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The Medallic History of the United States of America 1776-1876
by J. F. Loubat
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[Transcriber's note: Transcriber's note: Obvious printer's errors have been corrected, all other inconsistencies are as in the original. Author's spelling has been maintained.

—The anchor for the footnote 78 was not to be found on the original page. —[Rx] is used for "Reverse". —Lines of 5 spaced hyphens has been placed where the author has cut passages of letters. —Centered groups of 5 underscores have been placed by the authors to show change of document.]



THE

MEDALLIC HISTORY

OF

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

1776-1876.



BY

J. F. LOUBAT, LL.D.

MEMBER OF THE NEW-YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

KNIGHT COMMANDER OF ST. STANISLAUS OF RUSSIA. KNIGHT OF THE FIRST CLASS OF THE CROWN AND OF FREDERICK OF WUeRTTEMBERG. KNIGHT OF THE LEGION OF HONOR OF FRANCE.



WITH 170 ETCHINGS BY JULES JACQUEMART.



published by N. FLAYDERMAN & CO., INC. New Milford, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Library of Congress Catalog Card No 67-28353

Printed & Bound in Norwalk, Connecticut by T. O'Toole & Sons, Inc.

All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.

N. FLAYDERMAN & CO., INC. New Milford, Connecticut, U.S.A.



TO THE HONORABLE ELIHU B. WASHBURNE, (p. vi)

LATE ENVOY EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO FRANCE.

My Dear Sir:

Permit me to dedicate to you this work on our National Medals, as a slight testimonial for your distinguished services during your long official residence in Paris, and especially during the siege of that city in 1870-1871, when you had under your protection the subjects of fourteen governments besides your own, and yet so discharged your delicate and responsible duties as to win universal approbation.

Yours sincerely, J. F. LOUBAT. New-York, Union Club, May, 1878.



INTRODUCTION. (p. vii)

Medals, by means of the engraver's art, perpetuate in a durable form and within a small compass which the eye can embrace at a glance, not only the features of eminent persons, but the dates, brief accounts, and representations (direct or emblematical) of events; they rank, therefore, among the most valuable records of the past, especially when they recall men, deeds, or circumstances which have influenced the life of nations. How much light has been furnished for the study of history by the concise and faithful testimony of these silent witnesses! The importance of medals is now universally acknowledged, and in almost every country they are preserved with reverent care, and made the subject of costly publications, illustrated by elaborate engravings, with carefully prepared letter-press descriptions and notes. Up to the present time no thorough work devoted to the medals of the United States of America has been published. When I entered upon the task, several years ago, of investigating their history (p. viii) for the period embracing the first century of the Republic, I had little conception of the difficulties to be encountered. The search involved a very considerable expenditure of time and labor, but at last I have the satisfaction of offering to the public the result of my investigations, completed according to the original plan.

Although our political history measures but a hundred years, it records so many memorable deeds, and the names of so many illustrious citizens, that our medals form, even now, an historically valuable collection, to say nothing of the great artistic merit of some of them. During the War of Independence alone, how many exploits, how many heroes do we find worthy of being thus honored! How numerous would have been our medals if Congress had not been imbued with the conviction that only the very highest achievements are entitled to such a distinction, and that the value of a reward is enhanced by its rarity! In voting those struck after the War of 1812-'15 with Great Britain, and after that of 1846-'47 with Mexico, the same discretion was shown. There was still greater necessity for reserve during the late Civil War, and only two were presented during that painful period: one to Ulysses S. Grant, then a major-general, for victories, and another to Cornelius Vanderbilt, in acknowledgment of his free gift of the steamship which bore his name.

Similar national rewards have been earned also by deeds which interest humanity, science, or commerce; as, for instance, the laying of the transatlantic telegraph cable, the expedition of Doctor Kane to the Arctic Seas, and the beneficence of George Peabody. If to these are added the Indian peace medals, bearing the effigies of our (p. ix) successive Presidents, the various elements which compose the official medals of the United States of America will have been enumerated.

As neither titles of nobility nor orders of knighthood exist in our country, Congress can bestow no higher distinction on an American citizen than to offer him the thanks of the nation, and to order that a medal be struck in his honor. I cannot do better than to quote here the words of General Winfield Scott, when he received from President Monroe the medal voted to him for the battles of Chippewa and Niagara:

"With a deep sense of the additional obligation now contracted, I accept at the hands of the venerable Chief Magistrate of the Union the classic token of the highest reward a free man can receive: the recorded approbation of his country."

Our medals number eighty-six in all, most of which were struck by order of Congress in honor of citizens of the United States. Seventeen belong to the period of the Revolution, twenty-seven to the War of 1812-'15, four to the Mexican War, and two to the Civil War. Only five were voted to foreigners: one, in 1779, to Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury, a French gentleman in the Continental Army, for gallant conduct at Stony Point; another, in 1858, to Dr. Frederick Rose, an assistant-surgeon in the British Navy for kindness and humanity to sick seamen on one of our men-of-war; and the others, in 1866, to three foreign merchant captains, Messrs. Creighton, Low, and Stouffer, who, in December, 1853, went to the aid of the steamer San Francisco, (p. x) thereby "rescuing about five hundred Americans."

Seven of the eighty-six medals do not owe their origin to a congressional vote: two which were struck in the United Netherlands (1782), one to commemorate their acknowledgment of the United States of America, and the other the treaty of amity and commerce between the two countries; that known as Libertas Americana (1783); the two in honor of Franklin (1784-1786); the Diplomatic medal (1790); and lastly that struck in memory of the conclusion of the treaty of commerce between the United States and France (1822). Although these cannot properly be classed as official medals, their historic importance and value as works of art entitle them to a place in our national collection.

Nearly all of the early medals were executed by French engravers, whose names alone are a warrant for the artistic merit of their work. We are indebted to Augustin Dupre, who has been called the "great Dupre" for the Daniel Morgan, the Nathaniel Greene, the John Paul Jones, the Libertas Americana, the two Franklin, and the Diplomatic medals; to Pierre Simon Duvivier for those of George Washington, de Fleury, William Augustine Washington, and John Eager Howard; to Nicolas Marie Gatteaux for those of Horatio Gates, Anthony Wayne, and John Stewart; and to Bertrand Andrieu and Raymond Gayrard for the one in commemoration of the signature of the treaty of commerce between France and the United States.

Congress had not yet proclaimed the independence of the thirteen United Colonies when, on March 25, 1776, it ordered that a gold (p. xi) medal be struck and presented to "His Excellency, General Washington," for his "wise and spirited conduct in the siege and acquisition of Boston." But this, although the first one voted, was not engraved until after the de Fleury and the Libertas Americana pieces, both of which were executed in Paris under the direction of Benjamin Franklin. The following letter gives the date of the de Fleury medal:

To His Excellency Mr. HUNTINGTON, Passy, March 4, 1780. President of Congress.

Sir: Agreeably to the order of Congress, I have employed one of the best artists here in cutting the dies for the medal intended for M. de Fleury. The price of such work is beyond my expectation, being a thousand livres for each die. I shall try if it is not possible to have the others done cheaper.

- - - - -

With great respect I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant, B. FRANKLIN.

This medal was shown in the exhibition of the Royal Academy in Paris in 1781. The Libertas Americana piece was struck in 1783.

Six of the earliest of the series were designed under the supervision of Colonel David Humphreys, namely, those for Generals Washington, Gates, Greene, and Morgan, and Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and Howard. To insure a due observance of the laws of numismatics, and that they might bear comparison with the best specimens of modern times, Colonel Humphreys asked the aid of the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres in the composition of the designs. (p. xii) He explained his action in this respect to the President of Congress in the following letter:

To His Excellency Paris, March 18, 1785. THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

Sir: Before I left America, I made application to the Superintendent of Finances for the sword which Congress had been pleased to order, by their resolution of the 17th of November, 1781, to be presented to me, in consequence of which Mr. Morris informed me verbally that he would take the necessary arrangements for procuring all the honourary presents which had been directed to be given to different officers during the late war, and requested that I would undertake to have them executed in Europe. Some time after my arrival here, I received the inclosed letter[1] from him, accompanied with a list of medals, etc., and a description of those intended for General Morgan and Colonels Washington and Howard.

Upon the receipt of these documents I did not delay to make the proper inquiries from the characters who were the best skilled in subjects of this nature, and after having spoken to some of the first artists, I was advised to apply to the Abbe Barthelemy, member of the academies of London, Madrid, Cortona, and Hesse-Cassel, and actual keeper of the King's Cabinet of Medals and Antiquities, at whose instance I wrote a letter to the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, of which a copy is inclosed. Being informed at the same time that the description of medals for General Morgan, etc., was not in the style and manner such medals were usually executed, I took the liberty of suspending the execution of them, until I could learn whether it is the pleasure of Congress to have them performed exactly in the manner prescribed—which shall be done accordingly, in case I should not be honoured with further instructions on the subject before their approaching recess.

The medals voted for the capture of Stony Point have been, or I believe may be, all struck from the die originally engraved to furnish one of them for Colonel de Fleury.

As to the swords in question, it is proposed to have them all constructed in precisely the same fashion, the hilt to be of silver, round which a foliage of laurel to be enameled in (p. xiii) gold in such a manner as to leave a medallion in the centre sufficient to receive the arms of the United States on one side, and on the reverse an inscription in English, "The United States to Colonel Meigs, July 25, 1777," and the same for the others. The whole ten, executed in this manner, may probably cost about three hundred louis d'or, which is (as I have been informed) but little more than was paid for the sword which some time since was presented on the part of the United States to the Marquis de la Fayette.

