The Loyalists of America and Their Times, Vol. 1 of 2 - From 1620-1816
by Egerton Ryerson
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FROM 1620 TO 1816.


Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada from 1844 to 1876.




ENTERED, according to the Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year One thousand eight hundred and eighty, by the REV. EGERTON RYERSON, D.D., LL.D., in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.


As no Indian pen has ever traced the history of the aborigines of America, or recorded the deeds of their chieftains, their "prowess and their wrongs"—their enemies and spoilers being their historians; so the history of the Loyalists of America has never been written except by their enemies and spoilers, and those English historians who have not troubled themselves with examining original authorities, but have adopted the authorities, and in some instances imbibed the spirit, of American historians, who have never tired in eulogizing Americans and everything American, and deprecating everything English, and all who have loyally adhered to the unity of the British Empire.

I have thought that the other side of the story should be written; or, in other words, the true history of the relations, disputes, and contests between Great Britain and her American colonies and the United States of America.

The United Empire Loyalists were the losing party; their history has been written by their adversaries, and strangely misrepresented. In the vindication of their character, I have not opposed assertion against assertion; but, in correction of unjust and untrue assertions, I have offered the records and documents of the actors themselves, and in their own words. To do this has rendered my history, to a large extent, documentary, instead of being a mere popular narrative. The many fictions of American writers will be found corrected and exposed in the following volumes, by authorities and facts which cannot be successfully denied. In thus availing myself so largely of the proclamations, messages, addresses, letters, and records of the times when they occurred, I have only followed the example of some of the best historians and biographers.

No one can be more sensible than myself of the imperfect manner in which I have performed my task, which I commenced more than a quarter of a century since, but I have been prevented from completing it sooner by public duties—pursuing, as I have done from the beginning, an untrodden path of historical investigations. From the long delay, many supposed I would never complete the work, or that I had abandoned it. On its completion, therefore, I issued a circular, an extract from which I hereto subjoin, explaining the origin, design, and scope of the work:—

"I have pleasure in stating that I have at length completed the task which the newspaper press and public men of different parties urged upon me from 1855 to 1860. In submission to what seemed to be public opinion, I issued, in 1861, a circular addressed to the United Empire Loyalists and their descendants, of the British Provinces of America, stating the design and scope of my proposed work, and requesting them to transmit to me, at my expense, any letters or papers in their possession which would throw light upon the early history and settlement in these Provinces by our U.E. Loyalist forefathers. From all the British Provinces I received answers to my circular; and I have given, with little abridgment, in one chapter of my history, these intensely interesting letters and papers—to which I have been enabled to add considerably from two large quarto manuscript volumes of papers relating to the U.E. Loyalists in the Dominion Parliamentary Library at Ottawa, with the use of which I have been favoured by the learned and obliging librarian, Mr. Todd.

"In addition to all the works relating to the subject which I could collect in Europe and America, I spent, two years since, several months in the Library of the British Museum, employing the assistance of an amanuensis, in verifying quotations and making extracts from works not to be found elsewhere, in relation especially to unsettled questions involved in the earlier part of my history.

"I have entirely sympathized with the Colonists in their remonstrances, and even use of arms, in defence of British constitutional rights, from 1763 to 1776; but I have been compelled to view the proceedings of the Revolutionists and their treatment of the Loyalists in a very different light.

"After having compared the conduct of the two parties during the Revolution, the exile of the Loyalists from their homes after the close of the War, and their settlement in the British Provinces, I have given a brief account of the government of each Province, and then traced the alleged and real causes of the War of 1812-1815, together with the courage, sacrifice, and patriotism of Canadians, both English and French, in defending our country against eleven successive American invasions, when the population of the two Canadas was to that of the United States as one to twenty-seven, and the population of Upper Canada (the chief scene of the War) was as one to one hundred and six. Our defenders, aided by a few English regiments, were as handfuls, little Spartan bands, in comparison of the hosts of the invading armies; and yet at the end of two years, as well as at the end of the third and last year of the War, not an invader's foot found a place on the soil of Canada.

"I undertook this work not self-moved and with no view to profit; and if I receive no pecuniary return from this work, on which I have expended no small labour and means, I shall have the satisfaction of having done all in my power to erect an historical monument to the character and merits of the fathers and founders of my native country."


"TORONTO, Sept. 24th, 1879."





The writer a native Colonist 1

Massachusetts the seed-plot of the American Revolution 1

Two distinct emigrations to New England—the "Pilgrim Fathers" in 1620, the "Puritan Fathers" in 1629; two separate governments for seventy years; characteristics of each 1

Objects and documentary character of the history, which is not a popular narrative, but a historical discussion (in a note) 2

The "Pilgrim Fathers;" their pilgrimages and settlement in New England 2

Origin of Independents 2

Flight to Holland, and twelve years' pilgrimage; trades and wearisome life there 3

Long to be under English rule and protection 3

Determine and arrange to emigrate to America 3

Voyage, and intended place of settlement 4

Landing at Cape Cod; constitution of government; Messrs. Bancroft and Young's remarks upon it 5

Settlement of "New Plymouth" 6

What known of the harbour and coast before the landing of the Pilgrims 7

Inflated and extravagant accounts of the character and voyage of the Pilgrims (in a note) 7

Results of the first year's experience and labours; a week's celebration of the first "harvest home"—such a first harvest home as no United Empire Loyalists were ever able to celebrate in Canada 9



Two governments—difference between the government of the Pilgrims and that of the Puritans 11

Compact, and seven successive governors of the Pilgrims 12

Simple, just, popular and loyal government of the Pilgrims and their descendants 13

Illustrations of their loyalty to successive sovereigns, and the equity and kindness with which Charles the First and Charles the Second treated them 14

Complaints against the unjust and persecuting conduct of the government of Massachusetts Bay, the cause of Parliamentary and Royal Commissions in 1646, 1664, and 1678 17

Four questions of inquiry by the Commissioners of Charles the Second, in 1665, and satisfactory answers by the Plymouth Government 18

Opposition of the Puritan Government of Massachusetts Bay to the Pilgrim Government in seeking a Royal Charter in 1630 and 1678 21

Absorption of the Plymouth Colony into that of Massachusetts Bay by the second Royal Charter; the exclusion of its chief men from public offices 21

Reflections on the melancholy termination of the Plymouth Government; the noble and loyal character of the Pilgrim Fathers and their descendants 22




First settlement—Royal Charter granted 24

Causes, characteristics, and objects of early emigration to New England 25

The Puritan emigrants to Massachusetts Bay professed members of the Established Church when they left England 26

Professed objects of the emigration two-fold—religious and commercial; chiefly religious, for "converting and civilizing the idolatrous and savage Indian tribes" 26

Endicot; Royal Charter 27

Second emigration; Endicot becomes a Congregationalist, and establishes Congregationalism as the only worship of the Company at Massachusetts Bay, and banishes John and Samuel Brown for adhering (with others) to the old worship 28


The question involving the primary cause of the American Revolution; the setting up of a new form of worship, and abolishing and proscribing that of the Church of England, and banishing Episcopalians who adhered to the old form of worship; the facts analysed and discussed; instructions of the Company in England, and oaths of allegiance and of office prescribed by it 30


Complaints of the banished Episcopalians in England; proceedings by the Company, denials, proofs, conduct and correspondence of the parties concerned 46

Address of Governor Winthrop, &c., on leaving England, in 1630, to their "Fathers and Brethren of the Church of England," affirming their filial and undying love to the Church of England, as their "dear mother," from whose breasts they had derived their spiritual nourishment, &c., &c. 55

Remarks on this address, and absurd interpretations of it 57

Puritan authorities alone adduced as evidence on the subjects of discussion; Puritan letters suppressed; first seeds of the American Revolution 59


Contest between King Charles the First and the Massachusetts Bay Puritans during ten years, from 1630 to 1640 61

Professions of the Puritans on leaving England, and their conduct on arriving at Massachusetts Bay 62

In the Church revolution at Massachusetts Bay, none but Congregationalists could be citizen electors, or eligible for office of any kind; five-sixths of the male population disfranchised 63

This first violation of the Royal Charter and laws of England 65

Complaints to the King in Council in 1632 65

Imputations upon the complainants, and upon the King and Council for listening to their complaints 66

Proceedings of the King and Council in 1632; the accused deny the charges, and convince the King of their innocence and good faith; further inquiry to be made; in the meantime the King dismisses the complaints, assures the accused that he never intended to impose at Massachusetts Bay the religious ceremonies to which they had objected in England, and assures them of his desire to promote the interests of their plantation 66

