final failure; and it is at once seen, not only that the blow was struck in accordance with the principle of striking at the enemy's line of communication, but also that the same principle is valid now, and would be equally so in the days of the galley as of the sailing-ship or steamer.
Nevertheless, a vague feeling of contempt for the past, supposed to be obsolete, combines with natural indolence to blind men even to those permanent strategic lessons which lie close to the surface of naval history. For instance, how many look upon the battle of Trafalgar, the crown of Nelson's glory and the seal of his genius, as other than an isolated event of exceptional grandeur? How many ask themselves the strategic question, "How did the ships come to be just there?" How many realize it to be the final act in a great strategic drama, extending over a year or more, in which two of the greatest leaders that ever lived, Napoleon and Nelson, were pitted against each other? At Trafalgar it was not Villeneuve that failed, but Napoleon that was vanquished; not Nelson that won, but England that was saved; and why? Because Napoleon's combinations failed, and Nelson's intuitions and activity kept the English fleet ever on the track of the enemy, and brought it up in time at the decisive moment. The tactics at Trafalgar, while open to criticism in detail, were in their main features conformable to the principles of war, and their audacity was justified as well by the urgency of the case as by the results; but the great lessons of efficiency in preparation, of activity and energy in execution, and of thought and insight on the part of the English leader during the previous months, are strategic lessons, and as such they still remain good.
In these two cases events were worked out to their natural and decisive end. A third may be cited, in which, as no such definite end was reached, an opinion as to what should have been done may be open to dispute. In the war of the American Revolution, France and Spain became allies against England in 1779. The united fleets thrice appeared in the English Channel, once to the number of sixty-six sail of the line, driving the English fleet to seek refuge in its ports because far inferior in numbers. Now, the great aim of Spain was to recover Gibraltar and Jamaica; and to the former end immense efforts both by land and sea were put forth by the allies against that nearly impregnable fortress. They were fruitless. The question suggested—and it is purely one of naval strategy—is this: Would not Gibraltar have been more surely recovered by controlling the English Channel, attacking the British fleet even in its harbors, and threatening England with annihilation of commerce and invasion at home, than by far greater efforts directed against a distant and very strong outpost of her empire? The English people, from long immunity, were particularly sensitive to fears of invasion, and their great confidence in their fleets, if rudely shaken, would have left them proportionately disheartened. However decided, the question as a point of strategy is fair; and it is proposed in another form by a French officer of the period, who favored directing the great effort on a West India island which might be exchanged against Gibraltar. It is not, however, likely that England would have given up the key of the Mediterranean for any other foreign possession, though she might have yielded it to save her firesides and her capital. Napoleon once said that he would reconquer Pondicherry on the banks of the Vistula. Could he have controlled the English Channel, as the allied fleet did for a moment in 1779, can it be doubted that he would have conquered Gibraltar on the shores of England?
To impress more strongly the truth that history both suggests strategic study and illustrates the principles of war by the facts which it transmits, two more instances will be taken, which are more remote in time than the period specially considered in this work. How did it happen that, in two great contests between the powers of the East and of the West in the Mediterranean, in one of which the empire of the known world was at stake, the opposing fleets met on spots so near each other as Actium and Lepanto? Was this a mere coincidence, or was it due to conditions that recurred, and may recur again? If the latter, it is worth while to study out the reason; for if there should again arise a great eastern power of the sea like that of Antony or of Turkey, the strategic questions would be similar. At present, indeed, it seems that the centre of sea power, resting mainly with England and France, is overwhelmingly in the West; but should any chance add to the control of the Black Sea basin, which Russia now has, the possession of the entrance to the Mediterranean, the existing strategic conditions affecting sea power would all be modified. Now, were the West arrayed against the East, England and France would go at once unopposed to the Levant, as they did in 1854, and as England alone went in 1878; in case of the change suggested, the East, as twice before, would meet the West half-way.
