THE MIRROR OF LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.
Vol. 20, No. 584. (Supplement to Vol. 20)
* * * * *
HISTORICAL NARRATIVES; BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS; SKETCHES OF SOCIETY; TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS; NOVELS AND TALES; ANECDOTES;
NEW AND EXPENSIVE WORKS;
POETRY, ORIGINAL AND SELECTED;
THE SPIRIT OF THE PUBLIC JOURNALS;
DISCOVERIES IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES;
USEFUL DOMESTIC HINTS;
&C. &C. &C.
* * * * *
The completion of the Twentieth Volume of this Miscellany presents us with another cause for self-gratulation, and thankful acknowledgement to the reading public. This continued and unimpaired success amidst a myriad of new-born aspirants, is the best proof of our maintenance of public esteem; and so long as our efforts are guided by the same singleness of purpose that first directed them we shall hope for a continuance of such favour. A multitude of contemporaries "whet each other;" "thinking nurseth thinking;" and, in like manner, reading nurseth reading, and awakens a spirit of inquiry, untiring and exhaustless, among all concerned in pursuit and wholesome gratification.
In a retrospect of the hundreds of competitors who have started for the prize of public patronage since our outset, we shall not, perhaps, be accused of vanity in placing to our own account the first appropriation of such means as may have contributed to the partial success of our contemporaries. We owe them nothing but good will; for we rather regard things poetically than politically, and we are anxious to inform and amuse the reader—not to perplex, by constantly reminding him of his uncheery lot in life.
Ten years' establishment in periodical literature may give us a sort of patriarchal feeling towards others; for, with one exception THE MIRROR is the oldest weekly journal of the metropolis. In this comparatively long career, our best energies have been directed to the progressive improvement of each department of the work. The plan of embellishment, which may be said to have originated with THE MIRROR, has been extended and improved, until few subjects are incapable of successful illustration in its pages; due regard being paid to nicety of execution, as well as attractive design. So much for the present, state of our "representative system."
The selection of materials for each sheet of THE MIRROR has been regulated by a desire to extend useful information, and to cultivate healthful indications of public taste. In a journal, like the present, mainly devoted to the accumulation of facts, errors and misstatements are inevitable; but, our own diligence, aided by sharp-sighted Correspondents, has, from time to time, guided us to accuracy in most cases, and directed fruitful inquiry upon matters of no ordinary interest or character. Scientific information, really made popular, and of ready, practical utility, has uniformly found admission in our pages; and, above all, subjects of natural history have received especial attention, in graphic illustrations—which part of our plan has been adopted by every cheap journal of the last four years; or, from the first pictorial description of the Zoological Gardens, before the publication of the catalogue by the Society; while it is a source of gratification to know that within the above period, natural history, from being almost confined to public museums and private cabinets, has become the most popular study and amusement of the present day.
Upon the continued cheapness of our little work, we do not intend to touch, more than by reference to the enlargement of the letter-press as commenced with the present volume. The alteration has, we believe, received general approbation; and, either with regard to the extent of the letter-press, or the condensed character of its subject-matter, we have still the satisfaction of knowing THE MIRROR to continue, as it has often been characterized by contemporaries, "the cheapest publication of the day." Its other merits we are content to leave to the discernment of each reader.
Our future volume will be conducted upon the plan of its predecessors, with such improvements as time and occasion may suggest. To one point, economy of space, we promise our best consideration; though we may not succeed in rivalling Mr. Newberry, who, the good humoured Geoffrey Crayon tells us, was the first that ever filled his mind with the idea of a good and great man. He published all the picture books of his day; and, out of his abundant love for children, he charged "nothing for either paper or print, and only a half-penny for the binding." Rest unto his soul, say we.
This lengthened, but we hope not ill-timed reference to our whole course of Twenty Volumes has left us but little occasion to speak of the present portion, individually; although we trust this reference would be somewhat supererogatory, from the unusual number of Illustrations, and a copious Index to the main subjects, of the volume.
To conclude. We thank all Correspondents for their contributions, and invite their cordial co-operation with our ensuing efforts. So now "plaudite! valete!"
December 26, 1832.
[Footnote 1: Bracebridge Hall, vol. i.]
* * * * *
* * * * *
WASHINGTON IRVING, ESQ.
AND HIS WORKS.
* * * * *
Washington Irving was born, in the State of New York, in the year 1782, and is, consequently, in his fifty-first year. His early life cannot better be told than in his own graceful language, prefixed to the most celebrated of his writings as "the author's account of himself."
"I was always fond of visiting new scenes, and observing strange characters and manners. Even when a mere child I began my travels, and made many tours of discovery into foreign parts and unknown regions of my native city, to the frequent alarm of my parents, and the emolument of the town-crier. As I grew into boyhood I extended the range of my observations. My holiday afternoons were spent in rambles about the surrounding country. I made myself familiar with all its places famous in history or fable. I knew every spot where a murder or robbery had been committed, or a ghost seen. I visited the neighbouring villages, and added greatly to my stock of knowledge, by noting their habits and customs, and conversing with their sages and great men. I even journeyed one long summer's day to the summit of the most distant hill, from whence I stretched my eye over many a mile of terra incognita, and was astonished to find how vast a globe I inhabited.
"This rambling propensity strengthened with my years. Books of voyages and travels became my passion, and in devouring their contents, I neglected the regular exercises of the school. How wistfully would I wander about the pier heads in fine weather, and watch the parting ships bound to distant climes; with what longing eyes would I gaze after their lessening sails; and waft myself in imagination to the ends of the earth.
"Farther reading and thinking, though they brought this vague inclination into more reasonable bounds, only served to make it more decided. I visited various parts of my own country; and had I been merely influenced by a love of fine scenery, I should have felt little desire to seek elsewhere its gratification; for on no country have the charms of nature been more prodigally lavished. Her mighty lakes, like oceans of liquid silver; her mountains, with their bright aerial tints; her valleys, teeming with wild fertility; her tremendous cataracts, thundering in their solitudes; her boundless plains, waving with spontaneous verdure; her broad, deep rivers, rolling in solemn silence to the ocean; her trackless forests, where vegetation puts forth all its magnificence; her skies, kindling with the magic of summer clouds and glorious sunshine:—no, never need an American look beyond his own country for the sublime and beautiful of natural scenery."