The King's kind and indulgent conduct, and how the advocates of the Company deceived him 67

Continued oppressions and proscriptions at Massachusetts Bay, and fresh complaints to the King in Council in 1634 69

Transfer of the Charter; kept secret during four years; remarks upon it; effect of the disclosure, and renewed complaints 69

Issue of a Royal Commission; proposed armed resistance at Massachusetts Bay advised by the Congregational ministers; remarks on Mr. Bancroft's attacks and statements; official representations, and conduct of parties concerned 72

Massachusetts Bay rulers the aggressors throughout; review of the controversy 75

More despotism practised in Massachusetts Bay than was ever practised in Upper Canada 82



Commissioners from the Massachusetts Bay rulers to the Long Parliament 85

Change of Government in England stops emigration to Massachusetts 85

First Address of the Massachusetts Commissioners to the Long Parliament 86

Ordinance of the Long Parliament in regard to Massachusetts trade, &c., in 1642, and remarks upon it 87

The Massachusetts Bay Court pass an Act in 1644, of persecution of the Baptists; another Act authorising discussion, &c., in favour of the Parliament, but pronouncing as a "high offence," to be proceeded against "capitally," anything done or said in behalf of the King 87

In 1646, the Long Parliament pass an ordinance appointing a Commission and Governor-General over Massachusetts and other Colonies, with powers more extensive than the Commission which had been appointed by Charles the First in 1634 88

The parliamentary authority declared in this ordinance, and acknowledged by the Puritans in 1646, the same as that maintained by the United Empire Loyalists of America one hundred and thirty years afterwards, in the American Revolution of 1776 (in a note) 88-92

The Presbyterians in 1646 seek liberty of worship at Massachusetts Bay, but are punished for their petition to the Massachusetts Bay Government, and are fined and their papers seized to prevent their appeal to the Puritan Parliament 93

How their appeal to England was defeated 98

Further illustrations of the proceedings of the rulers of Massachusetts Bay as more intolerant and persecuting than anything ever attempted by the High Church party in Upper Canada 98

Colonial government according to Massachusetts Bay pretensions impossible 99

The order of the Long Parliament to the Massachusetts Bay Government to surrender the Charter and receive another; consternation 99

Means employed to evade the order of Parliament 100

Mr. Bancroft's statements, and remarks upon them (in a note) 100

Mr. Palfrey's statements in regard to what he calls the "Presbyterian Cabal," and remarks upon them 103

Petition of the Massachusetts Bay Court to the Long Parliament in 1651; two addresses to Cromwell—the one in 1651, the other in 1654 108

Remarks on these addresses 110

The famous Navigation Act, passed by the Long Parliament in 1651, oppressive to the Southern Colonies, but regularly evaded in Massachusetts Bay by collusion with Cromwell 111

Intolerance and persecutions of Presbyterians, Baptists, &c., by the Massachusetts Bay rulers, from 1643 to 1651 112

Letters of remonstrance against these persecutions by the distinguished Puritans, Sir Henry Vane and Sir Richard Saltonstall 116

Mr. Neal on the same subject (in a note) 120

The Rev. Messrs. Wilson and Norton instigate, and the Rev. Mr. Cotton justifies, these persecutions of the Baptists 120

Summary of the first thirty years of the Massachusetts Bay Government, and character of its persecuting laws and spirit, by the celebrated Edmund Burke 122

The death of Cromwell; conduct and professions of the rulers of Massachusetts Bay in regard to Cromwell and Charles the Second at his restoration; Scotchmen, fighting on their own soil for their king, taken prisoners at Dunbar, transported and received as slaves at Massachusetts Bay 124



Restoration; the news of it was received with joy in the Colonies, except in Massachusetts Bay, where false rumours were circulated alone 130

Change of tone and professions at Massachusetts Bay on the confirmation of the news of the King's restoration and firm establishment on the throne; John Eliot, Indian apostle, censured for what he had been praised 131

When and under what circumstances the Massachusetts Bay Government proclaimed the King, and addressed him; the address (in a note) 132

Remarks on this address, and its contrariety to the address to Cromwell ten years before 133

The King's kind letter addressed to Governor Endicot (in a note) 135

The Massachusetts Court's "ecstasy of joy" at the King's letter, and reply to it 135

The King enjoins ceasing to persecute the Quakers: how answered (in a note) 137

Petitions and representations to the King from Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Baptists, &c., in Massachusetts Bay, on their persecutions and disfranchisement by the local Government 137

The King's Puritan Councillors, and kindly feelings for the Colony of Massachusetts Bay 138

The King's letter of pardon and oblivion, June 28, 1662 (in a note), of the past misdeeds of the Massachusetts Bay Government, and the six conditions on which he promised to continue the Charter 139

The King's oblivion of the past and promised continuance of the Charter for the future joyfully proclaimed; but the publication of the letter withheld, and when the publication of it could be withheld no longer, all action on the royal conditions of toleration, &c., prescribed, was ordered by the local Government to be suspended until the order of the Court 141

Messrs. Bradstreet and Norton, sent as agents to England to answer complaints, are favourably received; are first thanked and then censured at Boston; Norton dies of grief 142

On account of the complaints and representations made to England, the King in Council determines upon the appointment of a Commission to inquire into the matters complained of in the New England Colonies, and to remedy what was wrong 145

Slanderous rumours circulated in Massachusetts against the Commission and Commissioners 146

Copy of the Royal Commission (in a note), explaining the reasons and objects of it 147

All the New England Colonies, except Massachusetts Bay, duly receive the Royal Commissioners; their report on Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Plymouth (in a note) 148

Report of the Royal Commissioners on the Colony of Massachusetts Bay (in a note); difference from the other Colonies; twenty anomalies in its laws inconsistent with its Charter; evades the conditions of the promised continuance of the Charter; denies the King's jurisdiction 149

They address the King, and enclose copies of their address, with letters, to Lord Chancellor Clarendon, the Earl of Manchester, Lord Say, and the Honourable Robert Boyle 152

The United Empire Loyalists the true Liberals of that day 152

Copy of the long and characteristic address of the Massachusetts Bay Court to the King, October 25, 1664 (with notes) 153

Letters of Lord Clarendon and the Honourable Robert Boyle to the Massachusetts Bay Court, in reply to their letters, and on their address to the King; pretensions and conduct 160

Conduct and pretensions of the Massachusetts Bay Court condemned and exposed by loyalist inhabitants of Boston, Salem, Newbury, and Ipswich, in a petition 163

The King's reply to the long address or petition of the Massachusetts Bay Court, dated February 25, 1665, correcting their misstatements, and showing the groundlessness of their pretended fears and actual pretensions 166

The King's kind and courteous letter without effect upon the Massachusetts Bay Court, who refuse to acknowledge the Royal Commissioners; second and more decisive letter from the King, April, 1666 169

Retrospect of the transactions between the two Charleses and the Massachusetts Bay Court from 1630 to 1666, with extracts of correspondence 171

Royal Charters to Connecticut and Rhode Island, in 1663, with remarks upon them by Judge Story (in a note) 172

The narrative of the discussion of questions between Charles the Second and the Massachusetts Bay Court resumed; summary of facts; questions at issue 178

On receiving the report of his Commissioners, who had been rejected by the Massachusetts Bay Court, the King orders agents to be sent to England to answer before the King in Council to the complaints made against the Government of the Colony 179

Meetings and proceedings of the Massachusetts Bay Court on the Royal Message; their address of vindication and entreaty to the King; and instead of sending agents, send two large masts, and resolve to send L1,000 to propitiate the King 180

Loyalists in the Court and among the people, who maintain the Royal authority 182

Complaints a pretext to perpetuate sectarian rule and persecutions 183

Baptists persecuted by fine, imprisonment, &c., as late as 1666 and 1669 (extract of Court proceedings in a note), several years after the King had forbidden such intolerance in Massachusetts 184

Statements of Hutchinson and Neal in regard to such persecutions, and remonstrances by the Rev. Drs. Owen and T. Goodwin, and other Nonconformist ministers in England 185

Efforts by addresses, gifts, and compliance in some matters, to propitiate the King's favour 186

Why the King desists for some years from further action 187

Complaints from neighbouring Colonists and individual citizens, of invasion of rights, and persecutions and proscriptions by the Massachusetts Bay Government, awaken at last the renewed attention of the King's Government to their proceedings; and the King addresses another letter, July, 1679 (copy of the letter in a note) 187

Seven requirements of this letter just and reasonable, and observed by all British Colonies at this day 188

Remarks on the unfair statements and unjust imputations against the British Government of that day, by Mr. Palfrey and other New England historians 190