At a very conspicuous and momentous period of the world's history, Sea Power had a strategic bearing and weight which has received scant recognition. There cannot now be had the full knowledge necessary for tracing in detail its influence upon the issue of the second Punic War; but the indications which remain are sufficient to warrant the assertion that it was a determining factor. An accurate judgment upon this point cannot be formed by mastering only such facts of the particular contest as have been clearly transmitted, for as usual the naval transactions have been slightingly passed over; there is needed also familiarity with the details of general naval history in order to draw, from slight indications, correct inferences based upon a knowledge of what has been possible at periods whose history is well known. The control of the sea, however real, does not imply that an enemy's single ships or small squadrons cannot steal out of port, cannot cross more or less frequented tracts of ocean, make harassing descents upon unprotected points of a long coast-line, enter blockaded harbors. On the contrary, history has shown that such evasions are always possible, to some extent, to the weaker party, however great the inequality of naval strength. It is not therefore inconsistent with the general control of the sea, or of a decisive part of it, by the Roman fleets, that the Carthaginian admiral Bomilcar in the fourth year of the war, after the stunning defeat of Cannae, landed four thousand men and a body of elephants in south Italy; nor that in the seventh year, flying from the Roman fleet off Syracuse, he again appeared at Tarentum, then in Hannibal's hands; nor that Hannibal sent despatch vessels to Carthage; nor even that, at last, he withdrew in safety to Africa with his wasted army. None of these things prove that the government in Carthage could, if it wished, have sent Hannibal the constant support which, as a matter of fact, he did not receive; but they do tend to create a natural impression that such help could have been given. Therefore the statement, that the Roman preponderance at sea had a decisive effect upon the course of the war, needs to be made good by an examination of ascertained facts. Thus the kind and degree of its influence may be fairly estimated.
At the beginning of the war, Mommsen says, Rome controlled the seas. To whatever cause, or combination of causes, it be attributed, this essentially non-maritime state had in the first Punic War established over its sea-faring rival a naval supremacy, which still lasted. In the second war there was no naval battle of importance,—a circumstance which in itself, and still more in connection with other well-ascertained facts, indicates a superiority analogous to that which at other epochs has been marked by the same feature.
As Hannibal left no memoirs, the motives are unknown which determined him to the perilous and almost ruinous march through Gaul and across the Alps. It is certain, however, that his fleet on the coast of Spain was not strong enough to contend with that of Rome. Had it been, he might still have followed the road he actually did, for reasons that weighed with him; but had he gone by the sea, he would not have lost thirty-three thousand out of the sixty thousand veteran soldiers with whom he started.
While Hannibal was making this dangerous march, the Romans were sending to Spain, under the two elder Scipios, one part of their fleet, carrying a consular army. This made the voyage without serious loss, and the army established itself successfully north of the Ebro, on Hannibal's line of communications. At the same time another squadron, with an army commanded by the other consul, was sent to Sicily. The two together numbered two hundred and twenty ships. On its station each met and defeated a Carthaginian squadron with an ease which may be inferred from the slight mention made of the actions, and which indicates the actual superiority of the Roman fleet.
After the second year the war assumed the following shape: Hannibal, having entered Italy by the north, after a series of successes had passed southward around Rome and fixed himself in southern Italy, living off the country,—a condition which tended to alienate the people, and was especially precarious when in contact with the mighty political and military system of control which Rome had there established. It was therefore from the first urgently necessary that he should establish, between himself and some reliable base, that stream of supplies and reinforcements which in terms of modern war is called "communications." There were three friendly regions which might, each or all, serve as such a base,—Carthage itself, Macedonia, and Spain. With the first two, communication could be had only by sea. From Spain, where his firmest support was found, he could be reached by both land and sea, unless an enemy barred the passage; but the sea route was the shorter and easier.
In the first years of the war, Rome, by her sea power, controlled absolutely the basin between Italy, Sicily, and Spain, known as the Tyrrhenian and Sardinian Seas. The sea-coast from the Ebro to the Tiber was mostly friendly to her. In the fourth year, after the battle of Cannae, Syracuse forsook the Roman alliance, the revolt spread through Sicily, and Macedonia also entered into an offensive league with Hannibal. These changes extended the necessary operations of the Roman fleet, and taxed its strength. What disposition was made of it, and how did it thereafter influence the struggle?
