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For easier searching, letters have been numbered. Only the page numbers that appear in the table of contents have been retained in the text of letters. Footnotes have been regrouped as endnotes following the letter to which they relate.
THE LETTERS of HORACE WALPOLE, EARL OF ORFORD:
INCLUDING NUMEROUS LETTERS NOW FIRST PUBLISHED FROM THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS.
IN FOUR VOLUMES VOL. 2. 1749-1759.
CONTENTS OF VOL. II
[Those Letters now first collected are marked N.]
1. To Sir Horace Mann, March 4.-Proceedings in Parliament. Formidable minority headed by the Prince. Character'-of Lord Egmont. Innovations in the Mutiny Bill. New Navy Bill ;13
2. To the same, March 23.-Debates on the Military Bills. Jar at Leicester House. King Theodore of Corsica. The two black Princes of Anamaboe. Spread of Methodism. Stories of his brother Ned's envy-16
3. To the same, May 3.-Rejoicings for the peace. Jubilee masquerade. Fire-works. English credulity. Subscription masquerade. Projected chastisement of Oxford. Union between the Prince's party and the Jacobites. Disgrace of Maurepas. Epigram on Lord Egmont's opposition to the Mutiny Bill. Bon-mot by Wall; and of Lady Townshend. Increase of Methodism, drinking, and gambling.-19
4. To the same, May 17.—The Duke of Richmond's fireworks in celebration of the peace. Second jubilee masquerade. Miss Chudleigh. Lady Rochford. Death of Miss Jenny Conway. Publication of Lord Bolingbroke's letters. Anecdotes of Pope and Bolingbroke.-23
5. To George Montagu, Esq. May 18.-The Duke of Richmond's fireworks. The Violette and Garrick. Story of the Duchess of Queensberry. Mary Queen of Scots. Dignity of human nature. Anecdote of Fielding. West's Pindar. Story of Charles Townshend .-27
6. To Sir Horace Mann, June 4.-Stories of Pope, Bolingbroke, and Atterbury.-30
7. To the same, June 25.-Cambridge installation. Installation of six Knights of the Bath. Garrick's marriage to the Violette. Lord Mountford's cricket-matches.-32
8. To George Montagu, Esq. July 5.-Improvements at Mistley. Visit to the Prince of Wales. Anecdote of Lady Anson. Epigram.- 35
9. To the same, July 20.-Excursions. Layer Marney. Messing parsonage. Death of the Duke of Montagu. His will.-36
10. To Sir Horace Mann, July 24.-Death of the Duke of Montagu. Principles of the Methodists .-38
11. To the same, Aug. 17.-Fire at Kensington Palace.-40
12. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 26.-Expedition to Arundel Castle. Petworth. Cowdry.-42
13. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 12.-Madame de Mirepoix. Madame S'evign'e's Letters.-43
14. To John Chute, Esq. Sept. 22.—45
15. To George Montagu, Esq. Sept. 28.-Church at Cheneys. Tombs of the Bedfords. Latimers. Stoke church—45
16. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 27-Dodington first minister at Carlton House. Lady Yarmouth.-46
17. To the same, Nov. 17.-Robbery of Walpole in Hyde Park. Riots at the new French theatre.-47
18. To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 10.-Montesquieu's Esprit des Loix. Hainault's Abr'eg'e de L'Histoire de la France. Westminster election. Death of Lord Pembroke. His character. Death of lord Crawford. Story of General Wade. Sir John Barnard's scheme for the reduction of interest.-48
19. To the same Jan. 31.-Numerous robberies. Secession on the mutiny-bill. Hurricane in the East Indies. Bon-mot of the Chevalier Lorenzi.-52
20. To the same, Feb. 25.-Ministerial quarrels. Dispute of precedence. Bon-mot of a chair-maker. Westminster election. Extraordinary wager. Death of the Duke of Somerset. Madame Munchausen. Horrors of the slave-trade. Montesquieu's Esprit des Loix. Grecian architecture.-53
21. To the same, March 11.-The earthquakes. Middlesex election. Story Of Marie Mignot.-58
22. To the same, April 2.-Terror occasioned by the earthquake. Death of Lady Bolingbroke. Death of Lady Dalkeith. Mr. Mason's pedigree. Epigram on Lady Caroline Petersham, and the Lady Bingley. Madame du Boccage.-60
23. To George Montagu, Esq. May 15.-Westminster election.-65
24. To Sir Horace Mann, May 19.-Absurdities committed after the earthquake. Westminster election. Commotion in Dublin. Bower's History of the Popes.-66
25. To George Montagu, Esq. June 23.-Character of Mr. Bentley. Account of a party of pleasure at Vauxhall.-68
26. To Sir Horace Mann, July 25.-The Houghton lantern. King Theodore of Corsica in prison for debt. Mr. Ashton. Dr. Mead.-71
27. To the same, Aug. 2.-Tuscan villas. Improvement in the seats about London. Consequences of the excessive heat of the weather. Death of Dr. Middleton, and of Tacitus Gordon. Account of M'Lean, the fashionable highwayman.-73
28. To the same, Sept. 1.-Pedigrees. Young Craggs's epitaph. Story of old Craggs. George Selwyn's passion for coffins and executions. Death of the Duke OF Richmond. Lord Granby's marriage. Hanoverian duel. Singular bet at White's.-76
29. To George Montagu, Esq. Sept. 10.-Death of General Handasyde, and of Sir Gerard Vanneck. hopes conducive to happiness.-80
30. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 20.-Dr. Mead. Sermon against Dr. Middleton. Ecclesiastical absurdity. Project for publishing an edition of the Bible without pointings or stops. Sir Charles William's letters. Frequency of robberies. Visit to Spence.-81
31. To the same, Oct. 18.-Treaty of commerce with Spain. M'Lean's condemnation and execution. Rage for visiting him in Newgate.-83
32. To the same, Nov. 19.-Shattered state of the ministry. State of parties.-84
33. To the same, Dec. 19.-Interministerium. Droll cause in Westminster Hall. The Duke of Cumberland and Edward Bright. Sir Ralph Gore. Bon-mots of Quin.-86
34. To the same, Dec. 22.-Miss Chudleigh. FOntenelle. Reply of Lord Cornbury. Old Cibber's soliciting the laureateship for Harry Jones. A very odd new story. Ashton's ingratitude.-88
35. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 9.-Debates in Parliament. "Constitutional queries." Westminster petition. Proceedings against Mr. Murray. Account of young Wortley Montagu.-91
36. To the same, March 1,3.-Further proceedings against Mr. Murray. Lady Vane's memoirs of her own life. Fashionable theatricals. The English "a grave nation".-94
37. To the same, March 21.-Death of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Conduct of the King .-95
38. To the same, April 1.-Death of Mr. Whithed; his will. Death of the Earl of Orford. Harmony between the King and Princess of Wales. Prince George. Prince Edward.-97
39. To the same, April 22.-Dodington's project of a ministry upset by the death of the Prince. Story of Bootle. Character of Dr. Lee. Prince George created Prince of Wales. His household. Bishop Hayter and Archbishop Blackburn. The young Earl of Orford.-99
40. To the same, May 30.-Emptiness and vanity of life. Match between Lord Orford and the rich Miss Nicholl broken off. Debates on the Regency bill.-103
41. To George Montagu, Esq. May 30.-Lady Orford and Mr. Shirley married.-103
42. To the Rev. Joseph Spence, June 3.-With a translation of a couplet on Tibullus. Ṇ-105
43. To George Montagu, Esq. June 13.-Change of ministry. Bon-mot on Lord North's Wedding. Spenser, with Kent's designs. Bentley's ray. Warburton's Pope. Edwards's Canons of Criticism.-106
44. To Sir Horace Mann, June 18.-Resignations. New ministry. Epigram on Lord Holderness. The two Miss Gunnings. Extravagant dinner at White's. Bubb de Tristibus. Dodington's bombastic eulogium on the Prince. Sale of the pictures at Houghton.-107
45. To the same, July 16.-Announcing Mr. Conway's intended visit to Florence.-109
46. To George Montagu, Esq. July 22.-Projected edition of Grammont. Visit to Wimbledon. Ragley. Warwick Castle. "Capability" Brown. Easton Neston. Stowe.-110
47. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 31.-Story of the Gunnings, and of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in durance in the Brescian. Lord Orford and Miss Nicholl.-112
48. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 8.-Description of Woburn.-114
49. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 14.-Death of the Prince of Orange. Lady Pembroke. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Letters. Lady Russell's Letters.-115
50. To the same, Nov. 22.-Unanimity of Parliament. Plots in the Duke of Burgundy's cradle. Verses stuck up on the Louvre. Young Wortley Montagu's imprisonment at Paris. Bon-mot of Lord Coke. Anecdote of the King.-118
51. To the same, Dec. 12.-Lord Stormont. Death of Lord Bolingbroke. The wonderful tooth-drawer.-119
52. To George Montagu, Esq. Jan. 9.-The St. James's Evening Post parodied.-120
53. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 2.-Debates on the treaty with Saxony. A black-ball at White's.-122
54. To the same, Feb. 27.-Death of Sir Horace Mann's father. Marriage of the Miss Gunnings to Lord Coventry and the Duke of Hamilton.-123
55. To the same, March 23.-Sir Horace Mann's portrait. The Duke of Argyle's Job. The Duchess of Hamilton at court. Miss Jefferies and Miss Blandy. Frequency of executions.-124
56. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, May 5.-On Mr. Conway's infant daughter.-Ṇ 126
57. To George Montagu, Esq. May 12.-Irish politics. Mother Midnight's oratory. Captain Hotham's bon-mot.-127
58. To Sir Horace Mann, May 13.-Irish politics. Miss Blandy's execution.-128
59. To George Montagu, Esq. June 6.-Capture of a housebreaker at Strawberry Hill. Gray's Odes. Story of Lord Bury.-129
60. To the same.-131
61. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, June 23.-Story of Mr. Seymour and Lady Di. Egerton. Distress and poverty of France. Profligacy of the court. Births and marriages.-132
62. To George Montagu, Esq. July 20.-Alarm at the visit of a King's messenger. The "M'emoires"133
63. To Sir Horace Mann,.July @7.-Fire at Lincoln's-inn. Princess Emily and Richmond Park. Discussions concerning the tutorhood of the Prince of Wales. Portraits of Cr'ebillon and Marivaux, by Liotard.-134
64. To Richard Bentley. Aug. 5.-Excursion to Kent and Sussex. Bishop's palace, Rochester. Knowle. Tunbridge. Summer Hill. Bayham Abbey. Hurst Monceaux. Battle Abbey. Silver Hill. Penshurst. Mereworth. Sissinghurst. Becton Malherbe. Leeds Castle.-137
65. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 28.-Adventure at Mrs. Boscawen's. Privilege of Parliament. Standing Army. Gray's Odes.-145
66. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 28.-Projected trip to Florence.. Madame de Brionne. Lady Coventry at Paris. Duke Hamilton and his Duchess. Anecdotes. Parisian indecorums. Madame Pompadour's husband. Trait of Louis the Fifteenth. Epigram on the quarrel of the Pretender and his second son. Astley's pictures.-146
67. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Nov. 8 Ṇ.-150
68. To George Montagu, Esq. Dec. 3. Lord Harcourt's removal from the Governorship of the Prince of Wales. Bon-mot of George Selwyn.-150
69. To Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 11.-Education of the Prince of Wales. Resignation of Lord Harcourt and the Bishop of Norwich. The Bishop of Gloucester the new preceptor. And Lord Waldegrave the new governor.-151
70. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 14.-Death of Sir Hans Sloane; his Museum.-155
71. To Mr. Gray, Feb. 20.-New edition of Gray's Odes with Bentley's designs.-157
72. To Sir Horace Mann, March 4.-Lord Ravensworth's accusation of Stone, Murray, and the Bishop of Gloucester, on the information of Fawcett. Liotard. Cr'ebillon's portrait.-158
73. To the same, March 27.-Debates in the Lords on the charges against Stone, Murray, and Bishop Johnson.-159
74. To the same, April 16.-161
75. To the same, April 27.-Progress of improvements at Strawberry Hill. Account of the taking of Dr. Cameron. Paper in "The World," to promote a subscription for King Theodore. Lord Bath and the Craftsman.-161
76. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, May 5.-Madame de Mezi'eres. Sir Charles Williams's distich on the Queen of Hungary. Lord Bolingbroke's Works. Anecdote of Lady Harrington.-164
77. To George Montagu, Esq. May 22.-Debates on the Marriage Bill.-165
78. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, May 24.-Debates on the Marriage Bill.-167
79. To George Montagu, Esq. June 11.-Parliamentary altercations. Clandestine Marriage Bill. Bon-mot of Keith's.- 169
80. To Sir Horace Mann, June 12.-Description of Strawberry Hill. Clandestine Marriage Bill. Execution of Dr. Cameron.-170
81. To George Montagu, Esq. July 17.-Death of Miss Brown. Tom Hervey's letter to Sir William Bunbury. Story of Dr. Suckling. George Selwyn's bon-mot. Elopement. Marriage Bill.-173
82. To Sir Horace Mann, July 21.-Electioneering. Snuff-taking. Death of Lord Pomfret.-174
83. To John Chute, Esq. Aug. 4.-Visit to Greatworth. Sir Harry Danvers described. White-knights. Middleton. Wroxton. Steane Chapel. Stowe. Temple of Friendship. Warkworth.-176
84. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 16.-Stowe. Sir Harry Danvers.- 179
85. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Sept.-New Camden's "Britannia." Oxford. Birmingham. Hagley. Worcester. Malvern Abbey. Visit to George Selwyn at Matson. Gloucester Cathedral. Hutchinsonians.- 180
86. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 6.-The Modenese treaty. Gothic amusements.-186
87. To the same, Dec. 6.-Prince Heraclius. Party feuds in Ireland. Bianca Capello.-187
88. To George Montagu, Esq. Dec. 6.-Death of his uncle Erismus Shorter, and of Lord Burlington. The Opera. Glover's "Boadicea." Lord Huntingdon and Stormont.-188
89. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Dec. 19.-Eulogy on his drawings. Deaths of Lords Clarendon, Thanet, and Burlington. "Sir Charles Grandison." Hogarth's "Analysis of Beauty." Wood's "Palmyra." Opera. The Niccolini.-190
90. To Sir Horace Mann, January 28.-Story of Bianca Capello. Sortes Walpolianae. Serendipity. Dissuades him from taking the name of Guise. Sir James Gray. His father's maxim. The Opera and Niccolini. Miss Elizabeth Pitt.-191
91. To Richard Bentley, Esq. March 2.-The Duke of Cumberland's visit to Strawberry Hill. Proceedings in Parliament. New Mutiny-bill. Death of Dr. Mead. Sortes Walpolianae.-194
92. To the same, March 6.-Ironical account of the death of Mr. Pelham. Francis's tragedy of "Constantine." Crisp's "Virginia." Lord Bolingbroke's works.-196
93. To Sir Horace Mann, March 7.-State of parties. The new candidates for office. Particulars of the death of Mr. Pelham.- 198
94. To Richard Bentley, Esq. March 17.-The new ministry. George Selwyn's bon-mots. Orator Henley. Beckford and Delaval at Shaftesbury.-200
95. To George Montagu, Esq. March 19.-The Newcastle administration.-201
96. To Sir Horace Mann, March 28.-,The new ministry. Resignation of Lord Gower.-202
97. To the same, April 24.-The Duke of Newcastle all-powerful. The new Parliament. Irish politics. Drummond's "Travels".-204
98. To John Chute, Esq. April 30.-Whitehead's tragedy of "Creusa." Tragi-comedy at the Opera.-205
99. To the same, May 14.-Anecdote of Prince Poniatowski and the Duchess of Gordon.-206
100. To Richard Bentley, Esq. May 18.-Progress of improvement at Strawberry Hill. Trial of Betty Canning. Regency-bill.-207
101. To George Montagu, Esq. May 21.-Death of Mr. Chute's father.-209
102. To Sir Horace Mann, May 23.-War of the Delmontis. Death of Mr. Chutes father. Regency-bill.-210
103. To the same, June 5.-Mr. Brand of the Hoo. Lady Caroline Pierpont. Affair of Lord Orford and Miss Nicholl. Election petitions.-211
104. To George Montagu, Esq. June 8.-Invitation to Strawberry Hill.-212
105. To the same, June 29.-Lady Caroline Petersham's christening.-213
106. To Sir Horace Mann, July 5.-Effects of warm Weather in England. Old courtiers. Separation between Lady Orford and Mr. Shirley. Dr. Cocchi's "Greek Physicians." French encroachments in Virginia. Revocation of the Parliament of Paris. Irish Parliament.-213
107. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, July 6.-Notice of gold fish to be sent to him.-215
108. To Richard Bentley, Esq. July 9.-Sir Charles Williams and his daughter. His mother's monument in Westminster Abbey. Story of Sampson Gideon. Nugent and the Jew-bill. An admirable curiosity.—215
109. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Aug. 8-The Duke of Cumberland's accident Ṇ.-217
110. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 29.-218
111. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 6.-Prospect of an East and West Indian war. French encroachments. Re-establishment of the Inquisition at Florence. The Boccaneri. Major Washington. General Guise at Carthagena.-218
112. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 24,-Congratulation on his being appointed groom of the bedchamber. And on his choice of a wife.-Ṇ 220
113. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Nov. 3.-Visit to Mr. Burret at Bellhouse. Mrs. Clive. West Indian war. The Ontaouknoucs. General Braddock.-221
114. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Nov. 11.-Ambassadorial circumspection. Death of the Queen Dowager of Prussia. New volumes of Madame S'evign'e's Letters.-224
115. To George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 16.-Parts and merit of Lord North. Marriage of Mr. Pitt with Lady Hester Grenville. A new fashion.-225
116. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Nov. 20.-On projectors. Advises him to lay aside visionary projects. Parliamentary divisions. Elections. The Prince of Hesse turned Roman Catholic. Operas. The Mingotti. Bon-mot of Madame S'evign'e.-226
117. To Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 1.-Spring-tide of politics. Mr. Pitt and the Duke of Newcastle. Lord Cork. Lord Bolingbroke's works. George the First at New Park. Dissensions in Ireland.- 228
118. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Dec. 13.-Pitt and Fox dissatisfied with the Duke of Newcastle. Ministerial changes. Mr. Pitt turned out. Sale of Dr. Mead's library.-230
119. To the same, Dec. 24.-Madame S'evign'e's new letters. Dr. Browne's tragedy of "Barbarossa." Walpole's papers in the "World." Turning out of Mr. Pitt. The last new madness. Macklin's "British Inquisition".-231
120. To George Montagu, Esq. Jan. 7.-Nuptials of Mr. Harris and Miss Ashe. Countess Chamfelt.-233
121. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Jan. 9.-Death of Lord Albemarle. Story of Lord Montford's suicide. Gamesters. Insurance office for voluntary deaths. Ministerial changes. New nostrums and inventions.-234
122. To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 9.-Congratulation on his being created a baronet. Lord Albemarle's sudden death. Lord Bury. Lady Albemarle's dream. Lord Montford's suicide. The age of abortions. The Chevalier Taylor.-236
123. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Feb. 8.-The Russian ambassador's masquerade.-238
124. To the same, Feb, 23.-Oxfordshire and Colchester elections. Sir John Bland's suicide. English Opera. "Midsummer Night's Dream." Walpole at a fire. Lady Herbert's providence. Fire at Fonthill.-239
125. To the same, March 6.-Prospect of a war with France. Lord Holderness's ball. Dancing senators.-241
126. To Sir Horace Mann, March 10.-Lord Hertford's embassy to Paris. Warlike prospects. Progress of election trials. Lord Pomfret's collection of statues. Cerberus.-242
127. To Richard Bentley, Esq, March 27.-Hume's "History of England." Motto for a ruby ring. Party struggles. Prospects of war. Sale of Dr. Mead's pictures.-243
128. To the same, April 13.-Prospects of war. French preparations for invasion. Lord Chesterfield's prophecy.-245
129. To Sir Horace Mann, April 22.-French preparations. Secret expedition. Motto-hunting.-247
130. To Richard Bentley, Esq. April 24.-Political rumours. M. Herault and Lady Harrington.-248
131. To George Montagu, Esq. May 4.-Prince of Nassau Welbourg. George Selwyn and Lady Petersham.-250
132. To Richard Bentley, Esq. May 6.-Lord Poulet's motion against the King's visiting Hanover. Mr. Legge's pun. The Regency. Ball at Bedford House. Great breakfast at Strawberry Hill. "Anecdotes Litt'eraires." "M@,is'eres des Scavans." Gray's observation on learning.-250
133. To George Montagu, Esq. May 13.-Invitation to Strawberry Hill.-252
134. To the same, MAY 19.-King of Prussia's victory near Prague.-252
135. To Richard Bentley, Esq. June 10.-Arrival of Mr. M'untz4. Deluge at Strawberry Hill. New gunpowder-plot. Venneschi apprehended.-253
136. To Sir Horace Mann, June 15.-The Countess of Orford and Mr. Shirley. Lord Orford described. Warlike preparations. Fureur des cabriolets.-256
137. To Richard Bentley, Esq. July 5.-Expostulation on his love of visionary projects. Mr. M'untz. Visit to Chaffont. Bulstrode. Latimers. First visit to Greenwich Park.-257
138. To Sir Horace Mann, July 16.-War commenced. Captain Howe's attack on the French Squadron. Chapel at the Vine.-259
139. To Richard Bentley, Esq. July 17.-Attack on the French squadron. State of parties in Ireland. Domestic news. Lord Bath's verses on Strawberry Hill. Wanstead House. Marquis de St. Simon.-260
140. To George Montagu, Esq. July 17.-Farming. Lord Bath's ballad.-263
141. To the same, July 26.-Charles Townshend's marriage.-263
142. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Aug. 4.-St. Swithin. Capture of Beau S'ejoure. Marquis de St. Simon's translation of the "Tale of a Tub." Intimacy with Garrick.-264
143. To the same, Aug. 15.-Compliments him on his drawings. P'er'efixe's "Henry the Fourth." Dinner at Garrick's. Flattery.-266
144. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 21.-West India expeditions. Character of General Braddock. Story of Fanny Braddock. Hessian treaty.-268
145. To the same, Aug. 28.-Defeat and death of General Braddock. Anecdotes of him.-270
146. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Aug. 28.-General Braddock's defeat and death. Quarrel between Lords Lincoln and Anson. Visit to Harwich. Orford Castle. Sudborn. Secretary Naunton's house. Ipswich and its church.-271
147. To the Rev. Henry Etough, Sept. 10.-273
148. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Sept. 18.-Jaunt to Winchester. Its cathedral. Bevismount. Netley Abbey. Capture of Governor Lyttelton. Gray's "Bard".-273
149. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Sept. 23.-Irish politics. Russian and Hessian treaties.-275
150. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 29.-M. Seychelles. French finances. Opposition to the Russian and Hessian treaties. Ministerial bickerings and changes. Tranquillity of Ireland.- 277
151. To John Chute, Esq. Sept. 29.-Opposition in Parliament to the Russian and Hessian treaties [N.).-279
152. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Sept. 30.-Political sermon. Mr. Legge's opposition to the Hessian treaty. Subsidy. Pacification of Ireland. Ministerial changes.-280
153. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 7.-On the death of Miss Montagu.-281
154. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Oct. 19.-On the fears of invasion. Mr. Fox's ministry. Follies of the Opera. Impertinences of the Mingotti.-281
155. To John Chute, Esq. Oct. 20.-Expectations of an invasion. Parliamentary politics. Subsidiary treaties Ṇ.-284
156. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 27.-Preparations against invasion .-285
157. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Oct. 31.-Defeat of' the French in America by General Johnson. Lord Chesterfield at Bath. Suicide of Sir John Bland. Longevity of Beau Nash and Cibber.-286
158. To George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 8.-Progress of planting.-287
159. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Nov. 15.-Debates in Parliament on the treaties. Single-speech Hamilton. Pitt's speech.-289
160. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Nov. 16.-Debates in the House of Commons on the treaties. Riots at Drury-Lane. French dancers.- 291
161. To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 16.-Parliamentary proceedings. Changes and counter-changes. French inactivity.-292
162. To George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 25.-Earthquake at Lisbon. Political changes.-293
163. To Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 4.-Earthquake at Lisbon. State of the Opposition.-294
164. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Dec. 17.-Mr. Pitts speech on the subsidiary treaties. Ministerial changes. Postponement of the invasion.-295
165. To George Montagu, Esq. Dec. 20.-Political changes. The new Opposition.-297
166. To Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 21.-Expectations of a peace. Catalogue of ministerial alterations. Dodington again revolved to the court. Case of Lord Fitzwalter.-298
167. To George Montagu, Esq. Dec. 30.-299
168. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Jan. 6.-Attack of the gout. Overflow of the Thames. Progress of the Memoires. Mr. M'untz.- 300
169. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Jan. 22.-Parliament and politics. French Billingsgate memorial. Guarantee with Prussia. M. Michell. Dismissal of Sir Harry Erskine. Mr. Fox's repartee (N.].-302
170. To the same, Jan. 24.-Beckford's accusation against Admiral Knowles. Sir George Lyttelton's budget-speech. Lady Petersham and her footman Richard.-303
171. To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 25.-Health of Sir Horace's brother. Prussian guarantee. M. Rouill'e's memorial. The new Opposition nibbling, but not popular.-304
172. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 5.-Account of his brother's health. War considered inevitable.-306
173. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Feb. 12.-Bickerings in Parliament. The Pennsylvanian regiment. Story of the Duke of Newcastle. Moral effects of the earthquake. Sir Eustace Drawbridge-court.-307
174. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 23.-The King of France and Madame Pompadour gone into devotion. Debates on the West Indian regiment. Plot of the Papists against Bower. France determined to try invasion.-309
175. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, March 4.-Debates in Parliament. Speeches of Hamilton and Charles Townshend. The Militia-bill. The new taxes. Embargo. Old Nugent and Lady Essex. Bons-mots. An epigram.-312
176. To Sir Horace Mann, March 18.-Progress of the armaments. Danger for Port-Mahon. Naivete of Lady Coventry.-314
177. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, March 25.-Mr. Pitt's gout. The plate tax. Projected invasion signified to Parliament. The Paddington road-bill. Lady Lincoln's assembly Ṇ.-315
178. To the same, April 16.-The Paddington road-bill struggle. Militia-bill. Death of Sir William Lowther. Lord Shelburne's speech. Folke GreVill'S "Maxims and Characters".-316
179. To Sir Horace Mann, April 18.-War of the turnpike-bill. Death of Lady Drumlanrig, and of Sir William Lowther.-318
180. To George Montagu, Esq. April 20.-Death of Lady Essex, Sir William Lowther's will. Lady Coventry. Billy and Bully. The new Morocco ambassador and Lady Petersham. Coat-of-arms for the clubs at White's.-319
181. To the same, May 12.-321
182. To Sir Horace Mann, May 16.-Defenceless state of Minorca. The "PuCelle".-322
183. To George Montagu, Esq. May 19.-The King and the Hanoverian troops. Lord Denbigh's bon-mot on his own marriage.- 323
184. To Sir Horace Mann, May 27.-His uncle Horatio created a peer. Death of Chief Justice Ryder. Opera contest.-323
185. To the Earl of Strafford, June 6.-Frightful catastrophe. Madame Maintenon's new Letters and Memoirs. Consternation on the behaviour of Byng.-325
186. To John Chute, Esq. June 8.-Council of war at Gibraltar. The Prince of Wales declines living at Kensington. His uncle Horatio's motto and supporters. Visit to Lady Allen with Lord and Lady Bath. General Wall's motto Ṇ.-327
187. To Sir Horace Mann, June 14.-Admiral Byng's letters. Prince of Wales's establishment.-328
188. To George Montagu, Esq. June 18.-330
189. To Sir Horace Mann, July 11.-Public rage against Byng.-330
190. To George Montagu, Esq. July 12.-Military preparations.- 331
191. To Sir Horace Mann, July 24.-Clamour against Byng. Public hopes in Boscawen. Lady Pomfret at Oxford University.-332
192. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 28.-334
193. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 29.-Loss of Minorca. League of Cambray. Unpopularity of Byng.-334
194. To Richard Bentley, Esq. Aug.-Tour in the North. Bugden Palace. Newark Castle. Wentworth Castle. Old Wortley Montagu. Pomfret. Ledstone. Kippax Park. Kirkstall Abbey. Chapel on Wakefield bridge. Worksop. Kiveton. Welbeck.-335
195. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 19.-Byng's quarrels with the admiralty and ministry. Rage of addresses .-339
196. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 14.-Mode of passing his time. Magna Charta. Garrick's temple to Shakspeare.-341
197. To the same, Oct.-342
198. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 17.-Successes of the King of Prussia. Battle of Lowositz. Peace between Kensington and Kew. Lord Bute groom of the stole to the Prince. Lords Rockingham and Orford's match. The Irish Speaker at Newmarket.- 342
199. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 28.-Mutability of the world. The Duke of Newcastle's resignation.-344
200. To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 4.-The Duke of Newcastle's resignation. Un-successful attempts to form a new ministry.-345
201. TO George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 6.-Mr. Pitt made secretary of state. New ministry. The three factions.-347
202. To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 13.-Mr. Pitt appointed secretary of state. State of parties.-348
203. To George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 25.-The new ministry and opposition.-350
204. To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 29.-Mr. Pitt's gout. The new ministry. List of the changes. The Duke of Newcastle's disinterestedness. Benedict the Fourteenth.-350
205. To the same, Dec. 8.-Proceedings in Parliament. Voltaire's epigram.-352
206. To the same, Dec. 16.-Illness of Sir Horace's brother. The Hessian troops. Breach between Fox and Pitt.-354
207. To the same, Dec. 23.-Death of Sir Horace's brother.-356
208. To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 8.-Party squabbles. The "Test" and "Contest." Dr. Shebbeare's "Monitor." Death of King Theodore.-356
209. To the same, Jan. 17.-The King and Mr. Pitt. Damien's attempt on the King of France. King Theodore's death. Byng's trial. Miss Elizabeth Villiers Pitt.-358
210. To the same, Jan. 30.-Admiral Byng's trial. Voltaire's letter on his behalf. Death of Fontenelle. Brumoy's "Aristophanes." Lady Essex and Prince Edward.-360
211. To the same, Feb. 13.-Progress of Admiral Byng's trial. Death of his uncle Horatio Lord Walpole. Prince Edward and Lady Essex at Lady Rochford's ball.-363
212. To John Chute, Esq. Feb. 27.-Admiral Byng's court-martial. Ṇ.-364
213. To Sir Horace Mann, March 3.-Admiral Byng's sentence. Applications of the court-martial for mercy. German subsidy. French symptoms.-365
214. To the same, March 17.-Completion of Admiral Byng's tragedy. Mr. Pitt's health. Fears for Hanover.-367
215. To the same, April 7.-Dismissal of the ministry. Inter- ministerium. Court changes.-368
216. To the same, April 20.-Inquiries into the naval miscarriages. Freedoms in gold boxes to Mr. Pitt and Mr. Legge. Damien's execution.-370
217. To the same, May 5.-Result of the naval inquiries. Epigrams 372
218. To the same, May 19.-Inter-ministerium. King of Prussia's victory. Battle of Prague.-374
219. To George Montagu, Esq. May 27.-375
220. To Sir Horace Mann, June 1.-Ministerial negotiations. King of Prussia's victories.-376
221. To George Montagu, Esq. June 2.-Projected ministry.-377
222. To Sir Horace Mann, June 9.-Ministerial arrangements. Lord Waldegrave first lord of the treasury.-378
223. To the same, June 14.-New ministerial revolution. The three factions. Scramble for power.-379
224. To the same, June 20.-Mr. Pitt accepts the seals. The new ministry. Inscription for a bas-relief in wax of Benedict the Fourteenth.-380
225. To the same, July 3. -Settlement of the ministry.-382
226. To the Earl of Strafford, July 4.-New volumes of Voltaire's "Universal history".-383
227. To John Chute, Esq. July 12.-Gray's "Odes" to be printed at the Strawberry Hill press.-385
228. To George Montagu, Esq. July 16.-386
229. To the same, July 17.-386
230. To Sir Horace Mann, July 25.-Secret expedition.-387
231. To John Chute, Esq. July 26.-Picture of Ninon de l'Enclos. Mrs. Clive's legacy.-387
232. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 4.-Disasters in Flanders. Gray's "Odes." His printer's letter to a friend in Ireland.-388
233. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 4.-Defeat of the Duke of Cumberland at Hastenbeck.-390
234. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Aug. 14.-Cause of the defeat at Hastenbeck.-391
235. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 25.-His opinion of Gray's "Odes." His printing-office.-392
236. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Sept. 2.-Charles Townshend. Lord Chesterfield and Lord Bath Ṇ.-393
237. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 3.-Visit to Linton. Urn to the memory of Sir Horace's brother. Lord Loudon abandons the design on Louisbourg.-393
238. To George Montagu, Esq. Sept. 8.-395
239. To the Right Hon. Lady Hervey, Sept. 13.-Ninon de l'Enclos's picture.-396