Nineteen years' evasions and disregard of the conditions on which the King promised to perpetuate the Charter; strong and decisive letter from the King, September, 1680, to the Massachusetts Bay Court, which caused a special meeting of the Court, the sending of agents to England, and the passing of some remedial Acts 193

Examples and proofs of the deceptive character of these Acts, with measures to neutralize or prevent them from being carried intoeffect—such as the Navigation Act, Oath of Allegiance, the Franchise, Liberty of Worship, and Persecution of Baptists and Quakers 195

Recapitulation; manner of extending the territory and jurisdiction, so as to include Maine, part of New Hampshire, &c. (in a note); Mr. Bancroft's statement, confirming the positions of this and preceding chapters as to the pretensions and conduct of the Massachusetts Bay Government 200



Crisis approaching; the double game of Massachusetts Bay Court played out; threat of a writ of quo warranto 204

Proceedings of Massachusetts Bay Court; offer a bribe to the King; bribe clerks of the Privy Council 205

The Massachusetts Bay Court refuse the proposed conditions of perpetuating the Charter; refuse submission to the King on any conditions; determine to contest in a Court of Law; agents restricted; the King provoked 206

The Governor and a majority of the assistants or magistrates vote in favour of submitting to the King's decision; the Ministers advise, and a majority of the deputies vote against it 208

A writ of quo warranto issued and sent, June and July, 1683, summoning the Corporation of Massachusetts Bay to defend their acts against the complaints and charges (thirteen in number) made against them, but assuring the inviolableness of private property, and offering to stay legal proceedings against the Corporation in case of their submitting to the decision of the King, on the points heretofore required by his Majesty as conditions of perpetuating the Charter 208

The Colony of Massachusetts Bay divided; origin of parties; the Governor and a majority of the "Upper Branch of the Government" were the moderate or loyalist party; the majority of the "House of Deputies," whose "elections were controlled by the ministers," were the independence party; violent language by Dr. Increase Mather, whose appeal from man to God was decided against him (in a note) 209

Resolutions of the two Houses of the Court on the subject 210

Notice to the Massachusetts Bay Court of the issue of the writ of quo warranto, to answer to the complaints against them, received October, 1683; judgment given July 1685, nearly two years afterwards 211

The questions at issue unfairly put to popular vote in Massachusetts; remarks on Mr. Palfrey's account of the transactions 211

Results of the fall of the Charter; death of Charles the Second; proclamation of the accession of James the Second; appointment of Joseph Dudley as Governor; character of his seven months' government 212

Appointment of Andros as local Governor and Governor-General; popular beginning of his government; his tyranny; seized at Boston and sent prisoner to England; acquitted on account of having obeyed his instructions 215

Toleration first proclaimed in Massachusetts by James the Second; thanked by the Massachusetts Bay Court, and its agent in England, the Rev. Increase Mather, for the proclamation which lost the King the Crown of England 216

Concluding review of the characteristics of the fifty-four years' government of Massachusetts Bay Government under the first Charter 217



Retrospect; reasons assigned by Mr. Palfrey why the Massachusetts Bay Government did not make armed resistance against "the fall of the first Charter," and remarks upon them 221

The Government of Massachusetts Bay continued two years after "the fall of the Charter," as if nothing had happened 226

They promptly proclaim King James the Second; take the oath of allegiance to him; send the Rev. Increase Mather as agent to thank his Majesty for his proclamation of indulgence, to pray for the restoration of the first Charter, and for the removal of Sir Edmund Andros; King James grants several friendly audiences, but does nothing 226

On the dethronement of James the Second, Dr. Increase Mather pays his homage to the new King, with professions (no doubt sincere) of overflowing loyalty to him (in a note) 226

Unsuccessful efforts of Dr. Increase Mather to obtain the restoration of the first Charter, though aided by the Queen, Archbishop Tillotson, Bishop Burnet, the Presbyterian clergy, and others 228

How the second Charter was prepared and granted; Dr. Increase Mather first protests against, and then gratefully accepts the Charter; nominates the first Governor, Sir William Phips 229

Nine principal provisions of the new Charter 233

Puritan legal opinions on the defects of the first Charter, the constant violation of it by the Massachusetts Bay Government, and the unwisdom of its restoration (in a note) 233

A small party in Boston opposed to accepting the new Charter; Judge Story on the salutary influence of the new Charter on the legislation and progress of the Colony 235

Happy influence of the new Charter upon toleration, loyalty, peace and unity of society in Massachusetts—proofs 237

The spirit of the old leaven of bigotry still surviving; and stung with the facts of Neal's History of New England on "the persecuting principles and practices of the first planters," a remarkable letter from the Rev. Dr. Isaac Watts, dated February 19, 1720, addressed to the Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather, explanatory of Neal's History, and urging the formal repeal of the "cruel and sanguinary statutes" which had been passed by the Massachusetts Bay Court under the first Charter (in a note) 239

Happiness and progress of Massachusetts during seventy years under the second Charter 240

Debts incurred by the New England Colonies in the Indian Wars; issue of paper money; how Massachusetts was relieved by England, and made prosperous 240



Places taken during the war between France and England mutually restored at the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle; Louisburg and Cape Breton restored to France, in return for Madras restored to England 242

Boundaries in America between France and England to be defined by a joint Commission, which could not agree 242

Encroachments of the French on the British Colonies from 1748 to 1756; complaints of the Colonial Governors to England; orders to them to defend their territories; conflicts between the Colonies, French and Indians 243

England's best if not only means of protecting the Colonies, to prevent the French from transporting soldiers and war material to Canada; naval preparations 244

Evasive answers and disclaimers of the French Government, with naval and military preparations 245

Braddock's unfortunate expedition; capture of French vessels, soldiers, &c., (in a note) 247

The King's speech to Parliament on French encroachments; convention of Colonies at Albany, and its representatives, a year before war was declared 247

Mr. Bancroft's imputation against the British Government, and reply to it (in a note) 247

Mr. Bancroft represents this war as merely European; refuted by himself; his noble representations of the Protestant character of the war on the part of Great Britain and other Powers 248

Contests chiefly between the Colonists, the French, and the Indians, from 1648 to 1654; English soldiers under General Braddock sent to America in 1655; campaigns actual and devised that year; Massachusetts active; Sir William Johnson's victory over the French General, Dieskau 250

War formally declared by England and France in 1756; French successes in 1755, 1756, and 1757 252

Parliament votes L115,000 sterling to compensate the Colonies for expenses incurred by them 252

Arrival of the Earl of Loudon from England with troops, as Commander-in-Chief 252

Capture of Forts Oswego and William Henry by the French General, Montcalm 253

Dispute between the Earl of Loudon and the Massachusetts Court, in regard to the Mutiny Act, and quartering the troops upon the citizens 255

Alarming situation of affairs at the close of the year 1757 255

Divided counsels and isolated resources and action of the Colonies 257

General Abercrombie arrives with more troops, and forty German officers to drill and command regiments to be raised in America (which gave offence to the Colonists) 257

The Governor of Virginia recommends Washington, but his services are not recognized 257

Generals Abercrombie and Loudon at Albany hesitate and delay, while the French generals are active and successful 258

The Earl of Loudon's arbitrary conduct in quartering his officers and troops in Albany and New York (in a note) 258

Loudon never fought a battle in America; and in the only battle fought by Abercrombie, he was disgracefully defeated by Montcalm, though commanding the largest army which had ever been assembled in America. Among the slain in this battle was the brave General, Lord Howe, the favourite of the army and citizens 259

The Massachusetts Court appropriate L250 sterling to erect a monument in Westminster Abbey in honour of Lord Howe 260

Abercrombie—the last of the incompetent English Generals—recalled, and succeeded by Lord Amherst as Commander-in-Chief, assisted by General Wolfe, when, under the Premiership of the elder Pitt, the whole policy and fortunes of the war undergo a complete change 260

Colonel Bradstreet's brilliant achievement in taking and destroying Fort Frontenac 261

Lord Amherst plans three expeditions, all of which were successful 261

Louisburg besieged and taken; heroism of General Wolfe; great rejoicings 262

Admiral Boscawen returns to England; Lord Amherst's energetic movements 262

Niagara taken; Fort du Quesne taken, and called Pittsburg; Ticonderoga and Crown Point taken; Quebec taken 263

Attempt of the French to recover Quebec 266

Parliamentary compensation to Massachusetts (in a note) 267

Montreal besieged and taken, and all Canada surrendered to the King of Great Britain, through Lord Amherst 267

