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The Orbis Pictus
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[Transcriber's Note:

This text is intended for users whose text readers cannot use the "real" (Unicode/UTF-8) version of the file. There are two main changes:

—The "oe" ligature, used in the original Latin text, has been unpacked to its separate letters. The "oe" sequence (words such as "coeuntia") does not occur. —The two sections numbered CIV used astrological symbols. When a symbol was used in addition to text such as a planet name, it is shown as empty brackets in its original location: Mercury []. When a symbol was used instead of text it is shown in brackets: [Mercury].

In the Orbis Pictus text, apparent errors in punctuation and typography (such as Italic type where Roman is expected) were unchanged except in chapter headers. Other errors, whether corrected or not, are listed at the end of the e-text. Note that "Dutch" generally means "German".

The original text was printed in parallel columns with English on the left. For this e-text the English and the Latin are shown in small blocks with differing indentation. Line breaks are approximately but not exactly the same as in the original.]



The

ORBIS PICTUS

of

JOHN AMOS COMENIUS.

This work is, indeed, the first children's picture book. —ENCYCLOPDIA BRITANNICA, 9TH EDITION, vi. 182.

[Publisher's Device: School Bulletin Publications 1874]

SYRACUSE, N.Y.: C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER, 1887.

Copyright, 1887, by C. W. BARDEEN.



It may not be generally known that Comenius was once solicited to become President of Harvard College. The following is a quotation from Vol. II, p. 14, of Cotton Mather's MAGNALIA:

"That brave old man, Johannes Amos Commenius, the fame of whose worth has been TRUMPETTED as far as more than three languages (whereof everyone is indebted unto his JANUA) could carry it, was indeed agreed withal, by one Mr. Winthrop in his travels through the LOW COUNTRIES, to come over to New England, and illuminate their Colledge and COUNTRY, in the quality of a President, which was now become vacant. But the solicitations of the Swedish Ambassador diverting him another way, that incomparable Moravian became not an American."

This was on the resignation of President Dunster, in 1654—Note of Prof. PAYNE, Compayre's History of Education, Boston, 1886, p. 125.



EDITOR'S PREFACE.

When it is remembered that this work is not only an educational classic of prime importance, but that it was the first picture-book ever made for children and was for a century the most popular text-book in Europe, and yet has been for many years unattainable on account of its rarity, the wonder is, not that it is reproduced now but that it has not been reproduced before. But the difficulty has been to find a satisfactory copy. Many as have been the editions, few copies have been preserved. It was a book children were fond of and wore out in turning the leaves over and over to see the pictures. Then as the old copper-plates became indistinct they were replaced by wood-engravings, of coarse execution, and often of changed treatment. Von Raumer complains that the edition of 1755 substitutes for the original cut of the Soul, (No. 43, as here given,) a picture of an eye, and in a table the figures I. I. II. I. I. II., and adds that it is difficult to recognize in this an expressive psychological symbol, and to explain it. In an edition I have, published in Vienna in 1779, this cut is omitted altogether, and indeed there are but 82 in place of the 157 found in earlier editions, the following, as numbered in this edition, being omitted:

1, the alphabet, 2, 36, 43, 45, 66, 68, 75, 76, 78-80, 87, 88, 92-122, 124, 126, 128, 130-141.

On the other hand, the Vienna edition contains a curious additional cut. It gives No. 4, the Heaven, practically as in this edition, but puts another cut under it in which the earth is revolving about the sun; and after the statement of Comenius, "Coelum rotatur, et ambit terram, in medio stantem" interpolates: "prout veteres crediderunt; recentiores enim defendunt motum terrae circa solem" [as the ancients used to think; for later authorities hold that the motion of the earth is about the sun.]

Two specimen pages from another edition are inserted in Payne's Compayr's History of Education (between pp. 126, 127). The cut is the representative of No. 103 in this edition, but those who compare them will see not only how much coarser is the execution of the wood-cut Prof. Payne has copied, but what liberties have been taken with the design. The only change in the Latin text, however, is from Designat Figuras rerum in the original, to Figuram rerum designat.

In this edition the cuts are unusually clear copies of the copper-plates of the first edition of 1658, from which we have also taken the Latin text. The text for the English translation is from the English edition of 1727, in which for the first time the English words were so arranged as to stand opposite their Latin equivalents.

The cuts have been reproduced with great care by the photographic process. I thought best not to permit them to be retouched, preferring occasional indistinctness to modern tampering with the originals that would make them less authentic.

The English text is unchanged from that of the 1727 edition, except in rare instances where substitutions have been made for single words not now permissible. The typography suggests rather than imitates the quaintness of the original, and the paper was carefully selected to produce so far as practicable the impression of the old hand-presses.

In short my aim has been to put within the reach of teachers at a moderate price a satisfactory reproduction of this important book; and if the sale of the Orbis Pictus seems to warrant it, I hope subsequently to print as a companion volume the Vestibulum and Janua of the same author, of which I have choice copies.

C. W. BARDEEN.

Syracuse, Sept. 28, 1887.



COMMENTS UPON THE ORBIS PICTUS.

During four years he here prosecuted his efforts in behalf of education with commendable success, and wrote, among other works, his celebrated Orbis Pictus, which has passed through a great many editions, and survived a multitude of imitations. —SMITH'S HISTORY OF EDUCATION, N.Y., 1842, p. 129.

The most eminent educator of the seventeenth century, however, was John Amos Comenius...... His Orbis Sensualium Pictus, published in 1657, enjoyed a still higher renown. The text was much the same with the Janua, being intended as a kind of elementary encyclopdia; but it differed from all previous text-books, in being illustrated with pictures, on copper and wood, of the various topics discussed in it. This book was universally popular. In those portions of Germany where the schools had been broken up by the "Thirty years' war," mothers taught their children from its pages. Corrected and amended by later editors, it continued for nearly two hundred years, to be a text-book of the German schools. —HISTORY AND PROGRESS OF EDUCATION, BY PHILOBIBLIUS, N.Y., 1860, p. 210.

The "Janua" would, therefore, have had but a short-lived popularity with teachers, and a still shorter with learners, if Comenius had not carried out his principle of appealing to the senses, and called in the artist. The result was the "Orbis Pictus," a book which proved a favorite with young and old, and maintained its ground in many a school for more than a century.... I am sorry I cannot give a specimen of this celebrated book with its quaint pictures. The artist, of course, was wanting in the technical skill which is now commonly displayed even in the cheapest publications, but this renders his delineations none the less entertaining. As a picture of the life and manners of the seventeenthcentury, the work has great historical interest, which will, I hope, secure for it another English edition. —QUICK'S EDUCATIONAL REFORMERS, 1868; Syracuse edition, p. 79.

But the principle on which he most insisted is that the teaching of words and things must go together, hand in hand. When we consider how much time is spent over new languages, what waste of energy is lavished on mere preparation, how it takes so long to lay a foundation that there is no time to lay a building upon it, we must conclude that it is in the acceptance and development of this principle that the improvement of education will in the future consist. Any one who attempts to inculcate this great reform will find that its first principles are contained in the writings of Comenius. —ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, 9th edition, vii. 674.

The first edition of this celebrated book was published at Nuremberg in 1657; soon after a translation was made into English by Charles Hoole. The last English edition appeared in 1777, and this was reprinted in America in 1812. This was the first illustrated school-book, and was the first attempt at what now passes under the name of "object lessons." —SHORT HISTORY OF EDUCATION, W. H. PAYNE, Syracuse, 1881, p. 103.

Of these, the "Janua" and the "Orbis" were translated into most European and some of the Oriental languages. It is evident that these practices of Comenius contain the germs of things afterwards connected with the names of Pestalozzi and Stow. It also may be safely assumed that many methods that are now in practical use, were then not unknown to earliest teachers. —GILL'S SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION, London, 1876, p. 13.

The more we reflect on the method of Comenius, the more we shall see it is replete with suggestiveness, and we shall feel surprised that so much wisdom can have lain in the path of schoolmasters for two hundred and fifty years, and that they have never stooped to avail themselves of its treasures. —BROWNING'S INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL THEORIES, 1882, New York edition, p. 67.

The "Orbis Pictus," the first practical application of the intuitive method, had an extraordinary success, and has served as a model for the innumerable illustrated books which for three centuries have invaded the schools. —COMPAYRE'S HISTORY OF PEDAGOGY, Payne's translation, Boston, 1886, p. 127.

He remained at Patak four years, which were characterized by surprising literary activity. During this short period he produced no less than fifteen different works, among them his "World Illustrated" (Orbis Pictus), the most famous of all his writings. It admirably applied the principle that words and things should be learned together.... The "World Illustrated" had an enormous circulation, and remained for a long time the most popular text-book in Europe. —PAINTER'S HISTORY OF EDUCATION, N.Y., 1886, p. 206.

