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The Military Journals of Two Private Soldiers, 1758-1775 - With Numerous Illustrative Notes
by Abraham Tomlinson
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[Transcriber's note: Author's spelling has been retained.]



THE

MILITARY JOURNALS

OF TWO

PRIVATE SOLDIERS,

1758—1775,



WITH

NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIVE NOTES

TO WHICH IS ADDED,

A SUPPLEMENT,

CONTAINING

OFFICIAL PAPERS ON THE SKIRMISHES AT LEXINGTON AND CONCORD.



POUGHKEEPSIE: PUBLISHED BY ABRAHAM TOMLINSON, AT THE MUSEUM. 1855.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854,

By ABRAHAM TOMLINSON,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Southern District of New York.



STEREOTYPED BY C. C. SAVAGE. 13 Chambers Street, N. Y.

C. A. ALVORD, PRINTER, 29 Gold Street, N. Y.



ADVERTISEMENT.

Having been, for several years, engaged in the establishment of a Museum in Poughkeepsie, I have, by extensive travel and research, and by the kindness of many of my fellow-citizens in Dutchess county and elsewhere, obtained numerous objects, not only curious in themselves, but valuable as materials for history. Among these are two manuscript Journals, kept by common soldiers, each during a single campaign, and written at periods seventeen years apart. One of these soldiers served in a campaign of the conflict known as the FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, which commenced a hundred years ago; the other soldier assisted in the siege of Boston, by the American army, in 1775 and 1776. Believing that a faithful transcript of those Journals, given verbatim et literatim, as recorded by the actors themselves, might have an interest for American readers, as exhibiting the every-day life of a common soldier in those wars which led to the founding of our republic, I have yielded to the solicitations of friends, and the dictates of my own judgment and feelings, and in the following pages present to the public faithful copies of those diaries.

Perceiving that much of the intrinsic value of these Journals would consist in a proper understanding of the historical facts to which allusions are made in them, I prevailed upon Mr. LOSSING, the well-known author of the "Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution" to illustrate and elucidate these diaries by explanatory notes. His name is a sufficient guaranty for their accuracy and general usefulness; and I flatter myself that this little volume will not only amuse, but edify, and that the useful objects aimed at in its publication will be fully attained. With this hope, it is submitted to my fellow-citizens.

ABRAHAM TOMLINSON. POUGHKEEPSIE MUSEUM, December, 1854.



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

The conflict known in America as the French and Indian War, and in Europe as the Seven Years' War, originated in disputes between the French and English colonists, in the New World, concerning territorial limits. For a century the colonies of the two nations had been gradually expanding and increasing in importance. The English, more than a million in number, occupied the seaboard from the Penobscot to the St. Mary's, a thousand miles in extent; all eastward of the great ranges of the Alleganies, and far northward toward the St. Lawrence. The French, not more than a hundred thousand strong, made settlements along the St. Lawrence, the shores of the great lakes, on the Mississippi and its tributaries, and upon the borders of the gulf of Mexico. They early founded Detroit, Kaskaskia, Vincennes, and New Orleans.

The English planted agricultural colonies—the French were chiefly engaged in traffic with the Indians. This trade, and the operations of the Jesuit missionaries, who were usually the self-denying pioneers of commerce in its penetration of the wilderness, gave the French great influence over the tribes of a vast extent of country lying in the rear of the English settlements.

The ancient quarrel between the two nations, originating far back in the feudal ages, and kept alive by subsequent collisions, burned vigorously in the bosoms of the respective colonists in America, where it was continually fed by frequent hostilities on frontier ground. They had ever regarded each other with extreme jealousy, for the prize before them was supreme rule in the New World. The trading-posts and missionary-stations of the French, in the far Northwest, and in the bosom of the dark wilderness, several hundred miles distant from the most remote settlements on the English frontier, attracted very little attention until they formed a part of more extensive operations. But when, after the capture of Louisburg, by the English, in 1745, the French adopted vigorous measures for opposing the extension of British power in America; when they built strong vessels at the foot of Lake Ontario—made treaties of friendship with powerful Indian tribes—strengthened their fort at the mouth of the Niagara river—and erected a cordon of fortifications, more than sixty in number, between Montreal and New Orleans,—the English were aroused to immediate and effective action in defence of the territorial limits given them in their ancient charters. By virtue of these, they claimed dominion westward to the Pacific ocean, south of the latitude of the north shore of Lake Erie; while the French claimed a title to all the territory watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries, under the more plausible plea that they had made the first explorations and settlements in that region. The claims of the real owner—the Indian—were lost sight of in the discussion; and it was a significant question asked by an Indian messenger of the agent of the English Ohio Company: "Where is the Indian's land? The English claim it all on one side of the river, and the French on the other: where does the Indian's land lie?"

The territorial question was brought to an issue when, in 1753, a company of English traders and settlers commenced exploring the head-waters of the Ohio. The French opposed their operations by force. George Washington was sent by the Virginia authorities to remonstrate with the French. It was of no avail. The English determined to oppose force to force; and in the vicinity of the now-flourishing city of Pittsburg, in western Pennsylvania, the "French and Indian War" began. Provincial troops were raised, and armies came from England. Extensive campaigns were planned, and attempts were made to expel the French from Lake Champlain and the southern shore of Lake Ontario. Finally, in 1758, three armies were in motion at one time against French posts remote from each other—Louisburg, in the extreme east; Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain; and Fort Du Quesne, where Pittsburg now stands. General Sir James Abercrombie commanded the expedition against Ticonderoga, accompanied by young Lord Howe as his lieutenant. The French were under the command of the marquis Montcalm, who was killed at Quebec the following year. The English and provincial troops rendezvoused at the head of Lake George, went down that sheet of water, attacked Ticonderoga, and were repulsed with great loss. It was this portion of that campaign in which the soldier served who kept the Journal given in the succeeding pages. It is a graphic outline picture, in few and simple words, of the daily life of a common soldier at that time.

During the campaign of 1759, Quebec was captured by the army under Wolfe; Lord Amherst, more successful than Abercrombie, drove the French from Lake Champlain; Sir William Johnson captured Fort Niagara; and all Canada was in virtual possession of the English, except Montreal. That fell early in the Autumn of 1760; and the struggle for supremacy in America, between the French and English, was ended for ever.

L.



MILITARY JOURNAL FOR 1758.



April 5 1758. I Lemuel Lyon of Woodstock Inlisted under Captain David holms of Woodstock in newingLand For this present Cannody Expordition[1]—I Received of Captain Holms L2.0s.0d.

[Footnote 1: Canada expedition.]

May 30. Received L3,-16-0.

June, 2nd. We arrived at Colonal Maysons at 12 o'Clock and marched from their to Landard[2] Abits & Sergent Stone treated us their—then we marched to mansfield to Deacon Eldridgs about four o'clock—then we marched to Bolton to Landard trils, and we gave 7d a night for horse keeping.

[Footnote 2: Landlord. The proprietor of an inn or tavern was universally called landlord. The title is still very prevalent.]

Wednesday 7th. We had Carts to press,[3]—then we marched of from their to Landard Strengs in Harford and from their to Landard Geds & had raw Pork for dinner—then we marched to Landard Crews and the Chief[4] lodges their—My mess lodged at a private house one Daniel Catlins.

[Footnote 3: To take carts for the military service. Under martial law, any private property may be used for the public good. A just government always pays a fair price for the same.]

[Footnote 4: Probably General Lyman, who was the commander-in-chief of the Connecticut forces at that time.]

Thursday 8th. Marched of and arived at Landard Gessels and their we went to Brecfirst and then we marched from their to our stores in Litchfield[5] to Squire Sheldings and then to Landard Buels and lodged their and our Captain was sent for to a man in another Company that had fits.

[Footnote 5: In Litchfield county, Connecticut.]

Friday 9th. Then marched from their and we had nu teams presed their and we arrived at Landard Hollobuts in Goshen from their to widow Leggets in Cornwell[6] and from their to Coles in Cainan[7] & lodged their.

[Footnote 6: Cornwall.]

[Footnote 7: Canaan.]

Saturday 10th. Marched to Lawrences and from thence to Landard Bushes in Shefield 7 mile and went to diner—thence marched and arived at one Garnt Burges and lodged their and our Ensign went to Prayer with us—

Sonday 11th. Marched into the Paterroon Lands[8] to Landard Lovejoys & went to diner had a hard shower then marched into Cantihook[9] to one Hayer Carns the Stone house & lodged their & from thence to Cantihook Town to one Bushes and slept their.

[Footnote 8: Livingston's manor, in Columbia county. The estates of Livingston, Van Rensselaer, and others, who received grants of land from government, on certain conditions, in order to encourage immigration and agriculture, were called Patroon Lands, and the proprietors were entitled Patroons, or patrons.]

[Footnote 9: Kinderhook.]

Monday 12th. At Cantihook.

Tuesday 13th. Marched and arived at the half way house in Albany & Bated, & then into Green Bush[10] by Son down and lodged their in Ranslays Barn.

[Footnote 10: Now East Albany, on the east side of the Hudson river.]

Wednesday 14th. Stil at Albany and their I first shifted my clothes and washed them—then we had 6 rounds of powder & ball & had orders from Colonel Whiting to go to Senakada[11]—this day Asel Carpenter came to Albany.

[Footnote 11: Schenectady.]

Thursday 15th. We went over the River Early to receive our rations in provision and in money and we marched 2 Miles and stoped and refreshed ourselves their half an hour and Lieut. Smith came up and we received our Abilitan money.[12]

[Footnote 12: Billeting-money—that is, money to pay for lodgings at private houses. When soldiers are quartered at private houses, it is said that such ones are billeted at such a house, &c.]