General Amherst's address to the army (in a note) 268

The war not closed; conquests in the West Indies; troubles with the Indians; reduction of the Cherokees 269

Treaty of Paris; general rejoicings 269

Massachusetts benefited by the war 270

Moneys provided by England for the war abstracted from England and expended in the Colonies 270

Grateful acknowledgments and avowed loyalty to England by Massachusetts; the language and feelings of the other Colonies the same 271



I. The position of England in respect to the other European Powers after the Peace of Paris, 1763 273

II. The position of the American Colonies, in regard to England and other nations, after the Peace of Paris in 1763 274

III. Effects of the change of policy by the English Government in regard to the Colonies 277

IV. First acts of the British Government which caused dissatisfaction and alienation in the Colonies 279




Containing extracts of the celebrated speeches of Mr. Charles Townsend and Colonel Barre on passing the Stamp Act 294

Remarks on the speeches of the Right Honourable Mr. Townsend and Colonel Barre; Puritan treatment of the Indians 296


Containing the speeches of Lords Chatham and Camden on the Stamp Act and its repeal 302

Dr. Franklin's evidence at the Bar of the House of Commons 308







Raising a revenue by Act of Parliament in the Colonies 330

Three Bills brought in, and passed by Parliament, to raise a revenue in the Colonies 331

Vice-Admiralty Courts and the Navy employed as custom-house officers 334

The effect of these Acts and measures in the Colonies 335



Petition to the King 337

Noble circular of the Massachusetts Legislative Assembly to the Assemblies of the other Colonies, on the unconstitutional and oppressive Acts of the British Parliament 338

This circular displeasing to the British Ministry, and strongly condemned by it in a circular from the Earl of Hillsborough 341

Admirable and patriotic reply of the Virginia House of Burgesses to the Massachusetts circular 342

Similar replies from the Legislative Assemblies of other Colonies 343

Excellent answer of the General Assembly of Maryland to a message of the Governor on the same subject 344

The effects of Lord Hillsborough's circular letter to the Colonial Governors 345

Experiment of the newly asserted power of Parliament to tax and rule the Colonies, commended at Boston and in Massachusetts 348

Three causes for popular irritation; seizures; riotous resistance; seven hundred soldiers landed, and required to be provided for, which was refused; the Provincial Assembly and its proceedings; ships of war in Boston Harbour 348



Manly response to these imputations on the part of the Colonists, and their assertion of British constitutional rights, led by the General Assembly of Virginia 355

Dissolution of Colonial Assemblies; agreements for the non-importation of British manufactured goods entered into by the Colonists 356

The General Assembly of Massachusetts refuse to legislate under the guns of a land and naval force; Governor Barnard's reply 357

Proceedings of the Governor and House of Assembly on quartering troops in Boston 358

Governor Barnard's recall and character (in a note) 359

Origin of the non-importation agreement in New York; sanctioned by persons in the highest stations; union of the Colonies planned 360

Sons of Governors Barnard and Hutchinson refuse to enter into the non-importation agreement 360

They were at length compelled to yield; humiliating position of the soldiers in Boston; successful resistance of the importation of British goods 360

Joy in the Colonies by a despatch from Lord Hillsborough promising to repeal the obnoxious Revenue Acts, and to impose no more taxes on the Colonies 361

The duty of threepence per pound on tea excepted 363



Collisions between the soldiers and inhabitants in Boston 365

The soldiers insulted and abused 365

The Boston Massacre; the soldiers acquitted by a Boston jury 365

The payment of official salaries independent of the Colonies another cause of dissatisfaction 366

What had been claimed by the old American Colonies contended for in Canada, and granted, to the satisfaction and progress of the country 367

Lord North's Bill to repeal the Colonial Revenue Acts, except the duty on tea, which he refused to repeal until "America should be prostrate at his feet" 368

Governor Pownall's speech and amendment to repeal the duty on tea, rejected by a majority of 242 to 204 369

Associations in the Colonies against the use of tea imported from England 370

The tea duty Act of Parliament virtually defeated in America 370

The controversy revived and intensified by the agreement between Lord North and the East India Company, to remit the duty of a shilling in the pound on all teas exported by it to America, where the threepence duty on the pound was to be collected 371

Combined opposition of English and American merchants, and the Colonists from New Hampshire to Georgia, against this scheme 372



The Governor, Hutchinson, of Massachusetts, and his sons (the consignees), alone determined to land the tea at Boston 376

The causes and affair of throwing the East India Company's tea into the Boston Harbour, as stated on both sides 377

The causes and the disastrous effect of the arrangement between the British Ministry and the East India Company 381

The King the author of the scheme; His Majesty's condemnation of the petitions and remonstrances from the Colonies (in a note) 382

Governor Hutchinson's proceedings, and his account of the transactions at Boston 383

His vindication of himself, and description of his pitiable condition 383

Remarks on the difference between his conduct and that of the Governors of other provinces 387



Opposition to the tea duty represented in England as "rebellion," and the advocates of colonial rights designated "rebels" and "traitors" 388

Three Acts of Parliament against the inhabitants of Boston and of Massachusetts, all infringing and extinguishing the heretofore acknowledged constitutional rights and liberties of the people 389

Debates in Parliament, and misrepresentations of the English press on American affairs 390

Lord North explains the American policy; the Bill to punish the town of Boston; petitions against it from the agent of Massachusetts and the city of London; debates on it in the Commons and Lords 394

Distress of Boston; addresses of sympathy, and contributions of relief from other towns and provinces; generous conduct of the inhabitants of Massachusetts and Salem 395

The second penal Bill against Massachusetts, changing the constitution of the government of the province 396

Third penal Bill for the immunity of governors, magistrates, and other public officers in Massachusetts 396

The fourth Act of Parliament, legalizing the quartering of the troops in Boston 397

The effects of these measures in the Colonies the reverse of what their authors and advocates had anticipated; all the Colonies protest against them 397

General Gage's arrival in Boston, and courteous reception, as successor to Governor Hutchinson—his character (in a note) 398

Meeting of the Massachusetts Legislature; adjournment to Salem; their respectful, loyal, but firm reply to the Governor's speech; his bitter answer 399

Courteous, loyal, and patriotic answer of the Assembly to the Governor's speech 400

The House of Assembly proceed with closed doors, and adopt, by a majority of 92 to 12, resolutions declaring the necessity of a meeting of all the Colonies to consult together upon the present state of the Colonies 401

Curious dissolution of the last Legislature held in the Province of Massachusetts, according to the tenor of its Charter (in a note) 401



Resolutions in all the Colonies in favour of a general Convention or Congress, and election of delegates to it 403

General sympathy and liberality on behalf of the town of Boston 404

How information on subjects of agitation was rapidly diffused throughout the Colonies 405

The Act of Parliament changing the Constitution of Massachusetts without its consent gave rise to the American Revolution; the authority of that Act never acknowledged in Massachusetts 407



The word Congress "defined" 409

Each day's proceedings commenced with prayer; each Province allowed but one vote 410

The members of the Congress and their constituents throughout the Colonies thoroughly loyal, while maintaining British constitutional rights 410

The declaration of rights and grievances by this Congress (in a note) 411

The explicit, loyal, and touching address and petition of this Congress to the King 414

Manly and affectionate appeal to the British nation 416

The address of the members of the Congress to their constituents—a temperate and lucid exposition of their grievances and sentiments 417

Reasons for giving a summary and extracts of these addresses of the first General Congress 418

General elections in England hastened; adverse to the Colonies 419

The King's speech at the opening of the new Parliament, the 30th of November, and answers of both Houses 419

Opposition in both Houses; protest in the Lords 420

The proceedings of the first American Congress reach England before the adjournment of Parliament for the Christmas holidays, and produce an impression favourable to the Colonies; hopes of a change of the Ministerial policy in regard to the Colonies 420




The Earl of Chatham's amendment and speech in the Lords, against the coercive policy of the Ministry and in behalf of Colonial rights, supported by other Lords and numerous politicians 423

Lord Suffolk in favour of coercion; Lord Camden against it, and in favour of the rights of the Colonies; Lord Chatham and others denounced by the King (in a note) 424

The amendment negatived by a majority of 68 to 18; but the King's own brother, the Duke of Cumberland, was one of the minority; yet the King boasted of the "handsome majority" in support of his coercive policy 425

The Earl of Chatham's bill "to settle the troubles in America," not allowed a first reading in the Lords 425

Petitions from various towns in England, Scotland, and Ireland against the American policy of the ministry 425

Petition to the Commons from Dr. Franklin, Mr. Bollan, and Mr. Lee, Colonial agents, praying to be heard at the bar of the House in support of the petition of the American Continental Congress, rejected by a majority of 218 to 68 426

Dr. Franklin's dismissal from office; his success in office; his sentiments on the rejection of the petitions of the Colonies and punishment of their agents (in a note) 426

Lord North's resolution for an address (given entire) to the King, endorsing the coercive policy, and denouncing complaints and opposition to it in America as "rebellion" 426

Remarks on the gross inaccuracies and injustice and empty promises of this address 428

Debates in the Commons on Lord North's address to the King 429

Mr. Fox's amendment to Lord North's address rejected by a majority of 304 to 105 430

Second great debate on Lord North's warlike resolution for an address to the King, and Lord John Cavendish's amendment to it; speakers on both sides 430

Lord North's address, made the joint address of both Houses of Parliament, presented to the King, with His Majesty's reply 431

Remarks on the King's reply, and the proceedings of Parliament in respect to the Colonies 431

The Ministry and Parliament virtually declare war against the Colonies 432


(1775, CONTINUED.)