Or, si ce livre n'est qu'un quivalent se la vritable intuition; si, ensuite, le contenu du tout parat fort dfectueux, au point de vue de la science de nos jours; si, enfin, un effort exagr pour l'intgrit de la conception de l'enfant a cr, pour les choses modernes, trop de dnominations latines qui paraissent douteuses, l'Orbis pictus tait pourtant, pour son temps, une oeuvre trs originale et trs spirituelle, qui fit faire un grand progrs la pdagogie et servit longtemps de livre d'cole utile et de modle d'innombrables livres d'images, souvent pires. —HISTOIRE D'DUCATION, FREDERICK DITTES, Redolfi's French translation, Paris, 1880, p. 178.

Here Comenius wrote, among others, his second celebrated work the "Orbis Pictus." He was not, however, able to finish it in Hungary for want of a skilful engraver on copper. For such a one he carried it to Michael Endter, the bookseller at Nuremberg, but the engraving delayed the publication of the book for three years more. In 1657 Comenius expressed the hope that it would appear during the next autumn. With what great approbation the work was received at its first appearance, is shown by the fact that within two years, in 1659, Endter had published a second enlarged edition. —KARL VON RAUMER, translated in Barnard's Journal of Education, v.260.

The "Janua" had an enormous sale, and was published in many languages, but the editions and sale of the "Orbis Pictus" far exceeded those of the "Janua," and, indeed, for some time it was the most popular text-book in Europe, and deservedly so. —LAURIE'S JOHN AMOS COMENIUS, Boston edition, p.185.



Joh. Amos Comenii

ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS:

hoc est

Omnium principalium in Mundo Rerum, & in Vita Actionum,

PICTURA & NOMENCLATURA.

Joh. Amos Comenius's

VISIBLE WORLD:

or, a

NOMENCLATURE, AND PICTURES

of all the

CHIEF THINGS that are in the WORLD, and of MENS EMPLOYMENTS therein;

In above 150 COPPER CUTS.

Written

By the Author in Latin and High Dutch, being one of his last ESSAYS; and the most suitable to Childrens Capacity of any he hath hitherto made.

Translated into English By CHARLES HOOLE, M.A. For the Use of Young Latin Scholars.

The ELEVENTH EDITION Corrected, and the English made to answer Word for Word to the Latin.

Nihil est in intellectu, quod non prius fuit in sensu. Arist.

London; Printed for, and sold by John and Benj. Sprint, at the Bell in Little Britain, 1728.



Gen. ii. 19, 20.

The Lord God brought unto Adam every Beast of the Field, and every Fowl of the Air, to see what he would call them. And Adam gave Names to all Cattle, and to the Fowl of the Air, and to every Beast of the Field.

Gen. ii. 19, 20.

Adduxit Dominus Deus ad Adam cuncta Animantia Terr, & universa volatilia Coeli, ut videret quomodo vocaret illa. Appellavitque Adam Nominibus suis cuncta Animantia, & universa volatilia Coeli, & omnes Bestias Agri.

I. A. Comenii opera Didactica par. 1. p. 6, Amst. 1657. fol.

Didactic nostr prora & puppis esto: Investigare, & invenire modum, quo Docentes minus doceant, Discentes vero plus discant: Schol minus habeant Strepitus, nause, vani laboris; plus autem otii, deliciarum, solidique profectus: Respublica Christiana minus tenebrarum confusionis dissidiorum; plus lucis, ordinis, pacis & tranquilitatis.



THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE READER.

Instruction is the means to expel Rudeness, with which young wits ought to be well furnished in Schools: But so, as that the teaching be 1.True, 2.Full, 3.Clear, and 4.Solid.

1. It will be true, if nothing be taught but such as is beneficial to ones life; lest there be a cause of complaining afterwards. We know not necessary things, because we have not learned things necessary.

2. It will be full, if the mind be polished for wisdom, the tongue for eloquence, and the hands for a neat way of living. This will be that grace of one's life, to be wise, to act, to speak.

3, 4. It will be clear, and by that, firm and solid, if whatever is taught and learned, be not obscure, or confused, but apparent, distinct, and articulate, as the fingers on the hands.

The ground of this business, is, that sensual objects may be rightly presented to the senses, for fear they may not be received. I say, and say it again aloud, that this last is the foundation of all the rest: because we can neither act nor speak wisely, unless we first rightly understand all the things which are to be done, and whereof we are to speak. Now there is nothing in the understanding, which was not before in the sense. And therefore to exercise the senses well about the right perceiving the differences of things, will be to lay the grounds for all wisdom, and all wise discourse, and all discreet actions in ones course of life. Which, because it is commonly neglected in schools, and the things which are to be learned are offered to scholars, without being understood or being rightly presented to the senses, it cometh to pass, that the work of teaching and learning goeth heavily onward, and affordeth little benefit.

See here then a new help for schools, A Picture and Nomenclature of all the chief things in the world, and of men's actions in their way of living: Which, that you, good Masters, may not be loath to run over with your scholars, I will tell you, in short, what good you may expect from it.

It is a little Book, as you see, of no great bulk, yet a brief of the whole world, and a whole language: full of Pictures, Nomenclatures, and Descriptions of things.

I. The Pictures are the representation of all visible things, (to which also things invisible are reduced after their fashion) of the whole world. And that in that very order of things, in which they are described in the Janua Latin Lingu; and with that fulness, that nothing very necessary or of great concernment is omitted.

II. The Nomenclatures are the Inscriptions, or Titles set every one over their own Pictures, expressing the whole thing by its own general term.

III. The Descriptions are the explications of the parts of the Picture, so expressed by their own proper terms, as that same figure which is added to every piece of the picture, and the term of it, always sheweth what things belongeth one to another.

Which such Book, and in such a dress may (I hope) serve,

I. To entice witty children to it, that they may not conceit a torment to be in the school, but dainty fare. For it is apparent, that children (even from their infancy almost) are delighted with Pictures, and willingly please their eyes with these lights: And it will be very well worth the pains to have once brought it to pass, that scare-crows may be taken away out of Wisdom's Gardens.

II. This same little Book will serve to stir up the Attention, which is to be fastened upon things, and even to be sharpened more and more: which is also a great matter. For the Senses (being the main guides of childhood, because therein the mind doth not as yet raise up itself to an abstracted contemplation of things) evermore seek their own objects, and if they be away, they grow dull, and wry themselves hither and thither out of a weariness of themselves: but when their objects are present, they grow merry, wax lively, and willingly suffer themselves to be fastened upon them, till the thing be sufficiently discerned. This Book then will do a good piece of service in taking (especially flickering) wits, and preparing them for deeper studies.

III. Whence a third good will follow; that children being won hereunto, and drawn over with this way of heeding, may be furnished with the knowledge of the prime things that are in the world, by sport and merry pastime. In a word, this Book will serve for the more pleasing using of the Vestibulum and Janua Linguarum, for which end it was even at the first chiefly intended. Yet if it like any, that it be bound up in their native tongues also, it promiseth three good thing of itself.

I. First it will afford a device for learning to read more easily than hitherto, especially having a symbolical alphabet set before it, to wit, the characters of the several letters, with the image of that creature, whose voice that letter goeth about to imitate, pictur'd by it. For the young Abc scholar will easily remember the force of every character by the very looking upon the creature, till the imagination being strengthened by use, can readily afford all things; and then having looked over a table of the chief syllables also (which yet was not thought necessary to be added to this book) he may proceed to the viewing of the Pictures, and the inscriptions set over 'em. Where again the very looking upon the thing pictured suggesting the name of the thing, will tell him how the title of the picture is to be read. And thus the whole book being gone over by the bare titles of the pictures, reading cannot but be learned; and indeed too, which thing is to be noted, without using any ordinary tedious spelling, that most troublesome torture of wits, which may wholly be avoided by this method. For the often reading over the Book, by those larger descriptions of things, and which are set after the Pictures, will be able perfectly to beget a habit of reading.

II. The same book being used in English, in English Schools, will serve for the perfect learning of the whole English tongue, and that from the bottom; because by the aforesaid descriptions of things, the words and phrases of the whole language are found set orderly in their own places. And a short English Grammar might be added at the end, clearly resolving the speech already understood into its parts; shewing the declining of the several words, and reducing those that are joined together under certain rules.

III. Thence a new benefit cometh, that that very English Translation may serve for the more ready and pleasant learning of the Latin tongue: as one may see in this Edition, the whole book being so translated, that every where one word answereth to the word over against it, and the book is in all things the same, only in two idioms, as a man clad in a double garment. And there might be also some observations and advertisements added in the end, touching those things only, wherein the use of the Latin tongue differeth from the English. For where there is no difference, there needeth no advertisement to be given. But, because the first tasks of learners ought to be little and single, we have filled this first book of training one up to see a thing of himself, with nothing but rudiments, that is, with the chief of things and words, or with the grounds of the whole world, and the whole language, and of all our understanding about things. If a more perfect description of things, and a fuller knowledge of a language, and a clearer light of the understanding be sought after (as they ought to be) they are to be found somewhere whither there will now be an easy passage by this our little Encyclopdia of things subject to the senses. Something remaineth to be said touching the more chearful use of this book.

I. Let it be given to children into their hands to delight themselves withal as they please, with the sight of the pictures, and making them as familiar to themselves as may be, and that even at home before they be put to school.

II. Then let them be examined ever and anon (especially now in the school) what this thing or that thing is, and is called, so that they may see nothing which they know not how to name, and that they can name nothing which they cannot shew.