240. To George Montagu, Esq. Sept. 20.-Death of' Sir John Bland.-396
241. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 29.-Convention of Closter-Severn. Disturbances occasioned by the Militia-bill. Inscription to the memory of King Theodore.-397
242. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 8.-Expedition to Rochfort (N].-400
243. To the Earl of Strafford, Oct. 11.-Return of the expedition to Rochfort. Militia-bill.-401
244. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct 12.-Rochfort expedition. Return of the Duke of Cumberland.-402
245. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 13.-Inquiry into the failure of the Rochfort expedition.-403
246. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 18.-Resignation of the Duke of Cumberland.-404
247. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 24.-The Duke of Cumberland's resignation. Failure at Rochfort.-404
248. To the same, Nov. 20.-King of Prussia's victory at Rosbach. General dissatisfaction. Troubles in Ireland. Inquiry into the failure at Rochfort. Characteristic traits of' Mr. Conway. Richard the First's poetry. Bon-mot of Lord Tyrawley.- 405
249. To George Montagu, Esq.—-408
250. To the same, Dec. 23.-Death of Mr. Mann.-408
251. To Dr. Ducarel, Dec. 25.-"Dictes and sayings of the Philosophers".-409
252. To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 11.-Court-martial on Sir John Mordaunt. Death of Princess Caroline. And of Sir Benjamin Keene.-409
253. To Dr. Ducarel, Jan. 12.-411
254. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 9.-Politics gone into winter quarters. Duke of Richelieu's banishment. Rage of expense in our pleasures.-412
255. To the same, Feb. 10.-Opening of the campaign. Fame. Saying of one of the Duke of Marlborough's generals. New secret expedition. Debate on the Habeas Corpus extension bill. Sir Luke Schaub's pictures. Swift's "Four last Years of Queen Anne." Dr. Lucas.-413
256.To the same, Feb. 23.-Acquittal of General Mordaunt. Death of Dr. Cocchi. Richard the First's poems.-415
257. To the same, March 21.-The East Indian here, Clive. Hanover retaken. George Grenville's Navy-bill. Sir Charles Williams's return from Russia, and mental indisposition. Frantic conduct of Lord Ferrers. Swift's "Four last Years".-416
258. To the same, April 14.-Convention with Prussia. Sir Charles Williams. Lord Bristol appointed ambassador to Spain.- 418
259. To the Rev. Dr. Birch, May 4.-Soliciting observations on his "Royal and Noble Authors".-419
260. To George Montagu, Esq. May 4.-Flattering reception of his "Royal and Noble Authors." Story of Dr. Browne and Sir Charles Williams.-420
261. To Sir Horace Mann, May 31.-Expedition to St. Maloes. Extension of the Habeas Corpus act.-422
262. To the Hon. H. S, Conway, June 4.-Debates on the Habeas Corpus extension bill. Expedition to St. Maloes. Ninon de l'Enclos's portrait.-423
263. To Dr. Ducarel, June.-Thanks for his remarks on the "Noble Authors".-424
264. To Sir Horace Mann, June 11.-Departure of the expedition to St. Maloes. Prince Ferdinand's passage of the Rhine.-425
265. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, June 16.-Return of the expedition to St. Maloes.-426
266. To the Earl of Strafford, June 16.-Failure of the expedition against St. Maloes.-427
267. To Sir Horace Mann, June 18.-Expedition to St. Maloes.-428
268. To Sir David Dalrymple, June 29.-Thanks for his approbation of the "Noble Authors." queen Elizabeth's fondness for praise. Pope's "Bufo" and "Bubb." Lord Orrery's "Parthenissa" [N.).-430
69. To John Chute, Esq. June 29.-Prince Ferdinand's victory.- 431
270. To George Montagu, Esq. July 6.-431
271. To the Rev. Dr. Birch, July 8.-432
272. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, July 8.-Dedication to him of the "Fugitive Pieces." Fate of our expeditions Ṇ.-432
273. To Sir Horace Mann, July 8.-Prince Ferdinand's victory at Crevelt. Return of our armada from St. Maloes.-433
274. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, July 21.-Appointment of General Blighe. Fate of the expeditions. Ṇ.-434
275. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, Aug. 3.-Thanks for his remarks on the Royal and noble Authors," and for his information.-436
276. To the same, Aug. 12.-439
277. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 12.-Expedition against Cherbourg.-440
278. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 20.-Visit to the Grange. Ragley. The Conway papers.-441
279. To John Chute, Esq. Aug. 22.-Account of the Conway papers [N.).-443
280. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 24.-Expedition against Cherbourg. Taking of Cape Breton. Failure of the attack on Crown-point. Death of Lord Howe. Defeat at Ticonderoga.-444
281. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Sept. 2.-Defeat of the Russians at Zorndorf. Repulse of General Abercrombie at Ticonderoga.-445
282. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 8.-Battle of Zorndorf. Marriage of his niece Laura to Dr. Frederick Keppel.-446
283. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, Sept. 14,-Soliciting information for a new edition of his "Noble Authors".-448
284. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Sept. 19.-On the failure of the late expeditions to the coast of France Ṇ.-449
285. To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 22. Failure of the expedition against Cherbourg.-451
286. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 3.-Disappointment and loss at St. Cas.-453
287. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, Oct. 5.-Progress of the new edition of "Noble Authors." Discovery of the Conway papers.-454
288. To the Right Hon. Lady Hervey, Oct. 17.-Rumoured assassination of the King of Portugal. Epigram on the Chevalier Taylor.-456
289. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 17.-On the general's not being employed by Mr. Pitt Ṇ.-457
290. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, Oct. 21.-Thanks for further information. Lord Clarendon and Polybius. Dr. Jortin's "Erasmus." Reasons for not writing the life of his father.-459
291. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 24.-Reasons for leaving off authorship.-462
292. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 24.-On sending a drawing Of his monument to the memory of Sir Horace s brother. Reported assassination of the King of Portugal. The Duc d'Aiguillon's amiable behaviour to our prisoners.-463
293. To George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 26.-465
294. To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 27.-Illness of the king. Harmony in parliament. Death of the Duke of Marlborough.-465
295. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, Dec. 9.-On sending the second edition of "Noble Authors." Lucan and Virgil. Helvetius de l'Esprit.-467
296. To Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 25.-Prospects of a Dutch war. Enormous supplies. Unanimity of Parliament. Fall of Cardinal de Bernis.-468
297. To George Montagu, Esq. Dec. 26.-Intended marriage of Colonel York.-470
298. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, Jan. 12.-Lord Lonsdale's treatise on Economics. Lucan. Vertua's MS. collections.-471
299. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Jan. 19.-State of the House of Commons.-473
300. To the same, Jan. 28.-Match between Colonel Campbell and the Duchess of Hamilton. Prussian and Hessian treaties.-473
301. To John Chute, Esq. Feb. 1.-The Opera. Prussian cantata. Gothic antiquities (N.].-477
302. To the same, Feb. 2.-Spence's Comparison of Magliabechi and Bill. Story of Carr's Cousin.-475
303. To Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 9.-Quebec expedition.-478
304. To Mr. Gray, Feb. 15.-Literary queries. Critical Review.- 478
305. To the Right Hon. Lady Hervey, Feb. 20.-479
306. To Sir David Dalrymple, Feb. 25.-Robertson's History of Scotland. Ramsay the painter.-479
307. To Sir Horace Mann, march 4.-Projects a History of the House of Medici.-480
308. To John Chute, Esq. March 13.-Fears for his health. Recommends him to leave the Vine, lest he should die of mildew.-481
309. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, March 15.-Vertue's MSS. Hume's History.-482
310. To Sir David Dalrymple, March 25.-House of Medici. leo the Tenth Ṇ.-482
311. To Sir Horace Mann, April 11.-Marriage of his niece Maria to Lord Waldegrave. Prince Ferdinand's victory over the Austrians.-484
312. To George Montagu, Esq. April 26.-His niece's marriage to Lord Waldegrave. Ball at Bedford House.-485
313. To Sir Horace Mann, May 10,-General Hobson. Canada. House of Medici.-487
314. To the Rev. Henry Zouch, May 14.-Vertue's MSS. Hume and Smollett's Histories.-488
315. To George Montagu, Esq. May 16.-His niece's marriage. Judges' salaries. Charles Townshend's bon-mot.-490
316. To Sir Horace Mann, June 1.-The comet. King of Prussia's victories. Fame.-491
317. To George Montagu, Esq. June 1.-The invasion. Mason's "Caractacus".-492
318. To Sir Horace Mann, June 8.-493
319. To the Earl of' Strafford, June 12.-494
320. To Sir Horace Mann, June 22.-Invasion. Militia. Quebec. Death of Lady Murray.-495
321. To George Montagu, Esq. June 23.-496
322. To Sir Horace Mann, July 8.-Rumours of invasion.-497
323. To Sir David Dalrymple, July 11.-Mary Queen of Scots. Hume's History. Christina of Sweden Ṇ.-498
324.. To George Montagu, Esq. July 19.-Review of the Militia. Butler's "Remains".-499
325. To the same, July 26.-Visit to Navestock.-500
326. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 1.-Invasion. Militia.-501
327. To the same, Aug. 8.-Battle of Minden.-502
328. To George Montagu, Esq. Aug. 9.-Battle of Minden.-504
329. To the Earl of Strafford, Aug. 9.-Battle of Minden.-505
330. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Aug. 14.-Battle of Minden. Prince Ferdinand and Lord George Sackville [N.).-506
331. To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 29.-Minden. Illuminations. Lord George Sackville.-507
332. To the same, Sept. 13.-Death of the Princess Elizabeth. Lord George Sackville.-508
333. To the Earl of Strafford, Sept. 13.-Our victories.-510
334. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Sept. 13.-Lord George Sackville Ṇ.-511
335. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 11.-512
336. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 14.-The invasion getting out of fashion. Lord George Sackville (N.].-513
337. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 16.-Quebec. East India conquests.-514
338. To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 18.-Quebec. Death of General Wolfe.-514
339. To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 19.-Conquest of Quebec.-516
340. To George Montagu, Esq. Oct. 21.-Public rejoicings for the conquest of Quebec.-517
341. To the Earl of Strafford, Oct. 30.-Quebec.-518
342. To the Right Hon. Lady Hervey, Nov. 3.-Poor Robin's Almanac. High Life below Stairs.-519
343. To George Montagu, Esq. Nov. 8.-French bankruptcy. Mrs. Montagu and Lord Lyttelton.-519
344. To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 16.-Lord George Sackville. Lord Temple's resignation of the privy-seal on being refused the Garter.-521