Parliament passes a second Act to punish in the same way all the Colonies, for the same reason as those of the New England Colonies, except New York, Delaware, North Carolina; these Provinces decline the exception 433

Much expected from the General Assembly of New York, which had not endorsed the first Continental Congress; the Assembly meets and adopts a petition and remonstrances on the grievances of all the Colonies, including Massachusetts; this address, adopted as late as May, 1775, a Loyal United Empire Document; extracts from this admirable and statesmanlike address 434

Mr. Burke, in a conciliatory speech, proposes to present this memorial to the House of Commons 437

Lord North opposes it 438

Mr. Fox defends it, and moves against its rejection 438

Governor Johnstone justifies the reception of it by example 439

Lord North's amendment to reject the petition adopted by a majority of 186 to 67 439

The memorial, after debate, rejected by the House of Lords 440

Reflections of the royal historian on the effect upon the public mind in England from the rejection of the New York Assembly's appeal by both Houses of Parliament (in a note) 440

The Colonists still persist in hopes of reconciliation and the maintenance of their constitutional rights, without entertaining a thought of independence 441


(1775, CONTINUED.)


The second Continental Congress meets at Philadelphia, in the month of September 442

Number and character of its members 442

Their credentials and instructions to seek remedies for grievances, but not separation from the Mother Country; mode of proceeding 443

Noble and affectionate petition to the King 443

This petition read in the House of Commons the 7th of December, 1775, but rejected 444

Penn, the agent of the Congress, not asked a question when he presented the petition, and was refused an interview by the King (in a note) 444

The King's answer a proclamation declaring the petition "rebellion" and the petitioners "rebels" 445

The effect of this proclamation upon the Continental Congress, and of the accompanying announcement, that the army and navy were to be greatly increased, and seventeen thousand mercenary soldiers from Hanover and Hesse were to be engaged to bring the Colonists to absolute submission 446

Refusal of English Generals and soldiers to fight against the Colonists (in a note) 446

Bombardment and burning of Falmouth (now Portland) by Captain Mowat, of the British navy (two accounts of it, in a note) 446

The large majority of the Congress yet opposed to independence, but were unanimously in favour of energetic measures for the defence of their constitutional rights 448

Tom Paine's appeal to the Colonists, called Common Sense, the first publication in America against monarchy 450

But the majority of the Congress opposed to republicanism 450

The exact time when the leading men of the Colonies conceived the measure of independence not certainly known 451

Prompted by the now-known King's own personal acts and hostility to the American Colonists 451

Deprecated by South Carolina in May, 1775, after the bloody affair of Concord and Lexington (in a note) 451

Disclaimed by Dr. Franklin in 1773 452

Disclaimed by Washington and Jefferson until after the middle of the year 1775 453

Though urged by President Dwight (of Yale), discountenanced by leading New Englanders in July, 1775 453

Retrospect of events and position of affairs between Great Britain and the Colonies at the close of the year 1775 454




Oppressive Acts of Parliament enumerated, with the measures of employing foreign soldiers, Indians, and slaves; and all with the express sanction of the King, and while Colonists professed loyalty, and asked for nothing but the redress of grievances and restoration of rights which they had heretofore enjoyed 459

The loyalty and effective services of the Colonists in the English and French war, and the experience and skill they thereby acquired in military affairs; their superiority as marksmen 460

They desire to provide for their own defence, and for the support of their own civil government, as aforetime, and as is done in the provinces of the Canadian Dominion, but this is opposed by the King and his ministers 460

General Gage (Governor of Massachusetts, and Commander-in-Chief of the British in America) commences the first attack upon the Colonists, by ordering soldiers at night to seize Colonial arms and ammunition; sends 800 soldiers to Concord for that purpose; driven back to Lexington with heavy loss; loss of the Colonists 460

The affair of Concord and Lexington followed by the Battle of Bunker's Hill; numbers engaged on both sides 460

In the Battle of Bunker's Hill, as well as the previous conflicts, the first shot was fired by the British soldiers upon the Colonists, who, by order and policy, acted strictly on the defensive 461

English account of the Battle of Bunker's Hill, by the royal historian, Dr. Andrews (in a note) 461

Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, about the same time, committed outrages upon the inhabitants of Virginia similar to those which General Gage committed upon the people of Massachusetts 462

Traditional and deep loyalty of the Virginians, and their aversion to revolution, but resolved to defend their rights 464

Lord Dunmore (by order of the Secretary of State) assembles the Burgesses of Virginia, to deliberate and decide upon Lord North's so-called "conciliatory proposition" to the Colonies; the proposition rejected; Mr. Jefferson's report upon, quoted; an admirable document, eulogized in the strongest terms by the Earl of Shelburne; how viewed by the French Foreign Minister, Vergennes (in a note) 464

Lord Dunmore issues a proclamation to free the slaves; on the night of the 20th of April sends a body of marines to seize and carry off a quantity of gunpowder, belonging to the Colony, stored in a magazine at Williamsburg; excitement of the inhabitants, and their demand for the restoration of the powder; Lord Dunmore threatens, but is at length compelled to return the value of the powder 465

Lord Dunmore's threat to free the slaves, and letter to the Secretary of State, as to how, with aid "of a small body of troops and arms," he could raise an ample force "among the Indians and negroes and other persons" 466

Horror and alarm in the South at Lord Dunmore's threat to free the slaves, and preparation for resistance (in a note) 466

Lord Dunmore (moved by his fears) leaves the Government House, and goes on board of a ship of war at Norfolk, almost twelve miles from Williamsburg, the seat of government 466

The House of Burgesses remonstrate with Lord Dumnore for leaving the seat of government; entreat him to return, and assure him and his family of perfect safety; but he refuses, seizes a private printing establishment and two printers, and issues proclamations and attempts to govern from a ship of war 467

Lord Dunmore commands the water by a small flotilla of war vessels, and frequently landed forces to seize arms, &c.; attempt to destroy the town of Hampton; is repelled by the inhabitants, and volunteer rifle companies come to their aid; the first battle in Virginia; its success with the Virginians 467

Account of this affair, and of Lord Dunmore's policy, by the English Annual Register (in a note) 468

In consequence of Lord Dunmore's failure against the town of Hampton, he issues a proclamation from on board the war ship William, off Norfolk, declaring martial law throughout the Colony, "requiring all persons capable of bearing arms to repair to His Maiesty's standard, or be considered as traitors;" and declaring all indentured servants, negroes and others, appertaining to rebels, who were able and willing to bear arms, and who joined His Majesty's forces, to be free 468

Remarks of the English Annual Register on this abominable proclamation. 469

Lord Dunmore's conduct unlawful, as well as unjust and inhuman 470

The men on Lord Dunmore's fleet distressed for want of provisions, which the inhabitants on land refused to supply: in consequence of which the town of Norfolk (the first commercial town in Virginia) is reduced to ashes 471

Account of this barbarous transaction by the English Annual Register and Mr. Bancroft (in a note); remarks upon, by the English and American press; effect of its announcement upon the mind of Washington 472

The conduct and situation of the Governors of South and North Carolina similar to that of Lord Dunmore in Virginia (in a note) 472

The loyal Churchmen of Virginia, and the loyal Presbyterians of the two Carolinas, receive the same treatment from Dunmore, Campbell, and Martin, as the "republican" Congregationalists did from General Gage 473

Each of the three Southern Governors betook themselves to ships; all the Colonists treated with like severity 473

The King's speech at the meeting of Parliament, October 26th, 1775, and discussion upon it 474



Meeting of Congress at Philadelphia, the 12th of May, 1776; state of the Colonies 479