III. And let the things named them be shewed, not only in the Picture, but also in themselves; for example, the parts of the body, clothes, books, the house, utensils, &c.

IV. Let them be suffered also to imitate the Pictures by hand, if they will, nay rather, let them be encouraged, that they may be willing: first, thus to quicken the attention also towards the things; and to observe the proportion of the parts one towards another; and lastly to practise the nimbleness of the hand, which is good for many things.

V. If anything here mentioned, cannot be presented to the eye, it will be to no purpose at all to offer them by themselves to the scholars; as colours, relishes, &c., which cannot here be pictured out with ink. For which reason it were to be wished, that things rare and not easy to be met withal at home, might be kept ready in every great school, that they may be shewed also, as often as any words are to be made of them, to the scholars.

Thus at last this school would indeed become a school of things obvious to the senses, and an entrance to the school intellectual. But enough: Let us come to the thing it self.



THE TRANSLATOR, TO ALL JUDICIOUS AND INDUSTRIOUS SCHOOL-MASTERS.

Gentlemen.

There are a few of you (I think) but have seen, and with great willingness made use of (or at least perused,) many of the Books of this well-deserving Author Mr. John Comenius, which for their profitableness to the speedy attainment of a language, have been translated in several countries, out of Latin into their own native tongue.

Now the general verdict (after trial made) that hath passed, touching those formerly extant, is this, that they are indeed of singular use, and very advantageous to those of more discretion, (especially to such as already have a smattering of Latin) to help their memories to retain what they have scatteringly gotten here and there, to furnish them with many words, which (perhaps) they had not formerly read, or so well observed; but to young children (whom we have chiefly to instruct) as those that are ignorant altogether of things and words, and prove rather a meer toil and burthen, than a delight and furtherance.

For to pack up many words in memory, of things not conceived in the mind, is to fill the head with empty imaginations, and to make the learner more to admire the multitude and variety (and thereby, to become discouraged,) than to care to treasure them up, in hopes to gain more knowledge of what they mean.

He hath therefore in some of his latter works seemed to move retrograde, and striven to come nearer the reach of tender wits: and in this present Book, he hath, according to my judgment, descended to the very bottom of what is to be taught, and proceeded (as nature it self doth) in an orderly way; first to exercise the senses well, by representing their objects to them, and then to fasten upon the intellect by impressing the first notions of things upon it, and linking them on to another by a rational discourse. Whereas indeed, we, generally missing this way, do teach children as we do parrots, to speak they know not what, nay which is worse, we, taking the way of teaching little ones by Grammar only at the first, do puzzle their imaginations with abstractive terms and secondary intentions, which till they be somewhat acquainted with things, and the words belonging to them, in the language which they learn, they cannot apprehend what they mean. And this I guess to be the reason, why many great persons do resolve sometimes not to put a child to school till he be at least eleven or twelve years of age, presuming that he having then taken notice of most things, will sooner get the knowledge of the words which are applyed to them in any language. But the gross misdemeanor of such children for the most part, have taught many parents to be hasty enough to send their own to school, if not that they may learn, yet (at least) that they might be kept out of harm's way; and yet if they do not profit for the time they have been at school, (no respect at all being had for their years) the Master shall be sure enough to bear the blame.

So that a School-master had need to bend his wits to come within the compass of a child's capacity of six or seven years of age (seeing we have now such commonly brought to our Grammar-schools to learn the Latin Tongue) and to make that they may learn with as much delight and willingness, as himself would teach with dexterity and ease. And at present I know no better help to forward his young scholars than this little Book, which was for this purpose contrived by the Author in the German and Latin Tongues.

What profitable use may be had thereof, respecting chiefly that his own country and language, he himself hath told you in his preface; but what use we may here make of it in our Grammar-schools, as it is now translated into English, I shall partly declare; leaving all other men, according to my wont, to their own discretion and liberty, to use or refuse it, as they please. So soon then as a child can read English perfectly, and is brought to us to school to learn Latin, I would have him together with his Accidence, to be provided of this Book, in which he may at least once a day (beside his Accidence) be thus exercised.

I. Let him look over the pictures with their general titles and inscriptions, till he be able to turn readily to any one of them, and to tell its name either in English or Latin. By this means he shall have the method of the Book in his head; and be easily furnished with the knowledge of most things; and instructed how to call them, when at any time he meeteth with them elsewhere, in their real forms.

II. Let him read the description at large: First in English, and afterward in Latin, till he can readily read, and distinctly pronounce the words in both Languages, ever minding how they are spelled. And withal, let him take notice of the figures inserted, and to what part of the picture they direct by their like till he be well able to find out every particular thing of himself, and to name it on a sudden, either in English or Latin. Thus he shall not only gain the most primitive words, but be understandingly grounded in Orthography, which is a thing too generally neglected by us; partly because our English schools think that children should learn it at the Latin, and our Latin schools suppose they have already learn'd it at the English; partly, because our common Grammar is too much defective in this part, and scholars so little exercised therein, that they pass from schools to the Universities and return from thence (some of them) more unable to write true English, than either Latin or Greek. Not to speak of our ordinary Tradesmen, many of whom write such false English, that none but themselves can interpret what they scribble in their bills and shop-books.

III. Then let him get the Titles and Descriptions by heart, which he will more easily do, by reason of these impressions which the viewing of the pictures hath already made in his memory. And now let him also learn, 1.To construe, or give the words one by one, as they answer one another in Latin and English. 2.To Parse, according to the rules, (which I presume by this time) he hath learn'd in the first part of his Accidence; where I would have him tell what part of Speech any word is, and then what accidents belong to it; but especially to decline the nouns and conjugate the verbs according to the Examples in his Rudiments; and this doing will enable him to know the end and use of his Accidence. As for the Rules of Genders of Nouns, and the Prter-perfect-tenses and Supines of Verbs, and those of Concordance and Construction in the latter part of the Accidence, I would not have a child much troubled with them, till by the help of this Book he can perfectly practise so much of Etymology, as concerns the first part of his Accidence only. For that, and this book together, being thoroughly learn'd by at least thrice going them over, will much prepare children to go chearfully forward in their Grammar and School-Authors, especially, if whilst they are employed herein, they be taught also to write a fair and legible hand.

There is one thing to be given notice of, which I wish could have been remedied in this Translation; that the Book being writ in high-Dutch doth express many things in reference to that Country and Speech, which cannot without alteration of some Pictures as well as words be expressed in ours: for the Symbolical Alphabet is fitted for German children rather than for ours. And whereas the words of that Language go orderly one for one with the Latin, our English propriety of Speech will not admit the like. Therefore it will behove those Masters that intend to make use of this Book, to construe it verbatim to their young Scholars, who will quickly learn to do it of themselves, after they be once acquainted with the first words of Nouns, and Verbs, and their manner of variation.

Such a work as this, I observe to have been formerly much desired by some experienced Teachers, and I my self had some years since (whilst my own Child lived) begun the like, having found it most agreeable to the best witted Children, who are most taken up with Pictures from their Infancy, because by them the knowledge of things which they seem to represent (and whereof Children are as yet ignorant) are most easily conveyed to the Understanding. But for as much as the work is now done, though in some things not so completely as it were to be wished, I rejoyce in the use of it, and desist in my own undertakings for the present. And because any good thing is the better, being the more communicated; I have herein imitated a Child who is forward to impart to others what himself has well liked. You then that have the care of little Children, do not much trouble their thoughts and clog their memories with bare Grammar Rudiments, which to them are harsh in getting, and fluid in retaining; because indeed to them they signifie nothing, but a mere swimming notion of a general term, which they know not what it meaneth, till they comprehend particulars, but by this or the like subsidiary, inform them, first with some knowledge of things and words wherewith to express them, and then their Rules of speaking will be better understood and more firmly kept in mind. Else how should a Child conceive what a Rule meaneth, when he neither knoweth what the Latin word importeth, nor what manner of thing it is which is signified to him in his own native Language, which is given him thereby to understand the Rule? For Rules consisting of generalities, are delivered (as I may say) at a third hand, presuming first the things, and then the words to be already apprehended touching which they are made. I might indeed enlarge upon this Subject, it being the very Basis of our Profession, to search into the way of Childrens taking hold by little and little of what we teach them, that so we may apply ourselves to their reach: But I leave the observation thereof to your own daily exercise, and experience got thereby.

And I pray God, the fountain and giver of all wisdom, that hath bestowed upon us this gift of Teaching, so to inspire and direct us by his Grace, that we may train up Children in his Fear and in the knowledge of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord; and then no doubt our teaching and their learning of other things subordinate to these, will by the assistance of his blessed Spirit make them able and willing to do him faithful Service both in Church and Commonwealth, as long as they live here, that so they may be eternally blessed with him hereafter. This, I beseech you, beg for me and mine, as I shall daily do for you and yours, at the throne of God's heavenly grace; and remain while I live

Ready to serve you, as I truly love and honour you, and labour willingly in the same Profession with you,

CHARLES HOOLE.

From my School, in

Lothbury, London, Jan. 25, 1658.