Correspondence of the Honourable Horace Walpole
13 Letter 1 To Sir Horace Mann. Strawberry Hill, March 4, 1749.
I have been so shut up in the House of Commons for this last fortnight or three weeks, that I have not had time to write you a line: we have not had such a session since the famous beginning of last Parliament. I am come hither for a day or two of rest and air, and find the additional pleasure of great beauty in my improvements: I could talk to you through the whole sheet, and with much more satisfaction, upon this head; but I shall postpone my own amusement to yours, for I am sure you want much more to know what has been doing in Parliament than at Strawberry Hill. You will conclude that we have been fighting over the peace; but we have not. It is laid before Parliament, but will not be taken up; the Opposition foresee that a vote of approbation would pass, and therefore will not begin upon it, as they wish to reserve it for censure in the next reign—or perhaps the next reign does not care to censure now what he must hereafter maintain—and the ministry do not seem to think their treaty so perfect as not to be liable to blame, should it come to be canvassed. We have been then upon several other matters: but first I should tell you, that from the utmost tranquillity and impotence of a minority, there is at once started up so formidable an Opposition as to divide 137 against 203.(1) The minority is headed by the Prince, who has continued opposing, though very unsuccessfully, ever since the removal of Lord Granville, and the desertion of the patriots. He stayed till the Pelhams had brought off every man of parts in his train, and then began to form his party. Lord Granville has never come into it., for fear of breaking with the King; and seems now to be patching up again with his old enemies. If Lord Bath has dealt with the Prince, it has been underhand. His ministry has had at the head of it poor Lord Baltimore, a very good-natured, weak, honest man; and Dr. Lee, a civilian, who was of Lord Granville's admiralty, and is still much attached to him. He is a grave man, and a good speaker, but of no very bright parts, and, from his way of life and profession, much ignorant of, and unfit for, a ministry. You will wonder what new resources the Prince has discovered-why, he has found them all in Lord Egmont, whom you have heard of under the name of Lord Perceval; but his father, an Irish Earl, is lately dead. As he is likely to make a very considerable figure in our history, I shall give you a more particular account of him. He has always earnestly studied our history and constitution and antiquities, with very ambitious views; and practised speaking early in the Irish Parliament. Indeed, this turn is his whole fund, for though he is between thirty and forty, he knows nothing of the world, and is always unpleasantly dragging the conversation to political dissertations. When very young, as he has told me himself, he dabbled in writing Craftsmen and penny-papers; but the first event that made him known, was his carrying the Westminster election at the end of my father's ministry,-which he amply described in the history of his own family, a genealogical work called "The History of the House of Yvery,"(2) a work which cost him three thousand pounds, as the heralds informed Mr. Chute and me, when we went to their office on your business; and which was so ridiculous, that he has since tried to suppress all the copies. It concluded with the description of the Westminster election, in these or some such words, "And here let us leave this young nobleman struggling for the dying liberties of his country!" When the change in the ministry happened, and Lord Bath was so abused by the remnant of the patriots, Lord Egmont published his celebrated pamphlet, called "Faction Detected," a work which the Pitts and Lytteltons have never forgiven him; and which, though he continued voting and sometimes speaking with the Pelhams, made him quite unpopular during all the last Parliament. When the new elections approached, he stood on his own bottom at Weobly in Herefordshire; but his election being contested, be applied for Mr. Pelham's support, who carried it for him in the House of Commons. This will always be a material blot in his life; for he had no sooner secured his seat, than he openly attached himself to the Prince, and has since been made a lord of his bedchamber. At the opening of this session, he published an extreme good pamphlet, which has made infinite noise, called "An Examination of the Principles and Conduct of the two Brothers," (the Pelhams,) and as Dr. Lee has been laid up with the gout, Egmont has taken the lead in the Opposition, and has made as great a figure as perhaps was ever made in so short a time. He is very bold and resolved, master of vast knowledge, and speaks at once with fire and method. His words are not picked and chosen like Pitt's, but his language is useful, clear, and strong. He has already by his parts and resolution mastered his great unpopularity, so far as to be heard with the utmost attention, though I believe nobody had ever more various difficulties to combat. All the old corps hate him on my father and Mr. Pelham's account; the new part of the ministry on their own. The Tories have not quite forgiven his having left them in the last Parliament: besides that, they are now governed by one Prowse, a cold, plausible fellow. and a great well-wisher to Mr. Pelham. Lord Strange,(3) a busy Lord of a party by himself, yet voting generally with the Tories, continually clashes with Lord Egmont; and besides all this, there is a faction in the Prince's family, headed by Nugent, who are for moderate measures.
Nugent is most affectedly an humble servant of Mr. Pell)afn, and seems only to have attached himself to the Prince, in order to make the better bargain with the ministry; he has great parts, but they never know how to disentangle themselves from bombast and absurdities. Besides those, there are two young men who make some figure in the rising Opposition, Bathurst(4) attorney to the Prince; and Potter, whom I believe you have had mentioned in my letters of last year; but he has a bad constitution, and is seldom able to be in town. Neither of these are in the scale of moderation.
The Opposition set out this winter with trying to call for several negotiations during the war; but the great storm which has so much employed us of late, was stirred up by Colonel Lyttelton;(5) who, having been ill-treated by the Duke, has been dealing with the Prince. He discovered to the House some innovations in the Mutiny-bill, of which, though he could not make much, the Opposition have, and fought the bill for a whole fortnight; during the course of which the world has got much light into many very arbitrary proceedings of the Commander-in-chief,(6) which have been the more believed too by the defection of my Lord Townshend's(7) eldest son, who is one of his aide-de-camps. Though the ministry, by the weight of numbers, have carried their point in a great measure, yet you may be sure great heats have been raised; and those have been still more inflamed by a correspondent practice in a new Navy-bill, brought in by the direction of Lord Sandwich and Lord Anson, but vehemently opposed by half the fleet, headed by Sir Peter Warren, the conqueror of Cape Breton, richer than Anson, and absurd as Vernon. The bill has even been petitioned against, and the mutinous were likely to go great lengths, if' the admiralty had not bought off some by money, and others by relaxing in the material points.- We began upon it yesterday, and are still likely to have a long affair of it-so much for politics: and as for any thing else, I scarce know any thing else. My Lady Huntingdon,(8) the Queen of the Methodists, has got her daughter named for lady of the bedchamber to the Princesses; but it is all off again. as she will not let her play at cards on Sundays. It is equally absurd on both sides, to refuse it, or to insist upon it.
Pray tell Dr. Cocchi that I shall be extremely ready to do him any service in his intended edition of the old Physicians,(9) but that I fear it is a kind of work that will lie very little within my sphere to promote. Learning is confined to very narrow bounds at present, and those seldom within the circle in which I necessarily live; but my regard for him and for you would make me take any pains. You see, I believe, that I do take pains for you—I have not writ such a letter to any body these three years. Adieu!
P. S. I am very sorry for your sake that the Prince and Princess(10) are leaving Florence; if ever I return thither, as I always flatter myself I shall, I should miss them extremely. Lord Albemarle goes ambassador to Paris.
(1) Upon the last clause of the Mutiny-bill, an amendment to render half pay officers subject to the act, only in case of actual war, insurrection, rebellion, or invasion, was rejected by 203 to 137.-E.
(2) Compiled principally for Lord Egmont by Anderson, the genealogist. It was printed, but not published, in 1742. " Some," says Boswell, in his Life of Johnson, "have affected to laugh at the History of the House of Very: it would be well if many others would transmit their pedigrees to posterity, with the same accuracy and generous zeal with which the noble Lord who compiled that work has honoured and perpetuated his ancestry. Family histories, likv, the imagines majorum of the ancients, excite to virtue." Vol. viii. p. 188.-E.
(3) James, Lord Strange, eldest son of Edward Stanley, eleventh Earl of Derby. In 1762 he was made Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and died during his father's life-time, in 1771. He always called himself Lord Strange; though the title, which was a barony in fee, had in fact descended to the Duke of Atholl, as heir general of James, seventh Earl of Derby.-]). (4) The Hon. Henry Bathurst, second heir of Allen, first Lord Bathurst, He became heir to the title upon the death, without issue, of his elder brother, the Hon. Benjamin Bathurst, in 1761. In 1746 he was appointed Attorney-General to Frederick, Prince of Wales; in 1754, one of the puisne judges of the Court of Common Pleas, and in 1771, Lord Chancellor. He was, upon this occasion, created a peer, by the title of Lord Apsley. He succeeded his father as second Earl Bathurst in 1775, and died in 1794.-D.
(5) Richard, third son of Sir Thomas, and brother of Sir George Lyttelton: he married the Duchess-dowager of Bridgewater, and was afterwards made a knight of the Bath.
(6) William Duke of Cumberland. He was "Captain-general of the Forces," having been so created in 1745.-D.
(7) George Townshend, afterwards the first Marquis of that name and title.-D.
(8) Selina, daughter of Washington, Earl Ferrers, and widow of Theophilus, Earl of Huntingdon.
(9) In 1754, Dr. Cocchi published his "Chirurgici Veteres," a very curious work, containing numerous valuable extracts from the Greek physicians.-E.
16 Letter 2 To Sir Horace Mann. Arlington Street, March 23, 1749.
Our debates on the two military bills, the naval one of which is not yet finished, have been so tedious, that they have rather whittled down the Opposition than increased it. In the Lords, the Mutiny-bill passed pretty easily, there happening no quarrel between Lord Bathurst and Lord Bath on the method of their measures; so there never divided above sixteen in the minority, and those scarce any of the Prince's Lords. Duke William was there and voted, which was too indecent in a rigorous bill calculated for his own power. There is a great disunion among the ministers on the Naval bill: Mr. Pelham and Pitt (the latter out of hatred and jealousy of Lord Sandwich) gave up the admiralty in a material point, but the paramount little Duke of Bedford has sworn that they shall recant on the report-what a figure they will make! This bill was chiefly of Anson's projecting, who grows every day into new unpopularity.(11) He has lately had a sea-piece drawn of the victory for which he was lorded, in which his own ship in a cloud of cannon was boarding the French Admiral. This circumstance, which was as true as if Mademoiselle Scudery had written his life (for he was scarce in sight when the Frenchman struck to Boscawen)(12) has been so ridiculed by the whole tar-hood, that the romantic part has been forced to be cancelled, and one only gun remains firing at Anson's ship. The two Secretaries of State(13) grow every day nearer to a breach; the King's going abroad is to decide the contest. Newcastle, who Hanoverizes more and more every day, pushes on the journey, as he is to be the attendant minister: his lamentable brother is the constant sacrifice of all these embroils.
At the Leicester-house the jars are as great: Doddington, who has just resigned the treasuryship of the navy, in hopes of once more governing that court (and there is no court where he has not once or twice tried the same scheme!) does not succeed: Sir Francis Dashwood and Lord Talbot are strongly for him-could one conceive that he could still find a dupe? Mr. Fox had a mind to succeed him, but both King and Duke have so earnestly pressed him to remain secretary at war, that he could not refuse. The King would not hear of any of the newer court; and Legge, who of the old was next oars, has managed in the Prussian business so clumsily, that the King would not bear him in his closet: but he has got the navy-office, which Lyttelton would have had, but could not be rechosen at his borough, which he had stolen by surprise from his old friend and brother Tom Pitt. The treasury is to be filled up with that toad-eater and spy to all parties, Harry Vane:(14) there is no enumerating all the circumstances that make his nomination scandalous and ridiculous!-but such is our world! General Charles Howard and a Mr. Saville are named to the red riband. My friend the Duke of Modena is again coming hither, which astonishes me, considering how little reason he had to be satisfied with his first visit; and sure he will have less now! I believe I told you that King Theodore(15) is here: I am to drink coffee with him to-morrow at Lady Schaub's. I have curiosity to see him, though I am not commonly fond of sights, but content myself with the oil-cloth picture of them that is hung out, and to which they seldom come up. There are two black Princes of Anamaboe here, who are in fashion at all the assemblies, of whom I scarce know any particulars, though their story(16) is very like Oroonoko's: all the women know it-and ten times more than belongs to it. Apropos to Indian historians, half our thoughts are taken up—that is, my Lord Halifax's are—with colonizing in Nova Scotia: my friend Colonel Cornwallis is going thither commander-in-chief. The Methodists will scarce follow him as they did Oglethorpe; since the period of his expedition,(17) their lot is fallen in a better land. Methodism is more fashionable than any thing but brag; the women play very deep at both—as deep, it is much suspected, as the matrons of Rome did at the mysteries of the Bona Dea. If gracious Anne was alive, she would make an admirable defendress of the new faith, and build fifty more churches for female proselytes.