I have the honour to be, with the most perfect respect, D. HUMPHREYS.

P.S. I forgot to mention that, in order to have the medals for General Morgan, etc., executed in the manner originally proposed, it will be necessary for me to have more particular information of the numbers on both sides, of the killed, wounded, prisoners, trophies, etc., which the enemy lost in the action of the Cowpens.

[Footnote 1: I have not been able to find this letter.]

The following is the letter to the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, referred to by Colonel Humphreys in the above:

Paris, March 14, 1785. Mr. DACIER, Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, Rue Chabanais, Paris.

Sir: Having it in charge to procure the honourary presents which (during the late war) have been voted by Congress to several meritorious officers in their service, particularly three medals in gold, one for General Washington, another for General Gates, and a third for General Greene; and, being extremely desirous that these medals should be executed in a manner grateful to the illustrious personages for whom they are designed, worthy the dignity of the sovereign power by whom they are presented, and calculated to perpetuate the remembrance of those great events which they are intended to consecrate to immortality, I therefore take the liberty to address, through you, Sir, the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, on the subject, and entreat that this learned body will be pleased to honour me, as soon as (p. xiv) may be convenient, with their advice and sentiments respecting the devices and inscriptions proper for the before mentioned medals. A memoir,[2] which has been left in the hands of M. Barthelemy, one of their members, will give the necessary information.

In addressing so respectable an assembly of literati I do not think myself permitted to enlarge on the importance of this subject, because they must know, much better than I can inform them, in how great a degree such monuments of public gratitude are calculated to produce a laudable emulation, a genuine love of liberty, and all the virtues of real patriotism, not only among the innumerable generations who are yet to people the wastes of America, but on the human character in general. Nor do I make those apologies for the trouble I am now giving, which would be requisite, did I not feel a conviction that whatever is interesting to the national glory of America, to the good of posterity, or to the happiness of the human race, cannot be indifferent to a society composed of the most enlightened and liberal characters in Europe, fostered by the royal protection of a monarch whose name will forever be as dear to the United States as it will be glorious in the annals of mankind.

Being so unfortunate as not to be able to write myself in French, my intimate friend and brave companion in arms, M. le marquis de la Fayette, has had the goodness to make a translation of this letter into that language, which I inclose herewith.

I have the honour to be, with the most perfect respect, Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant, D. HUMPHREYS.

[Footnote 2: I have not been able to find any trace of this memoir in the archives of the French Academy.]

A letter written by Franklin, about the same time, to John Jay, then Secretary for Foreign Affairs, is of much interest in this connection:

To the Honourable John JAY, Passy, May 10, 1785. Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

- - - - -

P.S. The striking of the medals being now in agitation here, I send the inclosed for consideration.

A thought concerning the Medals that are to be struck by (p. xv) order of Congress.

The forming of dies in steel to strike medals or money, is generally with the intention of making a great number of the same form.

The engraving those dies in steel is, from the hardness of the substance, very difficult and expensive, but, once engraved, the great number to be easily produced afterward by stamping justifies the expense, it being but small when divided among a number.

Where only one medal of a kind is wanted, it seems an unthrifty way to form dies for it in steel to strike the two sides of it, the whole expense of the dies resting on that medal.

It was by this means that the medal voted by Congress for M. de Fleury cost one hundred guineas, when an engraving of the same figures and inscriptions might have been beautifully done on a plate of silver of the same size for two guineas.

The ancients, when they ordained a medal to record the memory of any laudable action, and do honour to the performer of that action, struck a vast number and used them as money. By this means the honour was extended through their own and neighbouring nations, every man who received or paid a piece of such money was reminded of the virtuous action, the person who performed it, and the reward attending it, and the number gave such security to this kind of monuments against perishing and being forgotten, that some of each of them exist to this day, though more than two thousand years old, and, being now copied in books by the arts of engraving and painting, are not only exceedingly multiplied but likely to remain some thousands of years longer.

The man who is honoured only by a single medal is obliged to show it to enjoy the honour, which can be done only to a few and often awkwardly. I therefore wish the medals of Congress were ordered to be money, and so continued as to be convenient money, by being in value aliquot parts of a dollar.

Copper coins are wanting in America for small change. We have none but those of the King of England. After one silver or gold medal is struck from the dies, for the person to be honoured, they may be usefully employed in striking copper money, or in some cases small silver.

The nominal value of the pieces might be a little more than the real, to prevent their being melted down, but not so much more as to be an encouragement of counterfeiting. I am, etc., B. FRANKLIN.

The Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres "entered on the (p. xvi) discussion with the same alacrity as if the subject had been designed to illustrate the actions of their compatriots, or to immortalize some glorious events in the annals of their own nation."[3] Commissioners, consisting of four of its members, were at once appointed to suggest designs for the three medals asked for Generals Washington, Gates, and Greene.[4]

[Footnote 3: See A, page xxxiv.]

[Footnote 4: See B, page xxxvi.]

Through the courtesy of M. Narcisse Dupre, son of Augustin Dupre, I am enabled to give the contract between his father and Colonel Humphreys for the engraving of the medal for General Greene:[5]

[Footnote 5: For the French original see C, page xli.]

I, the undersigned, Augustin Dupre, engraver of medals and medallist of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, bind myself to Colonel Humphreys to engrave the medal representing the portrait of General Greene. On the reverse, Victory treading under her feet broken arms, with the legend and the exergue, and I hold myself responsible for any breakage of the dies up to twenty-four medals, and bind myself to furnish one at my own expense (the diameter of the medal to be twenty-four lignes).

All on the following conditions: That for the two engraved dies of the said medal shall be paid me the sum of two thousand four hundred livres, on delivery of the two dies after the twenty-four medals which the Colonel desires have been struck.

Done in duplicate between us, in Paris, this nineteenth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five (1785).

D. HUMPHREYS. DUPRE.

On November 25th of the same year, M. Dacier, the perpetual secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, communicated another letter from Colonel Humphreys, in which he requested the Academy to compose designs for three more medals, which had been voted to General Morgan and to Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and Howard. (p. xvii) Commissioners were appointed and designs made for these also.[6]

[Footnote 6: See B, page xxxvi.]

Colonel Humphreys having returned to America before the medals were finished, their superintendence was undertaken by Mr. Jefferson, as will be seen from the following letter:

To the Honourable John JAY, Paris, February 14, 1787. Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

Sir: Mr. Morris, during his office, being authorized to have the medals and swords executed, which had been ordered by Congress, he authorized Colonel Humphreys to take measures here for the execution. Colonel Humphreys did so, and the swords were finished in time for him to carry them. The medals not being finished, he desired me to attend to them. The workman who was to make that of General Greene brought me yesterday the medal in gold, twenty-three in copper, and the die. Mr. Short, during my absence, will avail himself of the first occasion which shall offer of forwarding the medals to you. I must beg leave, through you, to ask the pleasure of Congress as to the number they would choose to have struck. Perhaps they might be willing to deposit one of each person in every college of the United States. Perhaps they might choose to give a series of them to each of the crowned heads of Europe, which would be an acceptable present to them. They will be pleased to decide. In the meantime I have sealed up the die, and shall retain it till I am honoured with their orders as to this medal, and the others also, when they shall be finished.

With great respect and esteem, Th: JEFFERSON.

In another letter to Mr. Jay, dated Marseilles, May 4, 1787, Mr. Jefferson again refers to this subject:

- - - - -

I am in hopes Mr. Short will be able to send you the medals of General Gates by this packet. I await a general instruction as to these medals. The academies of Europe will be much pleased to receive a set.

- - - - -

Mr. Jefferson's communication of the 14th of February was (p. xviii) brought to the notice of Congress by Mr. Jay, and was referred back to him by Congress. The result was the following report:

OFFICE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, July 11, 1787.

The Secretary of the United States for the Department of Foreign Affairs, to whom was referred a letter from the Honourable Mr. Jefferson of the 14th of February last,

Reports, Your secretary presumes that the following paragraphs in this letter occasion its being referred to him, viz.: "The workman who was to make a medal of General Greene brought me yesterday the medal in gold, twenty-three in copper, and the die. I must beg leave, through you, to ask the pleasure of Congress as to the number they would choose to have struck. Perhaps they might be willing to deposit one of each person in every college of the United States. Perhaps they might choose to give a series of them to each of the crowned heads of Europe, which would be an acceptable present to them. They will be pleased to decide. In the meantime I have sealed up the die, and shall retain it till I am honoured with their orders as to this medal, and the others also, when they shall be finished."

As these medals were directed to be struck in order to signalize and commemorate certain interesting events and conspicuous characters, the distribution of them should in his opinion be such as may best conduce to that end. He therefore thinks that both of Mr. Jefferson's hints should be improved, to wit, that a series of these medals should be presented to each of the crowned heads in Europe, and that one of each set be deposited in each of the American colleges. He presumes that Mr. Jefferson does not mean that any should be presented to the King of Great Britain, for it would not be delicate; nor that by crowned heads he meant to exclude free states from the compliment, for to make discriminations would give offense.

In the judgment of your secretary it would be proper to instruct Mr. Jefferson to present in the name of the United States one silver medal of each denomination to every monarch (except His Britannic Majesty), and to every sovereign and independent state without exception in Europe; and also to the Emperor of Morocco. That he also be instructed to send fifteen silver medals of each set to Congress, to be by them presented to the thirteen (p. xix) United States respectively, and also to the Emperor of China with an explanation and a letter, and one to General Washington. That he also be instructed to present a copper medal of each denomination to each of the most distinguished universities (except the British) in Europe, and also to Count de Rochambeau, to Count d'Estaing, and to Count de Grasse; and, lastly, that he be instructed to send to Congress two hundred copper ones of each set, together with the dies.