N.B. Those Heads or Descriptions which concern things beyond the present apprehension of Children's wits, as, those of Geography, Astronomy, or the like, I would have omitted, till the rest be learned, and a Child be better able to understand them.

The Judgment of Mr. Hezekiah Woodward, sometimes an eminent Schoolmaster in LONDON, touching a work of this Nature; in his Gate to Science, chap. 2.

Certainly the use of Images or Representations is great: If we could make our words as legible to Children as Pictures are, their information therefrom would be quickned and surer. But so we cannot do, though we must do what we can. And if we had Books, wherein are the Pictures of all Creatures, Herbs, Beasts, Fish, Fowls, they would stand us in great stead. For Pictures are the most intelligible Books that Children can look upon. They come closest to Nature, nay, saith Scaliger, Art exceeds her.



AN ADVERTISEMENT CONCERNING THIS EDITION.

As there are some considerable Alterations in the present Edition of this Book from the former, it may be expected an Account should be given of the Reasons for them. 'Tis certain from the Author's Words, that when it was first published, which was in Latin and Hungary, or in Latin and High-Dutch; every where one word answer'd to another over-against it: This might have been observ'd in our English Translation, which wou'd have fully answer'd the design of COMENIUS, and have made the Book much more useful: But Mr. Hoole, (whether out of too much scrupulousness to disturb the Words in some places from the order they were in, or not sufficiently considering the Inconveniences of having the Latin and English so far asunder) has made them so much disagree, that a Boy has sometimes to seek 7 or 8 lines off for the corresponding Word; which is no small trouble to Young Learners who are at first equally unacquainted with all Words, in a Language they are strangers to, except it be such as have Figures of Reference, or are very like in sound; and thus may perhaps, innocently enough join an Adverb in one Tongue, to a Noun in the other; whence may appear the Necessity of the Translation's being exactly literal, and the two Languages fairly answering one another, Line for Line.

If it be objected, such a thing cou'd not be done (considering the difference of the Idioms) without transplacing Words here and there, and putting them into an order which may not perhaps be exactly classical; it ought to be observed, this is design'd for Boys chiefly, or those who are just entering upon the Latin Tongue, to whom every thing ought to be made as plain and familiar as possible, who are not, at their first beginning, to be taught the elegant placing of Latin, nor from such short Sentences as these, but from Discourses where the Periods have a fuller Close. Besides, this way has already taken (according to the Advice of very good Judges,) in some other School-Books of Mr. Hoole's translating, and found to succeed abundantly well.

Such Condescensions as these, to the capacities of young Learners are certainly very reasonable, and wou'd be most agreeable to the Intentions of the Ingenious and worthy Author, and his design to suit whatever he taught, to their manner of apprehending it. Whose Excellency in the art of Education made him so famous all over Europe, as to be solicited by several States and Princes to go and reform the Method of their Schools; and whose works carried that Esteem, that in his own Life-time some part of them were not only translated into 12 of the usual Languages of Europe, but also into the Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Mogolic (the common Tongue of all that part of the East-Indies) and since his death, into the Hebrew, and some others. Nor did they want their due Encouragement here in England, some Years ago; 'till by an indiscreet use of them, and want of a thorow acquaintance with his Method, or unwillingness to part from their old road, they began to be almost quite left off: Yet it were heartily to be wish'd, some Persons of Judgment and Interest, whose Example might have an influence upon others, and bring them into Reputation again, wou'd revive the COMENIAN METHOD, which is no other, than to make our Scholars learn with Delight and chearfulness, and to convey a solid and useful Knowledge of Things, with that of Languages, in an easy, natural and familiar way. Didactic Works (as they are now collected into one volume) for a speedy attaining the Knowledge of Things and Words, join'd with the Discourses of Mr. Lock[A] and 2 or 3 more out of our own Nation, for forming the Mind and settling good Habits, may doubtless be look'd upon to contain the most reasonable, orderly, and completed System of the Art of Education, that can be met with.

[Footnote A: Mr. Lock's Essay upon Education.

Dr. Tabor's Christian Schoolmaster.

Dr. Ob. Walker of Education.

Mr. Monro's Essay on Education.

—His just Measures of the pious Institutions of Youth, &c.]

Yet, alas! how few are there, who follow the way they have pointed out? tho' every one who seriously considers it, must be convinc'd of the Advantage; and the generality of Schools go on in the same old dull road, wherein a great part of Children's time is lost in a tiresome heaping up a Pack of dry and unprofitable, or pernicious Notions (for surely little better can be said of a great part of that Heathenish stuff they are tormented with; like the feeding them with hard Nuts, which when they have almost broke their teeth with cracking, they find either deaf or to contain but very rotten and unwholesome Kernels) whilst Things really perfected of the understanding, and useful in every state of Life, are left unregarded, to the Reproach of our Nation, where all other Arts are improved and flourish well, only this of Education of Youth is at a stand; as if that, the good or ill management of which is of the utmost consequence to all, were a thing not worth any Endeavors to improve it, or was already so perfect and well executed that it needed none, when many of the greatest Wisdom and Judgment in several Nations, have with a just indignation endeavor'd to expose it, and to establish a more easy and useful way in its room.

'Tis not easy to say little on so important a subject, but thus much may suffice for the present purpose. The Book has merit enough to recommend it self to those who know how to make a right use of it. It was reckon'd one of the Author's best performances; and besides the many Impressions and Translations it has had in parts beyond Sea, has been several times reprinted here. It was endeavor'd no needless Alterations shou'd be admitted in this Edition, and as little of any as cou'd consist with the design of making it plain and useful; to shun the offence it might give to some; and only the Roman and Italic Character alternately made use of, where transplacing of Words cou'd be avoided.

J. H.

London, July 13, 1727.



Orbis Sensualium Pictus,

A World of Things Obvious to the Senses drawn in Pictures.



I.

Invitation. Invitatio.



The Master and the Boy. Magister & Puer.

M. Come, Boy, learn to be wise. M. Veni, Puer, disce sapere.

P. What doth this mean, to be wise? P. Quid hoc est, Sapere?

M. To understand rightly, to do rightly, and to speak out rightly all that are necessary. M. Intelligere recte, agere recte, et eloqui recte omnia necessaria.

P. Who will teach me this? P. Quis docebit me hoc?

M. I, by God's help. M. Ego, cum DEO.

P. How? P. Quomodo?

M. I will guide thee thorow all. M. Ducam te per omnia.

I will shew thee all. Ostendam tibi omnia.

I will name thee all. Nominabo tibi omnia.

P. See, here I am; lead me in the name of God. P. En, adsum; duc me in nomine DEI.

M. Before all things, thou oughtest to learn the plain sounds, of which man's speech consisteth; M. Ante omnia, debes discere simplices Sonos ex quibus Sermo humanus constat; which living creatures know how to make, and thy Tongue knoweth how to imitate, and thy hand can picture out. quos Animalia sciunt formare, & tua Lingua scit imitari, & tua Manus potest pingere.

Afterwards we will go into the World, and we will view all things. Postea ibimus Mundum, & spectabimus omnia.

Here thou hast a lively and Vocal Alphabet. Hic habes vivum et vocale Alphabetum.



[Transcriber's Note: Each item has a separate small illustration. Note that the letters of the alphabet refer to the sound, not to the English or Latin word.]

Cornix cornicatur, The Crow crieth. A a

Agnus balat, b The Lamb blaiteth. B b

Cicda stridet, c c The Grasshopper chirpeth. C c

Upupa dicit, du du The Whooppoo saith. D d

Infans ejulat, The Infant crieth. E e

Ventus flat, fi fi The Wind bloweth. F f

Anser gingrit, ga ga The Goose gagleth. G g

Os halat, h'h h'h The Mouth breatheth. H h

Mus mintrit, The Mouse chirpeth. I i

Anas tetrinnit, kha, kha The Duck quaketh. K k

Lupus ululat, lu ulu The Wolf howleth. L

Ursus murmurat, mum mum The Bear grumbleth. M m

Felis clamat, nau nau The Cat crieth. N n

Auriga clamat, The Carter crieth. O o

Pullus pipit, pi pi The Chicken peepeth. P p

Cculus cuculat, kuk ku The cuckow singeth. Q q

Canis ringitur, err The dog grinneth. R r

Serpens sibilat, si The Serpent hisseth. S s

Graculus clamat, tac tac The Jay crieth. T t

Bubo ululat, The Owl hooteth. U u

Lepus vagit, va The Hare squeaketh. W w

Rana coaxat, coax The Frog croaketh. X x

Asinus rudit, y y y The Asse brayeth. Y y

Tabanus dicit, ds ds The Breeze or Horse-flie saith. Z z



II.

God. Deus.



God is of himself from everlasting to everlasting. Deus est ex seipso, ab terno in ternum.

A most perfect and a most blessed Being. Perfectissimum & beatissimum Ens.

In his Essence Spiritual, and One. Essenti Spiritualis & unus.

In his Personality, Three. Hypostasi Trinus.

In his Will, Holy, Just, Merciful and True. Voluntate, Sanctus, Justus, Clemens, Verax.

In his Power very great. Potenti maximus.

In his Goodness, very good. Bonitate Optimus.