If I had more paper or time, I could tell you an excellent long history of my brother Ned'S(18) envy, which was always up at highwater-mark, but since the publication of my book of Houghton (one should have thought a very harmless performance), has overflowed on a thousand ridiculous occasions. Another great object of his jealousy is my friendship with Mr. Fox: my brother made him a formal visit at nine o'clock the other morning, and in a set speech of three quarters of an hour, begged his pardon for not attending the last day of the Mutiny bill, which, he said was so particularly brought in by him, though Mr. Fox assured him that he had no farther hand in it than from his office. Another instance: when my brother went to live at Frogmore, Mr. Fox desired him to employ his tradesmen at Windsor, by way of supporting his interest in that borough. My brother immediately went to the Duke of St. Albans, to whom he had never spoke, (nor indeed was his acquaintance with Mr. Fox much greater), and notified to him, that if seven years hence his grace should have any contest with Mr. Fox about that borough, he should certainly espouse the latter. Guess how the Duke stared at so strange and unnecessary a declaration!
Pigwiggin's Princess has mis-pigged, to the great joy, I believe, of that family, for you know a child must have eaten. Adieu!
(11) It was entitled, A bill for amending, explaining, and reducing into one act, the laws relating to the Navy. "it was," says Sir John Barrow, "a most desirable and highly useful measure. The principal and , indeed, the only novelties attempted to be introduced, were, first, that of subjecting half pay officers to courts-martial, which after much opposition was thrown out; the second was the administration of an oath of secrecy to the members, which was carried, and continues to the present time." See Life of Lord Anson, p. 218.—E.
(12) The Hon. Edward Boscawen, third son of Hugh, first Viscount Falmouth. He was a distinguished naval commander, and had a large share in the success of Lord Anson's engagement with the French fleet off Cape Finisterre in 1747. He died in 1761.-D.
(13) The Dukes of Bedford and Newcastle.-D.
(14) Eldest son of Lord Barnard, and afterwards first Earl of Darlington. he died in 1758.-E.
(15) Theodore, King of Corsica.-D.
(16) Their story is briefly this: A Moorish king, who had entertained with great hospitality a British captain trafficking on the coast of Africa, reposed such confidence in him, as to intrust him with his son, about eighteen years of age, and another sprightly youth, to be brought to England and educated in the European manners. The captain received them, and basely sold them for slaves. He shortly after died; and, the ship coming to England, the officers related the whole affair: upon which the government sent to pay their ransom, and they were brought to England and put under the care of the Earl of Halifax, then at the head of the board of trade, who had them clothed and educated in a suitable manner. They were afterwards received in the higher circles, and introduced to the King. On the first of February in this year, they appeared at the Covent-Garden theatre, to see the tragedy of Oroonok; where they were received with a loud clap of applause, which they returned with a genteel bow. The tender interview between Imoinda and Oroonoko so affected the Prince, that he was obliged to retire at the end of the fourth act. His companion remained, but wept all the time so bitterly that it affected the audience more than the play.-E.
(17) General Oglethorpe was the great promoter of the colony of Georgia. See vol. i.-E.
(18) Sir Edward Walpole, K. B.-D.
19 Letter 3 To Sir Horace Mann. Strawberry Hill, May 3, 1749.
I am come hither for a few days, to repose myself after a torrent of diversions, and am writing to you in my charming bow-window with a tranquillity and satisfaction which, I fear, I am grown old enough to prefer to the hurry of amusements, in which the whole world has lived for this last week. We have at last celebrated the peace, and that as much in extremes as we generally do everything, whether we have reason to be glad or sorry, pleased or angry. Last Tuesday it was proclaimed: the King did not go to St. Paul's, but at night the whole town was illuminated. The next day was what was called "a jubilee-masquerade in the Venetian manner" at Ranelagh: it had nothing Venetian in it, but was by far the best understood and the prettiest spectacle I ever saw: nothing in a fairy tale ever surpassed it. One of the proprietors, who is a German, and belongs to court, had got my Lady Yarmouth to persuade the King to order it. It began at three o'clock, and, about five, people of fashion began to go. When you entered, you found the whole garden filled with masks and spread with tents, which remained all night very commodely. In one quarter was a May-pole dressed with garlands, and people dancing round it to a tabor and pipe and rustic music, all masqued,'as were all the various bands of music that were disposed in different parts of the garden; some like huntsmen with French-horns, some like peasants, with a troop of harlequins and scaramouches in the little open temple on the mount. On the canal was a sort of gondola, adorned with flags and streamers, and filled with music, rowing about. All round the outside of the amphitheatre were shops, filled with Dresden china, Japan, etc. and all the shop-keepers in mask. The amphitheatre was illuminated; and in the middle was a circular bower, composed of all kinds of firs in tubs from twenty to thirty feet high: under them orange-trees, with small lamps in each orange, and below them all sorts of the finest auriculas in pots; and festoons of natural flowers hanging from tree to tree. Between the arches too were firs, and smaller ones in the balconies above. There were booths for tea and wine, gaming-tables and dancing, and about two thousand persons. In short, it pleased me more than any thing I ever saw. It is to be once more, and probably finer as to dresses, as there has since been a subscription-masquerade, and people will go in their rich habits. The next day were the fire-works, which by no means answered the expense, the length of preparation, and the expectation that had been raised; indeed, for a week before, the town was like a country fair, the streets filled from morning to night, scaffolds building wherever you could or could not see, and coaches arriving from every corner of the kingdom. This hurry and lively scene, with the sight of the immense crowd in the Park and on every house, the guards, and the machine itself, which was very beautiful, was all that was worth seeing. The rockets, and whatever was thrown up into the air, succeeded mighty well; but the wheels, and all that was to compose the principal part, were pitiful and ill-conducted, with no changes of coloured fires and shapes: the illumination was mean, and lighted so slowly that scarce any body had patience to wait the finishing; and then, -what contributed to the awkwardness of the whole, was the right pavilion catching fire, and being burnt down in the middle of the show. The King, the Duke, and Princess Emily saw it from the library,(19) with their courts: the Prince and Princess, with their children, from Lady Middlesex's; no place being provided for them, nor any invitation given to the library. The lords and Commons had galleries built for them and the chief citizens along the rails of the mall: the lords had four tickets a-piece, and each Commoner, at first, but two, till the Speaker bounced and obtained a third. Very little mischief was done, and but two persons killed: at Paris, there were forty killed and near three hundred wounded, by a dispute between the French and Italians in the management, who, quarrelling for precedence in lighting the fires, both lighted at once and blew up the whole. Our mob was extremely tranquil, and very unlike those I remember in my father's time, when it was a measure in the Opposition to work up every thing to mischief, the excise and the French players, the convention and the gin-act. We are as much now in the opposite extreme, and in general so pleased with the peace, that I could not help being struck with a passage I read lately in Pasquier an old French author, who says, "that in the time of Francis 1. the French used to call their creditors 'Des Anglois,' from the facility with which the English gave credit to them in all treaties, though they had broken so many." On Saturday we had a serenata at the Opera-house, called Peace in Europe, but it was a wretched performance. On Monday there was a subscription-masquerade, much fuller than that of last year, but not so agreeable or so various in dresses. The King was well disguised in an old-fashioned English habit, and much pleased with somebody who desired him to hold their cup as they were drinking tea. The Duke had a dress of the same kind, but was so immensely corpulent that he looked like Cacofogo, the drunken captain, in Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. The Duchess of Richmond was a lady mayoress in the time of James I.; and Lord Delawarr,(20) Queen Elizabeth's porter, from a picture in the guard-chamber at Kensington; they were admirable masks. Lady Rochford, Miss Evelyn, Miss Bishop, Lady Stafford,(21) and Mrs. Pitt,(22) were in vast beauty; particularly the last, who had a red veil, which made her look gloriously handsome. I forgot Lady Kildare. Mr. Conway was the Duke in Don Quixote, and the finest figure I ever saw. Miss Chudleigh(23) was Iphigenia, but so naked that you would have taken her for Andromeda; and Lady Betty Smithson had such a pyramid of baubles upon her head, that she was exactly the Princess of Babylon in Grammont.
You will conclude that, after all these diversions, people begin to think of going out of town—no such matter: the Parliament continues sitting, and will till the middle Of June; Lord Egmont told us we should sit till Michaelmas. There are many private bills, no public ones of any fame. We were to have had some chastisement for Oxford, where, besides the late riots, the famous Dr. King,(24) the Pretender's great agent, made a most violent speech at the opening of the Ratcliffe library. The ministry denounced judgment, but, in their old style, have grown frightened, and dropped it. However, this menace gave occasion to a meeting and union between the Prince's party and the Jacobites, which Lord Egmont has been labouring all the winter. They met at the St. Alban's tavern, near Pall-mall, last Monday morning, an hundred and twelve Lords and Commoners. The Duke of Beaufort(25) opened the assembly with a panegyric on the stand that had been made this winter against so corrupt an administration, and hoped it would continue, and desired harmony. Lord Egmont seconded this strongly, and begged they would come up to Parliament early next winter. Lord Oxford(26) spoke next; and then Potter, with great humour, and to the great Abashment of the Jacobites, said he was very glad to see this union, and from thence hoped, that if another attack like the last rebellion should be made on the Royal Family, they would all stand by them. No reply was made to this. Then Sir Watkyn Williams spoke, Sir Francis Dashwood, and Tom Pitt,(27) and the meeting broke up. I don't know what his coalition may produce; it will require time with no better heads than compose it at present, though great Mr. Doddington had carried to the conference the assistance of his. In France a very favourable event has happened for us, the disgrace of Maurepas,(28) one of our bitterest enemies, and the promoter of their marine. Just at the beginning of the war, in a very critical period, he had obtained a very large sum for that service, but which one of the other factions, lest he should gain glory and credit by it, got to be Suddenly given away to the King of Prussia.
Sir Charles Williams is appointed envoy to this last King: here is an epigram which he has just sent over on Lord Egmont's opposition to the Mutiny-bill;
"Why has lord Egmont 'gainst this bill So much declamatory skill So tediously exerted? The reason's plain: but t'other day He mutinied himself for pay, And he has twice descried."
I must tell you a bon-mot that was made the other night at the serenata of "Peace in Europe" by Wall,(29) who is Much in fashion, and a kind of Gondomar. Grossatesta, the Modenese minister, a very low fellow, with all the jackpuddinghood of an Italian, asked, "Mais qui est ce qui repres'ente mon maitre>" Wall replied, "Mais, mon Die, l'abb'e, ne scavez vous pas que ce n'est pas un op'era boufon!" And here is another bon-mot of my Lady Townshend: We were talking of the Methodists: somebody said, "Nay, Madam, is it true that Whitfield has recanted?" "No, Sir, he has only canted."