Formidable preparations in England; effect of them upon the Colonies different from that expected in England 479

The thirteen Colonies a unit for the defence of their constitutional rights and liberties 479

Separation from England not even yet contemplated; though resisting the King they were loyal to the constitution and liberties of the Kingdom, as were the Barons at Runnymede when they resisted King John to maintain constitutional rights; the words of Washington and the New York Provincial Congress (in a note) 480

The question of questions with the Congress; one Republican, but the others professedly Monarchists; Samuel Adams, his character and writings 481

Independence first moved in Congress, May, 1776; how manipulated and promoted; not the spontaneous uprising of the people 482

Agitation to prepare the minds of the people for independence 482

The writings of Tom Paine the chief instrument of creating hatred to monarchy and a desire for independence (in a note) 483

Congress itself divided on the question of independence; what Provinces opposed to or not prepared for independence 483

Resolution for independence; long debates; postponed for three weeks, by a vote of seven to five Colonies 484

Committee to prepare a Declaration appointed 485

Agitation to promote independence 485

Three days' debates on the question of independence 485

Decision to vote by Colonies, and that the decision on each question should be reported to the world as unanimous, whatever might be the votes in Congress 486

On the question of independence, six Colonies were in the affirmative and six in the negative; how Pennsylvania was brought over to vote for independence, by one of its members being induced to absent himself; and how the votes of other Colonies were obtained for the affirmative (in a note) 486

The Declaration of Independence reported, discussed, amended, and adopted, but not unanimously, though so reported (in a note) 487

Remarks on the voting of Congress on the Declaration of Independence 487

Copy of the Declaration of Independence 488



The Author's sympathy with the Colonists, and advocacy of their rights as British subjects, and their right to defend them by force of arms 492

Preliminary remarks on the impolicy and injustice to many thousands on both sides of the Atlantic of the Declaration of Independence 493

The pure and exalted character of the advocates of Colonial rights, and high eulogy upon them and their descendants, by the Earls of Chatham and Shelburne, both of whom were opposed to the separation of the Colonies from the mother country 494

Homage to the motives and patriotism of the fathers of American Independence; the provocation which they had received; the successes of the Colonists on the field of battle before the Declaration of Independence, and their disasters afterwards; but for having committed themselves to such Declaration, they would to all appearance have obtained within a twelvemonth all they had desired, without the shedding of blood, without the unnatural alliance with France, much less a war of seven years 495

I. The Declaration of Independence a renunciation of all the principles on which the General Congress, Provincial Legislatures and Convention professed to act from the beginning of the contest; proofs and illustrations 496

II. The Declaration of Independence was a violation of good faith to those statesmen and numerous other parties in England who had, in and out of Parliament, defended and supported the rights and character of the Colonies during the whole contest; proofs and illustrations 499

III. The Declaration of Independence was also a violation, not only of good faith, but of justice to the numerous Colonists who adhered to connexion with the mother country; proofs and illustrations 501

IV. The Declaration of the 4th of July, 1776, was the commencement of persecutions and proscriptions and confiscation of property against those who refused to renounce the oaths which they had taken, as well as the principles and traditions which had until then been professed by their persecutors and oppressors as well as by themselves; proofs and illustrations 504

The plea of tyranny (in a note) 504

Numbers, character, and position of Loyalists at the time, as stated by American writers; laws passed against them 504

The beneficial results of the Congress had it adhered to the former principles of its members, and acted justly to all parties 507

V. The Declaration of Independence was the commencement of weakness in the army of its authors, and of defeats in their field of battle; proofs and illustrations 508

VI. The Declaration of Independence was the avowed expedient and prelude for an alliance with France and Spain against the Mother Country; proofs and illustrations; the secret and double game played between the Congress and France, both before and after the Declaration of Independence 513






In proceeding to trace the development and characteristics of Puritanism in an English colony, I beg to remark that I write, not as an Englishman, but as a Canadian colonist by birth and life-long residence, and as an early and constant advocate of those equal rights, civil and religious, and that system of government in the enjoyment of which Canada is conspicuous.

In tracing the origin and development of those views and feelings which culminated in the American Revolution, in the separation of thirteen colonies from Great Britain, it is necessary to notice the early settlement and progress of those New England colonies in which the seeds of that revolution were first sown and grew to maturity.

The colonies of New England resulted from two distinct emigrations of English Puritans; two classes of Puritans; two distinct governments for more than sixty years. The one class of these emigrants were called "Pilgrim Fathers," having first fled from England to Holland, and thence emigrated to New England in 1620, in the Mayflower, and called their place of settlement "New Plymouth," where they elected seven Governors in succession, and existed under a self-constituted government for seventy years. The other class were called "Puritan Fathers;" the first instalment of their emigration took place in 1629, under Endicot; they were known as the Massachusetts Bay Company, and their final capital was Boston, which afterwards became the capital of the Province and of the State.

The characteristics of the separate and independent government of these two classes of Puritans were widely different. The one was tolerant and non-persecuting, and loyal to the King during the whole period of its seventy years' existence; the other was an intolerant persecutor of all religionists who did not adopt its worship, and disloyal from the beginning to the Government from which it held its Charter.

It is essential to my purpose to compare and contrast the proceedings of these two governments in relation to religious liberty and loyalty. I will first give a short account of the origin and government of the "Pilgrim Fathers" of New Plymouth, and then the government of the "Puritan Fathers" of Massachusetts Bay.[1]

In the later years of Queen Elizabeth, a "fiery young clergyman," named Robert Brown, declared against the lawfulness of both Episcopal and Presbyterian Church government, or of fellowship with either Episcopalians or Presbyterians, and in favour of the absolute independence of each congregation, and the ordination as well as selection of the minister by it. This was the origin of the Independents in England. The zeal of Brown, like that of most violent zealots, soon cooled, and he returned and obtained a living again in the Church of England, which he possessed until his death; but his principles of separation and independence survived. The first congregation was formed about the year 1602, near the confines of York, Nottingham, and Leicester, and chose for its pastor John Robinson. They gathered for worship secretly, and were compelled to change their places of meeting in order to elude the pursuit of spies and soldiers. After enduring many cruel sufferings, Robinson, with the greater part of his congregation, determined to escape persecution by becoming pilgrims in a foreign land. The doctrines of Arminius, and the advocacy and sufferings of his followers in the cause of religious liberty, together with the spirit of commerce, had rendered the Government of Holland the most tolerant in Europe; and thither Robinson and his friends fled from their persecuting pursuers in 1608, and finally settled at Leyden. Being Independents, they did not form a connection with any of the Protestant Churches of the country. Burke remarks that "In Holland, though a country of the greatest religious freedom in the world, they did not find themselves better satisfied than they had been in England. There they were tolerated, indeed, but watched; their zeal began to have dangerous languors for want of opposition; and being without power or consequence, they grew tired of the indolent security of their sanctuary; they chose to remove to a place where they should see no superior, and therefore they sent an agent to England, who agreed with the Council of Plymouth for a tract of land in America, within their jurisdiction, to settle in, and obtained from the King (James) permission to do so."[2]

During their twelve years' pilgrimage in Holland they were good citizens; not an accusation was brought against any one of them in the courts; they were honourable and industrious, and took to new trades for subsistence. Brewster, a man of property, and a gentleman in England, learned to be a printer at the age of forty-five. Bradford, who had been a farmer in England, became a silk-dyer. Robinson became noted as a preacher and controversialist against Arminianism.

Bradford, the historian of their colony and its Governor for eleven years, gives the chief reasons for their dispute in Holland and of their desire to remove to America.[3]

As to what particular place these Pilgrims should select for settlement in America, some were for Guiana, some for Virginia; but they at length obtained a patent from the second or Northern Virginia Company for a settlement on the northern part of their territory, which extended to the fortieth degree of North latitude—Hutchinson Bay. "The Dutch laboured to persuade them to go to the Hudson river, and settle under the West India Company; but they had not lost their affection for the English, and chose to be under their government and protection."[4] Bancroft, after quoting the statement that "upon their talking of removing, sundry of the Dutch would have them go under them, and made them large offers," remarks: "But the Pilgrims were attached to their nationality as Englishmen, and to the language of their times. A secret but deeply-seated love of their country led them to the generous purpose of recovering the protection of England by enlarging her dominions. They were restless with the desire to live once more under the government of their native land."[5] It appears from Bradford's History, as well as from his Letter Book, and other narratives, that there were serious disputes and recriminations among the Pilgrim exiles and their friends in England, before matters could be arranged for their departure. But only "the minor part [of Robinson's congregation], with Mr. Brewster, their elder, resolved to enter upon this great work." They embarked at Delft Haven, a seaport town on the River Maeser, eight miles from Delft, fourteen miles from Leyden, and thirty-six miles from Amsterdam. The last port from which they sailed in England was Southampton; and after a tempestuous passage of 65 days, in the Mayflower, of 181 tons, with 101 passengers, they spied land, which proved to be Cape Cod—about 150 miles north of their intended place of destination. The pilot of the vessel had been there before and recognised the land as Cape Cod; "the which," says Bradford, "being made and certainly known to be it, they were not a little joyful."[6] But though the Pilgrims were "not a little joyful" at safely reaching the American coast, and at a place so well known as Cape Cod; yet as that was not their intended place of settlement, they, without landing, put again to sea for Hudson river (New York), but were driven back by stress of weather, and, on account of the lateness of the season, determined not to venture out to sea again, but to seek a place of settlement within the harbour.