In his Wisdom, unmeasurable. Sapienti, immensus.

A Light inaccessible; and yet all in all. Lux inaccessa; & tamen omnia in omnibus.

Every where, and no where. Ubique & nullibi.

The chiefest Good, and the only and inexhausted Fountain of all good things. Summum Bonum, et solus et inexhaustus Fons omnium Bonorum.

As the Creator, so the Governour and Preserver of all things, which we call the World. Ut Creator, ita Gubernator et Conservator omnium rerum, quas vocamus Mundum.



III.

The World. Mundus.



The Heaven, 1. hath Fire, and Stars. Coelum, 1. habet Ignem & Stellas.

The Clouds, 2. hang in the Air. Nubes, 2. pendent in Aere.

Birds, 3. fly under the Clouds. Aves, 3. volant sub nubibus.

Fishes, 4. swim in the Water. Pisces, 4. natant in Aqua.

The Earth hath Hills, 5. Woods, 6. Fields, 7. Beasts, 8. and Men, 9. Terra habet Montes, 5. Sylvas, 6. Campos, 7. Animalia, 8. Homines, 9.

Thus the greatest Bodies of the World, the four Elements, are full of their own Inhabitants. Ita maxima Corpora Mundi, quatuor Elementa, sunt plena Habitatoribus suis.



IV.

The Heaven. Coelum.



The Heaven, 1. is wheeled about, and encompasseth the Earth, 2. standing in the middle. Coelum, 1. rotatur, & ambit Terram, 2. stantem in medio.

The Sun, 3. wheresoever it is, shineth perpetually, howsoever dark Clouds, 4. may take it from us; Sol, 3. ubi ubi est, fulget perpetuo, ut ut densa Nubila, 4. eripiant eum a nobis; and causeth by his Rays, 5. Light, and the Light, Day. facitque suis Radiis, 5. Lucem, Lux Diem.

On the other side, over against it, is Darkness, 6. and thence Night. Ex opposito, sunt Tenebr, 6. inde Nox.

In the Night shineth the Moon, 7. and the Stars, 8. glister and twinkle. Nocte splendet Luna, 7. & Stell, 8. micant, scintillant.

In the Evening, 9. is Twilight: Vesperi, 9. est Crepusculum:

In the Morning, 10. the breaking, and dawning of the Day. Man Aurora, 10. & Diluculum.



V.

Fire. Ignis.



The Fire gloweth, burneth and consumeth to ashes. Ignis ardet, urit, cremat.

A spark of it struck out of a Flint (or Firestone), 2. by means of a Steel, 1. and taken by Tynder in a Tynder-box, 3. lighteth a Match, 4. Scintilla ejus elisa e Silice, (Pyrite) 2. Ope Chalybis, 1. et excepta a Fomite in Suscitabulo, 3. accendit Sulphuratum, 4. and after that a Candle, 5. or stick, 6. and causeth a flame, 7. or blaze, 8. which catcheth hold of the Houses. et inde Candelam, 5. vel Lignum, 6. et excitat Flammam, 7. vel Incendium, 8. quod corripit dificia.

Smoak, 9. ascendeth therefrom, which, sticking to the Chimney, 10. turneth into Soot. Fumus, 9. ascendit inde, qui, adhrans Camino, 10. abit in Fuliginem.

Of a Fire-brand, (or burning stick) is made a Brand, 11. (or quenched stick). Ex Torre, (ligno ardente,) fit Titio, 11. (lignum extinctum.)

Of a hot Coal (red hot piece of a Fire-brand) is made a Coal, 12. (or a dead Cinder). Ex Pruna, (candente particul Torris,) fit Carbo, 12. (Particula mortua.)

That which remaineth, is at last Ashes, 13. and Embers (or hot Ashes). Quod remanet, tandem est Cinis, 13. & Favilla (ardens Cinis.)



VI.

The Air. Ar.



A cool Air, 1. breatheth gently. Aura, 1. spirat leniter.

The Wind, 2. bloweth strongly. Ventus, 2. flat valide.

A Storm, 3. throweth down Trees. Procella, 3. sternit Arbores.

A Whirl-wind, 4. turneth it self in a round compass. Turbo, 4. agit se in gyrum.

A Wind under Ground, 5. causeth an Earthquake. Ventus subterraneus, 5. excitat Terr motum.

An Earthquake causeth gapings of the Earth, (and falls of Houses.) 6. Terr motus facit Labes (& ruinas.) 6.



VII.

The Water. Aqua.



The Water springeth out of a Fountain, 1. floweth downwards in a Brook, 2. runneth in a Beck, 3. Aqua scatet Fonte, 1. defluit in Torrente, 2. manat in Rivo, 3. standeth in a Pond, 4. glideth in a Stream, 5. is whirled about in a Whirl-pit, 6. and causeth Fens, 7. stat in Stagno, 4. fluit in Flumine, 5. gyratur in Vortice, 6. & facit Paludes, 7.

The River hath Banks, 8. Flumen habet Ripas.

The Sea maketh Shores, 9. Bays, 10. Capes, 11. Islands, 12. Almost Islands, 13. Mare facit Littora, 9. Snus, 10. Promontoria, 11. Insulas, 12. Peninsulas, 13. Necks of Land, 14. Straights, 15. and hath in it Rocks, 16. Isthmos, 14. Freta, 15. & habet Scopulos, 16.



VIII.

The Clouds. Nubes.



A Vapour, 1. ascendeth from the Water. Vapor, 1. ascendit ex Aqu.

From it a Cloud, 2. is made, and a white Mist, 3. near the Earth. Inde Nubes, 2. fit, et Nebula, 3. prope terram.

Rain, 4. and a small Shower distilleth out of a Cloud, drop by drop. Pluvia, 4. et Imber, stillat e Nube, guttatim.

Which being frozen, is Hail, 5. half frozen is Snow, 6. being warm is Mel-dew. Qu gelata, Grando, 5. semigelata, Nix, 6. calefacta, Rubigo est.

In a rainy Cloud, set over against the Sun the Rainbow, 7. appeareth. In nube pluvios, opposit soli Iris, 7. apparet.

A drop falling into the water maketh a Bubble, 8. many Bubbles make froth, 9. Gutta incidens in aquam, facit Bullam, 8. mult Bull faciunt spumam, 9.

Frozen Water is called Ice, 10. Dew congealed, is called a white Frost. Aqua congelata Glacies, 10. Ros congelatus, dicitur Pruina.

Thunder is made of a brimstone-like vapour, which breaking out of a Cloud, with Lightning, 11. thundereth and striketh with lightning. Tonitru fit ex Vapore sulphureo, quod erumpens Nube cum Fulgure, 11. tonat & fulminat.



IX.

The Earth. Terra.



In the Earth are high Mountains, 1. Deep Vallies, 2. Hills rising, 3. In Terra sunt Alti Montes, 1. Profund valles, 2. Elevati Colles, 3. Hollow Caves, 4. Plain Fields, 5. Shady Woods, 6. cav Spelunc, 4. Plani campi, 5. Opac Sylv, 6.



X.

The Fruits of the Earth. Terr Foetus.



A meadow, 1. yieldeth grass with Flowers and Herbs, which being cut down, are made Hay, 2. Pratum, 1. fert Gramina, cum Floribus & Herbis qu defecta fiunt Fnum, 2.

A Field, 3. yieldeth Corn, and Pot-herbs, 4. Arvum, 3. fert Fruges, & Olera, 4.

Mushrooms, 5. Straw-berries, 6. Myrtle-trees, &c. come up in Woods. Fungi, 5. Fraga, 6. Myrtilli, &c. Proveniunt in Sylvis.

Metals, Stones, and Minerals grow under the earth. Metalla, Lapides, Mineralia, nascuntur sub terra.



XI.

Metals. Metalla.



Lead, 1. is soft, and heavy. Plumbum, 1. est molle & grave.

Iron, 2. is hard, and Steel, 3. harder. Ferrum, 2. est durum, & Calybs, 3. durior.

They make Tankards (or Cans), 4. of Tin. Kettles, 5. of Copper, Candlesticks, 6. of Latin, Faciunt Cantharos, 4. e Stanno. Ahena, 5, e Cupro, Candelabra, 6. ex Orichalco, Dollers, 7. of Silver, Ducats and Crown-pieces, 8. of Gold. Thaleros, 7. ex Argento, Scutatos et Coronatos, 8. Ex, Auro.

Quick-silver is always liquid, and eateth thorow Metals. Argentum Vivum, semper liquet, & corrodit Metalla.



XII.

Stones. Lapides.



Sand, 1. and Gravel, 2. is Stone broken into bits. Arena, 1. & Sabulum, 2. est Lapis comminutus.

A great Stone, 3. is a piece of a Rock (or Crag) 4. Saxum, 3. est pars Petr (Cautis) 4.

A Whetstone, 5. a Flint, 6. a Marble, 7. &c. are ordinary Stones. Cos, 5. Silex, 6. Marmor, 7. &c. sunt obscuri Lapides.

A Load-stone, 8. draweth Iron to it. Magnes, 8. adtrahit ferrum.