[Footnote 2: Sketch Book, vol. i.]
Mr. Irving began his career, as an author, in periodical literature. His first work was a humorous journal, entitled "Salmagundi, or the Whim-Whams and Opinions of Launcelot Langstaff, Esq. and Others," originally published in numbers in New York, where it met with a very flattering reception. The date of the first paper is Saturday, January 24, 1827.
Salmagundi has been several times reprinted in this country; and it may be acceptable to know, that the cheapest, if not the most elegant, edition may be purchased for twenty-pence. It would be difficult to explain the merits of Salmagundi to the reader, as they are of the most varied character; but, it may be remarked generally, that a vein of quaint humour and human kindness pervades these early papers, which will bring the reader and writer to the best possible terms.
This lively miscellany was followed by a humorous History of New York, with the somewhat droll nom of Dedrick Knickerbocker as its author. It possesses considerable merit, with a nice perception of the ludicrous; but, on its first appearance, this recommendation was generally overlooked, whether from the local interest of the subject, or the want of due judgment in its readers, it is difficult to determine.
About this period Mr. Irvine's name was heard in England, almost for the first time; his only claims to public notice resting entirely on Salmagundi, and the History of New York. He was indebted for his introduction to the acquaintance of European readers, to a young fellow-countryman of high attainments, who alludes to the above works and their author in the following terms:—"Mr. Irving has shown much talent and great humour in his Salmagundi and Knickerbocker, and they are exceedingly pleasant books, especially to one who understands the local allusions."
A few years subsequent to the publication of Knickerbocker, Mr. Irving visited England, or the "land of wonders," as he facetely terms our favoured isle. During his stay, he wrote a series of papers, illustrative of English manners, which were chiefly printed in America. These papers were afterwards published in a collected form, in England, under the title of "The Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent." and dedicated to Sir Walter Scott, "in testimony of the admiration and affection of the author." In the advertisement to the Sketch-Book, Mr. Irving thus modestly refers to its origin:
"The author is aware of the austerity with which the writings of his countrymen have hitherto been treated by British critics: he is conscious too, that much of the contents of his papers can be interesting only in the eyes of American readers. It was not his intention, therefore, to have them reprinted in this country. He has, however, observed several of them from time to time inserted in periodical works of merit, and has understood that it was probable they would be republished in a collective form. He has been induced, therefore, to revise and bring them forward himself, that they may at least come correctly before the public. Should they be deemed of sufficient importance to attract the attention of critics, he solicits for them that courtesy and candour which a stranger has some right to claim, who presents himself at the threshold of a hospitable nation."
Mr. Irving's solicitations were not made in vain, as the rapid sale of several editions must have convinced him; while every journalist in the empire hailed the work as the most beautiful specimen of Transatlantic talent which had been recognised in this country.
The two volumes of the Sketch-Book appeared at different periods; and, at the conclusion of the second, we find the following apologetic postscript: "The author is conscious of the numerous faults and imperfections of his work; and, well aware how little he is disciplined and accomplished in the arts of authorship. His deficiencies are also increased by a diffidence arising from his peculiar situation. He finds himself writing in a strange land, and appearing before a public, which he has been accustomed, from childhood, to regard with the highest feelings of awe and reverence. He is full of solicitude to secure their approbation, yet finds that very solicitude continually embarrassing his powers, and depriving him of that ease and confidence which are necessary to successful exertion. Still the kindness with which he is treated encourages him to go on, hoping that, in time, he may acquire a steadier footing; and thus he proceeds, half venturing, half shrinking, surprised at his own good fortune, and wondering at his own temerity."
The success of the Sketch-Book was followed by the almost equal fortune of "Bracebridge Hall, or the Humorists;" a series of scenes of Old English life, as displayed in one of those venerable halls, that rise, here and there, in a British landscape, as monuments of the hospitality of our ancestors, and better times. In the autobiographical chapter of this work, the writer thus pleasantly refers to his previous success, as "a matter of marvel, that a man, from the wilds of America, should express himself in tolerable English. I was looked upon as something new and strange in literature,—a kind of demi-savage, with a leather in his hand, instead of his head; and there was a curiosity to hear what such a being had to say about civilized society." In referring the circumstances under which he writes his second work on English manners, he says: "Having been born and brought up in a new country, yet educated from infancy in the literature of an old one, my mind was filled with historical and poetical associations, connected with places, and manners, and customs of Europe; but which could rarely be applied to those of my own country. To a mind thus peculiarly prepared, the most ordinary objects and scenes, on arriving in Europe, are full of strange matter, and interesting novelty. England is as classic ground to an American, as Italy is to an Englishman; and Old London teems with as much historical association as mighty Rome." There is, also, great amiability in the concluding paragraph:—"I have always had an opinion, that much good might be done by keeping mankind in good humour with one another. I may be wrong in my philosophy; but I shall continue to practise it until convinced of its fallacy. When I discover the world to be all that it has been represented by sneering cynics and whining poets, I will turn to and abuse it also; in the meanwhile, worthy reader, I hope you will not think lightly of me, because I cannot believe this to be so very bad a world as it is represented."
Soon after the publication of Bracebridge Hall, Mr. Irving left this country, where he had passed two years with literary and pecuniary advantage. He quitted England with a pathetic farewell; declaring that if, as he is accused, he views it with a partial eye, he shall never forget that it is his "fatherland." On the consanguinity of England and America too, and the cultivation of good feeling between them, he thus touchingly expresses himself in Bracebridge Hall: "We ask nothing from abroad that we cannot reciprocate. But with respect to England, we have a warm feeling of the heart, the glow of consanguinity that still lingers in our blood. Interest apart, past differences forgotten, we extend the hand of old relationship. We merely ask, do not estrange us from you, do not destroy the ancient tie of blood, do not let scoffers and slanderers drive a kindred nation from your side. We would fain be friends, do not compel us to be enemies." There is a manly affection in these sentiments which is truly admirable.
Mr. Irving's works, with the exception of his early efforts, had been the result of his love of travel: indeed, he describes himself as a traveller who has "surveyed most of the terrestrial angles of the globe." In similar vein, he next produced two volumes of "Tales of a Traveller," narrating legends of the continent, with masterly sketches of the scenery of the respective countries; the incidents of the Tales being fraught with points of grotesque humour, and abounding with pathos and poetic feeling.