Your secretary thinks that of these it would be proper to present one to each of the American colleges, one to the Marquis de la Fayette, and one to each of the other major-generals who served in the late American army; and that the residue with the dies be deposited in the Secretary's Office of the United States, subject to such future orders as Congress may think proper to make respecting them.

It might be more magnificent to give gold medals to sovereigns, silver ones to distinguished persons, and copper ones to the colleges; but, in his opinion, the nature of the American Governments, as well as the state of their finance, will apologize for their declining the expense.

All which is submitted to the wisdom of Congress.

John JAY.

The records of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres show that in 1789, at the request of Mr. Jefferson, it also composed designs for the medals awarded by Congress to General Wayne, Major Stewart, and Captain John Paul Jones.[7] Mr. Jefferson had previously had an interview with M. Augustin Dupre on the subject, as will be seen by the following note, the original of which is in Mr. Jefferson's handwriting:[8]

[Footnote 7: See D, page xli.]

[Footnote 8: For the French originals of this and the following letter, see E, page xliv.]

To M. DUPRE, Engraver of Medals and Medallist of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.

Mr. Jefferson having received orders concerning medals to be struck would like to talk about them with M. Dupre, if he will please do him the honour to call on him to-morrow morning before eleven o'clock.

Saturday, January 3, 1789.

In the following month, Mr. Jefferson again wrote to M. Dupre, (p. xx) inclosing descriptions of the designs for the medals of General Morgan and of Admiral Jones. The reader will note some slight differences between these and those originally composed by the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres:

To M. DUPRE, Engraver of Medals and Medallist of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.

Mr. Jefferson has the honour to send to M. Dupre the devices for the medals for General Morgan and Rear-Admiral Paul Jones, which he has just received from the Academy of Belles-Lettres, and the making of which he proposes to M. Dupre, the latter to be responsible for the success of the dies up to the striking of three hundred and fifty of each medal in gold, silver, or bronze, and to furnish proofs in tin at the end of the month of March next, so that the medals may all be struck before the 15th of April. He begs him to kindly mention the conditions on which he will undertake them, and Mr. Jefferson will have the honour to reply on receipt of them.

February 13, 1789.

Medal for General Morgan, of twenty-four lignes in diameter.

The general, at the head of his army, charges the enemy, which takes to flight.

Legend: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

Exergue: FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CAESIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS 17 Jan. 1781.

Reverse: America, recognizable by her shield, rests her left hand upon a trophy of arms and of flags, and with her right crowns the general, who bends before her.

Legend: DANIELI MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Medal for Rear-Admiral John Paul Jones, of twenty-four (p. xxi) lignes.

Device: His head (M. Houdon will furnish the bust in plaster).

Legend: JOANNI PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: Naval Engagement.

Legend: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.

Exergue: AD ORAM SCOTIAE 23 SEPT. 1779.

The following, from the same to the same, bearing date February 15, 1789, throws some light on the prices of the medals engraved by M. Dupre:

To M. DUPRE, Engraver of Medals, Paris.

Mr. Jefferson has the honour to observe to M. Dupre that he pays only twenty-four hundred livres to M. Duvivier or to M. Gatteaux for medals which measure twenty-four lignes, that he paid the same sum to M. Dupre himself for that of General Greene, and that recently M. Dupre asked no higher price for that of General Morgan. Mr. Jefferson cannot, therefore, consent to give more. For that sum he would expect to have the best work of M. Dupre and not that of inferior artists. As regards time, perhaps it may be possible to prolong it somewhat in regard to the medal for Admiral Paul Jones, that officer being at present in Europe. Mr. Jefferson will have the honour to await M. Dupre's answer, and will be happy to conclude this arrangement with him.[9]

February 15, 1789.

[Footnote 9: For the French original see F, page xlv.]

It is to be supposed that Dupre accepted these conditions, since he is the engraver of the John Paul Jones medal, one of the finest specimens in our collection. The Daniel Morgan piece is no less remarkable as an effort of numismatic skill. The fight at the Cowpens, on the reverse, is a striking example of the boldness with which Dupre enlarged (p. xxii) the limits of his art, and, in defiance of all traditional rules, successfully represented several planes in the background.

I cannot do better than to give the opinion, concerning this and the other of Dupre's American medals, of M. Charles Blanc,[10] from whom I quote freely in the following:

[Footnote 10: INSTITUT DE FRANCE—ACADEMIE DES BEAUX-ARTS Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages d'Augustin Dupre, Graveur-General des Monnoies de la Republique. Lue dans la seance trimestrielle des cinq classes de l'Institut, le 26 Octobre, 1870, par M. Charles Blanc.]

The Morgan medal, says this eminent French critic, seems to vibrate beneath the rush of cavalry and the tread of infantry flying in the background, indicated by the almost imperceptible lines of the metal where the smoke of the cannonade is vanishing away in air. In the Libertas Americana medal, which recalls, if we except the evacuation of Boston, the two most memorable events of the War of Independence, namely, the capitulation of General Burgoyne, at Saratoga, in October, 1777, and that of General Lord Cornwallis, at Yorktown, in October, 1781, Dupre has represented the new-born Liberty, sprung from the prairies without ancestry and without rulers, as a youthful virgin, with disheveled hair and dauntless aspect, bearing across her shoulder a pike, surmounted by the Phrygian cap. This great artist, in consequence of his intimacy with Franklin, had conceived the greatest enthusiasm for the cause of the United States. Franklin resided at Passy, and Dupre at Auteuil. As they both went to Paris every day, they met and made acquaintance on the road—an acquaintance which soon ripened into friendship. Dupre first engraved Franklin's seal with the motto, "In simplici salus," and afterward his portrait. This (p. xxiii) portrait presents an alto-rilievo which is well adapted for medals only; it is conceived in the spirit of the French school, which has always attached great importance to the truthful rendering of flesh. The artist has indicated the flat parts, the relaxation of the muscles, and, as it were, the quivering of the flesh, so as to convey an exact idea of the age of the model. He has conscientiously represented the lines which the finger of Time imprints on the countenance, but, above all, he has given us with wonderful fidelity the physiognomy of the American sage, his shrewd simplicity, his sagacity, and his expression of serene uprightness. A Latin hexameter from the pen of Turgot became the well-known legend of this medal: "Eripuit coelo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis."

The four pieces executed by Duvivier are no less remarkable for beauty and excellence of workmanship. They all figured at the exhibitions of the members of the Royal Academy of Paris, that of the Chevalier de Fleury, as mentioned before, in the exhibition of 1781, and those of of General and of Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, and Lieutenant-Colonel Howard, in that of 1789.[11]

[Footnote 11: See G, page xlv.]

In those by Gatteaux, the personification of America as an Indian queen with an alligator at her feet is noteworthy.

With the exception of the Treaty of Commerce medal (1822), and perhaps of that of Captain Truxtun, our medals after the War of Independence were engraved and struck at home. Before that time, indeed, the one voted in 1779 to Major Henry Lee had been made by John Wright, of Philadelphia. From the close of the eighteenth century down to (p. xxiv) 1840 John Reich and subsequently Moritz Fuerst were the engravers of the national medals. Reich's works are valued; unfortunately they are few in number. They consist of the medal voted in 1805 to Captain Edward Preble for his naval operations against Tripoli, of another voted in 1813 to Captain Isaac Hull for the capture of the British frigate Guerriere, and of those of Presidents Jefferson and Madison. That of President Jefferson especially deserves attention for its beauty.

But little can be said in commendation of the works of Fuerst, whose numerous medals are very inferior to Reich's, and still less worthy of being compared with those of the French engravers. While wishing to avoid undue severity, I cannot but endorse the opinion of General Scott, given in a communication addressed to the Honorable William L. Marcy, Secretary of War, in regard to the medal voted to General Zachary Taylor, for victories on the Rio Grande:

To the Honourable HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, William L. MARCY, Washington, July 25, 1846. Secretary of War.

As medals are among the surest monuments of history, as well as muniments of individual distinction, there should be given to them, besides intrinsic value and durability of material, the utmost grace of design, with the highest finish in mechanical execution. All this is necessary to give the greater or adventitious value; as in the present instance, the medal is to be, at once, an historical record and a reward of distinguished merit. The credit of the donor thus becomes even more than that of the receiver interested in obtaining a perfect specimen in the fine arts.

The within resolution prescribes gold as the material of the medal. The general form (circular) may be considered as equally settled by our own practice, and that of most nations, ancient and modern. There is, however, some little diversity in diameter and thickness in the medals heretofore ordered (p. xxv) by Congress, at different periods, as may be seen in the cabinets of the War and Navy Departments. Diversity in dimensions is even greater in other countries.

The specific character of the medal is shown by its two faces, or the face and the reverse. The within resolution directs appropriate devices and inscriptions thereon.

For the face, a bust likeness is needed, to give, with the name and the rank of the donee, individuality. To obtain the likeness, a first-rate miniature painter should, of course, be employed.

The reverse receives the device, appropriate to the events commemorated. To obtain this, it is suggested that the resolutions and despatches, belonging to the subject, be transmitted to a master in the art of design—say Prof. Weir, at West Point—for a drawing—including, if practicable, this inscription:

PALO ALTO; RESACA DE LA PALMA: MAY 8 AND 9, 1846.

A third artist—all to be well paid—is next to be employed—a die-sinker. The mint of the United States will do the coinage.

Copies, in cheaper metal, of all our gold medals, should be given to the libraries of the Federal and State Governments, to those of the colleges, etc.