If you ever think of returning to England, as I hope it will be long first, you must prepare yourself with Methodism. I really believe that by that time it will be necessary; this sect increases as fast as almost ever any religious nonsense did.
Lady Fanny Shirley has chosen this way of bestowing the dregs of her beauty; and Mr. Lyttelton is very near making the same sacrifice of the dregs of all those various characters that he has worn. The Methodists love your big sinners as proper subjects to work upon—and indeed they have a plentiful harvest—I think what you call flagrancy was never more in fashion. Drinking is at the highest wine-mark; and gaming joined with it so violent, that at the last Newmarket meeting, in the rapidity of both, a bank-bill was thrown down, and nobody immediately claiming it, they agreed to give it to a man that was standing by.
I must tell you of Stosch's letter, which he had the impertinence to give you without telling the contents. It was to solicit the arrears of his pension, which I beg you will Tell him I have no manner of interest to procure; and to tell me of a Galla Placidia, a gold medal lately found. It is not for myself, but I wish you would ask him the price for a friend of mine who would like to buy it. Adieu! my dear child; I have been long in arrears to you, but I trust you will take this huge letter as an acquittal. You see my villa makes me a good correspondent; how happy I should be to show it you, if I could, with no mixture of disagreeable circumstances to you. I have made a vast plantation! Lord Leicester told me the other day that he heard I would not buy some old china, because I was laying out all my money in trees; "Yes," said I, my Lord, I used to love blue trees, but Now I like green ones."
(19) Probably the old brick building near the bottom of the Green Park, which was called the Queen's Library," and which was pulled down by the late Duke of York when he built his new house in the Stable-yard, St. James's.-D.
(20) John West, seventh Lord Delawarr, created Earl Delawarr, in 1761-D.
(21) Henrietta Cantillon, wife of Matthias Howard, third Earl of Stafford.-D.
(22) Penelope Atkyns a celebrated beauty, wife of George Pitt, Esq. of Strathfieldsaye, in Hants, created in 1776 Lord Rivers.-D.
(23) Afterwards Duchess of Kingston.-D.
(24) last conspicuous Jacobite at Oxford. He was public orator of that University and principal of St. Mary Hall.-D.
(25) Lord Noel Somerset,- who, in 1746 succeeded his brother in the dukedom.
(26) Edward Harley, of Eywood, in the county of Hereford, to whom, pursuant to the limitations of the patent, the earldoms of Oxford and Mortimer descended, upon the death, without male issue, of the Lord Treasurer's only son, Edward, the second Earl. Lord Oxford was of the Jacobite party. He died in 1755.—D.
(27) Thomas Pitt, Esq. of Boconnock, in Cornwall, warden of the Stannaries. He married the sister of George, Lord Lyttelton, and was the father of the first Lord Camelford.-D.
(28) Phelypeaux, Count de Maurepas, son of the Chancellor de Pontchartrain. He was disgraced in consequence of some quarrel with the King's mistress. He returned to office, unhappily for France, in the commencement of the reign of louis the Sixteenth.-D.
(29) General Wall, the Spanish ambassador. Gondomar was the able Spanish ambassador in England in the reign of james the First.-D.
23 Letter 4 To Sir Horace Mann. Arlington Street, May 17, 1749.
We have not yet done diverting ourselves: the night before last the Duke of Richmond gave a firework; a codicil to the peace. He bought the rockets and wheels that remained in the pavilion which miscarried, and took the pretence of the Duke of Modena being here to give a charming entertainment. The garden(30) lies with a slope down to the Thames, on which were lighters, from whence were thrown up, after a concert of water-music, a great number of rockets. Then from boats on every side were discharged water-rockets and fires of that kind; and then the wheels Which were ranged along the rails of the terrace were played off; and the whole concluded with the illumination of a pavilion on the top of the slope, of two pyramids on each side, and of the whole length of the balustrade to the water. You can't conceive a prettier sight; the garden filled with every body of fashion, the Duke, the Duke of Modena, and the two black Princes. The King and Princess Emily were in their barge under the terrace; the river was covered with boats, and the shores and adjacent houses with crowds. The Duke of Modena played afterwards at brag, and there was a fine supper for him and the foreigners, of whom there are numbers here; it is grown as much the fashion to travel hither as to France or Italy. Last week there was a vast assembly and music at Bedford-house for this Modenese; and to-day he is set out to receive his doctor's degree at the two Universities. His appearance is rather better than it used to be, for, instead of wearing his wig down to his nose to hide the humour in his face, he has taken to paint his forehead white, which, however, with the large quantity of red that he always wears on the rest of his face, makes him ridiculous enough. I cannot say his manner is more polished; Princess Emily asked him if he did not find the Duke much fatter than when he was here before? He replied, "En verit'e il n'est pas si effroiable qu'on m'avoit dit." She commended his diamonds; he said, "Les v'otres sont bien petits." As I had been graciously received at his court, I went into his box the first night at the Opera: the first thing he did was to fall asleep; but as I did not choose to sit waiting his reveil in the face of the whole theatre, I waked him, and would discourse him: but here I was very unlucky, for of the only two persons I could recollect at his court to inquire after, one has been dead these four years, and the other, he could not remember any such man. However, Sabbatini, his secretary of state, flattered me extremely: told me he found me beaucoup mieux, and that I was grown very fat-I fear, I fear it was flattery! Eight years don't improve one,-and for my corpulence, if I am grown fat, what must I have been in my Modenese days!
I told you we were to have another jubilee masquerade: there was one by the King's command for Miss Chudleigh, tire maid of honour, with whom our gracious monarch has a mind to believe himself in love,—so much in love, that at one of the booths he gave her a fairing for her watch, which cost him five-and-thirty guineas,—actually disbursed out of his privy purse, and not charged on the civil list. Whatever you may think of it, this is a more magnificent present than the cabinet which the late King of Poland sent to the fair Countess Konismark, replete with all kinds of baubles and ornaments, and ten thousand ducats in one of the drawers. I hope some future Hollinshed or Stowe will acquaint posterity "that five-and-thirty guineas were an immense sum in those days!"
You are going to see one of our court-beauties in Italy, my Lady Rochford:(31) they are setting Out on their embassy to Turin. She is large, but very handsome, with great delicacy and address. All the Royals have been in love with her; but the Duke was so in all the forms, till she was a little too much pleased with her conquest of his brother-in-law the Prince of Hesse. You will not find much in the correspondence of her husband: his person is good, and he will figure well enough as an ambassador; better as a husband where cicisb'es don't expect to be molested. The Duke is not likely to be so happy with his new passion, Mrs. Pitt,(32) who, besides being in love with her husband, whom you remember (,lady Mary Wortley's George Pitt), is going to Italy with him, I think you will find her one of the most glorious beauties you ever saw. You are to have another pair of our beauties, the Princess Borghese's, Mr Greville(33) and his wife, who was the pretty Fanny M'Cartney.
Now I am talking scandal to you, and court-scandal, I must tell you that Lord Conway's sister, Miss Jenny, is dead suddenly with eating lemonade at the last subscription masquerade.,(34) It is not quite unlucky for her: she had outlived the Prince's love and her own face, and nothing remained but her love and her person, which was exceedingly bad.
The graver part of the world, who have not been given up to rockets and masquing, are amused with a book of Lord Bolinbroke's, just published, but written long ago. It is composed of three letters, the first to Lord Cornbury on the Spirit of Patriotism; and two others to Mr. lyttelton, (but with neither of their names,) on the Idea of a patriot King, and the State of Parties on the late King's accession. Mr. Lyttelton had sent him word, that he begged nothing might be inscribed to him that was to reflect on Lord Orford, for that he was now leagued with all Lord Orford's friends: a message as abandoned as the book itself: but indeed there is no describing the impudence with which that set of people unsay what they have been saying all their lives,-I beg their pardons, I mean the honesty with which they recant! Pitt told me coolly, that he had read this book formerly, when he admired Lord Bolinbroke more than he does now. The book by no means answered my expectation: the style, which is his fort, is very fine: the deduction and impossibility of drawing a consequence from what he is saying, as bad and obscure as in his famous Dissertation on Parties: Von must know the man, to guess his meaning. Not to mention the absurdity and impracticability of this kind of system, there is a long speculative dissertation on the origin of government, and even that greatly stolen from other writers, and that all on a sudden dropped, while he hurries into his own times, and then preaches (he of all men!) on the duty of preserving decency! The last treatise would not impose upon an historian of five years old: he tells Mr. Lyttelton, that he may take it from him, that there was no settled scheme at the end of the Queen's reign to introduce the Pretender; and he gives this excellent reason: because, if there had been, he must have known it; and another reason as ridiculous, that no traces of such a scheme have since come to light. What, no traces in all cases of himself, Atterbury, the Duke of Ormond, Sir William Windham, and others! and is it not known that the moment the queen was expired, Atterbury proposed to go in his lawn sleeves and proclaim the Pretender at Charing-cross, but Bolinbroke's heart failing him, Atterbury swore, "There was the best cause in Europe lost for want of spirit!" He imputes Jacobitism singly to Lord Oxford, whom he exceedingly abuses; and who, so far from being suspected, was thought to have fallen into disgrace with that faction for refusing to concur with them. On my father he is much less severe than I expected; and in general, so obliquely, that hereafter he will not be perceived to aim at him, though at this time one knows so much what was at his heart, that it directs one to his meaning.
But there is a preface to this famous book, which makes much more noise than the work itself. It seems, Lord Bolinbroke had originally trusted Pope with the copy, to have half-a-dozen printed for particular friends. Pope, who loved money infinitely beyond any friend, got fifteen hundred Copies(35) printed privately, intending to outlive Bolingbroke and make great advantage of them; and not only did this, but altered the copy at his Pleasure, and even made different alterations in different copies. Where Lord Bolingbroke had strongly flattered their common friend lyttelton, Pope suppressed the panegyric: where, in compliment to Pope, he had softened the satire on Pope's great friend, Lord Oxford, Pope reinstated the abuse. The first part of this transaction is recorded in the preface; the two latter facts are reported by Lord Chesterfield and Lyttelton, the latter of whom went to Bolingbroke to ask how he had forfeited his good opinion. In short, it is comfortable to us people of moderate virtue to hear these demigods, and patriots, and philosophers, inform the world of each other's villanies.(36) What seems to make Lord Bolinbroke most angry, and I suppose does, is Pope's having presumed to correct his work. As to his printing so many copies, it certainly was a compliment, and the more profit (which however could not be immense) he expected to make, the greater opinion he must have conceived of the merit of the work: if one had a mind to defend Pope, should not one ask,(37) if any body ever blamed Virgil's executors for not burning the AEneid, as he ordered them? Warburton, I fear, does design to defend Pope: and my uncle Horace to answer the book; his style, which is the worst in the world, must be curious, in opposition to the other. But here comes full as bad a part of the story as any: Lord Bolinbroke, to buy himself out of the abuse in the Duke of Marlborough's life, or to buy himself into the supervisal of it, gave those letters to Mallet, who is writing this life for a legacy in the old Duchess's will, (and which, with much humour, she gave, desiring it might not be written in verse,) and Mallet sold them to the bookseller for a hundred and fifty pounds. Mallet had many obligations to Pope, no disobligations to him, and was one of his grossest flatterers; witness the sonnet on his supposed death, printed in the notes to the Dunciad. I was this morning told an anecdote from the Dorset family that is no bad collateral evidence of the Jacobitism Of the Queen'S four last years. They wanted to get Dover Castle into their hands, and sent down Prior to the present Duke of Dorset, who loved him, and probably was his brother,(38) to persuade him to give it up. He sent Prior back with great an(-,er, and in three weeks was turned out of the government himself but it is idle to produce proofs; as idle as to deny the scheme.