Friday 16th. We had Prayers in our company at 3 Ock then all marched of but 14 and they stayed here to guard Lieut Smith and the money and yesterday Mr. Holmes sot of for Home and I giv 5 pence for carring my letter—we stayed here til 5 oclock this afternoon and we heard nothing from Lieut Smith and we had no provisions so we marched for Scanacata[13] and we got in at Son down well & their was a Larrom[14] this night.

[Footnote 13: Schenectady.]

[Footnote 14: Alarum, or alarm.]

Saturday 17th. Stil at Schenacata[15] and we moved into our Barrocks and Barnabas Evings was taken poor with a working in the Body Ben denny was taken very poor.

[Footnote 15: Schenectady.]

Sonday 18th. I was first called upon guard with 15 more. My turn came first at 11 oclock—this afternoon 3 ock Lieut. Smith come up with our abilitan money.

Monday 19th. Stil at Schenacata and their was a rigiment of province men[16] come up to Schenacata and this night 25 of our men went over the River west 1 mile to guard wagon Horses—this day a short training 1 Regiment.

[Footnote 16: Provincial troops, or American soldiers. The English troops were called regulars.]

Tuesday 20th. Their marched of 3 Hundred of the Bay Forces[17] for Fort Edward[18] and I received my abilitan in full L1.8s.0d.

[Footnote 17: Massachusetts Bay troops. The Massachusetts colony was called Massachusetts Bay until after the War for Independence.]

[Footnote 18: Fort Edward was situated upon the east bank of the Hudson, about fifty miles north of Albany. The fort was built by General Lyman, of Connecticut, in 1755, while that officer was encamped there with about six thousand troops, awaiting the arrival of General William Johnson, the commander-in-chief of the expedition against the French at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. A portion of the site of the fort is now (1854) occupied by the flourishing village of Fort Edward. Some of the embankments are yet visible near the river. It was near this fort that Jane McCrea was killed and scalped, in 1777.]

Wednesday 21st. Stil hear and we were imbodied for prayers in the morning and then trained a little. Corperal Carpenter was taken poor.

Thursday 22d. Had orders to march to the half moon[19] and Captain Leneses company to & at 7 oclk we marched and arivd at Tess-ceune[20] and Lodged their at Landard Abraham Grotes.

[Footnote 19: Near Waterford, on the west side of the Hudson river, thirteen miles north from Albany.]

[Footnote 20: Niskayuna, a short distance from Waterford, and remarkable as a settlement of Shaking Quakers.]

Friday 23d. Marched in the rain and very gresy traviling it was and we Arivd at Teburth and from thence to the place cald Lowdins Ferry[21] to Landard Fungdors and from thence to the half moon & Lodged their.

[Footnote 21: On the Mohawk, about five miles above Cohoes Falls. It was the chief crossing-place for troops on their way north from Albany. There the right wing of the American army, under Arnold, was encamped, while General Schuyler was casting up entrenchments at Cohoes Falls, a few weeks before the Saratoga battles, in 1777.]

Saturday 24th. I received a Letter from John at the half moon and from thence we marched & Arived at Stil Water[22] & Lodged their & Barnabas Evings was poor.

[Footnote 22: Stillwater is on the west bank of the Hudson, in Saratoga county, twenty-four miles north from Albany. The battle of Bemis's heights was fought near there, in 1777, and is sometimes known as the battle of Stillwater. Opposite the mouth of the Hoosick river, at Stillwater, was a stockade, called Fort Winslow.]

Sonday 25th. We got 2 Battoes[23] to carry our packs up to Salatogue[24] and we went a foot & 8 of our men were draun out to stay at Salatogue—Captain Lewis shot at an Indian and kild him & sot in the Battoe—from Salatogue we marched on to Fort Miller[25] and Lodged their.

[Footnote 23: A batteau is a kind of scow or flat-boat, used on shallow streams like the Hudson above Waterford.]

[Footnote 24: Saratoga. This settlement was near the mouth of the Fish creek, on the south side. The village of Schuylerville is just across the stream, on the north side. On the plain, in front of the village of Schuylerville, was a regular quadrangular fortification, with bastions, called Fort Hardy. It was erected in 1756, and named in honor of the governor of New York at that time.]

[Footnote 25: On the west side of the Hudson, six or eight miles below Fort Edward. The river is there broken by swift rapids. During this campaign, Major (afterward General) Putnam was here surprised by a party of Indians, and boldly descended the rapids in a canoe, and escaped. It was a feat they never dared to attempt, and they felt certain that he was under the protection of the Great Spirit. Here a stream called Bloody Run enters the Hudson. It is so named because a party of soldiers from the garrison, in 1759, went there to fish, were surprised by the Indians, and nine were killed and scalped.]

Monday 26th. Rainy and wet—I come up the River in a Battoe to Fort Edward to the incampment—their we drad 1/2 a pound of powder and 10 Bullets a peace and 8 days provision in order for to march to the Lake[26]—Barnabas Evings was very poor with fever nago[27] and was forst to stay behind & David Bishop with him—we Lodged in Bush tents and very wet it was.

[Footnote 26: Lake George.]

[Footnote 27: Fever-and-ague.]

Tuesday 27th. Marched all of Colonel Phiches[28] Regiment that were hear with 3 teams to carry the officers we arrived at the half way Brook[29] and their a great percel stashond for a while & from thence we Marched to Lake George and went over upon the hill East & their Encamptt one with myself went upon guard this night.

[Footnote 28: Fitch's.]

[Footnote 29: Afterward called Snook's creek. It enters the Hudson three miles below Fort Edward.]

Wednesday 28th. We cleard our ground and pitchd our tents I sent 2 letters home.

Thursday 29th. Stil here General Limon[30] & Colonel Phiches Regiments come up to the Lake this day I washed my Cloths 1 more rigiment come up.

[Footnote 30: General Phineas Lyman, who built Fort Edward. He was a native of Durham, Connecticut, where he was born in 1716. He completed his education at Yale college, and afterward became an eminent lawyer. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Connecticut forces in 1755, and in the expedition to Lake George deserved all the honor awarded to General Johnson, who was jealous of Lyman's abilities as a soldier. Lyman did his duty nobly, and was but little noticed. Johnson was unfit for his station, but being a nephew of Sir Peter Warren, then a popular English admiral, he received the honor of knighthood, and the sum of twenty thousand dollars, for his services in that campaign! General Lyman served with distinction until the close of the campaign in 1760, and in 1762 commanded the American forces sent against Havana. He was in England about eleven years, and, after his return, went with his family to the Mississippi, where he died in 1788.]

Friday 30th. This day there was a very unhapy mishap fel out in the province forces & that was 1 **** shot one **** partly through the body but did not kil him the man which was shot lived at Bridgwater to day they drawd out 9 men to go in Battoes up the Lake.

Saturday July 1st. Colonel Worster[31] & his rigiment came up to day & 3 of our sick men 1 of them Brot nuse that one man shot another by accident at Schenacata & an hour after he died to day our Chapling[32] came up &. 1 of Magor Rogers[33] men came in that had bin gorn 7 days & Expected to be gorn but 2 he was so beat out that he could not tel what had becom of tother. this night I went upon a batto and guarded Colonel Phiches Tub of Butter.

[Footnote 31: Colonel David Wooster, of Connecticut, the eminent general of the Revolution, who was killed at Ridgefield, while engaged in the pursuit of Tryon, after the burning of Danbury, in the spring of 1777. He was born in Stratford, Connecticut, in March, 1710, graduated at Yale college in 1738, and soon afterward received the appointment of captain of a vessel of the coast-guard. He was in the expedition against Louisburg in 1745. He afterward went to England, where he was a favorite at the court of George II., and received the appointment of captain in the regular service, under Sir William Pepperell. He was promoted to a colonelcy in 1755, and rose to the rank of brigadier before the close of the French and Indian war. He was one of the most active men in getting up the expedition against Ticonderoga, in 1775, which resulted in the capture of that fortress, and also Crown Point, by Colonel Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold. Wooster was appointed one of the first brigadiers of the continental army, in 1775, and third in rank. He was also appointed the first major-general of the militia of his state, when organized for the War for Independence; and in that capacity he was employed, with Arnold, Silliman, and others, in repelling British invasion in 1777. He lost his life in that service. His remains were buried at Danbury; and in 1854 a monument was erected over his grave by his grateful countrymen, at the expense of his native state.]

[Footnote 32: Chaplain.]

[Footnote 33: Commander of a corps of rangers, who performed signal services during the greater part of the French and Indian war. He was the son of an Irishman, an early settler of Dunbarton, in New Hampshire. He was appointed to his command in 1755, and was a thorough scout. In 1759, he was sent by General Amherst to destroy the Indian village of St. Francis. In that expedition he suffered great hardships, but was successful. He served in the Cherokee war in 1761, and in 1766 was appointed governor of Michilimacinac, where he was accused of treason, and sent to Montreal in irons. He was acquitted, went to England, and, after suffering imprisonment for debt, returned to America, where he remained until the Revolution broke out. He took up arms for the king, and in 1777 went to England, where he died. His "Journal of the French and Indian War" is a valuable work.]

Sonday 2. In the fore noon I went to meting & heard Mr. Eals his text was in the 5th Chapter of James 16th verse a good sermon I rote a letter & sent home & in the after noon to meeting again.

Monday 3d. Yesterday Mager putnoms S Company came up and this morning Mager putnom[34] come up and the Connetticuts rigiment were Imbodied for to learn how to form your front to the Right and left for Jineral Abbacromba[35] and his A de Camp to vieu.