The medals voted by the Revolutionary Congress were executed—designs and dies—under the superintendence of Mr. Jefferson,[12] in Paris, about the year 1786. Those struck in honour of victories, in our War of 1812, were all—at least so far as it respected the land service—done at home, and not one of them presented, I think, earlier than the end of Mr. Monroe's administration (1825). The delay principally resulted from the want of good die-sinkers. There was only one of mediocre merit (and he a foreigner) found for the army. What the state of this art may now be in the United States I know not. But I beg leave again to suggest that the honour of the country requires that medals, voted by Congress, should always exhibit the arts involved, in their highest state of perfection wherever found: for letters, science, and the fine arts constitute but one republic, embracing the world. So thought our early Government, and Mr. Jefferson—a distinguished member of that general republic.

All which is respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

[Footnote 12: This is an error. See page xi.]

Whatever may be the weight of General Scott's opinion on such a (p. xxvi) subject, and whether or not it is important, as he insists, that medals should possess high artistic value, in order that they may be not only the rewards of merit and monuments of history, but also favorable specimens of contemporary art, it must be acknowledged that those struck since 1840 differ widely, in many respects, from those of the preceding period. While the earlier works are of a pure and lofty style, the later ones are not always in good taste. The former are conceived generally in strict observance of classical rules, and will bear comparison with the numismatic masterpieces of antiquity; the latter reflect the realistic tendency of their day.

The Indian medals, with the exception of that of President Jefferson and a few others, which are very fine, possess only an historic value. These pieces owe their origin to the custom, in the colonial times, of distributing to the chiefs of Indian tribes, with whom treaties were concluded, medals bearing on the obverse the effigy of the reigning British sovereign, and on the reverse friendly legends and emblems of peace. Mr. Kean, member of the Continental Congress from South Carolina, on April 20, 1786, moved: "That the Board of Treasury ascertain the number and value of the medals received by the commissioners appointed to treat with the Indians, from said Indians, and have an equal number, with the arms of the United States, made of silver, and returned to the chiefs from whom they were received." The result was the Indian series, which bear on their obverses the busts of the respective Presidents under whom they were issued (none (p. xxvii) exists of President Harrison, who died a month after his inauguration); but it should be borne in mind that these are mere Indian peace tokens, struck only for distribution as presents to friendly chiefs.

I have called in question the discernment of some of the Federal administrations in their choice of engravers; unfortunately, I have also to draw attention to an unaccountable delay in the execution of one of the medals. It seems scarcely credible that the one voted in 1857 to Dr. Elisha Kent Kane for his discoveries in the Arctic Seas has not yet been struck. Elder, in his "Life of E. K. Kane" (page 228), says:

"Congress having failed at its first session after his (Kane's) return to appropriate, by a national recognition, the honors he had won for his country, had no other opportunity for repairing the neglect till after his death; then a gold medal was ordered, of which, I believe, nothing has been heard since the passage of the resolution."

To complete my undertaking, it was necessary not only to study the composition and history of all our national medals, but also to have plates of them engraved, which could only be done from the originals or copies, or, as a last resort, from casts.

My first step was to apply to the Mint in Philadelphia for bronze copies of all the medals. In 1855 the director of that establishment had been authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury, to strike from the original dies, copies of the medals for sale, as is the custom at the Paris Mint. But when he sought to avail himself of this authorization, it was discovered that many of the dies were missing. It was thought probable that those of the medals which had been (p. xxviii) struck in France during the War of Independence would be found there, and the French Government was communicated with, in 1861, in regard to the following: "Washington before Boston; General Wayne, for capture of Stony Point; Colonel Fleury, for same; Captain Stewart, for same; Major Lee, for capture of Paulus Hook; Colonel John Eager Howard, for Cowpens; Colonel William Washington, for same; Major-General Greene, for Eutaw Springs; Captain John Paul Jones, for capture of the Serapis by the Bonhomme Richard."[13]

[Footnote 13: See H, page xlvii.]

But the Paris Mint possessed only the dies of the two Washington, of the Howard, and of the John Paul Jones medals; moreover, the rules of that establishment did not permit them to be given up. Bronze copies of the four were obtained, however, and from them Messrs. George Eckfeldt and R. Jefferson of the Philadelphia Mint cut new dies.

In Washington, in January, 1872, I was informed by Mr. Spofford, of the Library of Congress, that after the fire which destroyed a portion of that library, December 24, 1851, the bronze copies of the medals formerly deposited there had been transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. At the latter place I was shown the remains of the collection, all more or less injured by fire. Moreover, the five wanted were not to be found; and further investigations made in December, 1877, in the Philadelphia Mint, showed that four of the dies, namely, those of Generals Greene and Wayne, and of Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury and Major Stewart, are still missing from that establishment.

During the year 1872, I obtained permission from the Honorable Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, to examine in the archives of (p. xxix) his department the official papers relating to the medals of the War of Independence, and was fortunate enough to find the correspondence concerning the Diplomatic medal between Jefferson, William Short, the Marquis de la Luzerne, and the Count de Moustier. Afterward, in the reports of the Massachusetts Historical Society (vol. vi., 3d series), I found a description which seemed to apply to this same medal. I then went to Philadelphia to see the writer of the description, Joshua Francis Fisher, Esq., but he was on his death-bed, and it was impossible to prosecute the inquiry. After his decease, I was informed that no medal of the kind described was contained in his collection.

In 1790, President Washington ordered two Diplomatic medals to be struck and presented, one to the Marquis de la Luzerne, French Minister to the United States, and the other to his successor, the Count de Moustier. In Paris, in 1874, I made application to the present heads of those families, the Count de Vibray[14] and the Marquis de Moustier,[15] for information concerning these medals; but no trace of the object of my search could be found among their family papers.

[Footnote 14: The Count de Vibray is the representative in the female line of the de la Luzerne family, which is extinct in the male line.]

[Footnote 15: The Marquis de Moustier is the great-grandson of the Count de Moustier.]

About this time, Mr. Charles I. Bushnell, of New York city, kindly sent me plaster casts of an obverse and of a reverse, in which I at once recognized the Diplomatic medal, but neither bore the signature of Dupre. Nevertheless, I had a plate engraved from them, hoping by its aid to find the original.

I then turned once more to M. Gatteaux, the son of M. Nicolas (p. xxx) Marie Gatteaux, who had shown me, in 1868, in his house in the Rue de Lille, Paris, the wax model of the obverse of the medal of General Gates, and the designs for those of General Wayne and Major Stewart, but, the house having been burnt during the reign of the Commune in 1871, he could furnish no information, and I was as far as ever from discovering the original of this piece.

In 1876 I showed to M. Augustin Dumont, the celebrated sculptor,[16] and the godson of Augustin Dupre, the plate engraved from the plaster casts, and from him I learned that M. Narcisse Dupre, the son of Augustin, was still living in the south of France, at Montpellier. M. Dumont had given to M. Ponscarme, his pupil, now professor in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the maquettes, or lead proofs, of many of Dupre's works. A few days later, M. Ponscarme showed me a maquette of the obverse of the Diplomatic medal, and at last M. Narcisse Dupre sent me a photograph of the reverse. I thus obtained proof of the correctness of the engraved plate.

[Footnote 16: Among his most noted works is the bronze statue of the Emperor Napoleon I., placed by Napoleon III. on the column in the Place Vendome, Paris, which was overthrown by the Communists. The statue has since been replaced on the reconstructed column. M. Dumont, who is a professor in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, is a member of the Institute, Commander of the Legion of Honor, etc.]

While in Washington, in February, 1872, I was fortunate enough to find, in the office of Rear-Admiral Joseph Smith, then chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, in the Navy Department, where they were used as paperweights, the original dies of the medal voted to Commodore Edward Preble for his naval operations against Tripoli. I immediately brought this to the notice of the chief clerks of (p. xxxi) the Navy and of the Treasury Departments, and also to that of Captain (now Rear-Admiral) George H. Preble, a connection of the commodore's, and these dies are now where they belong, in the Mint in Philadelphia. Shortly afterward I was also instrumental in having restored to the mint the dies of the Vanderbilt medal, which were lying in the cellar of one of the New York city banks.

I have found it impossible to obtain any trustworthy information respecting the designer and the engraver of the medal, voted on March 29, 1800, in honor of Captain Thomas Truxtun. As there were no competent medallists in the United States at the period, and as we were then at war with France, it is presumable that the dies were made in England. If so, they were probably cut at the private mint of Matthew Boulton, of Birmingham, who furnished the United States Government for a long time with planchets for its copper coinage.

The work now offered to the public consists of two volumes: Volume I., Text; Volume II., Plates.

The text is subdivided into eighty-six sections, corresponding to the number of the medals, in each of which is included, besides the descriptive matter, all the documents that could be obtained relating to the respective piece, and arranged according to the following plan:

1. The number of the medal, its date, and its number in the book of plates. The medals are arranged chronologically: those voted by Congress according to the dates of the several resolutions or acts awarding them, and not in the order of the events which they commemorate; the unofficial ones in the order of events which they commemorate; and the presidential pieces according to the date (p. xxxii) of inauguration of each President.

2. The descriptive titles of each medal, in the following order: 1st, the legends of the obverse and of the reverse; 2d, the name of the person honored, or of the title by which the piece is known; 3d, the event commemorated.

3. A description of the medal, beginning with the obverse: 1st, the whole legend; 2d, the description of the emblems and devices; 3d, the legend of the exergue; 4th, the names of the designer and of the engraver. The same order has been followed for the reverse. The legends are copied exactly from the medals, and when in Latin, translated; the abbreviations are explained, and are, like the translations, placed between parentheses. The words, "facing the right" and "facing the left" mean the right or the left of the person looking at the piece.