As the Pilgrims landed north of the limits of the Company from which they received their patent, and under which they expected to become a "body politic," it became to them "void and useless." This being known, some of the emigrants on board the Mayflower began to make "mutinous speeches," saying that "when they came ashore they would use their own liberty, for none had power to command them." Under these circumstances it was thought necessary to "begin with a combination, which might be as firm as any patent, and in some respects more so." Accordingly, an agreement was drawn up and signed in the cabin of the Mayflower by forty-one male passengers, who with their families constituted the whole colony of one hundred and one.[7] Having thus provided against disorder and faction, the Pilgrims proceeded to land, when, as Bradford says, they "fell upon their knees and blessed the God of heaven who had brought them over the vast and furious ocean, and delivered them from all the perils and miseries thereof, again to set their feet on the firm and stable earth, their proper element."[8] Of the manner of their settlement, their exposures, sufferings, labours, successes, I leave the many ordinary histories to narrate, though they nearly all revel in the marvellous.[9]

I will therefore proceed to give a brief account of the Plymouth government in relation to religious liberty within its limits and loyalty to the Mother Country.


[Footnote 1: From the nature of the facts and questions discussed, the following history is largely documentary rather than popular; and the work being an historical argument rather than a popular narrative, will account for repetitions in some chapters, that the vital facts of the whole argument may be kept as constantly as possible before the mind of the reader.]

[Footnote 2: Burke's (the celebrated Edmund) Account of European Settlements in America. Second Edition, London, 1758, Vol. II., p. 143.]

[Footnote 3: Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 22-24. Massachusetts Historical Collection, 4th Series, Vol. III.]

[Footnote 4: History of Massachusetts, Vol. I., pp. 11, 12.]

[Footnote 5: History of the United States, Vol. I., p. 304.]

[Footnote 6: Many American writers and orators represent the Pilgrims as first finding themselves on an unknown as well as inhospitable coast, amidst shoals and breakers, in danger of shipwreck and death. But this is all fancy; there is no foundation for it in the statement of Governor Bradford, who was one of the passengers, and who says that they were "not a little joyful" when they found certainly that the land was Cape Cod; and afterwards, speaking of their coasting in the neighbourhood, Bradford says, "They hasted to a place that their pilot (one Willm. Coppin, who had been there before) did assure them was a good harbour, which he had been in." (History of Plymouth Plantation, p. 86.) They did not even go ashore on their first entrance into Cape Cod harbour; but, as Bradford says, "after some deliberation among themselves and with the master of the ship, they tacked about and resolved to stand for the southward, to find some place about Hudson river for their habitation." (Ib., p. 117.) "After sailing southward half a day, they found themselves suddenly among shoals and breakers" (a ledge of rocks and shoals which are a terror to navigators to this day); and the wind shifting against them, they scud back to Cape Cod, and, as Bradford says, "thought themselves happy to get out of those dangers before night overtook them, and the next day they got into the Cape harbour, where they rode in safety. Being thus arrived in a good harbour, and brought safe to land, they fell upon their knees and blessed the God of heaven," &c.

The selection, before leaving England, of the neighbourhood of the Hudson river as their location, showed a worldly sagacity not to be exceeded by any emigrants even of the present century. Bancroft designates it "the best position on the whole coast." (History of the United States, Vol. I., p. 209.)]

[Footnote 7: The agreement was as follows:—"In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c., having undertaken, for the glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith, and honour of our King and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of [then called] Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God and of one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation, and furthermore of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most mete and convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Cod, the 11th of November, in the 18th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Dom. 1620." Mr. John Carver was chosen Governor for one year.

This simple and excellent instrument of union and government, suggested by apprehensions of disorder and anarchy, in the absence of a patent for common protection, has been magnified by some American writers into an almost supernatural display of wisdom and foresight, and even the resurrection of the rights of humanity. Bancroft says, "This was the birth of popular constitutional liberty. The middle ages had been familiar with charters and constitutions; but they had been merely compacts for immunities, partial enfranchisements, patents of nobility, concessions of municipal privileges, or the limitations of sovereign in favour of feudal institutions. In the cabin of the Mayflower humanity recorded its rights, and instituted a government on the basis of 'equal laws' for the 'general good.'" (History of the United States, Vol. I, p. 310.)

Now, any reader of the agreement will see that it says not a word about "popular constitutional liberty," much less of the "rights of humanity." It was no Declaration of Independence. Its signers call themselves "loyal subjects of the King of England," and state one object of their emigration to be the "honour of our King and country." The Pilgrim Fathers did, in the course of time, establish a simple system of popular government; but from the written compact signed in the cabin of the Mayflower any form of government might be developed. The good sense of the following remarks by Dr. Young, in his Chronicles of the Pilgrims of Plymouth, contrast favourably with the fanciful hyperboles of Bancroft: "It seems to me that a great deal more has been discovered in this document than the signers contemplated. It is evident that when they left Holland they expected to become a body politic, using among themselves civil government, and to choose their own rulers from among themselves. Their purpose in drawing up and signing this compact was simply, as they state, to restrain certain of their number who had manifested an unruly and factious disposition. This was the whole philosophy of the instrument, whatever may have since been discovered and deduced from it." (p. 120.)]

[Footnote 8: Bradford's History of the Plymouth Plantation, p. 78. "The 31st of December (1620) being Sabbath, they attended Divine service for the first time on shore, and named the place Plymouth, partly because this harbour was so called in Capt. John Smith's map, published three or four years before, and partly in remembrance of very kind treatment which they had received from the inhabitants of the last port of their native country from which they sailed." (Moore's Lives of the Governors of Plymouth, pp. 37, 38.)

The original Indian name of the place was Accomack; but at the time the Pilgrims settled there, an Indian informed them it was called Patuxet. Capt. John Smith's Description of New England was published in 1616. He says, "I took the description as well by map as writing, and called it New England." He dedicated his work to Prince Charles (afterwards King Charles II.), begging him to change the "barbarous names." In the list of names changed by Prince Charles, Accomack (or Patuxet) was altered to Plymouth. Mr. Dermer, employed by Sir F. Gorges and others for purposes of discovery and trade, visited this place about four months before the arrival of the Pilgrims, and significantly said, "I would that Plymouth [in England] had the like commodities. I would that the first plantation might here be seated if there come to the number of fifty persons or upward."]

[Footnote 9: See following Note:—

NOTE on the Inflated American Accounts of the Voyage and Settlement of the Pilgrim Fathers.—Everything relating to the character, voyage, and settlement of the Pilgrims in New England has been invested with the marvellous, if not supernatural, by most American writers. One of them says, "God not only sifted the three kingdoms to get the seed of this enterprise, but sifted that seed over again. Every person whom He would not have go at that time, to plant the first colony of New England, He sent back even from mid-ocean in the Speedwell." (Rev. Dr. Cheever's Journal of the Pilgrims.)

The simple fact was, that the Mayflower could not carry any more passengers than she brought, and therefore most of the passengers of the Speedwell, which was a vessel of 50 tons and proved to be unseaworthy, were compelled to remain until the following year, and came over in the Fortune; and among these Robert Cushman, with his family, one of the most distinguished and honoured of the Pilgrim Fathers. And there was doubtless as good "seed" in "the three kingdoms" after this "sifting" of them for the New England enterprise as there was before.

In one of his speeches, the late eloquent Governor Everett, of Massachusetts, describes their voyage as the "long, cold, dreary autumnal passage, in that one solitary, adventurous vessel, the Mayflower of forlorn hope, freighted with prospects of a future state, and bound across the unknown sea, pursuing, with a thousand misgivings, the uncertain, the tedious voyage, suns rise and set, and winter surprises them on the deep, but brings them not the sight of the wished-for shore. The awful voice of the storm howls through the rigging. The labouring masts seem straining from their base; the dismal sound of the pumps is heard; the ship leaps, as it were, madly from billow to billow; the ocean breaks, and settles with engulfing floods over the floating deck, and beats with deadening, shivering weight against the staggering vessel."