I have just been with your brother Gal. who has been laid up these two days with the gout in his ankle; an absolute professed gout in all the forms, and with much pain. Mr. Chute is out of town; when he returns, I shall set him upon your brother to reduce him to abstinence and health. Adieu!
(30 At Whitehall.
(31) Daughter of Edward Young' Esq. and wife of William, Earl of Rochford. She had been maid of honour to the Princess of Wales.
(32) Penelope, sister of Sir Richard Atkyns.
(33) Fulke Greville, Esq. son of the Hon. Algernon Greville, second son of Fulke, fifth Lord Brooke. His wife was the authoress of the pretty poem entitled "an Ode to Indifference."-D.
(34) This event was commemorated in the following doggrel lines:—
"Poor Jenny Conway She drank lemonade, At a masquerade, So now she's dead and gone away."-D.
(35) Lord Bolingbroke discovered what Pope had done during his lifetime, and never forgave him for it. He-obliged him to give up the copies, and they were burned on the terrace of Lord Bolingbroke's house at Battersea, in the presence of Lord B. and Pope.-D.
(36) In reference to this publication, Lord Bolingbroke himself, in a letter to Lord Marchmont, written on the 7th of June, says, "The book you mention has brought no trouble upon me, though it has given occasion to many libels upon me. They are of the lowest form, and seem to be held in the contempt they deserve. There I shall leave them, nor suffer a nest of hornets to disturb the quiet of my retreat. If these letters of mine come to your hands, your lordship will find that I have left out all that was said of our friend Lord Lyttelton in one of them. He desired that it might be so; and I had at once the double mortification of concealing the good I had said of one friend, and of revealing the turpitude of another. I hope you will never have the same treatment that I have met with; neither will you. I am single in my circumstances—a species apart in the political society; and they, who dare to attack no one else, may attack me. Chesterfield says, I have made a coalition of Wig, Tory, Trimmer, and Jacobite against myself. Be it so. I have Truth, that is stronger than all of them, on my side; and, in her company, and avowed by her, I have more satisfaction than their applause and their favour could give me." Marchmont Papers.-E.
(37) This thought was borrowed by Mr. Spence, in a pamphlet published on this occasion in defence of Pope.
(38) Burnet relates that the Earl of Dorset, celebrated for patronage of Genius, found Prior by chance reading Horace, and was so well pleased with his proficiency, that he undertook the care and cost of academical education.
27 Letter 5 To George Montagu, Esq. Arlington Street, May 18, 1749,.
Dear George, Whatever you hear of the Richmond fireworks, that is short of the prettiest entertainment in the world, don't believe it - I really never passed a more agreeable evening. Every thing succeeded; all the wheels played in time; Frederick was fortunate, and all the world in good humour. Then for royalty—Mr. Anstis himself would have been glutted; there were all the Fitzes upon earth, the whole court of St. Germains, the Duke,(39) the Duke of Modena, and two Anamaboes. The King, and Princess Emily bestowed themselves upon the mob on the river and as soon as they were gone, the Duke had the music into the garden, and himself, with my Lady Lincoln, Mrs. Pitt, Peggy Banks, and Lord Holderness, entertained the good subjects with singing God save the King to them over the rails of the terrace. The Duke of Modena supped there, and the Duke was asked, but he answered, it was impossible; in short, he could not adjust his dignity to a mortal banquet. There was an admirable scene: Lady Burlington brought the Violette, and the Richmonds had asked Garrick who stood ogling and sighing the whole time, while my Lady kept a most fierce look-out. Sabbatini, one of the Duke of Modena's court, was asking me who all the people were? and who is that? "C'est miladi Hartington, la belle fille du Duc de Devonshire." "Et qui est cette autre dame!" It was a distressing question; after a little hesitation, I replied, "Mais c'est Mademoiselle Violette?" "Et comment Mademoiselle Violette! j'ai connu une Mademoiselle Violette, par exemple."(40) I begged him to look at Miss Bishop.
In the middle of all these principalities and powers was the Duchess of Queensbury, in her forlorn trim, a white apron and a white hood, and would make the Duke swallow all her undress. T'other day she drove post to Lady Sophia Thomas, at Parsons-green, and told her that she was come to tell her something of importance. " What is it!" "Why take a couple of beef-steaks, clap them together as if they were for a dumpling, and eat them with pepper and salt; it is the best thing you ever tasted: I could not help coming to tell you this:" and away she drove back to town. Don't a course of folly for forty years make one very sick?
The weather is SO hot, and the roads so dusty, that I can't get to Strawberry; but I shall begin negotiating with you now about your coming. You must not expect to find it in beauty. I hope to get my bill finished in ten days; I have scrambled it through the lords; but altogether, with the many difficulties and plagues, I am a good deal out of humour; my purchases hitch, and new proprietors start out of the ground, like the crop of soldiers in the Metamorphosis. I expect but an unpleasant summer; my indolence and inattention are not made to wade through leases and deeds. Mrs. Chenevix brought me one yesterday to sign, and her sister Bertrand, the toy-woman of Bath, for a witness. I showed them my cabinet of enamels instead of treating them with white wine. The Bertrand said, "Sir, I hope you don't trust all sorts of ladies with this cabinet!" What an entertaining assumption of dignity! I must tell you an anecdote that I found t'other day in an old French author, which is a great drawback on beaux sentiments and romantic ideas. Pasquier, in his "Recherches de la France," is giving an account of the Queen of Scots' execution; he says, the night before, knowing her body must be stripped for her shroud, she would have her feet washed, because she used ointment to one of them which was sore. I believe I have told you, that in a very old trial of her, which I bought from Lord Oxford's collection, it is said that she was a large lame woman. Take sentiments out of their pantoufles, and reduce them to the infirmities of mortality, what a falling off there is! I could not help laughing in myself t'other day, as I went through Holborn in a very hot day, at the dignity of human nature; all those foul old-clothes women panting without handkerchiefs, and mopping themselves all the way down within their loose jumps. Rigby gave me a strong picture of human nature; he and Peter Bathurst t'other night carried a servant of the latter's, who had attempted to shoot him, before Fielding; who, to all his other vocations, has, by the grace of Mr. Lyttelton, added that of Middlesex justice. He sent them word he was at supper, that they must come next morning. They did not understand that freedom, and ran up, where they found him banqueting with a blind man,(41) a whore, and three on some cold mutton and a bone of ham, both in One dish, and the dirtiest cloth. He never stirred nor asked them to sit. Rigby, who had seen him so often come to beg a guinea of Sir C. Williams, and Bathurst, at whose father's he had lived for victual,,, understood that dignity as little, and pulled themselves chairs; on which he civilized.(42)
Millar the bookseller has done generously by him: finding Tom Jones, for which he had given him six hundred pounds, sell So greatly, he has since given him another hundred.(43) Now I talk to you of authors, Lord Cobham's West(44) has published his translation of Pindar; the poetry is very stiff, but prefixed to it there is a very entertaining account of the Olympic games, and that preceded by an affected inscription to Pitt and Lyttelton. The latter has declared his future match with Miss Rich. George Grenville has been married these two days to Miss Windham. Your friend Lord North is, I suppose you know, on the brink with the countess of Rockingham;(45) and I think your cousin Rice is much inclined to double the family alliance with her sister Furnese. It went on very currently for two or three days, but last night at Vauxhall his minionette face seemed to be sent to languish with Lord R. Berties's.
Was not you sorry for poor Cucumber? I do assure you I was; it was shocking to be hurried away so suddenly, and in so much torment. You have heard I suppose of Lord Harry Beauclerc's resignation, on his not being able to obtain a respite till November, though the lowest officer in his regiment has got much longer leave. It is incredible how Nolkejumskoi has persecuted this poor man for these four years, since he could not be persuaded to alter his vote at a court-martial for the acquittal of a man whom the Duke would have condemned. Lord Ossulston, too, has resigned his commission.
I must tell you a good story of Charles Townshend: you know his political propensity and importance; his brother George was at supper at the King's Arms with some more young men. The conversation somehow or other rambled into politics, and it was started that the national debt was a benefit. "I am sure it is not," said Mr. Townshend; I can't tell why, but my brother Charles can, and I will send to him for arguments." Charles was at supper at another tavern, but so much the dupe of this message, that he literally called for ink and paper, wrote four long sides of arguments, and sent word that when his company broke up, he would come and give them more, which he did at one o'clock in the morning. I don't think you will laugh much less at what happened to me: I wanted a print out of a booth, which I did not care to buy at Osborn's shop: the next day he sent me the print, and begged that when I had any thing to publish, I would employ him.
I will now tell you, and finish this long letter, how I shocked Mr. Mackenzie inadvertently at Vauxhall: we had supped there a great party, and coming out, Mrs. More, who waits at the gate, said, "Gentlemen and ladies, you will walk in and hear the surprising alteration of voice?" I forgetting Mackenzie's connexions, and that he was formerly of the band, replied, "No, I have seen patriots enough."
I intend this letter shall last you till you come to Strawberry Hill. one might have rolled it out into half-a-dozen. My best compliments to your sisters.
(39) The Duke of Cumberland.
(40) Garrick's; marriage with Mademoiselle Eva Maria Violette took place four days after the date of this letter.-E.
(41) Sir Walter Scott suggests, that this blind man was probably Fielding's brother.-E.
(42) "Allen, the friend of Pope," says Sir Walter Scott, "was also one of his benefactors, but unnamed at his own desire; thus confirming the truth of the poet's beautiful couplet,
'Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame, Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame.'
It is said that this munificent and modest patron made Fielding a present of two hundred pounds at one time, and that even before he was personally acquainted with him."-E.
(43) "This," observes Sir Walter Scott, in his biographical notice of Fielding, " is a humiliating anecdote, even after we have made allowance for the aristocratic exaggeration of Walpole; yet it is consoling to observe that Fielding's principles remained unshaken, though the circumstances attending his official situation tended to increase the careless disrespectability of his private habits. His own account of his conduct respecting the dues of the office on which he depended for subsistence, has never been denied or doubted: 'I confess,' says he, 'that my private affairs at the beginning of the winter had but a gloomy aspect; for I had not plundered the public or the poor of those sums which they who are always ready to plunder both as much as they can, have been pleased to suspect me of taking: on the contrary, by composing, instead of inflaming, the quarrels of porters and beggars, and by refusing to take a shilling from a man who most undoubtedly would not have had another left, I had reduced an income of about five hundred a year, of the dirtiest money upon earth, to a little more than three hundred; a considerable portion of which remained with my clerk."'-E.