4. A short biographical sketch of the designers and of the engravers.

5. A short biographical sketch of the person in whose honor the medal was struck, or of the President of the United States, in case of the Indian peace tokens.

6. Original documents, such as Resolutions or Acts of Congress, the official reports of the events commemorated, and letters of interest.

The original documents have been given in the belief that the reader would prefer them to a mere recital of the events of which they treat. Many of these are now printed for the first time.

It is interesting to note that Mr. Jefferson, as early as 1789, entertained the idea of publishing an account of all the (p. xxxiii) American medals struck up to that time, as will be seen from the following letter;

To M. DUPRE, Engraver of Medals, Paris.

Mr. Jefferson is going to have a description of all the medals printed, in order to send them, with copies of the medals, to the sovereigns of Europe. The one of Mr. Franklin, made by M. Dupre, is wanting; he begs you to lend him a copy, and to communicate to him the description also, if any has been made, as is probable.

February 23, 1789[17].

[Footnote 17: The original of this letter, which is in French, and which was communicated to me in Paris by M. Narcisse Dupre, is undoubtedly in the handwriting of Mr. Jefferson. I have sought in vain for the document mentioned in it. See I, page 1.]

No mention is made of the size of the medals, as the plates show their exact dimensions.

Being desirous that the execution of the engravings should be as perfect as possible, I invited M. Jules Jacquemart, of Paris, to undertake the whole of them. M. Jacquemart needs no praise. All amateurs know his etchings from Van der Meer, Franz Hals, Rembrandt, etc., and his plates for the "History of Porcelain," by M. Albert Jacquemart, his father, for the "Gems and Jewels of the Crown," published by M. Barbet de Jouy, and for the "Collection of Arms" of Count de Nieuwerkerke. The American public has had, moreover, an opportunity of admiring the works of this eminent artist at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York city. His collaboration adds great value to the artistic portion of this work.



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (p. xxxiv)

REFERRED TO IN THE INTRODUCTION.

A

Mount Vernon, November, 1787. To THE PRINTER OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM (Mr. CAREY.)

Sir: I understand that a part, if not all, of the medals which, in the course of the late war, were voted by Congress to officers of distinguished merit, and for the execution of which I contracted with artists at Paris, have lately arrived in America. But, not having seen any account published of the devices and inscriptions, I presume it will not be ungrateful to the public to receive some authentic information respecting these memorials of national glory. However superfluous the publication of the correspondence[18] on this subject with the Perpetual Secretary of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres might be deemed, it will not, I conceive, be improper it should be known that this learned society, to whom a reference was made, entered on the discussion with the same alacrity as if the subject had been designed to illustrate the actions of their compatriots, or to immortalize some glorious events in the annals of their own nation. You will be at liberty to insert in your Museum the result of their deliberations.

In our free republics certainly nothing should be suppressed that can tend to awaken a noble spirit of emulation, to cherish the fine feelings of patriotism, to exhibit alluring examples for imitation, or to extend and perpetuate the remembrance of those heroic achievements which have ennobled the era of the American Revolution. Few inventions could be more happily calculated to diffuse the knowledge and preserve the memory of illustrious characters and splendid events than medals—whether we take into consideration the imperishable nature of the substance whence they are formed, the facility of multiplying copies, or the practice of depositing them in the cabinets of the curious. Perhaps one improvement might be made. The sage and venerable Dr. Franklin, whose patriotic genius is active in old age, and ever prolific in projects of public utility, once suggested,[19] in conversation with me, as an expedient for propagating still more extensively the knowledge of facts designed to be perpetuated in medals, that their devices should be impressed on the current coin of the nation.

Under influence of such ideas, I shall claim the indulgence (p. xxxv) of my countrymen for bringing forward a communication which might possibly have come more satisfactorily from some other quarter. An apprehension that the subject might remain unnoticed is my apology.

I am, Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant, David HUMPHREYS.

[Footnote 18: I have found none of this correspondence in the archives of the French Academy, Paris, nor in those of the State Department, Washington, excepting the letter of Colonel Humphreys to M. Dacier, dated Paris, March 14, 1785, for which see page xiii.]

[Footnote 19: See Franklin's despatch to the Honorable John Jay, dated Passy, May 10, 1785, page xiv.]

Devices and Inscriptions of American Medals.

The gold medal for General Washington represents the head of His Excellency, with this legend: GEORGIO WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI EXERCITUUM, ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS, COMITIA AMERICANA. On the reverse: The Evacuation of Boston. The American army advances in good order toward the town, which is seen at a distance, while the British army flies with precipitation toward the strand, to embark on board the vessels with which the roads are covered. In the front of the picture, on the side of the American army, General Washington appears on horseback, amid a group of officers, to whom he seems to be pointing out the retreat of the enemy.

Legend: HOSTIBUS PRIMO FUGATIS.

On the Exergue: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM, DIE 17 MARTII, MDCCLXXVI.

The gold medal for General Gates represents the head of that general, with this legend: HORATIO GATES, DUCI STRENUO, COMITIA AMERICANA.

On the reverse: The enemy's general, at the head of his army, who are grounding their arms, presents his sword to the American general, whose troops stand with shouldered arms.

Legend: SALUS REGIONUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM.

On the Exergue: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITIONEM ACCEPTO, DIE 17 OCTOBRIS, MDCCLXXVII.

The gold medal of General Greene represents the head of that general, with this legend: NATHANIELI GREEN, EGREGIO DUCI, COMITIA AMERICANA.

On the reverse: A Victory treading under feet broken arms.

Legend: SALUS REGIONUM AUSTRALIUM.

On the Exergue: HOSTIBUS APUD EUTAW DEBELLATIS, DIE 8 SEPTEMBRIS, MDCCLXXXI.

The medal in gold for General Morgan, and those in silver for Colonels Howard and Washington, were to be indicative of the several circumstances which attended the victory at the Cowpens on the 17th of January, 1781, in conformity to a special resolution of Congress.

It may not be foreign to the purpose to add that dies have formerly been engraved under the direction of Dr. Franklin,[20] for striking the gold medal for General Wayne, and the silver medals for Colonels de Fleury and Stewart, emblematic of their gallant conduct in storming the works of Stony Point, sword in hand.

[Footnote 20: This is an error. The medals for General Wayne and Major Stewart were composed, at the request of Mr. Jefferson, by the French Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, in 1789. See D, page xli.]

These are all the medals voted by Congress in the course of the war.[21]

[Footnote 21: This is incorrect, as Congress voted medals to Major Lee, September 24, 1779, and to John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, November 3, 1780.]

* * * * *

B (p. xxxvi)

Registre des Assemblees et Deliberations de l'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres pendant l'annee 1785.

Vendredi 8 avril 1785.

- - - - -

Monsieur le secretaire a fait part d'une lettre de Monsieur Humphreys, ancien colonel au service des Etats-Unis, par laquelle il demande trois medailles pour Messieurs Washington, le general Gates et le general Green. Il envoie en meme temps des renseignements sur les actions de ces trois personnes.

L'academie a remis a huitaine pour s'occuper de ces trois medailles.

Mardi 19 avril 1785.

- - - - -

Apres ces differents arrangements, on s'est occupe des medailles demandees par le Congres d'Amerique, et l'on a invite messieurs les academiciens a apporter des projets pour ces medailles, a la premiere seance, dans laquelle on est convenu de nommer des commissaires pour rediger ces medailles.

Vendredi 22 avril 1785.

- - - - -

Monsieur Dacier a fait ensuite la lecture des projets des trois medailles pour les trois officiers generaux americains; apres les avoir bien discutes, on a nomme, pour les terminer, Messieurs Barthelemy, Dupuy, Brotier et Le Blond.

Mardi 26 avril 1785.

- - - - -

Monsieur Dacier, le secretaire perpetuel, lut ensuite les sujets de medailles demandees par le Congres pour trois officiers generaux.

Pour Monsieur Washington.

D'un cote sa tete.

Legende: GEORGIO WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI EXERCITUUM ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: La prise de Boston, l'armee anglaise fuyant vers le rivage pour s'embarquer, etc.

Legende: HOSTIBUS OU ANGLIS PRIMUM FUGATIS.

Exergue: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM DIE 17 MARTII ANNO 1776.

Pour Monsieur Gates.

D'un cote sa tete.

Legende: HORATIO GATES DUCI PROVIDO COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: Le general ennemi, a la tete de son armee, presente son epee au general Gates, a la tete de l'armee americaine.

Legende: SALUS PROVINCIARUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM. (p. xxxvii)

Exergue: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITIONEM ACCEPTO DIE 17 8{bris} 1777.

Pour Monsieur Green.

D'un cote sa tete.

Legende: NATHANIELI GREEN EGREGIO DUCI COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: La Victoire foulant aux pieds des armes brisees.

Legende: SALUS PROVINCIARUM AUSTRALIUM.

Exergue: HOSTIBUS AD EUTAW DEBELLATIS DIE ... 1781.

Vendredi 13 mai 1785.

- - - - -

D'apres des observations des commissaires, on a cru devoir changer, dans les deux medailles du general Gates et du general Green, le mot Provinciarum en celui de Regionum. Et dans les medailles de Gates, du cote de la tete, au lieu de Duci provido on a mis Duci strenuo.

Vendredi 25 novembre 1785.

- - - - -

Monsieur le secretaire a fait encore la lecture d'une lettre du colonel Humphreys, secretaire d'ambassade de l'Amerique, par laquelle il prie l'academie, au nom du Congres, de faire trois medailles votees par le meme Congres; l'une pour le general Morgan, la seconde pour le colonel Washington, la troisieme pour le colonel Howard.