[Footnote 34: Israel Putnam, afterward the Revolutionary general. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in January, 1718. He was a vigorous lad, and in 1739 we find him cultivating land in Pomfret, Connecticut, the scene of his remarkable adventure in a wolf's den, so familiar to every reader. He was appointed to the command of some of the first troops raised in Connecticut for the French and Indian war in 1755, and was an active officer during the entire period of that conflict, especially while in command of a corps of rangers. He was ploughing in his field when the news of the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord reached him. He immediately started for Boston, and, at the head of Connecticut troops, was active in the battle of Bunker Hill. He was one of the first four major-generals of the continental army appointed by Congress in June, 1775, and he was constantly on duty in important movements until 1779, when a partial paralysis of one side of his body disabled him for military service. He lived in retirement after the war, and died at Brooklyn, Windham county, Connecticut, on the 29th of May, 1790, at the age of seventy-two years.]

[Footnote 35: General James Abercrombie, the commander-in-chief of the campaign. He was descended from an ancient Scotch family, and, because of signal services on the continent, was promoted to the rank of major-general, the military art having been his profession since boyhood. He was superseded by Lord Amherst, after his defeat at Ticonderoga, and returned to England in the spring of 1759.]

Tuesday 4. This day I cut my hat and received my amanition and provision for 4 days and made radey for to go on.

Wednesday 5th. This day the Army by son rise got ready for to March and Marched of by Water, and Arived at the Saberday point[36] & stayed their til midnight then Marched again to the first narrows & Landed their and went down.

[Footnote 36: Sabbath-day Point. This is a fertile little promontory, jutting out into Lake George from the western shore, a few miles from the little village of Hague, and surrounded by the most picturesque scenery imaginable. It was so named, at this time, because it was early on Sunday morning that Abercrombie and his army left this place and proceeded down the lake. There a small provincial force had a desperate fight with a party of French and Indians, in 1756, and defeated them. Abercrombie's army went down the lake in batteaux and whaleboats, and reached the Point just at dark. Captain (afterward General) Stark relates that he supped with the young lord Howe that evening, at the Point, and that the nobleman made many anxious inquiries about the strength of Ticonderoga, the country to be traversed, &c., and, by his serious demeanor, evinced a presentiment of his sad fate. He was killed in a skirmish with a French scout two days afterward. His body was conveyed to Albany, in charge of Captain (afterward General) Philip Schuyler, and buried there. He was a brother of the admiral and general of that name, who commanded the British naval and land forces in America in 1776.]

Thursday 6th. 12 A Clock at night we marched of again[37] & landed at the 1st narrows & then we Marched on to the falls[38] within 2 miles of the fort and there we was attackt by the Enemy[39] and the Engagement held 1 hour and we kiled and took upwards of 2 & 50, & of Captain Holmes Company we had 3 Men wounded. Sergent Cada Sergent Armsba and Ensign Robbins & at Sondown the French come out again 5 thousand strong and our men came back again to the Landing place & Lodged their.

[Footnote 37: "The order of march," says Major Rogers, "exhibited a splendid military show." There were sixteen thousand well-armed troops. Lord Howe, in a large boat, led the van of the flotilla, accompanied by a guard of rangers and expert boatmen. The regular troops occupied the centre, and the provincials the wings. The sky was clear and starry, and not a breeze ruffled the dark waters as they slept quietly in the shadows of the mountains. Their oars were muffled, and, so silently did they move on, that not a scout upon the hills observed them; and the first intimation that the outposts of the enemy received of their approach was the full blaze of their scarlet uniforms, when, soon after sunrise, they landed and pushed on toward Ticonderoga.]

[Footnote 38: Rapids in the stream which forms the outlet of Lake George into Lake Champlain. Here are now extensive saw and grist mills. The distance from the foot of Lake George to Fort Ticonderoga is about four miles.]

[Footnote 39: The English lacked suitable guides, and became bewildered in the dense forest that covered the land. Lord Howe was second in command, and led the van, preceded by Major Putnam and a scout of one hundred men, to reconnoitre. The French set fire to their own outpost, and retreated. Howe and Putnam dashed on through the woods, and in a few minutes fell in with the French advanced guard, who were also bewildered, and were trying to find their way to the fort. A smart skirmish ensued, and, at the first fire, Lord Howe, another officer, and several privates, were killed. The French were repulsed, with a loss of about three hundred killed, and one hundred and forty made prisoners. The English battalions were so much broken, confused, and fatigued, that Abercrombie ordered them back to the landing-place, where they bivouacked for the night.]

Friday 7th. Majer Rogers went down to the mils and drove them of there from & kild and took upwards of 150 & at Son down the last of the Army marched down to the Mils and Majer putnom made a Bridge over by the Landing place this night we lodged by the Mils.

Saturday 8th. Then marched back 2 or 3 rigiments to the Landing place to guard & help Get up Artillira and we worked all the fore noon onloading the Battoes and at noon we set out down to the Mils with the Artillira & we got near the Mils and we had orders to leave the Artillira[40] their and go back & get our arms and we went down to the Mils of our rigiment 2 Hundred were ordered to go over on the point to keep the French from Landing their and we stayed while next morning son 2 hours high & when we came in all our army and Artillira was gorn back & the Mils fired and we marched back to the Landing place and had to secure matter of 200 Barrels of Flour & we heard the French were a coming upon us and we stove them all and come of us as soon as we could and about 10 Ock we sot sail and & by Son down we arrived at Lake George[41] according to all accounts the Engagement began about 10 clock and held 10 Hours steady and we lost 3 Thousand rigulars.

[Footnote 40: This was Abercrombie's fatal mistake. He sent an engineer to reconnoitre the fort and outworks. The engineer reported the latter to be so weak, in an unfinished state, as to be easily carried, without artillery, by the force of English bayonets. The difficulties in the way of heavy cannons, in that dense forest, were very formidable; and Abercrombie was willing to rely upon sword and bayonet, on the strength of his engineer's report. That functionary was mistaken; and when the English approached the French lines, they found an embankment of earth and stones, eight feet in height, strongly guarded by abatis, or felled trees, with their tops outward. The English made a furious attack, cut pathways through these prostrate trees, and mounted the parapet. They were instantly slain, and thus scores of Britons were sacrificed, by discharges of heavy cannons. When two thousand men had fallen, Abercrombie sounded a retreat, and the whole British army made its way to the landing-place at the foot of Lake George, with a loss of twenty-five hundred muskets. They went up the lake to Fort William Henry, and the wounded were sent to Fort Edward and to Albany. At his own solicitation, Colonel Bradstreet was sent to attack the French fort Frontenac, where Kingston now stands, at the foot of Lake Ontario; and General Stanwix proceeded to erect a fort toward the head-waters of the Mohawk, where the village of Rome now flourishes.]

[Footnote 41: The head of the lake was especially designated as "Lake George." There was the dilapidated fort William Henry, built by Sir William Johnson, in the autumn of 1755; and, about half a mile southeast from it, Fort George was afterward erected. The ruins of its citadel may yet (1854) be seen.]

Monday 10th. Stil at Lake George in our old encampment 2 Cannon and 2 morter peaces all of them Brass come into Lake George to day.

Tuesday 11th. I washed my Clothes to day had Tea for Brecfirst.

Wednesday 12th. To day I was cald upon guard. Stephen Lyon went to Fort Edward.

Thursday 13th. To day washed My Clothes.

Friday 14th. Nothing remarkable.

Saturday 15th. Nothing remarkable cald out to work.

Sonday 16th. Went to meeting to hear Mr. Pommerai[42] & his text was in the 16th Chapter of Isaiah the 9th verce in the afternoon went to hear Mr. Eals and his text was in 4th Chapter of Amos & the 12th verce Sung the 45 Salm the last time sung the 44th Salm this day Colonel Dotays Rigiment marched of.

[Footnote 42: Pomeroy.]

Monday 17th. This day Sergent Joseph Mathers had a new shirt put on of 70 stripes[43] I washed and at night was caled upon the picket guard Barny went down to the halfway brook[44] and back again to guard Artillira.

[Footnote 43: Flogging was facetiously termed "putting on a new shirt." Seventy lashes was a pretty severe punishment.]

[Footnote 44: This was the outlet of three little lakes, situated about half way between the head of Lake George and the bend of the Hudson at Sandy Hill. They are the head-waters of Clear river, the west branch of Wood creek, which empties into Lake Champlain at Whitehall.]

Tuesday 18th. One Samuel Jonson died very suddenly he belonged to Captain Latimer Company of new Cannen, Nehemiah Blackmore was whipt 10 stripes for fireing his gun.

Wednesday 19th. This day to work upon the Hospetal gitting timber to it I went upon the Island[45] to stay thair a week.

[Footnote 45: This was Diamond island, lying directly in front of Dunham's bay, and not far from the village of Caldwell. It was so called because of the number and beauty of quartz-crystals found upon it. Burgoyne made it a depot of military stores when on his way from Canada, by the way of Lake Champlain, in 1777. It was the scene of a sharp conflict between the little garrison and a party of Americans under Colonel Brown, on the 25th of September, 1777, while Gates and Burgoyne were confronted at Saratoga. Brown was repulsed.]

Thursday 20th. Stil at work Colonel Worster sot out to go down to Albany and a number of men with him this morning 10 Men were a going to the half way Brook to guard the Post and the Indians way laid them and kild 9 of them & 1 got in safe and they rallyd out from the Brook 100 & went back to see what was the Matter and they laid wait for them & they fired upon the front first and kiled 2 Captains and 2 Leiutenants on the spot & our men were supprised and run back all but a few and they stood a little while & lost 17 men the engagement began son 2 hours high about a nowr after Leiut. Smith & 200 of our men went down to help guard the teames down to Fort Edward.

Friday 21st. This day at knight Leiut. Smith came back & very poor he was the rest of the guard returned well.