[Footnote 3: Among Mr. Irving's early effusions are Lines written on the Falls of the River Pasaic which are not printed in the author's works, but will be found in The Mirror, vol. ii. p. 452.]
To these Tales succeeded a work of greater importance in literature than either of Mr. Irving's previous undertakings. We allude to a History of the Life and Voyages of Columbus, in four vols. 8vo., which appeared in the year 1828. Mr. Irving, at the time this work was first suggested to him, in the winter of 1825-6, was at Bordeaux; and, being informed that a biography was about to appear at Madrid, containing many important and some new documents relative to Columbus, he set off for the Spanish capital, to undertake the translation of the work. Mr. Irving, however, meeting with numerous aids at Madrid, resolved on producing an original history, which he has presented to the public with extreme diffidence: "all that I can safely claim," he observes, "is, an earnest desire to state the truth, an absence from prejudices respecting the nations mentioned in my history, a strong interest in my subject, and a zeal to make up by assiduity for many deficiencies of which I am conscious." This work has been abridged by Mr. Irving to one of the volumes of the Family Library. As we have intimated to the reader, it is of higher pretensions than either of the author's previous writings: a clever critic refers to it as "a spirited and interesting work, in which every thing is as judiciously reasoned as it is beautifully and forcibly expressed," and as "much more grave in its character and laborious in its execution than any of his preceding ones."
[Footnote 4: New Monthly Magazine.]
Mr. Irving's next production was "A Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada," in which the author's knowledge of Spanish history is made to shine in detailing the chivalrous glories of the New World.
In the spring of the present year it appears that Mr. Irving touched "the golden shores of old romance," and published Tales of the Alhambra; the origin of which work is thus told by the author. A few years since, Mr. Wilkie, the distinguished R.A. and Mr. Irving were fellow travellers on the continent. In their rambles about some of the old cities of Spain, they were struck with scenes and incidents which reminded them of passages in the Arabian Nights. Mr. Wilkie urged his companion to write something that should illustrate those peculiarities, "something in the Haroun Alraschid style" that should have a dash of that Arabian spice which pervades everything in Spain. Mr. Irving set about his task with enthusiasm: his study was the spacious Alhambra itself, and the governor gave the author and his companion, permission to occupy his vacant apartments in the Moorish palace: Mr. Wilkie soon returned to England, leaving Mr. Irving at the Alhambra, where he remained "for several months, spell-bound in the old enchanted pile." The result was two volumes of legends and traditions, which for interesting incident, and gracefulness of narrative, have few parallels in our romance-writing. They are dedicated, in good taste, to the ingenious originator, Mr. Wilkie.
[Footnote 5: For Two Illustrations and Notice of this interesting work, See Mirror, vol. xix. p. 337 to 342; whence the above origin of the work has been quoted.]
In person, Mr. Irving is of middle height; and, according to a contemporary, of "modest deportment and easy attitude, with all the grace and dignity of an English gentleman." Another describes him as "a most amiable man, and great genius, but not lively in conversation." His features have a pleasing regularity, and are lit up, at every corner, with that delightful humour which flows in a rich vein throughout his writings, and forms their most attractive charm.
[Footnote 6: Fraser's Magazine.]
Having noticed Mr. Irving's principal works, we have left but little occasion to speak of his general style. A contemporary has denominated him the "Goldsmith of the age;" and of Goldsmith we must remember that, in his epitaph, Dr. Johnson observes: "he left no species of writing untouched, and adorned all to which he applied himself"—a tribute which can scarcely be appropriately paid to any writer of our time. However, we know not any author that Mr. Irving so much resembles as Goldsmith: although no imitator, his style and language forcibly remind us of that easy flow so peculiar to the Citizen of the World. But, we have higher warrant for this parallel. "It seems probable," observes a critical writer of considerable acumen, "that Mr. Irving might prove no contemptible rival to Goldsmith, whose turn of mind he very much inherits, and of whose style he particularly reminds us. Like him, too, Mr. Irving possesses the art of setting ludicrous perplexities in the most irresistible point of view, and we think equals him in the variety of humour."
[Footnote 7: Quarterly Review.—Such is the variety displayed in the Salmagundi; the papers were supposed to be the joint efforts of several literati.]
To conclude, we find the literary character of Mr. Irving illustrated in a contemporary journal, with unusual spirit. "There never was a writer," observes the editor, "whose popularity was more matter of feeling, or more intimate than Washington Irving, perhaps, because he appeared at once to our simplest and kindliest emotions. His affections were those of 'hearth and home;' the pictures he delighted to draw were those of natural loveliness, linked with human sympathies; and a too unusual thing with the writers of our time—he looked upon God's works, and 'saw that they were good.' * * * With him the wine of life is not always on the lees. An exquisite vein of poetry runs through every page,—and of poetry, his epithets who does not remember—'the shark, glancing like a spectre through the blue seas.'"
[Footnote 8: Literary Gazette.]