La deliberation a ete remise a huitaine selon l'usage.

Mardi 6 decembre 1785.

- - - - -

On a nomme, pour rediger les sujets de medailles demandees par le Congres des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique, Messieurs Barthelemy, Des Brequigny, Le Blond, Brotier.

Mardi 13 decembre 1785.

- - - - -

Monsieur le secretaire a lu les trois projets de medailles arretes par les commissaires pour les medailles du general Morgan et des colonels Washington et Howard, les voici:

Pour le general Morgan.

Type: Le general a la tete de ses troupes, charge l'armee ennemie qui prend la fuite.

Legende: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

Exergue: CAESIS AUT CAPTIS AD COWPENS HOSTIUM ... SIGNIS RELATIS ... 17 JAN. 1781.

Revers: L'Amerique, reconnaissable a son ecusson, appuie sa main gauche sur un trophee d'armes et de drapeaux, et de la droite couronne le general incline devant elle.

Legende:[22] N. MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

[Footnote 22: Abbreviation of NOMEN, name, or of NESCIO, I know not.]

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA ANNO ...

Pour le colonel Washington. (p. xxxviii)

Type: Le colonel, a la tete d'un petit nombre de soldats, fond sur l'ennemi, qui commence a prendre la fuite, et que lui montre la Victoire, placee au-dessus de sa tete.

Legende: N. WASHINGTON LEGIONIS N. PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA, etc.

Revers: L'inscription suivante doit etre gravee dans une couronne de lauriers:

QUOD PARVA MILITUM MANU STRENUE PROSECUTUS HOSTES VIRTUTIS INGENITAE PRAECLARUM SPECIMEN DEDIT IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS 17 JAN. 1781.

Pour le colonel Howard.

Meme type, meme legende au nom pres.

Meme exergue qu'a la precedente.

Au Revers: Dans une couronne de lauriers:

QUOD IN NUTANTEM HOSTIUM ACIEM SUBITO IRRUENS PRAECLARUM BELLICAE VIRTUTIS SPECIMEN DEDIT IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS 17 JAN. 1781.

[Translation.]

Register of the Meetings and Deliberations of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres during the year 1785.

Friday, April 8, 1785.

- - - - -

The secretary communicated a letter from Mr. Humphreys, formerly a colonel in the service of the United States, in which he asks for three medals for Messrs. Washington, General Gates and General Green. He sends at the same time information concerning the deeds of these three persons.

The academy postponed for a week the consideration of these three medals.

Tuesday, April 19, 1785.

- - - - - After these different arrangements, the medals asked by the Congress of America considered, and the gentlemen academicians were invited to bring suggestions for these medals at the (p. xxxix) following meeting, at which it was agreed that commissioners should be named to compose these medals.

Friday, April 22, 1785.

- - - - -

M. Dacier then read the proposals for the three medals for the three American general officers; after they had been thoroughly discussed, Messrs. Barthelemy, Dupuy, Brotier, and Le Blond, were appointed to report on them.

Tuesday, April 26, 1785.

- - - - -

M. Dacier, the perpetual secretary, then read the subjects of the medals asked for by Congress for the three general officers.

For Mr. Washington.

On one side, his head.

Legend: GEORGIO WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI EXERCITUUM ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: The taking of Boston, the English army fleeing toward the shore to embark, etc.

Legend: HOSTIBUS or ANGLIS PRIMUM FUGATIS.

Exergue: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM DIE 17 MARTII ANNO 1776.

For Mr. Gates.

On one side, his head.

Legend: HORATIO GATES DUCI PROVIDO COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: The enemy's general at the head of his army, surrenders his sword to General Gates, at the head of the American army.

Legend: SALUS PROVINCIARUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM.

Exergue: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITIONEM ACCEPTO DIE 17 8{bris} 1777.

For Mr. Green.

On one side, his head.

Legend: NATHANIELI GREEN EGREGIO DUCI COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: Victory treading under her feet broken arms.

Legend: SALUS PROVINCIARUM AUSTRALIUM.

Exergue: HOSTIBUS AD EUTAW DEBELLATIS DIE ... 1781.

Friday, May 13, 1783.

- - - - -

After observations by the commissioners, it was thought proper to change, in the two medals of General Gates and of General Green, the word Provinciarum to that of Regionum. And in the medal of Gates, on the side of the head, instead of Duci provido to substitute Duci strenuo.

Friday, November 25, 1785. (p. xl)

- - - - -

The secretary also read a letter of Colonel Humphreys, Secretary of Embassy of America, in which he requested the academy, in the name of Congress, to compose three medals voted by the same Congress: one for General Morgan, the second for Colonel Washington, the third for Colonel Howard.

The discussion was laid over, according to custom, until next week.

Tuesday, December 6, 1785.

- - - - -

Messrs. Barthelemy, Des Brequigny, Le Blond, and Brotier, were named to compose the medals asked for by the Congress of the United States of America.

Tuesday, December 13, 1785.

- - - - -

The secretary read the three reports agreed upon by the commissioners for the medals for General Morgan and Colonels Washington and Howard, as follows:

For General Morgan.

Device: The general, at the head of his troops, charges the army of the enemy, which takes to flight.

Legend: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

Exergue: CAESIS AUT CAPTIS AD COWPENS HOSTIUM ... SIGNIS RELATIS ... 17 JAN. 1781.

Reverse: America, recognizable by her shield, rests her left hand upon a trophy of arms and of flags, and with her right crowns the general, who bends before her.

Legend: N. MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA ANNO ...

For Colonel Washington.

Device: The colonel, at the head of a few soldiers, rushes on the enemy, who begin to fly, and whom Victory, hovering over his head, points out to him.

Legend: N. WASHINGTON LEGIONIS N. PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA, etc.

Reverse: The following inscription to be engraved in a crown of laurel:

QUOD PARVA MILITUM MANU STRENUE PROSECUTUS HOSTES VIRTUTIS INGENITAE PRAECLARUM SPECIMEN DEDIT IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS 17 JAN. 1781.

For Colonel Howard. (p. xli)

Same device, same legend, excepting the name.

Same exergue as the preceding.

Reverse: Within a crown of laurel:

QUOD IN NUTANTEM HOSTIUM ACIEM SUBITO IRRUENS PRAECLARUM BELLICAE VIRTUTIS SPECIMEN DEDIT IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS 17 JAN. 1781

* * * * *

C

Je soussigne Augustin Dupre, graveur en medaille[23] et medailliste de l'Academie Royal de Peinture et Sculpture.

M'engage envers Monsieur le colonel Humphreys a graver la medaille representant le portrait du general Green. Au revers la Victoire foulant aux pieds des armes brisees avecque la legende et l'exergue, et repond de la fracture des coins jusqu'a la concurrence de vingt quatre medailles, dont j'en fourniray une en or a mes frais et depend (le diametre de la medaille sera de la grandeur de vingt-quatre lignes).

Le tout aux conditions suivantes, que les deux coins graves de ladite medaille me seront payee la somme de deux mille quatre cens livres en remettant les deux coins apres avoir frappes les vingt quatre medailles que desire Monsieur le colonel.

Fait le double entre nous, ce dix-neuf novembre mille sept cens quatre vingt cinq (1785) a Paris.

D. HUMPHREYS. DUPRE.

[Footnote 23: The reader will detect many errors in this and the following French letters. The originals are copied exactly in each case.]

* * * * *

D

Registre des Assemblees et Deliberations de l'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres pendant l'annee 1789.

Mardi 13 janvier 1789.

- - - - -

Monsieur Dacier annonca ensuite que Monsieur Jefferson, ministre des Etats-Unis d'Amerique, priait l'Academie de vouloir bien (p. xlii) s'occuper de sujets pour les trois medailles que le Congres a resolu de frapper en l'honneur du general Wayne, du major Stewart et du commodore Paul Jones. Sur cette demande, la Compagnie a decide que les commissaires nommes dans la seance precedente seraient charges de rediger le projet de ces medailles.

Mardi 10 fevrier 1789.

- - - - -

Monsieur Dacier a mis, au commencement de la seance, sous les yeux de l'Academie, le travail de Messieurs les commissaires relativement aux medailles qu'ils etaient charges de rediger.

Sur la demande de Monsieur Jefferson, ministre des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique, on a corrige ainsi l'exergue de la medaille anciennement composee pour le general Morgan:

FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CAESIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS, 17 JAN. 1781.

Medaille pour le general Wayne.

Type: L'Amerique, reconnaissable a son ecusson, tient de la main gauche, elevee, une couronne murale, et donne, de la droite, une couronne de lauriers au general incline devant elle.

Legende: N. WAYNE DUCI EXERCITUS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: Le Rocher et le Fort de Stony Point.

Legende: STONY POINT EXPUGNATUM.

Exergue: 15 JUL. 1779.

Pour le major Stewart.

Type: L'Amerique, debout, comme ci-dessus, donne une palme au major, incline devant elle.

Legende: N. STEWART COHORTIS PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: Le major monte a l'assaut au travers d'un abatis d'arbres qu'il a fait rompre par sa troupe.

Legende: STONY POINT OPPUGNATUM.

Exergue: 15 JUL. 1779.

Pour le commodore Paul Jones.

Type: La tete du commodore.

Legende: PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: Combat de vaisseaux.

Legende: PRIMUS AMERICANORUM TRIUMPHUS NAVALIS.

Exergue: AD ORAM SCOTIAE 23 SEPT. ANNO ...

Autre legende: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.

Exergue: Comme de l'autre part.