Jewels, 9. are clear Stones, as Gemm, 9. sunt pellucidi Lapilli,

The Diamond white ut Adamas candidus,

The Ruby red, Rubinus rubeus,

The Sapphire blue, Sapphirus cruleus,

The Emerald green, Smaragdus viridis,

The Jacinth yellow, &c. Hyacynthus luteus, &c.

And they glister being cut into corners. et micant angulati.

Pearls and Unions, 10. grow in Shell-fish. Margarit & Uniones, 10. crescunt in Conchis.

Corals, 11. in a Sea-shrub. Corallia, 11. in Marin arbuscul.

Amber, 12. is gathered from the Sea. Succinum, 12. colligitur mari.

Glass, 13, is like Chrystal. Vitrum, 13. simile est Chrystallo.



XIII.

Tree. Arbor.



A Plant, 1. groweth from a Seed. Planta, 1. procrescit e Semine.

A plant waxeth to a Shoot, 2. Planta abit in Fruticem, 2.

A Shoot to a Tree, 3. Frutex in Arborem, 3.

The Root, 4. beareth up the Tree. Radix, 4. Sustentat arborem.

The Body or Stem, 5. riseth from the Root. Stirps (Stemma) 5. Surgit e radice.

The Stem divideth it self into Boughs, 6. and green Branches, 7. made of Leaves, 8. Stirps se dividit in Ramos, 6. & Frondes, 7. factas e Foliis, 8.

The top, 9. is in the height. Cacumen, 9. est in summo.

The Stock, 10. is close to the roots. Truncus, 10. adhrat radicibus.

A Log, 11. is the body fell'd down without Boughs; having Bark and Rind, 12. Pith and Heart, 13. Caudex, 11. est Stipes dejectus, sine ramis; habens Corticem & Librum, 12. pulpam & medullam, 13.

Bird-lime, 14. groweth upon the boughs, which also sweat Gumm, Rosin, Pitch, &c. Viscum, 14. adnascitur ramis, qui etiam sudant, Gummi, Resinam, Picem, &c.



XIV.

Fruits of Trees. Fructus Arborum.



Fruits that have no shells are pull'd from fruit-bearing trees. Poma decerpuntur, a fructiferis arboribus.

The Apple, 1. is round. Malum, 1. est rotundum.

The Pear, 2. and Fig, 3. are something long. Pyrum, 2. & Ficus, 3. sunt oblonga.

The Cherry, 4. hangeth by a long start. Cerasum, 4. pendet longo Pediolo.

The Plumb, 5. and Peach, 6. by a shorter. Prunum, 5. & Persicum, 6. breviori.

The Mulberry, 7. by a very short one. Morum, 7. brevissimo.

The Wall-nut, 8. the Hazel-nut, 9. and Chest-nut, 10. are wrapped in a husk and a Shell. Nux Juglans, 8. Avellana, 9. & Castanea, 10. involuta sunt Cortici & Putamini.

Barren trees are 11. The Firr, the Alder, The Birch, the Cypress, The Beech, the Ash, Steriles arbores sunt 11. Abies, Alnus, Betula, Cupressus, Fagus, Fraxinus, The Sallow, the Linden-tree, &c., but most of them affording shade. Salix, Tilia, &c. sed plerque umbrifer.

But the Juniper, 12. and Bay-tree, 13. yield Berries. At Juniperus, 12. & Laurus, 13. ferunt Baccas.

The Pine, 14. Pine-apples. Pinus, 14. Strobilos.

The Oak, 15. Acorns and Galls. Quercus, 15. Glandes & Gallas.



XV.

Flowers. Flores.



Amongst the Flowers the most noted, Inter flores notissimi,

In the beginning of the Spring are the Violet, 1. the Crow-toes, 2. the Daffodil, 3. Primo vere, Viola, 1. Hyacinthus, 2. Narcissus, 3.

Then the Lillies, 4. white and yellow and blew, 5. and the Rose, 6. and the Clove-gilliflowers, 7. &c. Tum Lilia, 4. alba & lutea, & coerulea, 5. tandem Rosa, 6. & Caryophillum, 7. &c.

Of these Garlands, 8. and Nosegays, 9. are tyed round with twigs. Ex his Serta, 8. & Servi, 9. vientur.

There are added also sweet herbs, 10. as Marjoram, Flower gentle, Rue, Lavender, Rosemary. Adduntur etiam Herb odorat, 10. ut Amaracus, Amaranthus, Ruta, Lavendula, Rosmarinus, (Libanotis). Hysop, Spike, Basil, Sage, Mints, &c. Hypossus, Nard, Ocymum, Salvia, Menta, &c.

Amongst Field-flowers, 11. the most noted are the May-lillie, Germander, the Blew-Bottle, Chamomel, &c. Inter Campestres Flores, 11. notissimi sunt Lilium Convallium, Chamdrys, Cyanus, Chammelum, &c.

And amongst Herbs, Trefoil. Wormwood, Sorrel, the Nettle, &c. Et Herb, Cytisus (Trifolium) Absinthium, Acetosa, Urtica, &c.

The Tulip, 12. is the grace of flowers, but affording no smell. Tulipa, 12. est decus Florum, sed expers odoris.



XVI.

Potherbs. Olera.



Pot-herbs grow in Gardens, as Lettice, 1. Colewort, 2. Onions, 3. Garlick, 4. Gourd, 5. Olera nascuntur in hortis, ut Lactuca, 1. Brassica, 2. Cepa, 3. Allium, 4. Cucurbita, 5. The Parsnep, 6. The Turnep, 7. The Radish, 8. Horse-radish, 9. Siser, 6. Rapa, 7. Raphanus minor, 8. Raphanus major, 9. Parsly, 10. Cucumbers, 11. and Pompions, 12. Petroselinum, 10. Cucumeres, 11. Pepones, 12.



XVII.

Corn. Fruges.



Some Corn grows upon a straw, parted by knots, Frumenta qudam crescunt super culmum, distinctum geniculis, as Wheat, 1. Rie, 2, Barley, 3. in which the Ear hath awnes, ut, Triticum, 1. Siligo, 2. Hordeum, 3. in quibus Spica habet Aristas, or else it is without awnes, and it nourisheth the Corn in the Husk. aut est mutica, fovetque grana in gluma.

Some instead of an ear, have a rizom (or plume) containing the corn by bunches, as Oats, 4. Millet, 5. Turkey-wheat, 6. Qudam pro Spica, habent Paniculam, continentem grana fasciatim, ut, Avena, 4. Milium, 5. Frumentum Saracenicum, 6.

Pulse have Cods, which enclose the corns in two Shales, Legumina habent Siliquas, qu includunt grana valvulis, as Pease, 7. Beans, 8. Vetches, 9. and those that are less than these Lentils and Urles (or Tares). ut, Pisum, 7. Fab, 8. Vicia, 9. & minores his Lentes & Cicera.



XVIII.

Shrubs. Frutices.



A plant being greater, and harder than an herb, is called a Shrub: such as are Planta major & durior herba, dicitur Frutex: ut sunt

In Banks and Ponds, the Rush, 1. the Bulrush, 2. or Cane without knots In ripis & stagnis, Juncus, 1. Scirpus, 2. [Canna] enodis bearing Cats-tails, and the Reed, 3. which is knotty and hollow within. ferens Typhos, & Arundo, 3. nodosa et cava intus.

Elsewhere, 4. the Rose, the Bastard-Corinths, the Elder, the Juniper. Alibi, 4. Rosa, Ribes, Sambucus, Juniperus,

Also the Vine, 5. which putteth forth branches, 6. and these tendrels, 7. Item Vitis, 5. qu emittit Palmites, 6. et hi Capreolos, 7. Vine-leaves, 8. and Bunches of grapes, 9. on the stock whereof hang Grapes, which contain Grape-stones. Pampinos, 8. et Racemos, 9. quorum Scapo pendent Uv, continentes Acinos.



XIX.

Living-Creatures: and First, Birds. Animalia: & primum, Aves



A living Creature liveth, perceiveth, moveth it self; is born, dieth, is nourished, and groweth: standeth, or sitteth, or lieth, or goeth. Animal vivit, sentit, movet se; nascitur, moritur, nutritur, & crescit; stat, aut sedet, aut cubat, aut graditur.

A Bird, (here the King's Fisher, 1. making her nest in the Sea.) Avis, (hic Halcyon, 1. in mari nidulans.) is covered with Feathers, 2. flyeth with Wings, 3. hath two Pinions, 4. as many Feet, 5. a Tail, 6. and a Bill, 7. tegitur Plumis, 2. volat Pennis, 3. habet duas Alas, 4. totidem Pedes, 5. Caudam, 6. & Rostrum, 7.

The Shee, 8. layeth Eggs, 10. in a nest, 9. and sitting upon them, hatcheth young ones, 11. Fmella, 8. ponit Ova, 10. in nido, 9. et incubans iis, excludit Pullos, 11.

An Egg is cover'd with a Shell, 12. under which is the White, 13. in this the Yolk, 14. Ovum tegitur testa, 12. sub qua est Albumen, 13. in hoc Vitellus, 14.



XX.

Tame Fowls. Aves Domestic.