Saturday 22d. This day Colonel Partrages[46] rigiment were resolved to have their full Allowance or go of and they got it[47]—a small shower & at night our post came in and our Men that stayed behind came up I received a letter from Home.

[Footnote 46: Partridge's.]

[Footnote 47: They were volunteers.]

Sonday 23d. Went to meeting and the text was in the 3 chapter of John & the 16 verse & in the after noon the Text was in the 6 chapter of Micah 6 & 7 verses this day wet & hard showers.

Monday 24th. This day a week ago Ensign Robins died at Albany this day Henry Morris came up to Lake George with 2 Waggon Loads of Rum and sold it right of—

Tuesday 25th. Captain Holmes and 5 of our men went down to the half way Brook to be stashoned their til Furder orders—at 9 Ock one James Makmehoon[48] was hanged upon the galloes upon the top of the Rockka noose[49] our post came in and I was released from the Haspital work.

[Footnote 48: M'Mahon?]

[Footnote 49: This locality can not be identified.]

Wednesday 26th. Majer putnom had orders to list 400 ranjers and listed some to day.

Thursday 27th. This day the Captains of the Companys drawed out 9 men of a company for ranjers.

Friday 28th. There was about 40 teams & wagons a coming up about half way between Forte Edward and half way Brook and a scout of French & Indians way laid them and kiled every ox and destroyed all their stors every thing[50] and about midnight our camps were alarmd of it and Majer putnom rallyd about a 1000 Men & went after them.

[Footnote 50: Rogers, in his Journal, speaks of this occurrence. He says it was on the 27th, and that one hundred and sixteen men were killed, of whom sixteen were rangers.]

Saturday 29th. This day Rogers went upon the track with his ranjers[51] and sent back for all the picket guard and they went & this day I was very poor & took a portion of fizik.

[Footnote 51: He went out with seven hundred men, to intercept the marauding party, but they escaped.]

Sonday 30th. This morning by break of day som of Majer putnoms men that he left with the Battoes spied some more a coming down the Lake and they com & told & Limon rallyd up about 2000 men and went up the Lake I was poor and went to meeting Mr. Ingarson[52] preach'd & his text was in salms the 83 & the 14 & 15 & the after noon the text was in Duteronemy 32 & 29 verse.

[Footnote 52: Ingersoll.]

Mon. 31st. 9 of our Newingland Men were put under guard for making a false larrom about the battoes coming down upon us & also one regular that Rogers took that desarted last year to the French from us.

Tuesday August 1st. Their was about 700 men went down to the Half Way Brook to be stashond their and 8 of our company and Captain Holmes came back.

Wednes. 2. To day Jineral Limon came in of a scout & the men that went with him and Rogers and putnom went of a scout with 14 or 15 hundred for 10 days[53] this day Craft died and was buried Stephen Lyon come of scout.

[Footnote 53: Rogers says that, on his return from his attempt to intercept the marauding party, he was met by an express, with orders to march toward the head of Lake Champlain, at South and East bays, to prevent the French marching upon Fort Edward. There he was joined by Major Putnam and Captain Dalyell or D'Ell.]

Thurs. 3rd. Two of our men went out a fishing for 2 days but had poor luck.

Friday 4th. We had orders to march to Fort Edward & I washed up my clothes.

Sat. 5th. This morning about half our rigiment marched forward to build brest Works along upon the road in some bad places we arived at Fort Edward at 9 O clock & we Built 2 Brest works.

Sonday 6th. We drawd 3 days provision and this afternoon the Rest of our Rigiment came down and the teams that went up the day Before we received our pacet[54] of letters from home.

[Footnote 54: Packet.]

Monday 7th. Cap.n & all that were able to go were ordered to guard down to Fort Miller and back again.

Tues. 8th. In the morning we were drawd out for work and worked the fore noon then we were ordered to fix every Man in the rigiments to make ready, to go out to help Majer putnom and we met them a coming in about son down and we helpt them a long as far as we could & that nite & lay out that nite & 3 of the wounded men died there and Ben Deny for one.[55]

[Footnote 55: A severe engagement took place on Clear river, the west branch of Wood creek, about a mile northwest from Fort Anne village (then the site of a picketed blockhouse, called Fort Anne), between a party of rangers and provincials under Rogers, Putnam, and Captain Dalyell, or D'Ell, and about an equal number of French and Indians under Molang, a famous partisan leader. The English troops were marching when attacked: Putnam was in front, with the provincials; Rogers was in the rear, with his rangers; and D'Ell in the centre, with the regulars. Molang attacked them in front, and a powerful Indian rushed forward and made Putnam a prisoner. The provincials were thrown into great confusion, but were rallied by Lieutenant Durkee, who was one of the victims of the Wyoming massacre twenty years afterward. D'Ell, with Gage's light infantry, behaved very gallantly, and the rangers finally put the enemy to flight. The latter lost about two hundred men. Colonel Prevost, then in command at Fort Edward, sent out three hundred men, with refreshments for the party, and all arrived at Fort Edward on the 9th. This was the relief-party mentioned in the text, under date of the 8th.]

Wed. 9th. We got in about 8 a clock & Buried the dead & the wounded were dresd & carried over on the Island[56] Powers came up with a load of Settlers[57] stores and treated us well.

[Footnote 56: This is an island in the Hudson, opposite Fort Edward, and known as Rogers's island.]

[Footnote 57: Sutler's.]

Thur. 10th. I was cald out to work upon the Block house this day our post went of home with our letters.

Friday 11th. We went up to guard teams to Half Way Brook and to Build a Brest Work 36 Ox teams & 6 Wagons.

Sat. 12th. Colonel Phich[58] had a letter from Major putnom at tiantiroge[59] he is taken prisoner.[60]

[Footnote 58: Fitch.]

[Footnote 59: Ticonderoga.]

[Footnote 60: The Indian who seized Putnam tied him to a tree, and for a time he was exposed to the cross-fire of the combatants. His garments were riddled by bullets, but, strange to say, not one touched his person. He was carried away in the retreat, his wrists tightly bound with cords. The Indians rejoiced over the capture of their great enemy, and he was doomed to the torture. In the deep forest he was stripped naked, bound to a sapling, wood was piled high around him, the death-songs of the savages were chanted, and the torch was applied. Just then a heavy shower of rain almost extinguished the flames. They were again bursting forth with fiercer intensity, when a French officer, informed of what was going on, darted through the crowd of yelling savages, and released the prisoner. He was delivered to Montcalm at Ticonderoga, then sent to Montreal, and, after being treated kindly, was exchanged for a prisoner taken by Colonel Bradstreet at Frontenac.]

Son. 13th. Day the chief of our men upon duty and the rest went to meeting the afternoon the text was in the 2nd of timothy the 1st chapter & 10 verce.

Mon. 14. I had nothing to du I rote a letter to John.

Tues. 15. I was upon picit[61] guard & wet and stormy it was 1 of the regalars whipt for sleping upon guard.

[Footnote 61: Picket.]

Wednesday 16. The ranjers discoverd a scout of French & com in to Fort Edward and all that were able were ready at a minits warning to day I sent a Letter to John Lyon.

Thursday 17th. w, p, 31 stripes stil & Nothing to do the Liev.ts fixed up their tents.

Friday 18th. 6 of our men were ordered to go over to work upon the Block House over the river I was raly tired at night.

Saturday 19th. I washed My clothes Col fitch at Salatogue.

Sonday 20th. We were almost all out upon duty to work at the High Ways and in the after noon a very hard shower which sot our tents all aflote.

Monday 21st. I went down to Fort Mizerey[62] & I heard of John Day's death at Saletogue this day Morris came up and we lived well.

[Footnote 62: Fort Misery was a breastwork at the mouth of Moses's kill, or creek, a short distance from Fort Miller, on the east side of the Hudson.]

Tuesday 22d. I went up the river to look for a horse Steven & I was cald upon picit guard.

Wednesday 23d. I went out to look oxen and was treated well 1 mans gun went of and cut of his finger we drove out the 2 men out of the Block House kep the great Cattle.

Thursday, 24th. I was cald out to guard up teams and to work on the road & had a Jil of rum for it Zachariah Catlin died at Fort Edward.

Friday 25th. I was cald upon the quorter guard & we heard the great guns that were fired at the Lake[63] they shot at a mark and our Provinshals beat them & it made them very mad.

[Footnote 63: At Fort George, at the head of Lake George.]

Saturday 26. David Lyon and Barnes sot out to go to Albany sick this day they held a rigimental Court Mershal upon 3 deserters of Captain Mathers company one William Cannody & William Clemanon were Judged to have 1000 Lashes and to day receved 200 & 50 stripes a peace tother was forgiven.

Sonday 27. I was out upon the works at the great Block House we were out of provision we drawed for 7 days & but 4 gorn so the regalers shot Pigeons and our men did so to.

Monday 28th. Every Private in our company was out upon duty that was able, & about 4 a clock we came in and the orders were that every man should make ready to fire 3 valleys[64] and first they fired the cannon at the Fort one after tother round the Fort which is 21 then the small arms & so 3 rounds a piece and then made a great fire on the Perrade and played round it & 1 Jil of Rum a man aloud for the frollic & a Barrel of Beer for a Company[65] & very wet knight.

[Footnote 64: Volleys.]

[Footnote 65: It was the king's birthday. The firing of twenty-one heavy guns formed a royal salute.]

Tuesday 29th. Very wet in the Morning then cleared of cold I went upon duty and sent a Letter Home.

Friday September ye 1st. Our duty was to help git out the Cannon out of the Bottom of the river that was dropt in by the means of going to near the end of the Brig[66] and sunk the scows and drownd 1 ox very cold work A woman whipt 70 stripes & drumed out of Camp.