It is difficult to imagine how "winter" could surprise passengers crossing the ocean between the 6th of September and the 9th of November—a season of the year much chosen even nowadays for crossing the Atlantic. It is equally difficult to conceive how that could have been an "unknown sea" which had been crossed and the New England coasts explored by Gosnold, Smith, Dermer and others (all of whom had published accounts of their voyage), besides more than a dozen fishing vessels which had crossed this very year to obtain fish and furs in the neighbourhood and north of Cape Cod. Doubtless often the "suns rose and set" upon these vessels without their seeing the "wished-for shore;" and probably more than once, "the awful voice of the storm howled through their rigging," and "the dismal sound of their pumps was heard," and they "madly leaped from billow to billow," and "staggered under the deadening, shivering weight of the broken ocean," and with its "engulfing floods" over their "floating decks." The Mayflower was a vessel of 180 tons burden—more than twice as large as any of the vessels in which the early English, French, and Spanish discoverers of America made their voyages—much larger than most of the vessels employed in carrying emigrants to Virginia during the previous ten years—more than three times as large as the ship Fortune, of 53 tons, which crossed the ocean the following year, and arrived at Plymouth also the 9th of November, bringing Mr. Cushman and the rest of the passengers left by the Speedwell the year before. Gosnold had crossed the ocean and explored the eastern coasts of America in 1602 in a "small bark;" Martin Pring had done the same in 1603 in the bark Discovery, of 26 tons; Frobisher, in northern and dangerous coasts, in a vessel of 25 tons burden; and two of the vessels of Columbus were from 15 to 30 tons burden, and without decks on which to "float" the "engulfing floods" under which the Mayflower "staggered" so marvellously. All these vessels long preceded the Mayflower across the "unknown ocean;" but never inspired the lofty eloquence which Mr. Everett and a host of inferior rhapsodists have bestowed upon the Mayflower and her voyage. Bancroft fills several pages of his elaborate history to the same effect, and in similar style with the passages above quoted. I will give a single sentence, as follows:—"The Pilgrims having selected for their settlement the country near the Hudson, the best position on the whole coast, were conducted to the most barren and inhospitable part of Massachusetts." (History of the United States, Vol. 1., p. 309.)

There was certainly little self-abnegation, but much sound and worldly wisdom, in the Pilgrims selecting "the best position on the whole coast" of America for their settlement; and there is as little truth in the statement, though a good antithesis—the delight of Mr. Bancroft—that the Pilgrims were conducted to "the most barren and inhospitable part of Massachusetts" for "actual settlement," as appears from the descriptions given of it by Governors Winslow and Bradford and other Pilgrim Fathers, written after the first and during the subsequent years of their settlement. I will give but two illustrations. Mr. Winslow was one of the passengers in the Mayflower, and was, by annual election, several years Governor of the Plymouth colony. It has been stated above that the ship Fortune, of 53 tons burden, brought in the autumn of 1621 the Pilgrim passengers who had been left in England the year before by the sea-unworthiness of the Speedwell. The Fortune anchored in Plymouth Bay the 9th of November—just a year from the day on which the Mayflower spied the land of Cape Cod. Mr. Winslow prepared and sent back by the Fortune an elaborate "Relation" of the state and prospects of the colony, for the information of the merchant adventurers and others in England. He describes the climate, soil, and all the resources of the colony's means of support, together with the process and result of the first year's labour. I will simply give his account of the manner in which they celebrated what in England would be called a "Harvest Home." He says: "Our harvest being got in, our Governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might, after a more special manner, rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labours. They four in a day killed as much fowl as, with little help besides, served the company almost a week; at which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms. Many of the Indians came amongst us, and amongst the rest their greatest king, Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted; and they went out and killed fine deer, which they brought to the Plantation, and bestowed them on our Governor, and upon the Captain and others; and although it be not always so plentiful with us, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty."

Governor Bradford, writing in 1646, twenty-five years after this feast, and referring to it, says: "Nor has there been any general want of food amongst us since to this day." (Morton's Memorials, p. 100.)

Such was the result of the first year's experience in this chosen place of settlement by the first New England colony, as stated by the most distinguished of its founders. During the winter of this year more than half the pioneer settlers had died of a prevalent sickness,—not owing to the climate, but their sea voyage, their want of experience, and to temporary circumstances, for not a death occurred amongst them during the three succeeding years. As great as was the mortality amongst the noble colonists of New England, it was far less, comparatively, than that which fell upon the first colonists of Virginia, who were, also, more than once almost annihilated by the murderous incursions of the Indians, but from whom the Pilgrim Fathers did not suffer the loss of a life.

In his "true and brief Relation," Mr. Winslow says: "For the temper of the air here, it agreeth well with that in England; and if there be any difference at all, this is somewhat hotter in summer. Some think it colder in winter, but I cannot out of experience say so. The air is very clear and foggy, not as hath been reported. I never in my life remember a more seasonable year than we have here enjoyed."

Mr. Winslow's doubt as to whether the cold of his first winter in New England exceeded that of the ordinary winters which he had passed in England, refutes the fictitious representations of many writers, who to magnify the virtues and merits of the Plymouth colonists, describe them as braving, with a martyr's courage, the appalling cold of an almost Arctic winter—a winter which enabled the new settlers to commence their gardens the 16th of March, and they add in their Journal: "Monday and Tuesday, March 19th and 20th, proved fair days. We digged our grounds and sowed our garden seeds."

Not one of the American United Empire Loyalists—the Pilgrim Fathers of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick—could tell of a winter in the countries of their refuge, so mild, and a spring so early and genial, as that which favoured the Pilgrim Fathers of New England during their first year of settlement; nor had any settlement of the Canadian Pilgrim Fathers been able to command the means of celebrating the first "Harvest Home" by a week's festivity and amusements, and entertaining, in addition, ninety Indians for three days.]



TWO GOVERNMENTS.—Difference between the Government of the Pilgrims and that of the Puritans.—Most historians, both English and American, have scarcely or not at all noticed the fact that within the present State of Massachusetts two separate governments of Puritan emigrants were established and existed for seventy years—two governments as distinct as those of Upper and Lower Canada from 1791 to 1840—as distinct as those of any two States of the American Republic. It is quite natural that American historians should say nothing of the Pilgrim government, beyond the voyage and landing of its founders, as it was a standing condemnation of the Puritan government, on which they bestow all their eulogies. The two governments were separated by the Bay of Massachusetts, about forty miles distant from each other by water, but still more widely different from each other in spirit and character. The government of the Pilgrims was marked from the beginning by a full and hearty recognition of franchise rights to all settlers of the Christian faith; the government of the Puritans denied those rights to all but Congregational Church members for sixty years, and until they were compelled to do otherwise by Royal Charter in 1692. The government of the Pilgrims was just and kind to the Indians, and early made a treaty with the neighbouring tribes, which remained inviolate on both sides during half a century, from 1621 to 1675; the government of the Puritans maddened the Indians by the invasion of their rights, and destroyed them by multitudes, almost to entire extermination. The government of the Pilgrims respected the principles of religious liberty (which they had learned and imbibed in Holland), did not persecute those who differed from it in religious opinions,[11] and gave protection to many who fled from the persecutions of neighbouring Puritans' government, which was more intolerant and persecuting to those who differed from it in religious opinions than that of James, and Charles, and Laud had ever been to them. The government of the Pilgrims was frank and loyal to the Sovereign and people of England; the government of the Puritans was deceptive and disloyal to the Throne and Mother Country from the first, and sedulously sowed and cultivated the seeds of disaffection and hostility to the Royal government, until they grew and ripened into the harvest of the American revolution.

These statements will be confirmed and illustrated by the facts of the present and following chapters.

The compact into which the Pilgrims entered before landing from the Mayflower, was the substitute for the body politic which would have been organized by charter had they settled, as first intended, within the limits of the Northern Virginia Company. The compact specified no constitution of government beyond that of authority on the one hand, and submission on the other; but under it the Governors were elected annually, and the local laws were enacted during eighteen years by the general meetings of the settlers, after which a body of elected representatives was constituted.

The first official record of the election of any Governor was in 1633, thirteen years after their settlement at Plymouth; but, according to the early history of the Pilgrims, the Governors were elected annually from 1620. The Governors of the colony were as follows:—

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