The indications are clear that Rome at no time ceased to control the Tyrrhenian Sea, for her squadrons passed unmolested from Italy to Spain. On the Spanish coast also she had full sway till the younger Scipio saw fit to lay up the fleet. In the Adriatic, a squadron and naval station were established at Brindisi to check Macedonia, which performed their task so well that not a soldier of the phalanxes ever set foot in Italy. "The want of a war fleet," says Mommsen, "paralyzed Philip in all his movements." Here the effect of Sea Power is not even a matter of inference.
In Sicily, the struggle centred about Syracuse. The fleets of Carthage and Rome met there, but the superiority evidently lay with the latter; for though the Carthaginians at times succeeded in throwing supplies into the city, they avoided meeting the Roman fleet in battle. With Lilybaeum, Palermo, and Messina in its hands, the latter was well based in the north coast of the island. Access by the south was left open to the Carthaginians, and they were thus able to maintain the insurrection.
Putting these facts together, it is a reasonable inference, and supported by the whole tenor of the history, that the Roman sea power controlled the sea north of a line drawn from Tarragona in Spain to Lilybaeum (the modern Marsala), at the west end of Sicily, thence round by the north side of the island through the straits of Messina down to Syracuse, and from there to Brindisi in the Adriatic. This control lasted, unshaken, throughout the war. It did not exclude maritime raids, large or small, such as have been spoken of; but it did forbid the sustained and secure communications of which Hannibal was in deadly need.
On the other hand, it seems equally plain that for the first ten years of the war the Roman fleet was not strong enough for sustained operations in the sea between Sicily and Carthage, nor indeed much to the south of the line indicated. When Hannibal started, he assigned such ships as he had to maintaining the communications between Spain and Africa, which the Romans did not then attempt to disturb.
The Roman sea power, therefore, threw Macedonia wholly out of the war. It did not keep Carthage from maintaining a useful and most harassing diversion in Sicily; but it did prevent her sending troops, when they would have been most useful, to her great general in Italy. How was it as to Spain?
Spain was the region upon which the father of Hannibal and Hannibal himself had based their intended invasion of Italy. For eighteen years before this began they had occupied the country, extending and consolidating their power, both political and military, with rare sagacity. They had raised, and trained in local wars, a large and now veteran army. Upon his own departure, Hannibal intrusted the government to his younger brother, Hasdrubal, who preserved toward him to the end a loyalty and devotion which he had no reason to hope from the faction-cursed mother-city in Africa.
At the time of his starting, the Carthaginian power in Spain was secured from Cadiz to the river Ebro. The region between this river and the Pyrenees was inhabited by tribes friendly to the Romans, but unable, in the absence of the latter, to oppose a successful resistance to Hannibal. He put them down, leaving eleven thousand soldiers under Hanno to keep military possession of the country, lest the Romans should establish themselves there, and thus disturb his communications with his base.
Cnaeus Scipio, however, arrived on the spot by sea the same year with twenty thousand men, defeated Hanno, and occupied both the coast and interior north of the Ebro. The Romans thus held ground by which they entirely closed the road between Hannibal and reinforcements from Hasdrubal, and whence they could attack the Carthaginian power in Spain; while their own communications with Italy, being by water, were secured by their naval supremacy. They made a naval base at Tarragona, confronting that of Hasdrubal at Cartagena, and then invaded the Carthaginian dominions. The war in Spain went on under the elder Scipios, seemingly a side issue, with varying fortune for seven years; at the end of which time Hasdrubal inflicted upon them a crushing defeat, the two brothers were killed, and the Carthaginians nearly succeeded in breaking through to the Pyrenees with reinforcements for Hannibal. The attempt, however, was checked for the moment; and before it could be renewed, the fall of Capua released twelve thousand veteran Romans, who were sent to Spain under Claudius Nero, a man of exceptional ability, to whom was due later the most decisive military movement made by any Roman general during the Second Punic War. This seasonable reinforcement, which again assured the shaken grip on Hasdrubal's line of march, came by sea,—a way which, though most rapid and easy, was closed to the Carthaginians by the Roman navy.