[Footnote 66: Bridge.]

Saterday 2nd. I was cald upon the pickit guard to day last nite I went down to Fort Misketor[67] & Smith Ainsworth treated us well.

[Footnote 67: Fort Musquito was a breastwork cast up at the mouth of Snooks' creek.]

Sonday 3rd. I was out upon the escort and every man upon som duty I went to meeting part of the fore noon and the text was in acts 24 & 25 Charles Ripla was put in Ensign.

Monday 4th. Our Post sot of home I went down to Fort Misketor to guard teams and the Post and the Lobster's[68] and our men hopt & rassled[69] together to see which would beat and our men Beat.

[Footnote 68: This was a nickname for the regular troops, who were dressed in scarlet uniforms.]

[Footnote 69: Wrestled.]

Tuesday 5th. Stil & Nothing strange.

Wednesday 6th. Most all of our men upon duty I was to work a making a road to go up to the great Block House.

Thursday 7th. All our men out upon works guardin teams a great number of them nigh 100 & when we came back their was a scout com in to Fort Edward that went out from the Lake they discoverd nothing.

Friday 8th. This day sergent Erls went out to Fort An[70] after the Con-nu[71] & Lieut. Larnard & Ephraim Ellinghood Knap & John Richason and Jeb Brooks & Hezekiah Carpenter they 6 of our company 40 in all went along I went to work at the high way & had half a pint of Rum for it.

[Footnote 70: Fort Anne was erected in 1757, a year before the occurrences here narrated took place. It was a strong blockhouse of logs, with portholes for cannon and loopholes for musketry, and surrounded by a picket of pine-saplings. When the writer visited the spot in 1848, he dug up the part of one of the pickets yet remaining in the earth, and, on splitting it, it emitted the pleasant odor of a fresh pine-log, though ninety years had elapsed since it was placed there. This fort was near the bank of Wood creek, about eleven miles from the head of Lake Champlain, at the village of Whitehall. It was in the line of Burgoyne's march toward the Hudson, in 1777; and near it quite a severe skirmish took place between Colonel Long, of Schuyler's army, and a British detachment under Colonel Hill, on the 8th of July, the day after Ticonderoga was abandoned to the enemy. Victory was almost within the grasp of Colonel Long, when his ammunition failed, and he was compelled to retreat.]

[Footnote 71: Canoe.]

Saterday 9th. I was warned a quarter guard and I changed with Moses Peak and went upon the Escort & got in by 12 a clock I was warned out to work but did not do much sergent Erls com in with his Con-nu—and the Jineral was much pleased with it.

Sonday 10. I was upon guard but went to meeting a part of the fore noon and the text was in the 24 of Acts & 25 verce & the Afternoon the text was in James the 6th & 12 verce.

Monday 11. I took 4 days provision & Josh Barrit and one ranjer with me & we went out near fort An and we spied a fire and som person and we com back and made our report to the Jeneral & he blamed us som and said we should have a new pilot and go again. Jo Downer put under guard.

Tuesday 12th. I was freed from duty and we went & split out som plank to du up our tent.

Wednesday 13th. To work in the Fort a wheeling gravel all day 4 regulars whipt in Fort som for gaming & one for being absent after being warned upon guard.

Thursday 14th. I was warned on Escort down to Mizzery[72] and flankt all the day Tuesday 12 at night there was 2 Bonfires & 2 Barrels of Rum aloud for the Rejoicing of Broad Street's taking Catarocrway.[73]

[Footnote 72: Fort Misery.]

[Footnote 73: The Indian name of the site of Fort Frontenac (where Kingston, Upper Canada, now stands), taken by Colonel Bradstreet, was Cataraqua. That was also the Indian name for Lake Ontario.]

Friday 15th. Day I was to work over upon the Island & worked hard a shovling dirt &c Ephraim Ellinghood taken poorly.

Saturday 16th. Day I went to cuting fassheens[74] & stented 4 a peace in half a day & 12 stakes.

[Footnote 74: Fascines—bundles of sticks, mixed with earth, and used for filling ditches in the construction of forts.]

Sonday 17th. All our men upon works Mr. Pomri[75] preachd 1 sermon & his text in James Chapter 5th & 12 verce Stephen child had a post to Albany and sot out this day one regular com in that was a fishing at half way Brook.

[Footnote 75: Pomeroy.]

Monday 18th. I was to work over to the Block House and took my Farewel of working their & all our sick were drawd up & som dischargd.

Tuesday 19th. 4 of our company had a final discharge from the Campain & sot of home Seth Bassit Jonathan Corbin John Peak & Silas Hoges.

Wednesday 20th. Stil Here the main of us & Nothing remarkable only almost all our woodstock men came up & with great Joy we recived them & much more the things that were sent us, I receved a letter from Ben Lyon.

Thursday 21st. Nothing remarkable this day.

Friday 22nd. Our Woodstock Old melisha[76] sot out home & Lieutenant Smith & Corperal Peak & William Mercy & Samuel Leavins had a pass to Albany and went with them along down and Many more that did not Belong to our Company.

[Footnote 76: Militia.]

Saturday 23d. Our Post came up and I received a Letter from home.

Sonday 24th. Mr. Pomry[77] preachd one sermon in the middle of the day so that the work men might Have som opportunity to hear som his text was in Ezekiel the 37 Chapter & 36 verce I was to work upon the Island & I heard part of the sermon.[78]

[Footnote 77: Pomeroy.]

[Footnote 78: The channel between Rogers's island, on which the great blockhouse was built, and Fort Edward, does not exceed two hundred feet in width.]

Monday 25. Nothing remarkable only Stephen Lyon got hurt Samuel Morris & Chub went down along to Albany.

Tuesday 26th. One scout went out for 3 days this day a great number of teams came down from the Lake.

Wednesday 27th. The Thompson men that came up to see us sot out for newingland and sergent Cromba had a pass to Albany & went down along.

Thursday 28th. Nothing remarkable only the scout came in that went out for 3 days.

Friday 29th. Nothing remarkable only very long orders &c.

Saturday 30th. Nothing remarkable only the crissning[79] of the Royal Block House and the whole of our rigiment that were able went over to work and had a good frolick to drink the Men in Jeneral worked well at the intrenching round the Block House the trench 3 foot deep.

[Footnote 79: Christening.]

Sonday October ye 1st. Nothing remarkable but somthing very strange, & that is the Camps were so stil and no work going foward nor no prayers nor no sermon & a Jil of Rum into the Bargain this we had from the Jenerals our month promised to us yesterday Mr. Pomri went down to Seratoga to see his son that was sick and to day he come back &c.

Monday ye 2nd. All the rigiment that were able to work went over to the Block House besides what wos upon guard and they were divided into 4 parties and they that got don first was to have the Best fat sheep 1 sheep to each party I was upon the grass Guard & at night I found it very tedious Lying out for it stormed exceding hard all night.

Tuesday ye 3rd. Our mes being all of duty we made us up 2 Straw bunks for 4 of us to lay in and as it hapened we did it in a good time for it was a very cold night.

Wednesday ye 4th. Being very cold Corperal Sanger & Eliezer Child had a pas down to Albany & Likewise a small scout went for Number four & we made our chimney serjant Kimbal was broke and turned into the ranks.

Thursday 5th. Jeneral Ambross[80] arrived at Fort Edward about 12 a clock & immediately he went of to the Lake nothing more remarkable to day.

[Footnote 80: General Amherst.]

Friday 6th. Henry Lyon and Ephraim Ellinghood poorly and cleared from duty 3 men whipt about 3 hundred lashes apeace & 1 woman 2 & 50 Lashes on bear rump.

Saterday 7th. Our Picket went up toward the Half way brook to meet jeneral Ambros[81] & about 3 a clock he arrived at Fort Edward and at 2 a clock the picket went down with him again and his wagon & 6 horses.

[Footnote 81: Amherst.]

Sonday 8. In the fore noon all our men upon works in the afternoon we were aloud to attend meeting & Mr Pomy[82] Preached one sermon & his text was in Ezekiel 36 & 37 verce our family this day had a great rariryty for diner and that was a Bild Puden.

[Footnote 82: Pomeroy.]

Monday 9. Nothing remarkable among us this day.

Tuesday 10. I was upon Guard and a very stormy day & Night it was orders came out strickt that all fires should be put out by 8 of the clock in the morning and not to have no more til 6 at night & they that dont obey the orders are to have their chimney tore down & not to have no other during this campaign Colonel Fitch lost a Barrel of wine.

Wednesday 11th. Stil warm & wet som of our Rigiment discharged Home but none of our company.

Thursday 12. A very clear cold morning all our men upon works & upon guard that were able Colonel Harts Rigiment of the Hampshier march down to Fort Edward in order for Home.

Friday 13th. All our men upon works again to day 3 dischargd vis Richard jordin, Stephen Lyon & John Howlet, at night 300 of the Bay men came down sick & 2 of them that carrad their packs died in the night.

Saturday 14th. All warned out upon works but the stormy wether defeted them in it the Regulars which came down from the Lake with us have orders to march next friday down along in order for their winter quorters at Hallefax[83] this night the sentry which stood at the Southerd of the store House spied a man a gitting of Flour and he haild him 3 times but he would not stop and the sentry fired but did not hit him & in his hurry he left his tom me hawk[84] & one shoe.

[Footnote 83: Halifax, Nova Scotia.]

[Footnote 84: Tomahawk.]

Sonday ye 15. Very cold all upon works & guard by son rise this evening their came in a great number of teams & Samuel Peak Brought the malancoly news of Stephen Childs being Kilde and skulpt[85] and another Captivated I was out upon the grass guard.

[Footnote 85: Scalped.]