* * * * *
A.B.C. botanical, 336 Abernethian, a true one, 160 Absence, Lord Lyttleton's, 318 Accumulation of Power, 55 Acid, Oxalic, 207 Tartaric, 206 Action in forces, time of, 55 Adam, death of, 133 Adieu, the, by Lord Byron, 12 Adrian and Apollodoras, the architect, 384 Advice, by a Man of the World, 10 AEtna, visit to the summit of, 202 Agincourt, ballad of, 101 Alchemy and Printing, 160 Ale, bad Saxon, 261 Burton, 304 All on one side, 318 Almanacs, Saxon, 54 American Deer, mode of hunting them, 339 Improvements, 102 Navy, 102 Newspapers, 102 Papermaking, 103 Prison Discipline, 286 Wolves, 340 Ancients and Moderns, by Voltaire, 163 Angelica Kauffman, anecdote of, 291 Angler, an odd one, 317 Animal Instinct exemplified, 327 Annuals for 1833: Amulet, 392—413 Book of Beauty, 386 Comic Offering, 389 Forget-me-not, 282 Friendship's Offering, 399 Hood's Comic, 287 Juvenile Forget-me-not, 334 Literary Souvenir, 420 Picturesque, 386 Antiquities, Domestic, 337 Antwerp, Citadel of, described, 405 City of, described, 369 Painters born at, 380 Aphorisms, choice, 442 Apologues, from the German, 403 Ararat, Mount, described, 313—379 Araspes and Panthea, anecdote of, 258 Architecture, ancient domestic, 274 Archy Armstrong, grave of, 416 Armada, the, by T.B. Macauley, Esq. 399 Armadillo, history of, 56 Armour, old English, 437 Arrogance, Feltham on, 271 Arrow Root, preparation of, 264 Arundel Castle, described, 157 Asmodeus in London, 364 Atmosphere, constitution of, 206 Atmosphere, properties of, 134 Auctions by the Drum, 330 Bachelors, Laws respecting, 35—339 Bagdad, plague at, 75 Bailly, physician to Henry IV., 96 Bar, anecdotes of the, 277 Barbel, large, 96 Bat, new species of, 408 Bath in Persia, described, 145 Baths, ancient and modern, 372 Battle, fish, 354 Beaches, sea, changes of, 79 Bear-hunting in Canada, 91 Beatrice Adony and Julius Alvinzi, a tale, 420 Beauchief Abbey, described, 113 Becket, murder of, 114 Bede, Venerable, memoir of, 440 Beefeaters, origin of, 80 Bees, economy of, 38 Beet root sugar, 88 Beetle, ravages of, 175 Bell, ancient, 345 Belvoir Castle, history of, 129 Bennett, Mr. George, visit to Rotuma, 377 Berwick, siege of, 222 Bewick, the engraver, birthplace of, 17 Bibb, the engraver, 368 Birds, bills of, 96 Birds, how they fly, 134 Birds, migration of, 40 Black Lady of Brabant, 140 Blacking, antiquity of, 192 Blessington, lady, her conversations with Lord Byron, 6—86—110—156—269 Blind Seal, the, a tale, 298 Blood, price of, 71 Bloodless War, 336 Boar's head at Christmas, 431 Bolsover Castle described, 161 Bond, Mr. Sergeant, anecdote of, 278 Bones, waste of, 366 Borough, origin of the term, 211 Boy Burglars, account of, 333 Books, new, noticed and quoted: Abrantes, Duchess of, her memoirs, 47—106—191 Babbage's Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 27—54 Barrington's Sketches, 52 Biblical Atlas, 44 British Museum, 140—158 Buccaneer, 428 Byron's Works, 12 Catechism of Phrenology, 45 Characteristics of Women, 117 Contarini Fleming, 10 Double Trial, 125 Elements of Chemistry, 206 Encyclopaedia Americana, 102 Excursions in India, by Capt. Skinner, 105 Framlingham, a Poem, 306 Geography, Questions in, 45 Gordon on Elemental Locomotion, 183—198 Knowledge for the People, 77—134—429 Life of Peter the Great, 300—308 Laconics, 31 Legends of the Library at Lilies, 350—403 Legends of the Rhine, 138 Life of Charlemagne, by G.P.R. James, 92—119 Lives of Scottish Worthies, 221—233 Macculloch's Dictionary of Commerce, 151—279 Memoir of Felix Neff, 147—171 Natural Magic, by Sir David Brewster, 72—107—191 New Gil Blas, 186 Numismatic Manual, 223 Outlines of General Knowledge, 45 Pilgrimage through Khuzistan and Persia, 73—314 Pompeii, 412 Popular Zoology, 57 Private Correspondence of a Woman of Fashion, 157—165—235 Sketches from Venetian History, 60 Songs, by Barry Cornwall, 11—46 Statistical Sketches of Upper Canada, 29—57—91 Taylor's Records of his Life, 291—317 Trials of Charles I., 41 Wild Sports of the West, 298 Brain of Man, 96 Braithwaite's Steam Fire-Engine, 111 Brass-plate Coal-merchants, 56 Bread, legal adulteration of, 366 Brent Tor church, 112 Brevities, 179 Bridewell, in the reign of Elizabeth, 357 Bridge, stupendous, in Spain, 24 Britain, early inhabitants of, 276—371 British Artists' Exhibition, 330—362 British Institution, School of Painting at, 362 British Museum, the, 140 Brougham, Henry, anecdote of, 182 Brydges, Sir Egerton, 86 Bull, national, 240 Burnham Abbey described, 81 Bustard, natural history of, 328 Butterfly, Chameleon, and Serpent, 425 Byron, Lord, conversations with, 6—86—110 and Anastasius, 156 early poems, by, 12 and Earl Grey, 80 and the English, 9 and Mrs. Hemans, 156 and Mr. Hope, 156 on horseback, 110 and Leigh Hunt, 157 and Italian women, 117 his love, 269 letter of, 290 and Moore, 7 personal description of, 7 and Scott, 110 and Shelley, 9 and Madame de Stael, 86 and Venice, 63 Caesar, Julius, his superstition, 238 Cairngorm, origin of, 77 Caliga, origin of, 112 Caloric, or the matter of heat, 206 Canada, climate of, 57 notes on, 29 Canary Birds, breeding, 111 Candelabra and Lamps of Pompeii, 412 Canning, Mr., statue of, 25 Cannon Clock, 144 Cannon, names of, 160 Canova, vase, containing the heart of, 169 Caprices, national, 439 Caps, laws relating to, 319 Cara, lines to, 272 Carding a