Two years later the younger Publius Scipio, celebrated afterward as Africanus, received the command in Spain, and captured Cartagena by a combined military and naval attack; after which he took the most extraordinary step of breaking up his fleet and transferring the seamen to the army. Not contented to act merely as the "containing" force against Hasdrubal by closing the passes of the Pyrenees, Scipio pushed forward into southern Spain, and fought a severe but indecisive battle on the Guadalquivir; after which Hasdrubal slipped away from him, hurried north, crossed the Pyrenees at their extreme west, and pressed on to Italy, where Hannibal's position was daily growing weaker, the natural waste of his army not being replaced.
The war had lasted ten years, when Hasdrubal, having met little loss on the way, entered Italy at the north. The troops he brought, could they be safely united with those under the command of the unrivalled Hannibal, might give a decisive turn to the war, for Rome herself was nearly exhausted; the iron links which bound her own colonies and the allied States to her were strained to the utmost, and some had already snapped. But the military position of the two brothers was also perilous in the extreme. One being at the river Metaurus, the other in Apulia, two hundred miles apart, each was confronted by a superior enemy, and both these Roman armies were between their separated opponents. This false situation, as well as the long delay of Hasdrubal's coming, was due to the Roman control of the sea, which throughout the war limited the mutual support of the Carthaginian brothers to the route through Gaul. At the very time that Hasdrubal was making his long and dangerous circuit by land, Scipio had sent eleven thousand men from Spain by sea to reinforce the army opposed to him. The upshot was that messengers from Hasdrubal to Hannibal, having to pass over so wide a belt of hostile country, fell into the hands of Claudius Nero, commanding the southern Roman army, who thus learned the route which Hasdrubal intended to take. Nero correctly appreciated the situation, and, escaping the vigilance of Hannibal, made a rapid march with eight thousand of his best troops to join the forces in the north. The junction being effected, the two consuls fell upon Hasdrubal in overwhelming numbers and destroyed his army; the Carthaginian leader himself falling in the battle. Hannibal's first news of the disaster was by the head of his brother being thrown into his camp. He is said to have exclaimed that Rome would now be mistress of the world; and the battle of Metaurus is generally accepted as decisive of the struggle between the two States.
The military situation which finally resulted in the battle of the Metaurus and the triumph of Rome may be summed up as follows: To overthrow Rome it was necessary to attack her in Italy at the heart of her power, and shatter the strongly linked confederacy of which she was the head. This was the objective. To reach it, the Carthaginians needed a solid base of operations and a secure line of communications. The former was established in Spain by the genius of the great Barca family; the latter was never achieved. There were two lines possible,—the one direct by sea, the other circuitous through Gaul. The first was blocked by the Roman sea power, the second imperilled and finally intercepted through the occupation of northern Spain by the Roman army. This occupation was made possible through the control of the sea, which the Carthaginians never endangered. With respect to Hannibal and his base, therefore, Rome occupied two central positions, Rome itself and northern Spain, joined by an easy interior line of communications, the sea; by which mutual support was continually given.
Had the Mediterranean been a level desert of land, in which the Romans held strong mountain ranges in Corsica and Sardinia, fortified posts at Tarragona, Lilybaeum, and Messina, the Italian coast-line nearly to Genoa, and allied fortresses in Marseilles and other points; had they also possessed an armed force capable by its character of traversing that desert at will, but in which their opponents were very inferior and therefore compelled to a great circuit in order to concentrate their troops, the military situation would have been at once recognized, and no words would have been too strong to express the value and effect of that peculiar force. It would have been perceived, also, that the enemy's force of the same kind might, however inferior in strength, make an inroad, or raid, upon the territory thus held, might burn a village or waste a few miles of borderland, might even cut off a convoy at times, without, in a military sense, endangering the communications. Such predatory operations have been carried on in all ages by the weaker maritime belligerent, but they by no means warrant the inference, irreconcilable with the known facts, "that neither Rome nor Carthage could be said to have undisputed mastery of the sea," because "Roman fleets sometimes visited the coasts of Africa, and Carthaginian fleets in the same way appeared off the coast of Italy." In the case under consideration, the navy played the part of such a force upon the supposed desert; but as it acts on an element strange to most writers, as its members have been from time immemorial a strange race apart, without prophets of their own, neither themselves nor their calling understood, its immense determining influence upon the history of that era, and consequently upon the history of the world, has been overlooked. If the preceding argument is sound, it is as defective to omit sea power from the list of principal factors in the result, as it would be absurd to claim for it an exclusive influence.