Monday 16th. All upon works & all the teams sot of for the Lake 12 men taken from the quorter guard to guard teams this evening there came in a great number of waggons and hundred or better.

Tuesday 17th. Being very pleasant in the Morning then showery & wet all the rest of the day til 10 a clock at knight—about 12 oclock at night the teams came in with the Artillira—this day a number of our men went down to Fort Miller in battoes to carry the sick and Cap.ns Bag went down & the men stayed out.

Wednesday 18th. Being cold the teams sot out for the Lake—about 40 of the Kings waggons—this afternoon their was a Lobster[86] Corperel married to a Road Island whore—our men came in from Fort Miller.

[Footnote 86: British regular.]

Thursday 19th. Our rigiment was mustered by 9 a clock in the morning & our Brigade-major cald over the role of each company and after that we had a drink of flip[87] for working over at the Royal Block House—at one of the clock our men were all calld to work—A Court morshol held at Capt. Holmes tent & Captain Holmes President & at the role of the Pickit guard their was one Isac Ellis whipt 30 stripes—was to had 50—Col. Henmans[88] men came in loaded with Artillira stores.

[Footnote 87: A mixture of beer and rum, warmed by thrusting a hot iron into it.]

[Footnote 88: Hinman's.]

Friday 20th. Cold stil & our men all upon works—this afternoon Lieut. Smith came up to us again from Green Bush, & Shubal child came to his team.

Saturday ye 21st. Still cold—in the morning our men cald out to work by sonrise or before & 6 of our company viz. David Bishop Ephraim Ellingwood Samuel Mercey Nathaniel Abbott David Jewet and Drake marched of with their Packs—this night their came down a great number of teams from ye Lake here loded with cannon Balls and Bum shells. Likewise a number of sick came down.

Sonday 22. The teams set out for ye Lake again—I was upon the quarter guard—a large number of sick sot out for Home & it yet held cold & at night it cleared of very clear & stil but very fresing cold & a black frost.

Monday ye 23rd. I come of guard—Clerk Burrows began his Month with bess—at night 3 rigiments of Province men came down from ye Lake & Lodged in the wood near the uper Block House—a number of teames down from ye Lake Loaded with Artilliry stores.

Tuesday 24th. A number of teames started for ye Lake again—I received 2 Letters from Capt. Benjamin Lyon & 1 from Joshua—the Post came up yesterday to Fort Edward—This day our drawing & we had good pork—3 rigiments of Bay men moved down along which was Colonel Pribbels[89] Colonel Williams & Colonel Nichols.

[Footnote 89: Prebles.]

Wednesday 25th. Jineral Abbacromba arived at Fort Edward near night and all our rigiment there were of duty were ordered to be out upon the perrade with their side arms on but the jineral for Bid it—Col.l Partrages rigiment came down & some of the Lather caps & stayed Here.

Thursday ye 26th. Stormy morning—snow pretty wet & raw cold—I went upon the pickit last night and had one Quort of rum for keeping sheep.

Friday 27th. Being lowry & wet one of our men Discharged home & sot of—Nathaniel Barnes a number of teams sot out for the Brook & returned again before son down.

Saterday 28th. Being stil cold all our men turned out to work son rise & that want a Nuf & they sent for every weighter[90] & every one that belongs to the rigiment—a number of teams sot out down Home ward & 3 of our company went with them viz. Sergt. Armsba Jonathan Child and Pain Convis—this after noon the orders came out that every setler[91] that Belongs to the Provinshols should Quit this place by the first of November.

[Footnote 90: Waiter.]

[Footnote 91: Sutler.]

Sonday ye 29th. Rany & wet—about 9 o clock in the morning Every man in the Rigiment that could go went to the falls[92] to help Draw down the battoes and very muddy it was.

[Footnote 92: The "third fall," as it was called, in the Hudson, at Sandy Hill.]

Monday ye 30th. Being very pleasant in the morning we were all turned out after Battoes up to the falls & we went twice apeace.

Tuesday ye 31st. All our men turned out by the Revallies[93] Beating to go after Battoes & jineral Provorce[94] was out amongst our tents to help turn us out & he said it was the last work we should do that was flung up to day—I went upon the Quarter guard at noon and they got down all the Battoes.

[Footnote 93: Reveille.]

[Footnote 94: Provost.]

Wednesday November ye 1st. Lowry & wet I come of guard our men all upon works & 3 rigiments of our Conneticuts came down about noon & Colonel Whitings had orders to go over to the Royal Block House and their to remain til further orders and tother 2 rigiments Sot of Home in Battoes & 2 or 3 rigiments of lobsters—we had orders com out that we should have 2 days to clean up in & to set for Home on Sonday—this day I wrote a Letter & sent to John.

Thursday ye 2nd. Very cold—our men turned out to cutting fashheens & the orders were that it was the last days work that we should do.

Friday ye 3d. Very cold—our men all turned out upon works notwith Standing yesterdays promise—our men had but poor incouragements to work & laid but Little weight to what the jineral promised them for he said the first man that disobeyed his orders again should be shot to death whatsoever soldier or officer.

Saturday 4th. I was orderly after the jineral & our men all to work a drawing in Canon into the fort & our quorter guard was not releaved til after noon & after that orders com out that we should strike our tents by 8 oclock and be ready to march by 9—one Cimbals got his discharge from the regular service to day.

Sonday ye 5th. Being very cold it began to rain so that we were detained but Colonel Whiting Marched of—rainy all day Long—we had orders to be ready to march at 7 Oclock in the morning.

Monday ye 6th. Cloudy stil—at 8 Oclock we struck our tents & at 9 aclock we marched of & about half after 12 we arrivd at Fort Miller and made a little stop then marched again and arived at Saratoga Son about one hour high & made no stop their but marched on about 3 mile & Encampt in the woods.

Friday ye 10th. Very stormy & snow in the Morning—we drawd 2 days alowance of provissions but no money and about 2 o clock we sot out from Green Bush & arivd at Cantihook Town about ten a clock at knight—13 of us & Lieutenant Larnard.

Saturday 11th. From thence we marched son two Hours high & arivd at John Hug gar Booms[95] & revived our selves a little & bought som rum that belonged to Colonel Whitens Rigiment & from thence to Love Joys & went to supper & from thence to Robberses & lodged their in the Patterroon lands.[96]

[Footnote 95: Hogeboom's.]

[Footnote 96: See note 8.]

Sonday 12th. Being stil cold we sot out at Son rise & arived at Bushes in Sheffield and had a good brecfirst & their was moore with Horses & from thence to Larrances & revivd our selves their—to Coles & thence to Seggick in Cornwel & then to Wilcocks in Goshen & Lodged their.

Monday 13th. Cold—I com up to Holleboate & sent my Pack a long from goshen & then we marched and arived at Litchfield & then to Herrintown to Wiers & from their to Strongs in Farmingtown & Lodged their.

Tuesday 14th. Very cold & frosty—marched 5 mile through the Meadows & went to Brecfast and com to Mercies and stayed their & capt.n Holmes came up.

Wednesday 15th. We marched & arived at Chenys in Bolton and from thence we marched and Arived at Lees in covantry[97] & Lodged their—very rainy Stephen Lyon met us with the Horses.

[Footnote 97: Coventry.]

Thursday 16th. Being warm & pleasant we arived at Woodstock.

NOTE.—The soldiers had, necessarily, a great deal of leisure during permanent camp-duties, and contrived various ways to amuse themselves, and "kill time." In those days the common soldiers carried their powder in the horns of cows or oxen, and many amused themselves by ornamenting them by a skilful use of their knives. Below is a specimen of one of these ornamented horns, prepared during the campaign of 1758. Upon it is neatly cut the figure of a fortified building (a part of which is seen in the engraving), the owner's name, and a verse, as follows:—

"Eluathan Ives His Horn, Made at Lake George, September ye 22d, Ad. 1758.

"I, powder, With My Brother Baul A Hero like do Conquer All. Steel not this Horn For Fear of Shame For on it is the Oners name. The Roos is Red, the Grass is Green— The Days Are past Which I Have Seen"



A JOURNAL FOR 1775, A. D.



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

The following is a literal transcript of a Journal kept by a common soldier named SAMUEL HAWS, of Wrentham, Massachusetts, who appears to have been one of the minute-men, organized toward the close of 1774 and early in 1775. At that time there were about three thousand British troops in Boston, under General Thomas Gage, who was also governor of the colony of Massachusetts. He was popularly regarded as an oppressor; and act after act of the British government, during a year preceding, had convinced the American people that they must choose the alternative to submit or fight. They resolved to fight, if necessary. During the summer of 1774, the people commenced arming, and training themselves in military exercises; the manufacture of arms and gunpowder was encouraged; and throughout Massachusetts, in particular, the people were enrolled in companies, and prepared to take up arms at a moment's warning. From this circumstance they were called "MINUTE-MEN."

With his strong force, Gage felt quite certain that he could suppress the threatened insurrection, and keep the people quiet. Yet he felt uneasy concerning the gathering of ammunition and stores by the patriots at Concord, sixteen miles from Boston; and on the night of the 18th of April, 1775, he sent a detachment of soldiers to seize them. They proceeded by the way of Lexington, where they arrived at dawn of the 19th. The expedition became known, and the country was aroused. When the British approached Lexington, they were confronted by about seventy minute-men. A skirmish ensued: eight patriots were killed, and several were wounded. That was the first bloodshed of the Revolution. The British then went on to Concord, to seize the stores, where they were again confronted by minute-men. Indeed, they had been annoyed all the way by them, as they fired from behind buildings, stone-walls, and trees. They destroyed the stores, and in a skirmish killed several more American citizens. The country was now thoroughly aroused, and the minute-men hastened toward Lexington and Concord from all directions. The British found it necessary to retreat, and nothing saved the whole troop sent out the night before from utter destruction, but a strong reinforcement under Lord Percy. The whole body retreated hastily to Charlestown, and across to Boston, with a loss, in killed and wounded, of two hundred and seventy-three men. Intelligence of the tragedy soon spread over the country, and from the hills and valleys of New England thousands of men, armed and unarmed, hastened toward Boston, and formed that force (of which our Journalist was one) that, for nine months, kept the British army prisoners upon the peninsulas of Boston and Charlestown. By common consent, Artemas Ward, a soldier of the French and Indian war, was made commander-in-chief, and he performed the duties of that office with zeal until he was superseded by Washington, early in July, 1775.