[Translation.] (p. xliii)

Register of the Meetings and Deliberations of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres during the year 1789.

Tuesday, January 13, 1789.

- - - - -

M. Dacier then announced that Mr. Jefferson, Minister of the United States of America, begged the academy kindly to occupy itself with the subjects of the three medals which Congress has resolved to strike in honor of General Wayne, Major Stewart, and Commodore Paul Jones. According to this request, the company have decided that the commissioners[24] named in the preceding sitting shall be charged with the composition of these medals.

[Footnote 24: These were Messrs. l'abbe Barthelemy, l'abbe Garnier, l'abbe Le Blond, l'abbe Brotier, de Vauvillier, Dupuis, and D. Poirier.]

Tuesday, February 10, 1789.

- - - - -

M. Dacier submitted to the academy at the opening of the sitting, the report of the commissioners in reference to the medals, with the composition of which they had been intrusted.

At the suggestion of Mr. Jefferson, Minister of the United States of America, the exergue of the medal formerly composed for General Morgan was altered as follows:

FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CAESIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS 17 JAN. 1781.

Medal for General Wayne.

Device: America, recognizable by her shield, holds in her left hand, which is elevated, a mural crown, and presents with her right a crown of laurels to the general, who bends before her.

Legend: N. WAYNE DUCI EXERCITUS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: The Rock and the Fort of Stony Point.

Legend: STONY POINT EXPUGNATUM.

Exergue: 15 JUL. 1779.

For Major Stewart.

Device: America, standing as above, presents a palm to the major, who bends before her.

Legend: N. STEWART COHORTIS PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: The major mounts to the assault through an abatis of trees, which his men have broken through.

Legend: STONY POINT OPPUGNATUM.

Exergue: 15 JUL. 1779.

For Commodore Paul Jones. (p. xliv)

Device: The head of the commodore.

Legend: PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Reverse: A naval engagement.

Legend: PRIMUS AMERICANORUM TRIUMPHUS NAVALIS.

Exergue: AD ORAM SCOTIAE 23 SEPT. ANNO ...

Another legend: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.[25]

[Footnote 25: The accepted legend.]

Exergue: Same as above.

* * * * *

E

A Monsieur Monsieur DUPRE, Graveur en medaille et medailliste de l'Academie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture.

Monsieur Jefferson ayant recu des ordres au sujet des medailles a faire seroit bien aise d'en traiter avec Monsieur Dupre, s'il voudrait bien lui faire l'honneur de passer chez lui demain matin avant les onze heures.

Samedi 3me janvier 1789.

Monsieur Jefferson a l'honneur d'envoyer a Monsieur Dupre les devises des medailles pour le general Morgan et le contre-amiral Paul Jones qu'il vient de recevoir de l'Academie des Belles-Lettres, et dont il propose a Monsieur Dupre l'entreprise, en repondant du succes des coins jusqu'a frapper trois cents cinquante de chaque medaille en or, argent ou bronze, et d'en fournir les epreuves en etain au fin du mois de mars prochain, a fin que les medailles peuvent etre frappees toutes avant le 15me avril. Il le prie d'avoir la bonte de lui indiquer les conditions auxquelles il les entreprendra, et Monsieur Jefferson aura l'honneur d'y repondre au moment qu'il les recevra.

Ce 13me fevrier 1789.

Medaille pour le general Morgan, de 24 lignes de diametre.

Le general a la tete de son armee charge l'ennemi, qui prend la fuite.

Legende: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

Exergue: FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CAESIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS 17 JAN. 1781.

Revers: L'Amerique reconnaissable a son ecusson appuie sa main gauche sur une trophee d'armes et de drapeaux, et de la droite, couronne le general incline devant elle.

Legende: DANIELI MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Medaille pour le contre-amiral John Paul Jones, de 24 (p. xlv) lignes.

Type: Sa tete (M. Houdon fournira le buste en platre).

Legende: JOANNI PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO.

Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA.

Revers: Combat de vaisseaux.

Legende: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.

Exergue: AD ORAM SCOTIAE 23 SEPT. 1779.

* * * * *

F

A Monsieur Monsieur DUPRE, Graveur en medailles, a Paris.

Monsieur Jefferson a l'honneur d'observer a Monsieur Dupre qu'il ne donne pas pour les medailles de 24 lignes ni a Monsieur Duvivier ni a Monsieur Gatteaux que 2,400 livres, que c'est la ce qu'il a paye a Monsieur Dupre aussi pour celle du general Greene, et que Monsieur Dupre n'a demande que ca dernierement pour celle du general Morgan. Monsieur Jefferson ne peut pas consentir donc de donner plus. A ce prix, il attendroit ce que Monsieur Dupre pourrait faire de mieux, de soi-meme, et non pas par des artistes subalternes. Pour ce qui regarde le temps, peut etre qu'il seroit possible de le prolonger un peu pour la medaille de l'amiral Paul Jones, cet officier etant actuellement en Europe. Monsieur Jefferson aura l'honneur d'attendre la reponse de Monsieur Dupre et sera charme de pouvoir conclure cet arrangement avec lui.

Ce 15me fevrier 1789.

* * * * *

G

EXPLICATION des Peintures, Sculptures et Gravures de Messieurs de l'Academie Royale, dont l'Exposition a ete ordonnee, suivant l'intention de Sa Majeste, par M. le Comte de la Billarderie d'Angeviller, Conseiller du Roi en ses conseils, Mestre-de-Camp de Cavalerie, Chevalier de l'ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis, Commandeur de l'ordre de Saint-Lazare, Intendant du Jardin du Roi, Directeur et Ordonnateur General des Batiments de Sa Majeste, Jardins, Arts, Academies & Manufactures Royales; de l'Academie Royale des Sciences.

A Paris, rue Saint-Jacques,

De l'Imprimerie de la veuve Herissant, Imprimeur du Roi, des Cabinet, Maison et Batiments de Sa Majeste; de l'Academie Royale de Peinture, etc. M.DCC.LXXXI.

Avec privilege du Roi.

Gravures. (p. xlvi)

Par M. DUVIVIER, academicien, graveur general des Monnoies de France & des Medailles du Roi.

294.—Sous un meme cadre et sous un meme numero. 1. *** ... 2. *** ... 3. *** ... 4. Medaille ordonnee par les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique, a l'honneur de M. le Chevalier de Fleury, pour s'etre distingue a la prise de Stony Point, en 1779.

EXPLICATION des Peintures, Sculptures et Gravures de Messieurs de l'Academie Royale, dont l'Exposition a ete ordonnee, suivant l'intention de Sa Majeste, par M. le Comte de la Billarderie d'Angeviller, Conseiller du Roi en ses conseils, Mestre-de-Camp de Cavalerie, Chevalier de l'ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis, Commandeur de l'ordre de Saint-Lazare, Gouverneur de Rambouillet, Directeur et Ordonnateur General des Batiments de Sa Majeste, Jardins, Arts, Academies et Manufactures Royales; de l'Academie Royale des Sciences.

A Paris,

De l'Imprimerie des Batiments du Roi et de l'Academie Royale de Peinture.

M.DCC.LXXXIX.

Avec privilege du Roi.

Gravures.

Par M. DUVIVIER, graveur general des Monnoies et des Medailles du Roi.

1. *** ... 2. *** ... 3. *** ... 4. *** ... 5. Buste du General Washington, & au revers, Evacuation de Boston, 1776. 6 & 7. Medailles pour le Colonel Washington et le Colonel Howard. ces trois medailles sont pour les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique.

[Translation.]

EXPLANATION of the Paintings, Sculptures, and Engravings of the Gentlemen of the Royal Academy, of which the Exhibition has been ordered, according to the intention of His Majesty, by the Count de la Billarderie d'Angeviller, Councillor of the King in His Councils, Master-of-Camp of Cavalry, Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis, Commander of the Order of Saint Lazare, Intendant of the Garden of the King, Director and Ordonnator-General of His Majesty's Buildings, Gardens, Arts and Royal Academies and Manufactures; of the Royal Academy of Sciences.

Paris, Rue Saint Jacques,

From the Printing Office of widow Herissant, Printer to the King, to the Cabinet, Household and Buildings of His Majesty; of the Royal Academy of Paintings, etc.

M.DCC.LXXXI.

With the privilege of the King.

Engravings. (p. xlvii)

By M. Duvivier, Academician, engraver-general of the Moneys of France and of the Medals of the King.

294—In the same case and under the same number. 1. *** ... 2. *** ... 3. *** ... 4. Medal ordered by the United States of America in honor of the Chevalier de Fleury, for having distinguished himself at the taking of Stony Point, in 1779.

EXPLANATION of the Paintings, Sculptures, and Engravings of the Gentlemen of the Royal Academy, of which the Exhibition has been ordered, according to the intention of His Majesty, by the Count de la Billarderie d'Angeviller, Councillor of the King in His Councils, Master-of-Camp of Cavalry, Knight of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis, Commander of the Order of Saint Lazare, Governor of Rambouillet, Director and Ordonnator-General of His Majesty's Buildings, Gardens, Arts, and Royal Academies and Manufactures; of the Royal Academy of Sciences.

PARIS.

From the Printing Office of the Building of the King and of the Royal Academy of Painting.

M.DCC.LXXXIX.

With the privilege of the King.

Engravings.

By M. Duvivier, engraver-general of the Moneys and of the Medals of the King.

1. *** ... 2. *** ... 3. *** ... 4. *** ... 5. Bust of General Washington, and on the reverse, Evacuation of Boston, 1776. 6 and 7. Medals for Colonel Washington and Colonel Howard. These three medals are for the United States of America.