Instances such as have been cited, drawn from widely separated periods of time, both before and after that specially treated in this work, serve to illustrate the intrinsic interest of the subject, and the character of the lessons which history has to teach. As before observed, these come more often under the head of strategy than of tactics; they bear rather upon the conduct of campaigns than of battles, and hence are fraught with more lasting value. To quote a great authority in this connection, Jomini says: "Happening to be in Paris near the end of 1851, a distinguished person did me the honor to ask my opinion as to whether recent improvements in firearms would cause any great modifications in the way of making war. I replied that they would probably have an influence upon the details of tactics, but that in great strategic operations and the grand combinations of battles, victory would, now as ever, result from the application of the principles which had led to the success of great generals in all ages; of Alexander and Caesar, as well as of Frederick and Napoleon." This study has become more than ever important now to navies, because of the great and steady power of movement possessed by the modern steamer. The best-planned schemes might fail through stress of weather in the days of the galley and the sailing-ship; but this difficulty has almost disappeared. The principles which should direct great naval combinations have been applicable to all ages, and are deducible from history; but the power to carry them out with little regard to the weather is a recent gain.
The definitions usually given of the word "strategy" confine it to military combinations embracing one or more fields of operations, either wholly distinct or mutually dependent, but always regarded as actual or immediate scenes of war. However this may be on shore, a recent French author is quite right in pointing out that such a definition is too narrow for naval strategy. "This," he says, "differs from military strategy in that it is as necessary in peace as in war. Indeed, in peace it may gain its most decisive victories by occupying in a country, either by purchase or treaty, excellent positions which would perhaps hardly be got by war. It learns to profit by all opportunities of settling on some chosen point of a coast, and to render definitive an occupation which at first was only transient." A generation that has seen England within ten years occupy successively Cyprus and Egypt, under terms and conditions on their face transient, but which have not yet led to the abandonment of the positions taken, can readily agree with this remark; which indeed receives constant illustration from the quiet persistency with which all the great sea powers are seeking position after position, less noted and less noteworthy than Cyprus and Egypt, in the different seas to which their people and their ships penetrate. "Naval strategy has indeed for its end to found, support, and increase, as well in peace as in war, the sea power of a country;" and therefore its study has an interest and value for all citizens of a free country, but especially for those who are charged with its foreign and military relations.
The general conditions that either are essential to or powerfully affect the greatness of a nation upon the sea will now be examined; after which a more particular consideration of the various maritime nations of Europe at the middle of the seventeenth century, where the historical survey begins, will serve at once to illustrate and give precision to the conclusions upon the general subject.
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NOTE.—The brilliancy of Nelson's fame, dimming as it does that of all his contemporaries, and the implicit trust felt by England in him as the one man able to save her from the schemes of Napoleon, should not of course obscure the fact that only one portion of the field was, or could be, occupied by him. Napoleon's aim, in the campaign which ended at Trafalgar, was to unite in the West Indies the French fleets of Brest, Toulon, and Rochefort, together with a strong body of Spanish ships, thus forming an overwhelming force which he intended should return together to the English Channel and cover the crossing of the French army. He naturally expected that, with England's interests scattered all over the world, confusion and distraction would arise from ignorance of the destination of the French squadrons, and the English navy be drawn away from his objective point. The portion of the field committed to Nelson was the Mediterranean, where he watched the great arsenal of Toulon and the highways alike to the East and to the Atlantic. This was inferior in consequence to no other, and assumed additional importance in the eyes of Nelson from his conviction that the former attempts on Egypt would be renewed. Owing to this persuasion he took at first a false step, which delayed his pursuit of the Toulon fleet when it sailed under the command of Villeneuve; and the latter was further favored by a long continuance of fair winds, while the English had head winds. But while all this is true, while the failure of Napoleon's combinations must be