A JOURNAL FOR 1775.



WRENTHAM,[98] April the 19.

About one a clock the minute men[99] were alarmed and met at Landlord Moons We marched from there the sun about half an our high towards Roxbury for we heard that the regulars had gone out and had killed six men and had wounded Some more that was at Lexinton then the kings troops proceded to concord and there they were Defeated and Drove Back fiting as they went they gat to charlstown hill that night[100] We marched to headens at Walpole[101] and their got a little refreshment and from their we marched to Doctor cheneys and their we got some victuals and Drink and from thence we marched to Landlord clises at Dedham[102] and their captain parson and company joined us and then we marched to Jays and their captain Boyd and company joined us and we marched to Landlord Whitings we taried their about one hour and then we marched to richardes and Searched the house and found Ebenezer aldis and one pery who we supposed to Be torys and we searched them and found Several Letters about them which they were a going to cary to Nathan aldis in Boston but makeing them promis reformation We let them go home then marching forward we met colonel graton[103] returning from the engagement which was the Day before and he Said that he would be with us amediately then we marched to Jamicai plain[104] their we heard that the regulars Were a coming over the neck[105] then we striped of our coats and marched on with good courage to Colonel Williams and their we heard to the contrary We staid their some time and refreshed our Selves and then marched to Roxbury parade and their we had as much Liquor as we wanted and every man drawd three Biscuit which were taken from the regulars[106] the day before which were hard enough for flints We lay on our arms until towards night and then we repaired to Mr. Slaks house and at night Six men were draughted out for the main guard nothing strange that night.

[Footnote 98: In Norfolk county, Massachusetts, thirty-two miles southwest from Boston.]

[Footnote 99: See introductory remarks. The skirmishes at Lexington and Concord occurred early in the morning of this day.]

[Footnote 100: See introductory remarks.]

[Footnote 101: Twenty-one miles from Boston.]

[Footnote 102: Thirteen miles from Boston.]

[Footnote 103: Colonel John Greaton. He was a bold officer, and commanded a corps which performed a sort of ranger service. At this time he was only a major. In June following he carried off about eight hundred sheep and lambs, and some cattle, from Deer island. About that time he was promoted to the rank of colonel. In the middle of July, he led one hundred and thirty-six men, in whaleboats, to destroy forage and other property on Long island, in Boston harbor; and at one time he captured a barge belonging to a British man-of-war. In April, 1776, he accompanied General Thompson to Canada. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier in the continental army, in January, 1783.]

[Footnote 104: Jamaica Plain, six miles from Boston.]

[Footnote 105: The isthmus that connected the peninsula of Boston with the main, at Roxbury.]

[Footnote 106: The British soldiers were all called regulars. This word denotes soldiers belonging to the regular army, as distinguished from militia.]

D 21. Nothing remarkable this day.

D 22. Nothing Strange this D nor comical.

D 23. Being Sabath day we marched on to the parade their was an alarm this night but it prouved to be a falce one Some of our men went to Weymoth.[107]

[Footnote 107: Twelve miles southeast from Boston.]

D 24. Nothing strange to day.

D 25. Nothing remarkable to day.

D 26. We were guarded and a party draughted out for the mane guard.

D 27. The inlistment came out to inlist men for the masechusetts Service Some of our minute men inlisted the Same day but captain Pond went home and several of his company they went as far as Doctor cheanys that night and the next morning reached home on monday the company were called together in order to inlist men Lietunant messenger with a party went down to Roxbury and we Still remaing in Mr. Slaks house also on the same day their war four tories caried throug roxbury[108] to cambrigg[109] from marshfield[110] and their was a great Shouting when they came through the camp.[111]

[Footnote 108: One mile from Boston.]

[Footnote 109: Three miles northwest from Boston.]

[Footnote 110: Thirty-one miles southeast from Boston.]

[Footnote 111: Tories were those who adhered to the British. It is a name derived from the vocabulary of English politics in the time of Charles II. A tory, then, was an adherent of the crown; a whig was an opposer of the government. The word was first used in America about 1770.]

D 28. This day our regement paraded and went through the manuel exesise then we grounded our firelocks and every man set down by their arms and one abial Petty axedentely discharged his peace and shot two Balls through the Body of one asa cheany through his Left side and rite rist he Lived about 24 hours and then expired he belonged to Walpole[112] and he was caried their and Buried on the 30 day of April on Sunday after meting this young man was but a few days Before fired at by one main guard in atempting to pass the guard and was not hurt in the least.

[Footnote 112: Twenty-one miles southwest from Boston.]

D 29. About nine o clock the said cheney died about fore in the afternoon We had another alarm but their was nothing done.

30th. Being the Lord's day we went to meeting and heard Mr. Adams[113] and he preached a very Sutable Sermon for the ocation.

[Footnote 113: Rev. Amos Adams, a minister at Roxbury. He was a graduate of Harvard college. He died of dysentery, which prevailed in the camp, at Dorchester, on the 5th of October, 1775, in the forty-eighth year of his age.]

MAY.

1d. Nothing very remarkable this day.

2d-11. Nothing of consequence hapened.

12-14. No great for news.

15, 16. No news worth mentioning.

17. At night their was a fire broke out in Boston ocationed by the kings troops that were a dealing out their Stores when one of the Soldiers letting a candle fall amongst some powder and set it on fire which ocationed the Destruction of a great number of Buildings and killed some Soldiers and destroyed a considerable deal of their amunition Besides a great quantity of flower.

18, 19. Nothing very remarkable.

20. Nothing strange to day.

21. Being Sunday about eight o clock we were alarmed we heard that the regulars were a landing at Dorchester Point and that there was two Lighters gone to Weymoth Loaded with the Kings troops but it was a false alarm and their was nothing done.[114]

[Footnote 114: On Sunday morning, the 21st of May, the British commander sent two sloops and an armed schooner to take off a quantity of hay from Grape island. They were opposed by the people who gathered on the point nearest the island. These finally got two vessels afloat, went to the island, drove the British off, burnt eighty tons of hay, and brought off many cattle. There was some severe fighting during the affair. Mrs. John Adams, writing to her husband, said: "You inquire who were at the engagement at Grape island. I may say with truth, all of Weymouth, Braintree, and Hingham, who were able to bear arms.... Both your brothers were there; your younger brother with his company, who gained honor by their good order that day. He was one of the first to venture on board a schooner, to land upon the island." Mr. Adams was then in the Continental Congress, at Philadelphia.]

22. Nothing to day for news.

23-26. Nothing remarkable.

the 27. At night we heard the report of cannon and of Small arms but we could not tell from whence it was.[115]

[Footnote 115: On Saturday, May 27th, a detachment of Americans was sent to drive all the live stock from Hog and Noddle's islands, near Boston. They were observed by the British, who despatched a sloop, a schooner, and forty marines, to oppose them. They were fired on from the vessels, and quite severe skirmishing continued through the night. The Americans sent for reinforcements, and, at about nine o'clock at night, some three hundred men and two pieces of cannon arrived, commanded by General Putnam in person, and accompanied by Dr. Warren as a volunteer. They compelled the British to abandon their sloop, and the Americans took possession of it. The British lost twenty killed and fifty wounded. The Americans had none killed, and only four wounded. They captured twelve swivels and four four-pound cannon, besides clothing and money.]

the 28. Being Sunday we were informed that the firing we heard yesterday was at Nedlers[116] Island between the Kings troops and our men, our men killed several of them and took a number of field pieces and burnt two Schooners and they did not hurt any of our men.

[Footnote 116: Noddle's.]

the 29. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 30. Captain Ponds company moved to comodore Lorings house.[117]

[Footnote 117: Probably the house of Joshua Loring, jr., near Roxbury, who was a violent loyalist. General Gage made him sole auctioneer in Boston. He was afterward commissary of prisoners in New York. His wife is referred to in Hopkinson's poem, "The Battle of the Kegs."]

the 31. Being election day we drank the Ladies health and success.

June the 1. Nothing remarkable hapened this day.

the 2-8. Nothing remarkable hapened.

the 9. We passed muster Before colonel Robinson[118] and received one months pay.

[Footnote 118: Colonel John Robinson, who was second in command in the skirmish at Concord on the 19th of April. He commanded the detachment that guarded Boston neck, for some time. Speaking of that duty, Gordon remarks: "The colonel was obliged, therefore, for the time mentioned, to patrol the guards every night, which gave him a round of nine miles to traverse."]

the 10. Their was a man Whiped for Stealing.

the 11. Their was a soldier died at the hospittle which was the first that had died of Sickness since we incampt the same day their was two fire Ships[119] drumed out of the rhodisland compy.

[Footnote 119: Harlots.]

the 12. Nothing Strange this day.

the 13. Dito.

the 14. The general[120] seing the reinforcement of the Kings troops come to Boston ordered the comps to be in readeness also ordered that a number of teams be imploid in carting fusheens[121] and other materials for building Brest Works this being on thursday.