Tithe-Procter, 52 Card-playing, indifferent, 318 Cards, second-hand, 425 Caroline, the late Queen, 158 Cartoons at Hampton Court, 287 Cascades and Cataracts, origin of, 97 Cashmere Shawl goat, 94 Castle of Framlingham, 305 Catacombs at Paris, lines on, 338 Castanets, origin of, 160 Cats horticulturists, 80 Cedar trees, large, 341 Chair, ancient, 344 of St. Bede, 440 Chairing, parliamentary, origin of, 176 Chancellor, Lord, his office, 71 Salary, 128 Start in Life, 125 Chapel on the Bridge, Wakefield, described, 401 Chaptel, memoir of, 88 Charlemagne, life of, 93, 128 palace of, 119 Charles I., Trials of, 41 II., progress of, 261 Charters in the British Museum, 336 Chase, the, a sketch, 21 Chatsworth, beauties of, 432 Chimneys, invention of, 139 Chlamyphorus, natural history of, 263 Cholera, a cleanser, 432 Mount, by Montgomery, 315 Christmas, ancient and modern, 419 carols, 430 Dalmatia, 419 Hereford, 438 Kent, 419 Mexico, 438 Norfolk, 419 Why and Because of, 429 Church, Lestingham, described, 297 new, St. Dunstan's, 34 Cigar smoking, motto for, 208 Cinnamon and Cassia, 425 Cinque Ports, their past and present state, 299 Climatology, notes on, 134 Clockmaking in the 9th century, 127 Coach, the last, 432 Coals, high price of in London, 366 Coffee, duty on, 80 house, London, in 1731, 358 on roasting, 366 Coins, to read in the dark, 191 Colouring Cheese, 425 Colton, the Rev. Mr., 3 Column of Disgrace, 69 Comet of Biela, 185 Comparison, all things by, 368 Compliments, value of, 384 Condors, a pair of living, 303 Continence, anecdotes of, 258 Cookery, Chinese and Russian, 48 Cool Tankard at Newgate, 192 Coronation, expenses of the last, 32 Court Jester, by Fuller, 352 Courtier, an excellent, 352 Cowards, a warning to, 48 Cowley, the poet, 336 Cranmer, education of, 75 Craven, in Yorkshire, cave at, 87 Criminal Law, reform of, 267 Criticism, political, 207 Critics, warning to, 352 Cromwell, character of, 428 Cross Readings, from the Spanish, 144 Crosses, curious ancient, 113—329—360—424 Cornwall, 424 Devon, 424 Eyam, 113 Holbeach, 329 Leighton Buzzard, 329 Neville's, 360 in the Peak, 113 Percy's, 361 Wheston, 113 Crown, British, pawned, 358 Crucifixes, initials on, 430 Crusader, monument of, 441 Crusades, errors respecting, 319 Crystal, origin of, 77 Curran and the Mastiff, 48 Curse of the Black Lady, a legend, 139 Cuttle-fish, ink of, 175 natural history of, 103 Cuvier, memoir of, 137 Dacre, Lady, her eccentricities, 153 Dairyman's Daughter, 112 Damary Oak Tree, 112 Dante's Tomb, 168 Deafness, convenient, 176 Death, punishment of, 71 the actor, epitaph on, 448 Deepdene, notice of, 149 Deer of North America, 339 Dew, explanation of, 304 Derbyshire, antiquities of, 116 Dibdin, the song-writer, 128 Dice, invention of, 384 Dick's Coffee-house, 16 Diorama, Regent's Park, 40 Disease, causes of, 266 effect of on the memory, 190 Disposal of the body for dissection, 292 Distinction and Difference, 343 Dodo, natural history of, 311 Dovaston, Mr., his sketches of Bewick, 18 Dove, the River, 288 Dover, antiquity of, 294 Drama, essay on, 82 Dramatis Personae, origin of, 447 Drawing an inference, 292 Dream of the Beautiful, 82 Dripping Rock in India, 160 Drop of Dew, by Marvell, 199 Druids and their times, 20 Dryburgh Abbey, lines on, 268—296 Dryden's M'Flecknoe, 208 Ducks, wild, catching in India, 160 Duelling, 343—416 Eagle's Cliff, visit to, 299 "Eclipse," the horse, 354 Economy of Conveyance by Steam, 183 Time and Materials, 54 Edinburgh, by Mr. Cobbett, 287 Egyptian Pyramids and Hindoo Temples compared, 158 Elephant, natural history of, 66 Elephants in the Zoological Gardens, 66 Edmonton, Merry Devil of, 367 Eldon, Lord, his birthplace, 193 Elections, bribery in, 192 Electioneering in Westminster, 351 Electro-Magnet, the largest, 128 Elm, prodigious, 288 Emigration to British America, advantages and disadvantages of, 444 Emigration to Canada, 28 Enchantress, a tale, 386 England and France, former junction of, 448 Ennui, universal, 366 Envy, Owen Feltham on, 64 Epitaph at Bristol, 336 Epitaphs in Cambridgeshire, 368 Errors of the Day, 142 Essequibo, sailing up the, 359—379 Ethelbert and Elfrida, a tale, 323 Euphrates, sailing up, 74 Explosion, tremendous, 272 Extravagance, imperial, 416 Eyam, cross at, 113 Eye, structure of, 72 Eyes and Tears, by Marvell, 199 Eyes, varieties of, 96 Falconry Tenure, 345 Falls of the Genesse, 97—342 Niagara, visit to, 446 Farewell to the Muse, by Lord Byron, 13 Fashionable Manners, effects of, on Tradesmen and Servants, 331—348 Fat Living, 261 Favour, the only one, 80 Ferdinand VII. of Spain, character of, 444 Fern Owl, habits of the, 174 Fielding, Sir John, anecdote of, 279 Fish, consumption of, 415 Fishing, expensive, 432 Fleurus, battle of, 431 Flour, good, economy of, 366 Flybekins, a humorous story, 389 Fontenelle, genius of, 111 Food, animal and vegetable, 35 Foot of Man, 96 Forest Schools, 111 Framlingham Castle, 305 Francis, Sir Philip, epigram on, 336 French manners, 47 Fruit, effects of, and cholera, 79 maturation of, 39 Funeral garlands, 20 Funerals, Portuguese, 70 Garnets, varieties of, 78 Gazel, a ballad, by Moore, 10 Genesse, river of, 98—342 Genius, tributes to, 168 Geological changes by the sea, 78 Germans, ode to the, by Campbell, 9 Gilpin, John, popularity of, 367 Gipsies, king of, elegy on, 285 of old, 