attributed to the tenacious grip of the English blockade off Brest, as well as to Nelson's energetic pursuit of the Toulon fleet when it escaped to the West Indies and again on its hasty return to Europe, the latter is fairly entitled to the eminent distinction which history has accorded it, and which is asserted in the text. Nelson did not, indeed, fathom the intentions of Napoleon. This may have been owing, as some have said, to lack of insight; but it may be more simply laid to the usual disadvantage under which the defence lies before the blow has fallen, of ignorance as to the point threatened by the offence. It is insight enough to fasten on the key of a situation; and this Nelson rightly saw was the fleet, not the station. Consequently, his action has afforded a striking instance of how tenacity of purpose and untiring energy in execution can repair a first mistake and baffle deeply laid plans. His Mediterranean command embraced many duties and cares; but amid and dominating them all, he saw clearly the Toulon fleet as the controlling factor there, and an important factor in any naval combination of the Emperor. Hence his attention was unwaveringly fixed upon it; so much so that he called it "his fleet," a phrase which has somewhat vexed the sensibilities of French critics. This simple and accurate view of the military situation strengthened him in taking the fearless resolution and bearing the immense responsibility of abandoning his station in order to follow "his fleet." Determined thus on a pursuit the undeniable wisdom of which should not obscure the greatness of mind that undertook it, he followed so vigorously as to reach Cadiz on his return a week before Villeneuve entered Ferrol, despite unavoidable delays arising from false information and uncertainty as to the enemy's movements. The same untiring ardor enabled him to bring up his own ships from Cadiz to Brest in time to make the fleet there superior to Villeneuve's, had the latter persisted in his attempt to reach the neighborhood. The English, very inferior in aggregate number of vessels to the allied fleets, were by this seasonable reinforcement of eight veteran ships put into the best possible position strategically, as will be pointed out in dealing with similar conditions in the war of the American Revolution. Their forces were united in one great fleet in the Bay of Biscay, interposed between the two divisions of the enemy in Brest and Ferrol, superior in number to either singly, and with a strong probability of being able to deal with one before the other could come up. This was due to able action all round on the part of the English authorities; but above all other factors in the result stands Nelson's single-minded pursuit of "his fleet."
This interesting series of strategic movements ended on the 14th of August, when Villeneuve, in despair of reaching Brest, headed for Cadiz, where he anchored on the 20th. As soon as Napoleon heard of this, after an outburst of rage against the admiral, he at once dictated the series of movements which resulted in Ulm and Austerlitz, abandoning his purposes against England. The battle of Trafalgar, fought October 21, was therefore separated by a space of two months from the extensive movements of which it was nevertheless the outcome. Isolated from them in point of time, it was none the less the seal of Nelson's genius, affixed later to the record he had made in the near past. With equal truth it is said that England was saved at Trafalgar, though the Emperor had then given up his intended invasion; the destruction there emphasized and sealed the strategic triumph which had noiselessly foiled Napoleon's plans.
 Thus Hermocrates of Syracuse, advocating the policy of thwarting the Athenian expedition against his city (B.C. 413) by going boldly to meet it, and keeping on the flank of its line of advance, said: "As their advance must be slow, we shall have a thousand opportunities to attack them; but if they clear their ships for action and in a body bear down expeditiously upon us, they must ply hard at their oars, and when spent with toil we can fall upon them."
 The writer must guard himself from appearing to advocate elaborate tactical movements issuing in barren demonstrations. He believes that a fleet seeking a decisive result must close with its enemy, but not until some advantage has been obtained for the collision, which will usually be gained by manoeuvring, and will fall to the best drilled and managed fleet. In truth, barren results have as often followed upon headlong, close encounters as upon the most timid tactical trifling.
 A ship was said to have the weather-gage, or "the advantage of the wind," or "to be to windward," when the wind allowed her to steer for her opponent, and did not let the latter head straight for her. The extreme case was when the wind blew direct from one to the other; but there was a large space on either side of this line to which the term "weather-gage" applied. If the lee ship be taken as the centre of a circle, there were nearly three eighths of its area in which the other might be and still keep the advantage of the wind to a greater or less degree. Lee is the opposite of weather.