[Footnote 120: General Thomas, who had command of the right wing, extending from Roxbury to Dorchester. General Artemas Ward was the commander-in-chief until the arrival of Washington, early in July.]

[Footnote 121: Fascines. See note 74.]

the 15. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 16. Nothing of consiquence this day.

the 17. It being Saturday the Kings troops Landed at charlestown and set the whole town on fire and Laid it all in ashes then they proceeded to Bunkers hill[122] where colonel putnam intrenchet and after an engagement which Lasted the afternoon the troops took the Hill and it is said that the nearest computation of the Loss of the enemy was about 1500 is killed and wounded were alarmed about one o clock that day and went down to our alarm post and we lay their all the afternoon and about six o clock the troops fired from their Brest Work on Boston neck at our people in Roxbury and we staid until the firing was over and then our regiment was ordered to cambridge to asist our forces and we reached their about twelve o clock at night and Lodged in the meting house until break of day being Sunday we turned out and marched to prosket hill[123] expecting to come to an ingagement we halted at a house at the bottom of the hill and fixed for a battle then we marched up the hill where we went to intrenching about 12 o clock Some of our men went down the hill towards the troops after Some flower and the troops fired at them and wounded David Trisdale in the shoulder and another in the Leg about 4 o clock colonel Reed[124] ordered his regiment to march to roxbury and we arived their about sunset very weary.

[Footnote 122: This is a mistake. It was Breed's hill, nearer Charlestown and Boston than Bunker's hill. Colonel William Prescott, and not General Putnam, was entrenched there, and was in command during the engagement. He had been sent with a company, the night before, about a thousand strong, to throw up a redoubt on Bunker's hill. He made a mistake, and performed the work on Breed's hill. The British had no suspicion of the work that went on during that sultry June night, and were greatly alarmed when they saw a formidable breastwork overlooking their shipping in the harbor, and menacing the city. During the engagement, General Putnam was on Bunker's hill, urging on reinforcements for Prescott. Dr. Warren, just appointed major-general, joined Prescott as a volunteer during the battle, and was mortally wounded just as the conflict ended. It must be remembered that the writer of this Journal was in General Thomas's division, which did not participate in the battle of the 17th of June.]

[Footnote 123: Prospect hill. The Americans retreated from Breed's and Bunker's hills to Winter and Prospect hills, and Cambridge. The remains of the American entrenchments on Prospect hill were demolished in 1817.]

[Footnote 124: Colonel James Reed, of New Hampshire. He was active in the battle of the 17th. He was a brave officer, and was at the head of a regiment at Ticonderoga the following year.]

the 19. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 20. Dito.

the 21. Nothing worth a mentioning.

the 22. Dito.

the 23. Nothing remarkable to day.

the 24. The enemy fired again upon Roxbury about 3 o clock and the guards fired upon each other and their was one man killed and we were alarmed.[125]

[Footnote 125: The Americans were alarmed on the 24th by indications that the whole British army in Boston was about to force its way across Boston neck. At noon they commenced throwing bombshells into Roxbury, but the alert soldiers prevented damage from them, and saved the town. Colonel Miller, of Rhode Island, said in a letter—"Such was the courage of our men, that they would go and take up a burning carcass or bomb, and take out the fuse!"]

the 25. Sunday Nothing remarkable.

the 26. This morning very early our men went to set Browns house on fire but did not efect it.[126]

[Footnote 126: The house and barns of Thomas Brown were on the neck, about a mile from Roxbury meeting-house, and were occupied by the British advanced guard. Two Americans tried to set fire to the barn on the 24th, and were killed.]

the 27. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 28. We moved to a little house that capt Bligs formerly Lived in but we Soon moved from there to Slaks house again.

the 29. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 30. Nothing hapened only there was a Smart shower.

JULY.

the 1. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 2. Dito.[127]

[Footnote 127: The British again hurled some shells into Roxbury on Sunday, the 2d of July, but the extent of the damage was setting fire to one house, which was consumed.]

the 3. Dito.[128]

[Footnote 128: George Washington was chosen commander-in-chief of the continental armies on the 15th of June, 1775. He set out for the headquarters of the army at Cambridge on the 21st, reached there on the 2d of July, and took formal command of the army on the morning of the 3d.]

the 4. Their was a flag of truce come out of town to our centry on the neck.

the 5. Nothing worth a mentioning to day.

the 6. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 7. Early in the morning we were alarmed and all of us repaired to our alarm Post and we had not been their Long before we Saw Browns house and Barn on fire and they were both consumed[129] these were Set on fire by some of our brave ameracans and they took one gun and too Bagonets and one halbert.

[Footnote 129: A party of volunteers, under Majors Tupper and Crane, attacked the British advanced guards, drove them in, and set fire to Brown's house. They took several muskets, and retreated without loss.]

the 8, 9. Nothing remarkable.

the 10. About Eleven o clock their was a party of Soldier sent to germantown[130] to get some whale Boats they marched down their that night the next night being clear they set out for Long island and arived there in a Short time then they Plundred the island and took from thence 19 head of horned cattle and a number of Sheep and three Swine[131] also eighteen priseners and amongst them were three women.

[Footnote 130: It is impossible to identify this place. A letter, dated on the 12th, says, "We have just got, over land from Cape Cod, a large fleet of whaleboats," &c., &c. The place alluded to in the text was probably near Boston.]

[Footnote 131: This party went from Roxbury camp. The report says that they brought from Long island "fifteen prisoners, two hundred sheep, nineteen cattle, thirteen horses, and three hogs." The prisoners were taken to Concord.]

the 11. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 12. Major Tupper and his company returned to Roxbury with their prisoners and the same day their was a Party draughted out to go to Long island to burn the Buildings their when they were atacked by the Kings troops and had a smart engagement[132] but we Lost but one man and he belonged to Captain Persons company of Stoughton.[133]

[Footnote 132. The party under Colonel Greaton, mentioned in a preceding note.]

[Footnote 133: Twenty miles south from Boston.]

the 13. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 14. Nothing remarkable untill night and then their was a man killed at the main guard with a canon Ball.

the 15-17. Nothing remarkable.

the 18. Nothing remarkable this day.[134]

[Footnote 134: A strong party of Americans took possession of an advanced post in Roxbury, upon which the British kept up an incessant fire.]

the 19. We had an alarm and we went to our alarm Post and stayed their about one hour and could not discover any thing and so we returned to our Baracks again.

the 20. Their was a man killed who belonged to captain Bachelors company in Col Reeds Regiment he was killed by a guns going accidentely of, he was shot about Seven o clock and died about nine o clock the same night his name was Wood Belonged to upton[135] he was about 24 or 25 years of age.[136]

[Footnote 135: Upton is thirty-five miles southwest from Boston.]

[Footnote 136: The 20th was observed throughout the camps as a day of fasting and prayer. Before daylight that morning, a party from Heath's regiment landed on Nantasket point, set fire to the lighthouse, and brought away a thousand bushels of barley and a quantity of hay.]

the 21-24. Nothing remarkable.

the 25. Our Regement with four more were under arms and marched towards cambridg to meet general Ward.

the 26. General Heaths regement moved from Dorchester to cambridg and Jeneral Wards regement moved from cambridg to Dorchester and took general Heath's Baracks.

the 27. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 28. Dito.

the 29. Nothing bad.

the 30. Being Sunday we had an alarm and went to our Fort[137] the same day there was a party of men draughted out to go to the Light house and major tupper was comander of the party.[138]

[Footnote 137: This was a very strong quadrangular work, on the highest eminence in Roxbury. It had four bastions, and in every respect was a regular work. It is now well preserved, the embankments being from six to fifteen feet in height from without.]

[Footnote 138: On that day the British, five hundred strong, marched over the neck, and built a slight breastwork to cover their guard. The American camp was in alarm all the day, and that night the troops lay on their arms. The tories in Boston were also alarmed, for they dreaded an invasion of the city by their exasperated countrymen.]

the 31. This day major tupper and his men returned to Roxbury with between thirty and forty prisoners some regulars and some torys and some mariens[139] and had something of a battle and we lost one man and another wounded and our men Burnt the Light house and took some plunder[140] thar was an alarm the firing began first at the floating Battery and then at the Brest Work and then the troops marched out and set the george tavern[141] on fire our men took one prisoner and the same night one of the enemy deserted and came to our centrys at Dorchester point and brought away with him too guns and too cartridg Boxes and 60 rounds of cartridgs all in good order and their was several more deserted to cambridg the same night.

[Footnote 139: Marines.]

[Footnote 140: The British commenced rebuilding the lighthouse on Nantasket point. Major Tupper, with three hundred men, attacked the working-party, killed ten or twelve men, and took the rest prisoners. He then demolished the works, but, before he could leave, some armed boats came to oppose him. In the skirmishing that ensued, fifty-three of the British were killed or captured. Tupper lost one man killed, and two wounded.]

[Footnote 141: A party of British troops sallied out toward Roxbury, drove in the American pickets, and burned the tavern which was situated upon the portion of the neck nearest Roxbury.]

AUGUST DOMINA 1775.

the 1. The floating Battery[142] went up towards Brookline fort[143] then our men perceiving her move they began to fire at her out of colonel Reeds fort untill they drove her back to her old place the same day they fired from Roxbury hill fort and it was said that they fired through their Baracks.

[Footnote 142: When the British built their breastwork on the neck, the Sunday previous, they had a floating battery brought into Charles river, and moored it within three hundred yards of Sewall's point.]

[Footnote 143: The Brookline fort was on Sewall's point, between Roxbury and Cambridge. It commanded the entrance to Charles river.]

the 2. Nothing remarkable this day.

the 3. Dito.

the 4. Nothing remarkable to day only I went to the main guard and the enemy fired at us as we came up.

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