270 Giulietta, a tale, 282 Goat of Cashmere, 94 Goethe, medal of, 143 memoir of, 89—112 Gold-beating, particulars of, 320 Golden sands, 70 Goldsmith, Oliver, brother of, 275—402 Goose on Michaelmas Day, 208 Grace Huntley, Trials of, 393 Grose, Major, in Dublin, 318 Gudiaro, bridge across the, 24 Guides in India, 272 Ha! Ha! Fence, origin of, 448 Hail Storms in India, 128 Hale, Sir Matthew, 267 Hall, old, in Derbyshire, 273 Hampden, John, anecdote of, 160 Hanging, antiquity of, 192 Harvest home custom, 368 Hastings, antiquity of, 294 Hawthorn well, the, 339 Head-dress of the 14th century, 358 Hemans, Mrs., 110 Henry VIII. and Queen Katherine, 261 Hereford, Cathedral of, 324 Hoarding Money, 143 Holland, outline of, 338 Holy Cross, history of the, 392 Home of Love, the, 170 Home Truth, 64 Homeward Voyage, the, 98 Howard, the Hon. Charles, Lines to the memory of, 149 Hunchback, merits of the, 365 Huntsman, the, a tale, 67 Hythe, antiquity of, 294 Ignorance, imperial, 352 Illumination, origin of, 176 Imaum at Muscat, court of, 73 Incident on the coast, 373 in the life of a Rascal, 58 Inconsolable persons, 384 India, Letters from, 100 hail-storms in, 128 servants in, 105 Inheritance, custom of, 276 Innkeepers of former times, 79 Irish bar, anecdotes of, 63—80 Irish Mantle, Spencers account of, 415 Italian, lines from, 339 Jackalls in India, 80 Jack Spencer, eccentricities of, 317 James I., boyhood and education of, 233 Jemmy Maclaine, the highwayman, 291 Jews, persecution of, 319 John, King, death of, 288 Johnson, Dr., birthplace of, 257 and George III., 318 pun by, 272 Jones, Sir William, his plan of study, 358 Judas Iscariot's betrayal of Christ, 120 Judge, upright, one, 267 Juliet, character of, 117 tomb of, 265 Junot and Napoleon, anecdote of, 190 Kemble, John anecdote of, 318 Ken, bishop, 48—336 Kenulph, King, his daughter, a tale, 4 Key, ancient, 337 King William IV., domestic habits of, 303 Kings, poverty of, 358 Knife-handle, antique, 345 Knowledge, how to acquire, 416 Korner, lines from, 38 Laconics, 31 La Fontaine, absence of, 111 Land-storm, tropical, 426 Landers' Voyage and Discoveries on the Niger, 149 Langreish, Sir Hercules and his friend, 63 Last of the Family, 156 Laurencekirk Snuff-boxes, 151 Lawrence, Mr. Justice, 277 Laws of the Navy, ancient, 134 Learned Ladies, 304 Lee, church at, described, 153 Leg, the worst, 368 Lestingham Church described, 297 Levee of the Sheik of Fellahi, 75 Life, progress of, 144 Libels on Poets, 290 Lifting heavy persons, 73 Lines to ——, 226 Lion-killer, 80 Lisbon described, 209 dandy, 69 dinner, 70 dockyard, 70 dogs, 70 vanity, 70 water-carrier, 70 Lock, miniature, 352 Locomotive Engines in America, 192 Lord Mayors of London, 176 Lords, house of, forms of, 325 Lord's Prayer in Arawaak, 320 Louis XIV., real character of, 84 Lucretia Davidson lines on, 148 Lucretius, extract from, 192 Ludlow Castle, stanzas on revisiting, 67 Lydford Bridge described, 289 Machinery and Manufactures, economy of, 27 Macklin's grand pause, 367 Madonna, Italian hymn to, 34 Magic in the East, true stories of, 26—76 Magic, natural, 72 Making and manufacturing, 55 Maltese Legend, 370 Malt Liquor, antiquity of, 227 Manchester, public buildings of, 177 Infirmary, 178 Royal Institution, 179 Town Hall, 178 Manners, family, history of, 130 Marriage, curious, 271 Marriage custom, 439 Marrying, excuses for not, 336 Mercers and Drapers, respectability of, 320 Merchants, opulent British, 319 Men of no business and paper cutting, 272 Michael Angelo, ecstasy of, 16 Mind on the Body, influence of the, 354 Mistletoe, origin of, 430 Mock-heroics, 304 Monasteries, error respecting, 265 Money, Anne's, 224 of Betrayal, or Price of Blood, 120 Charles, I. and II., 224 Cromwell, 224 Ecclesiastic, 223 Edward I. and IV., 223 Henry VII., 223 James II., 224 Milled, 224 Richard III., 223 Stephen, 223 Moody, the actor, avarice of, 367 Mortality, comparative, in England, 152 Mosaic Pavement described, 409 Muscular strength, extraordinary, 432 Mussulman and Hindoo religion, 80 My Fatherland, 38 Nankeen, varieties of, 416 Napoleon's Return from Elba, 165 National Gallery, the proposed, 64 Natural History, errors in, 38 Nature, luxuriance of, 175 Necklaces, satin-stone, 342 Nell Gwynne and Dr. Ken, 336 Newcastle, grammar-school, 193 Newcastle, the learned duchess of, 161 Newcastle-under-Lyne, election at, 288 New Year's Gifts, 439 Niagara, recent visit to, 446 Niger, discoveries on the, 149 Nightingales in Essex, 144 Norfolk, the late duke of, 86 Norton Lees, hall at, 273 Nugent, Lord and Lady, legends by, 350 Nutria Fur, account of, 279—314 O'Brien, the Irish Giant, 182 Oil in cookery, 352 Old Soldier, the, a sketch, 403 Olive Oil, 79—424 Omen, evil one, 261 Opera and Theatres in London, 365 Opal, beauty of, 77 Oporto described, 49 Oriental Smoking, 170 Ornithorhyncus Paradoxus, the, 189 Ostrich speed, and diet of, 262 stomach of the, 303 Otway's "Venice Preserved," 50 Owen's almshouses, 143 Paddy Fooshane's Fricassee, 108 Painters born at Antwerp, 380 Painter's last passion, 132 retort, 128 Panorama of Stirling, 410 Parliamentary debates, origin of, 128 forms, 326 Parliaments, early, 211—325 Party-spirit, Fuller on, 352 Past, the, a song, 46 Past Times, a song, 46 Pastor, a faithful one, 207 Patriotism, genuine, 438 Peak, Antiquities of, 113 Pearl