* * * * *

H

MINT OF THE UNITED STATES, Honorable Philadelphia, November 22, 1861. William L. DAYTON, Minister of the United States at the Court of France.

Dear Sir: During the Revolutionary War, medals were awarded by resolution of the Continental Congress to certain officers who commanded the American forces in the principal conflicts with the enemy, or participated therein. The dies for these medals were prepared in Paris, and the medals produced there. Several of the dies in question are understood to be in the possession of the Mint of Medals at Paris. As we have recently prepared, for (p. xlviii) distribution, bronze medals from the national medal dies in our country, it would be very gratifying if the American medal dies, at the French Mint, could be procured and the series made complete. The medals that were prepared for us in Paris are interesting memorials of some of the most remarkable events in our history, and the appropriate place for the dies would appear to be in the National Mint of the United States.

May I request the favor of you to ascertain, from the proper official source, what medal dies, relating to events connected with the history of the United States, are at the mint in Paris, and whether the same can be obtained. If not, I should be glad to have, say twenty copies in bronze, struck from the dies, provided the expense would not be too great.

Inclosed I send you a list of the medals recently struck in bronze from the dies of a public character in our possession. It will be seen that it is deficient in medals of the Revolutionary era.

The following American medal dies are believed to be at the French Mint of Medals:

Washington before Boston. General Wayne, for capture of Stony Point. Colonel Fleury, for same. Captain Stewart, for same. Major Lee, for capture of Paulus Hook. Colonel John Eager Howard, for Cowpens. Colonel William Washington, for same. Major General Greene, for Eutaw Springs. Captain John Paul Jones, for capture of the Serapis by the Bonhomme Richard.

Your attention to the request contained herein will greatly oblige, Your friend and obedient servant, James POLLOCK, Director of the Mint.

To His Excellency, Legation of the United States, Monsieur THOUVENEL, Paris, December 10, 1861. Minister of Foreign Affairs, etc., Paris.

Monsieur le Ministre: I have received from the Director of the Mint of the United States a letter (of which I annex a copy), calling me to procure a certain series of medals prepared in Paris to commemorate certain events in the history of the American Revolution.

These dies having been prepared in Paris, and the medals struck here, it is supposed the former yet remain in some safe depository.

If it is possible to procure the original dies, I am requested to do so; if that be not possible, I should be happy to learn if I can procure copies.

I avail myself of the occasion to renew to Your Excellency the assurance of the high consideration with which I have the honor to be, Your obedient servant, W. L. DAYTON.

Monsieur DAYTON, Paris, le 17 janvier 1862. (p. xlix) Ministre des Etats-Unis a Paris.

Monsieur: Par la lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de m'adresser le 10 decembre dernier, vous m'exprimiez le desir d'etre mis en possession des coins d'un certain nombre de medailles commemoratives d'evenements de la guerre de l'Independance qui ont ete frappees a Paris. Monsieur le Ministre des Finances a qui j'avais du ecrire a ce sujet, me repond que le Musee Monetaire ne possede les coins que de quatre de ces medailles. La prise de Boston, la prise de Serapis, bataille de Cowpens—Washington, et bataille de Cowpens—Howard. Le musee ne pourrait se dessaisir de ces coins, mais il serait facile, moyennant une legere depense, de faire frapper de nouveaux exemplaires; il faudrait seulement, si la proposition etait agree par le gouvernement Federal, que vous me fissiez parvenir l'indication precise du nombre d'exemplaires de chacune de ces medailles qu'il desirerait obtenir.

Agreez les assurances de la haute consideration avec laquelle j'ai l'honneur d'etre, Monsieur, Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, Pour le ministre et par autorisation, Le Ministre Plenipotentiaire Directeur, BANNEVILLE.

[Translation.]

Mr. DAYTON, Paris, January 17, 1862. Minister of the United States, Paris.

Sir: By the letter which you did me the honor to address to me on the 10th of December last, you expressed to me the desire to obtain the dies of a certain number of medals, commemorative of events of the War of Independence, which were struck in Paris. The Minister of Finance, to whom I had to write on the subject, replies that the Museum of the Mint possesses the dies of only four of these medals: the taking of Boston, the capture of the Serapis, the battle of the Cowpens—Washington, and the battle of the Cowpens—Howard. The museum cannot part with these dies, but it will be easy, at a small outlay, to have new copies struck; it will only be necessary, if the proposition is accepted by the Federal Government, for you to indicate to me the precise number of copies of each of these medals which it wishes to obtain.

Receive the assurances of the high consideration with which I have the honor to be, Sir, Your very humble and very obedient servant, For the minister and by authorization, The Minister Plenipotentiary Director, BANNEVILLE.

To His Excellency, Legation of the United States, Monsieur THOUVENEL, Paris, January 23, 1862. Minister of Foreign Affairs, etc., Paris.

Monsieur Le Ministre: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th instant in reference to the American medal dies. I avail myself of your kind offer to have copies struck from the original dies.

Be pleased to direct that twenty copies in bronze be struck (p. l) from such dies, with a diameter of two and one half inches. The expense will be met by this Legation immediately upon notice.

I avail myself of the opportunity to assure Your Excellency of the high consideration with which I am, Your humble servant, W. L. DAYTON.

* * * * *

I

A Monsieur DUPRE, Graveur en medailles, a Paris.

Monsieur Jefferson va faire imprimer des explications de toutes les medailles, pour les envoyer avec les medailles aux souverains de l'Europe; il lui manque celle de M. Franklin, faite par M. Dupre; il le prie de lui en preter une exemplaire, et de lui en communiquer l'explication aussi, s'il y en a ete une de faite comme il y en avait sans doute.

Ce 23 fevrier 1789.



CONTENTS. (p. li)

Number Number of Text of Plate.

1 GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON. I

[Boston Retaken.] Page.

Description of Medal.......................................... 1 Biographical Sketch of Pierre Simon Duvivier.................. 2 Biographical Sketch of George Washington...................... 2 Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Washington................................ March 25, 1776... 3 General Washington to the President of Congress.................................. March 19, 1776... 4 The President of Congress to General Washington................................. April 2, 1776... 5 John Adams to General Washington............. April 2, 1776... 5 General Washington to John Adams............ April 15, 1776... 6 Colonel Humphreys to General Washington.......... May, 1785... 6 Colonel Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson..... January 30, 1786... 6 Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Humphreys.......... May 7, 1786... 7

2 MAJOR-GENERAL HORATIO GATES. II

[Surrender of the British Army at Saratoga.]

Description of Medal.......................................... 8 Biographical Sketch of Nicolas Marie Gatteaux................. 9 Biographical Sketch of Horatio Gates.......................... 9 Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Gates.................................. November 4, 1777... 10 General Gates to the President of Congress............................... October 18, 1777... 10 Articles of Convention between Generals Gates and Burgoyne............................... October 16, 1777... 11 Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Humphreys.... December 4, 1785... 13 Colonel Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson........................ 13

3 BRIGADIER-GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE. III

[Taking of Stony Point.]

Description of Medal......................................... 14 Biographical Sketch of Anthony Wayne......................... 14 Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to General Wayne, to Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury, and to Major Stewart, etc........................ July 26, 1779... 15 General Washington to the President of Congress.................................. July 16, 1779... 16 General Wayne to General Washington......... July 16, 1779... 16 General Washington to the President of Congress.................................. July 20, 1779... 16 General Wayne to General Washington......... July 17, 1779... 20

4 LIEUTENANT-COLONEL DE FLEURY. IV (p. lii)

[Taking of Stony Point.]

Description of Medal......................................... 22 Biographical Sketch of Francois Louis Teisseidre de Fleury... 23 General Washington to the President of Congress.................................. July 25, 1779... 24 General Washington to the President of Congress.................................. July 28, 1779... 25 Memorial for M. de Fleury.................................... 25

5 MAJOR JOHN STEWART. V

[Taking of Stony Point.]

Description of Medal......................................... 28 Biographical Sketch of John Stewart.......................... 28

6 MAJOR HENRY LEE. VI

[Surprise of Paulus Hook.]

Description of Medal......................................... 29 Biographical Sketch of Joseph Wright......................... 30 Biographical Sketch of Henry Lee............................. 30 Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Major Henry Lee, etc....................... September 24, 1779... 30 General Washington to the President of Congress................................ August 23, 1779... 31 Major Henry Lee to General Washington..... August 22, 1779... 32

7 JOHN PAULDING, DAVID WILLIAMS, ISAAC VAN WART. VII

[Capture of Major Andre.]

Description of Medal......................................... 37 Biographical Sketches of Paulding, Williams, and Van Wart.... 37 Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart..... November 3, 1780... 38 General Washington to the President of Congress............................. September 26, 1780... 38 General Washington to the President of Congress................................ October 7, 1780... 39

8 BRIGADIER-GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN. VIII

[Victory of the Cowpens.]

Description of Medal......................................... 40 Biographical Sketch of Augustin Dupre........................ 41 Biographical Sketch of Daniel Morgan......................... 41 Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to General Morgan and to Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and Howard, etc....................................... March 9, 1781... 41 General Morgan to General Greene......... January 19, 1781... 42 Act of Congress Directing a Gold Copy of General Morgan's Medal to be Struck for Morgan Neville...... July 2, 1836... 45

9 LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILLIAM A. WASHINGTON. IX (p. liii)

[Victory of the Cowpens.]

Description of Medal......................................... 46 Biographical Sketch of William Augustine Washington.......... 46

10 LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN EAGER HOWARD. X

[Victory of the Cowpens.]

Description of Medal......................................... 48 Biographical Sketch of John Eager Howard..................... 48

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