The Cock, 1. (which croweth in the Morning.) hath a Comb, 2. and Spurs, 3. Gallus, 1. (qui cantat mane.) habet Cristam, 2. & Calcaria, 3. being gelded, he is called a Capon, and is crammed in a Coop, 4. castratus dicitur Capo & saginatur in Ornithotrophico, 4.

A Hen, 5. scrapeth the Dunghil, and picketh up Corns: Gallina, 5. ruspatur fimetum, & colligit grana: as also the Pigeons, 6. (which are brought up in a Pigeon-house, 7.) and the Turkey-cock, 8. with his Turkey-hen, 9. sicut & Columb, 6, (qu educantur in Columbario, 7.) & Gallopavus, 8. cum sua Meleagride, 9.

The gay Peacock, 10. prideth in his Feathers. Formosus Pavo, 10. superbit pennis.

The Stork, 11. buildeth her nest on the top of the House. Ciconia, 11. nidificat in tecto.

The Swallow, 12. the Sparrow, 13. the Mag-pie, 14. the Jackdaw, 15. Hirundo, 12. Passer, 13. Pica, 14. Monedula, 15. and the Bat, 16. (or Flettermouse) use to flie about Houses. & Vespertilio, 16. (Mus alatus) volitant circa Domus.



XXI.

Singing-Birds. Oscines.



The Nightingal, 1. singeth the sweetlyest of all. Luscinia (Philomela), 1. cantat suavissime omnium.

The Lark, 2. singeth as she flyeth in the Air. Alauda, 2. cantillat volitans in aere;

The Quail, 3. sitting on the ground; Coturnix, 3. sedens humi;

others on the boughs of trees, 4. as the Canary-bird, the Chaffinch, the Goldfinch, Cter, in ramis arborum, 4. ut Luteola peregrina. Fringilla, Carduelis, the Siskin, the Linnet, the little Titmouse, the Wood-wall, the Robin-red-breast, the Hedge-sparrow, &c. Acanthis, Linaria, parvus Parus, Galgulus, Rubecula, Curruca, &c.

The party colour'd Parret, 5. the Black-bird, 6. the Stare, 7. with the Mag-pie and the Jay, learn to frame men's words. Discolor Psittacus, 5. Merula, 6. Sturnus, 7. cum Pica, & Monedula, discunt humanas voces formare

A great many are wont to be shut in Cages, 8. Plerque solent includi Caveis, 8.



XXII.

Birds that haunt the Fields and Woods. Aves Campestres & Sylvestres



The Ostrich, 1. is the greatest Bird. Struthio, 1. ales est maximus.

The Wren, 2. is the least. Regulus, 2. (Trochilus) minimus.

The Owl, 3. is the most despicable. Noctua, 3. despicatissimus.

The Whoopoo, 4. is the most nasty, for it eateth dung. Upupa, 4. sordidissimus, vescitur enim stercoribus.

The Bird of Paradise, 5. is very rare. Manucodiata, 5. rarissimus.

The Pheasant, 6. the Bustard, 7. the deaf wild Peacock, 8. Phasianus, 6. Tarda (Otis), 7. surdus, Tetrao, 8. the Moor-hen, 9. the Partrige, 10. the Woodcock, 11. and the Thrush, 12. are counted Dainties. Attagen, 9. Perdix, 10. Gallinago (Rusticola), 11. & Turdus, 12, habentur in deliciis.

Among the rest, the best are, the watchful Crane, 13. the mournful Turtle, 14. Inter reliquas, potissim sunt, Grus 13. pervigil. Turtur, 14. gemens. the Cuckow, 15. the Stock-dove, the Speight, the Jay, the Crow, &c., 16. Cuculus, 15. Palumbes, Picus, Garrulus, Cornix, &c., 16.



XXIII.

Ravenous Birds. Aves Rapaces.



The Eagle, 1. the King of Birds looketh upon the Sun, Aquila, 1. Rex Avium, intuetur Solem.

The Vulture, 2. and the Raven, 3. feed upon Carrion. Vultur, 2. & Corvus, 3. pascuntur morticinis, [cadaveribus.]

The Kite, 4. pursueth Chickens. Milvus, 4. insectatur pullos gallinaceos.

The Falcon, 5. the Hobbie, 6. and the Hawk, 7. catch at little Birds. Falco, 5, Nisus, 6. & Accipiter, 7. captant aviculas.

The Gerfalcon, 8. catcheth Pigeons and greater Birds. Astur, 8. captat columbas & aves majores.



XXIV.

Water-Fowl. Aves Aquatic.



The white Swan, 1. the Goose, 2. and the Duck, 3. swim up and down. Oler, 1. candidus, Anser, 2. & Anas, 3. natant.

The Cormorant, 4. diveth. Mergus, 4. se mergit.

Add to these the water-hen, and the Pelican, &c., 10. Adde his Fulicam, Pelecanum, &c., 10.

The Osprey, 5. and the Sea-mew, 6. flying downwards use to catch Fish, but the Heron, 7. standing on the Banks. Halietus, 5. & Gavia, 6. devolantes, captant pisces, sed Ardea, 7. stans in ripis.

The Bittern, 8. putteth his Bill in the water, and belloweth like an Ox. Butio, 8. inferit rostrum aqu, & mugit ut bos.

The Water-wagtail, 9. waggeth the tail. Motacilla, 9. motat caudam.



XXV.

Flying Vermin. Insecta volantia.



The Bee, 1. maketh honey which the Drone, 2. devoureth. Apis, 1. facit mel quod Fucus, 2. depascit

The Wasp, 3. and the Hornet, 4. molest with a sting; Vespa, 3. & Crabro, 4. infestant oculeo; and the Gad-Bee (or Breese), 5. especially Cattel; but the Fly, 6. and the Gnat, 7. us. & Oestrum (Asilus), 5. imprimis pecus. autem Musca, 6. & Culex, 7. nos.

The Cricket, 8. singeth. Gryllus, 8. cantillat.

The Butterfly, 9. is a winged Caterpillar. Papillio, 9. est alata Eruca.

The Beetle, 10. covereth her wings with Cases. Scarabus, 10. tegit alas vaginis.

The Glow-worm, 11. shineth by night. Cicindela [Lampyris], 11. nitet noctu.



XXVI.

Four-Footed Beasts: and First those about the House. Quadrupeda: & primum Domestica.



The Dog, 1. with the Whelp, 2. is keeper of the House. Canis, 1. cum Catello, 2. est custos Doms.

The Cat, 3. riddeth the House of Mice, 4. which also a Mouse-trap, 5. doth. Felis (Catus) 3. purgat domum Muribus, 4. quod etiam Muscipula, 5. facit.

A Squirrel, 6. The Ape, 7. and the Monkey, 8. are kept at home for delight. Sciurus, 6. Simia, 7. & Cercopithecus, 8. habentur domi delectamento.

The Dormouse, 9. and other greater Mice, 10. as, the Weesel, the Marten, and the Ferret, trouble the House, Glis, 9. & cteri Mures majores, 10. ut, Mustela, Martes, Viverra, infestant domum.



XXVII.

Herd-Cattle. Pecora.



The Bull, 1. the Cow, 2. and the Calf, 3. are covered with hair. Taurus, 1. Vacca, 2. & Vitulus, 3. teguntur pilis.

The Ram, the Weather, 4. the Ewe, 5. and the Lamb, 6. bear wool. Aries, Vervex, 4. Ovis, 5. cum Agno, 6. gestant lanam.

The He-goat, the Gelt-goat, 7. with the She-goat, 8. and Kid, 9. have shag-hair and beards. Hircus, Caper, 7. cum Capra, 8. & Hdo, 9. habent. Villos & aruncos.

The Hog, the Sow, 10. and the Pigs, 11. have bristles, but not horns; but also cloven feet as those others (have.) Porcus, Scrofa, 10. cum Porcellis, 11. habent Setas, at non Cornua; sed etiam Ungulas bisulcas ut illa.



XXVIII.

Labouring-Beasts. Jumenta.



The Ass, 1. and the Mule, 2. carry burthens. Asinus, 1. & Mulus, 2. gestant Onera.

The Horse, 3. (which a Mane, 4. graceth) carryeth us. Equus, 3. (quam Juba, 4. ornat) gestat nos ipsos.

The Camel, 5. carryeth the Merchant with his Ware. Camelus, 5. gestat Mercatorem cum mercibus suis.

The Elephant, 6. draweth his meat to him with his Trunk, 7. Elephas, (Barrus) 6. attrahit pabulum Proboscide, 7.

He hath two Teeth, 8. standing out, and is able to carry full thirty men. Habet duos dentes, 8. prominentes, & potest portare etiam triginta viros.



XXIX.

Wild-Cattle. Fer Pecudes.



The Buff, 1. and the Buffal, 2. are wild Bulls. Urus, 1. & Bubalus, 2. sunt feri Boves.

The Elke, 3. being bigger than an Horse (whose back is impenetrable) hath knaggy horns as also the Hart, 4. Alces, 3. major equo (cujus tergus est impenetrabilis) habet ramosa cornua: ut & Cervus, 4.

but the Roe, 5. and the Hind-calf, almost none. Sed Caprea, 5. cum Hinnulo, fer nulla.