in the Oyster, 230 Pekin, ancient trade of, 320 Pelican, error respecting, 96 Pennsylvania, settlement of, 208 Pepper, varieties of, 416 Perrier, Casimir, memoir of, 116 Persian Bath, 145 Fable, 228 Peru, discovery of, 432 Peter the Great, anecdotes of, 300—308 character of, 361 Peter Pence, origin of, 343 Peter Simple, life of, 121 Petition to Time, 11 Petit-or, value of, 425 Petrarch's Tomb, 169 Phillips, Col., recollections of, 402 Phrenology, curiosities of, 45 Physician's Fees, 261 Pic Nic at Tempe, 15 Pickpockets, qualifications of, 334 Piracy in olden times, 26 Pitch-in-the-hole, ancient, 320 Pitt, Mr., statue of, 40 Plaint of certain coral beads, 406 Plants, light and air on, 262 in rooms, 263 Poets, Major and Minor, 51 Pompadour, Madame de, her toilette, by Voltaire, 163 Pompeii, antiquities of, 412 Poor Laws, origin of, 327 Popes, List of, 416 Portdown Fair described, 121 Portugal, antiquity of, 48 manners and customs in, 69 Posts for Letters, origin of, 322 Post Office, revenue of, 440 Potato, economy of, 127 Poverty, Owen Feltham on, 414 Prayer, a fragment, 179 Precious Stones, varieties of, 77 Preservation of the Human Body, 133 Primrose, withered, lines on, 95 Printer, studious, 128 Printing, invention of, 143 from wooden blocks, 55 Prison Discipline in America, 286 Psalmody, origin of, 146 Public Credit explained, 142 Punctuality of Colonel Boswell, 448 Quadroon Girl, a song, 46 Quin and Macklin, 367 Quizzing, literary, 144 Railway, Liverpool and Manchester, 112 Raw Materials, 56 Recollections of a Wanderer 21—373 Records in the Tower of London, 279 Regent-street, charms of, 365 Regulating Power, 55 Relics of Popery, 344 Religious Fastings, 195 Resting-place, the, 354 Review, the first, 176 Rhyming Ruminations on London Bridge, 26 Rising, advantages of early, 16 Robespierre, anecdote of, 95 fall of, 106 Robin Hood, history of, 180—204 Rome, by T. Moore, 364 Romeo and Juliet, story of, 118 Romney, antiquity of, 294 Rose of the Castle, 133 of Edendale, by L.E.L., 335 lines to, 221 Rotuma, island of, described, 376 Roundelaye, ancient, 16 Royalty, freaks of, 207 Rubens, memoir of, 381 Ruby, beauty of, 78 Rye, antiquity of, 295 Salads, antiquity of, 358 Salt, fine basket, 425 good effects of, 265 Saltpetre, manufacture of, 88 Sandwich, antiquity of, 295 Sapphires, beauty of, 77 Sargasso Weed, account of, 136 Satin-stone Necklaces, 342 Saving time in natural operations, 55 Savoyard, the, a ballad, 275 School Building in the High Alps, 171 Schoolmaster's experience in Newgate, 333 Schools before the Reformation, 75 Sciences, progress of, 266 Scipio, continence of, 258 Scotch "Bluid," anecdote of, 123 Scott, Sir Walter, Memoir of: Abbotsford, 241—247—248—250 Sonnet, by Wordsworth, 420 anecdotes of, 435 baronetcy, 250 birth of, 241 Scott, Sir Walter, character of, 255—256 childhood, 242 clerk of Sessions, 247 death, 208—253— —on the, by the Author of Eugene Aram, 219 Dryburgh Abbey, 256—436 education, 242 embarrassments of, 251—256 and the Ettrick Shepherd, 335 family, 253 fatal illness, 252 funeral of, 253 by an eye-witness, 345 Life of Napoleon, 251 love of reading, 243 law studies, 244 literary attempts, 244 marriage, 246 medal of, 255 memory, 245 Melrose Abbey, 436 parentage, 242 portraits of, 254 school days, 243 Selkirk, 437 sheriffdom, 246 telling a story, 243 Works of: Dryden and Swift, edition of, 247 Eve of St. John, 245 Glenfinlas, 245 Goetz of Berlinchingen translated, 245 Lady of the Lake, 247 Lay of the Last Minstrel, 246 Leonora, &c., translations of, 245 Marmion, 247 Miscellaneous Works, 250 Novels, List of, 250 Rokeby and Minor Poems, 249 unpublished works, 255 Waverley, 249 Novels, 252 Sea, depth of the, 427 Sea-shore, changes on, 78 Seal, a blind one, 298 Seaman, knowing, 432 Secret Lover, the, from the Persian, 204 Servants affected by fashionable manners and customs, 331—348 Servants in India, 105 Servant, monument to a faithful one, 288 Servants, Vails to, 318 Shark, adventure with, 381 Shaving or throat-cutting, 272 Shelly, the poet, anecdote of, 407 Sheridan's Funeral, 448 Sheriff of London, Journal of, 196—212 Shrewsbury, Anna Maria, Countess of, 112 Silk Manufacture, outline of, 446 Skeleton Dance, from Goethe, 420 Slave Trade in England, 319 Smoking forbidden in Parliament, 336 Snake, anecdote of a tame one, 327 Snuff-boxes, Laurencekirk, 151 Snuffers, antique, 337 Soldier, annual cost of, 176 dress of, 448 Solecisms in Language, 350 Somersetshire, land-custom in, 112 Song from the Album of a Poet, 98 Songs, by Barry Cornwall, 46 Song, Scottish, 317 Song-writing, spirit of, 11 Sounds during the night, 107 Spain, stupendous bridge in, 24 Spaniards and Portuguese, 69 Spencer's account of the Irish Mantle, 415 Spinning-wheel Song, 391 Spirit of Despotism, by Dr. Knox, 106 Spirit-drinking, evils of, 307 in 1736, 133 Spontaneous combustion, 162—211 Spring, harbingers of, 174 St. Cross, Church and Hospital of, 217—228 St. Dunstan's in the West, new church of, 34 St. Goar on the Rhine, legend of, 386 St. Hellen's Well, Staffordshire, 228 St. James's Park, improvement of, 418 St. Paul's Cathedral, monuments in, 96 Stael, Madame de, 86 Stages, Islington, olden, 335 Stanzas for Music, 52 Stationers' Company, origin of, 286 Statue of Mr. Canning, 25 of Mr. Pitt, 40 Steam Carriages on common roads, 183—198 Coaches and Power, 128 Engine simplified, 315 Navigation, 48 Packets, value of, 272 Stirling, panorama of, 410 Stork, the, 216 Story, extraordinary one, 292 Strand, the original, 207 Stranger, a song, 46 Streets, narrow, of Cairo, 80 Success in Life, grand secret of, 85 Suffolk-street Gallery, exhibition at, 330—362 Sugar, improved raw, 148 Sugar-refining, history of, 149 Sumptuary Laws, intention of, 439 Swampy Kingdom, 207 Tanfield Arch described, 353 Tea-makers, hint to, 176 Tears, the, an apologue, 403 Teeth of Crocodiles, 96 Tempe, Pic Nic at, 15 Temper, equanimity of, 99 Tenterden Steeple and Goodwin Sands, 38 Thebes, description of, 141 Thou wert the Rainbow of my Dreams, 290 Thurlow, the great Lord, 259 Tiger, sight of, 100 Titian, grave of, 216 Titles, origin of, 287 Toad-fish, economy of, 135 Tom Cringle's Log, 381—425 Tombs, celebrated Roman, 231 Tomb of Caius Cestius, 233 Tomb of Caecilia Metella, 232 Horatii and Curatii, 233 Juliet, 265 Tongue of Man, 96 Toothache, cure for, 212 Torchlight custom, 260 Tornado, by T. Pringle, Esq., 400 Tory, origin of, 144 Towers of Tarifa, the, 186 Trade, anti-free, 304 Tradesmen affected by fashion, 332—349 Tradesmen, ancient, 261 Tragedy and Comedy, essay on, 82 Traveller's Diary, scraps from, 219—364 Trials of Grace Huntley, a tale, 395 Truth, the plain, 207 Tulip, Fanny Kemble, 272 Tulip Tree, 38 Tunnel, natural, in Virginia, 433 Turkish Baths, 74 Turncoat, 336 Turtle Mayor, 336 Twins, monument of, 240 Umbrellas, invention of, 269 Uneducated, who are? 95 Usury in the Middle Ages, 320 Van Dieman's Land, civilization in, 5 Velocity, increased and diminished, 55 Venice, by T. Moore, 219 Vestry Dinner in Persia, 75 Victims of Susceptibility, 154 Vine, the, an apologue, 403 Viper, horned, poison of, 354 Virginia, natural tunnel in, 433 Voice of Humanity, the, 201 Volcanoes on the Globe, 448 Voltaire, anecdote of, 293 Voyage of Manufacture, 54 Vulture, 80 Wakefield, chapel on the bridge at, 401 Walcot, Dr., and Shield, 448 Walking Gallows, 52 Walnut Water, properties of, 176 Watching for the Soul, 368 Waterloo, battle of, 235 child, 128 day after the battle, 166 the year of, 165 Wearied Soldier, the, 195 Weather, journals of, 111 Were and Werelade, 71 Whale, gigantic, account of, 341 What's in a name? 391 Wheston, cross at, 113 When wilt thou return? 290 Wieland, on the Druids, 20 Wight, isle of, town in, 225 Wilks's Cottage, 225 Wilkes's Luckiest Number, 143 William the Conqueror, funeral of, 13 Winchelsea, antiquity of, 295 Windermere, scene on, 308 Wines, German, 281 Wingfield Manor House, described, 321 Wit, ready, 304 Witchcraft in 1618, 130 Witchcraft and Spontaneous Combustion, 162 Wolves of North America, 340 Women alias Angels, 32 characteristics of, 117 heroic, 16 Wonders of the Lane, 413 Wordsworth, sonnet by, 420 Worm, lines on, 201 Worsted, origin of, 320 Wrestling custom at Hornchurch, 319 Writing in France, 120 York Column and St. James's Park, 418 Zoffany, his gratitude, 368 Zoological Garden, natural, 101 Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, 66—199—281 Armadillo House at, 200 Aviary, 281 Deer at, 200 Elephants at, 200 Fountain, 281 Llama House, 200 Maccaws, 281 Ostriches, 281 Repository, 200 Zoological Gardens, Surrey, 1—303
* * * * *
INDEX TO THE EIGHTY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS.
ABBOTSFORD, (Armoury,) 248 (from the Garden,) 241 (Study,) 248 Antique Bell, (Two Cuts,) 345 Chair, 344 Key, 337 Knife-handle, 345 Snuffers, 337 Antwerp, (from the Tete de Flandre,) 369 Ararat, Mount, 313 Bat, American, 409 Beauchief Abbey, 113 Bede's Chair, 440 Belvoir Castle, 129 Birthplace of Bewick, 17 the Earl of Eldon, 193 Dr. Johnson, 257 Bob in for Eels, 392 Bolsover Castle, 161 Bridge across the Guadiaro, in Spain, 24 Burnham Abbey, 81 Bustard, 328 Chapel on the Bridge, Wakefield, 401 Chlamyphorus, 264 Church, (new,) St. Dunstan in the West, 33 Cross, Cornwall, 424 Devon, 424 at Eyam, 113 at Holbeach, 329 at Leighton Buzzard, 329 Neville's, 360 Percy's, 361 at Wheston, 113 Cuttle Fish, (Three Cuts,) Dandy Lion, 392 Dodo, 312 Dryburgh Abbey, 256 Elephant bathing in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, 65 Falls of the Genesse, 97 Framlingham Castle, 305 Grave of Titian, 216 Hall at Norton Lees, 273 Hospital of St. Cross, (the Church,) 217 Isle of Rotuma, 376 Isle of Wight, and Wilkes's Cottage, 225 Lee Church, Kent, 153 Lisbon, (general view,) 209 Manchester Infirmary, 177 Royal Institution, 177 Town Hall, 177 Money of Betrayal, (Two Cuts,) Monument of a Crusader, 441 Oporto, from Villa Nova, 49 Persian Bath, 145 Portrait of Chaptal, 88 Cuvier, 137 Goethe, 89 Pursuit of Knowledge, 392 St. Goar, on the Rhine, 385 Statue of Mr. Canning, 25 Pitt, 40 Tanfield Arch, Durham, 353 Toad-fish, 136 Tomb of Caius Cestius, 233 Caecilia Metella, 232 Dante, 168 Horatii and Curatii, 233 Juliet, 265 Petrarch, 169 Tunnel, Natural, in Virginia, 433 Vase containing the Heart of Canova, 169 Wingfield Manor House, 321 York Column, from St. James's Park, 417 Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park: Aviary, 281 Armadillo House, 200 Deer, 200 Elephants, 200 Llama, 200 Maccaws, 281 Ostriches, 281 Pond and Fountain, 281 Repository, 200 Zoological Gardens, Surrey: Building for large Animals, 1 General View, 1 Rockwork for Beavers, 1
END OF VOL. XX.