The Stone-back, 6. huge great ones. Capricornus, 6. prgrandia;

The Wild-goat, 7. hath very little ones, by which she hangeth her self on a Rock. Rupicapra, 7. minuta, quibus suspendit se ad rupem.

The Unicorn, 8. hath but one, but that a precious one. Monoceros, 8. habet unum, sed pretiosum.

The Boar, 9. assaileth one with his tushes. Aper, 9. grassatur dentibus.

The Hare, 10. is fearful. Lepus, 10. pavet.

The Cony, 11. diggeth the Earth. Cuniculus, 11. perfodit terram;

As also the Mole, 12. which maketh hillocks. Ut & Talpa, 12. qu facit grumos.



XXX.

Wild-Beasts. Fer Besti.



Wild Beasts have sharp paws, and teeth, and are flesh eaters. Besti habent acutos ungues, & dentes, suntque carnivor,

As the Lyon, 1. the King of four-footed Beasts, having a mane; with the Lioness. Ut Leo, 1. Rex quadrupedum, jubatus; cum Len.

The spotted Panther, 2. Maculosus, Pardo (Panthera) 2.

The Tyger, 3. the cruellest of all. Tygris, 3. immanissima omnium.

The Shaggy Bear, 4. Villosus Ursus, 4.

The ravenous Wolf, 5. Rapax Lupus, 5.

The quick sighted Ounce, 6. Lynx, 6. visu pollens,

The tayled fox, 7. the craftiest of all. Caudata Vulpes, 7. astutissima omnium.

The Hedge-hog, 8. is prickly. Erinaceus, 8. est aculeatus.

The Badger, 9. delighteth in holes. Melis, 9. gaudet latebris.



XXXI.

Serpents and Creeping things. Serpentes & Reptilia.



Snakes creep by winding themselves; Angues repunt sinuando se;

The Adder, 1. in the wood; Coluber, 1. in Sylv;

The Water-snake, 2. in the water; Natrix, (hydra) 2. in Aqu;

The Viper, 3. amongst great stones. Vipera, 3. in saxis;

The Asp, 4. in the fields. Aspis, 4, in campis.

The Boa, (or Mild-snake) 5. in Houses. Boa, 5. in Domibus.

The Slow-worm, 6. is blind. Ccilia, 6. est coeca.

The Lizzard, 7. and the Salamander, 8. (that liveth long in fire) have feet. Lacerta, 7. Salamandra, 8. (in igne vivax,) habent pedes.

The Dragon, 9. a winged Serpent, killeth with his Breath. Draco, 9. Serpens alatus, necat halitu.

The Basilisk, 10. with his Eyes; Basiliscus, 10. Oculis;

And the Scorpion, 11. with his poysonous tail. Scorpio, 11. venenat caud.



XXXII.

Crawling-Vermin. Insecta repentia.



Worms gnaw things. Vermes, rodunt res.

The Earth-worm, 1. the Earth. Lumbricus, 1. terram.

The Caterpillar, 2. the Plant. Eruca, 2. plantam.

The Grashopper, 3. the Fruits. Cicada, 3. Fruges.

The Mite, 4. the Corn. Circulio, 4. Frumenta.

The Timber-worm, 5. Wood. Teredo, (cossis) 5. Ligna.

The Moth, 6. a garment. Tinea, 6. vestem.

The Book-worm, 7. a Book. Blatta, 7. Librum.

Maggots, 8. Flesh and Cheese. Termites, 8. carnem & caseum.

Hand-worms, the Hair. Acari, Capillum.

The skipping Flea, 9. the Lowse, 10. and the stinking Wall-louse, 11. bite us. Saltans Pulex, 9. Pediculus, 10. foetans Cimex, 11. mordent nos.

The Tike, 12. is a blood-sucker. Ricinus, 12. sanguisugus est.

The Silk-worm, 13. maketh silk. Bombyx, 13. facit sericum.

The Pismire, 14. is painful. Formica, 14. est laboriosa.

The Spider, 15. weaveth a Cobweb, nets for flies. Aranea, 15. texit Araneum, retia muscis.

The Snail, 16. carrieth about her Snail-horn. Cochlea, 16. circumfert testam.



XXXIII.

Creatures that live as well by Water as by Land. Amphibia.



Creatures that live by land and by water, are Viventia in terr & aqu, sunt

The Crocodile, 1. a cruel and preying Beast of the River Nilus; Crocodilus, 1. immanis & prdatrix bestia Nili fluminis;

The Castor or Beaver, 2. having feet like a Goose, and a scaly tail to swim. Castor, (Fiber) 2. habens pedes anserinos & squameam Caudam ad natandum.

The Otter, 3. Lutra, 3.

The croaking Frog, 4. with the Toad. & coaxans Rana, 4. cum Bufone.

The Tortoise, 5. covered above and beneath with shells, as with a target. Testudo, 5. Operta & infra, testis, ceu scuto.



XXXIV.

River Fish and Pond Fish. Pisces Fluviatiles & Lacustres.



A Fish hath Fins, 1. with which it swimmeth, and Gills, 2. by which it taketh breath, Piscis habet Pinnas, 1. quibus natat; & Branchias, 2. quibus respirat; and Prickles instead of bones: besides the Male hath a Milt, and the Female a Row. & Spinas loco ossium: prterea, Mas Lactes, Foemina Ova.

Some have Scales. as the Carp, 3. and the Luce or Pike, 4. Quidam habent Squamas, ut Carpio, 3. Lucius, (Lupus) 4.

Some are sleek as the Eel, 5. and the Lamprey, 6. Alii sunt glabri, ut, Anguilla, 5. Mustela, 6.

The Sturgeon, 7. having a sharp snout, groweth beyond the length of a Man. Accipenser (Sturio), 7. mucronatus, crescit ultra longitudinem viri.

The Sheath-fish, 8. having wide Cheeks, is bigger than he: Silurus, 8. bucculentus, major illo est:

But the greatest, is the Huson, 9. Sed maximus Antaseus (Huso,) 9.

Minews, 10. swimming by shoals, are the least. Apu, 10. natantes gregatim, sunt minutissim.

Others of this sort are the Perch, the Bley, the Barbel, Alii hujus generis sunt Perca, Alburnus, Mullus, (Barbus) the Esch, the Trout, the Gudgeon, and Trench, 11. Thymallus, Trutta, Gobius, Tinca, 11.

The Crab-fish, 12. is covered with a shell, and it hath Claws, and crawleth forwards and backwards. Cancer, 12. tegitur crusta, habetque chelas, & graditur porro & retr.

The Horse-leech, 13. sucketh blood. Hirudo, 13. sugit sanguinem.



XXXV.

Sea-fish, and Shell-fish. Marini pisces & Conch.



The Whale, 1. is the greatest of the Sea-fish. Balna, (Cetus) 1. maximus Piscium marinorum.

The Dolphin, 2. the swiftest. Delphinus, 2. velocissimus.

The Scate, 3. the most monstrous. Raia, 3. monstrosissimus.

Others are the Lamprel, 4. the Salmon, or the Lax, 5. Alii sunt Murnula, 4. Salmo, (Esox) 5.

There are also fish that flie, 6. Dantur etiam volatiles, 6.

Add Herrings, 7. which are brought pickled, and Place, 8. and Cods, 9. which are brought dry; Adde Haleces, 7. qui salsi, & Passeres, 8. cum Asellis, 9. qui adferuntur arefacti; and the Sea monsters, the Seal. 10. and the Sea-horse, &c. & monstra marina, Phocam, 10. Hippopotamum, &c.

Shell-fish, 11. have Shells. Concha, 11. habet testas,

The Oyster, 12. affordeth sweet meat. Ostrea, 12. dat sapidam carnem.

The Purple-fish, 13. purple; Murex, 13. purpuram;

The others, Pearls, 14. Alii, 14. Margaritas.



XXXVI.

Man. Homo.



Adam, 1. the first Man, was made by God after his own Image the sixth day of the Creation, of a lump of Earth. Adamus, 1. primus Homo, formatus est a Deo ad Imaginem suam sext die Creationis, e Gleba Terr.

And Eve, 2. the first Woman, was made of the Rib of the Man. Et Eva, 2. prima mulier, formata est e cost viri.

These, being tempted by the Devil under the shape of a Serpent, 3. when they had eaten of the fruit of the forbidden Tree, 4. Hi, seducti Diabolo sub specie Serpentis, 3. cum comederent de fructu vetit arboris, 4. were condemned, 5. to misery and death, with all their posterity, and cast out of Paradise, 6. damnati sunt, 5. ad miseriam & mortem, cum omni posteritate sua, & ejecti e Paradiso 6.



XXXVII.

The Seven Ages of Man. Septem tates Hominis.



A Man is first an Infant, 1. then a Boy, 2. then a Youth, 3. then a Young-man, 4. inde Juvenis, 4. Homo est primum Infans, 1. deinde Puer, 2. tum Adolescens, 3. then a Man, 5. after that an Elderly-man, 6. and at last, a decrepid old man, 7. poste Vir, 5. dehinc Senex, 6. tandem Silicernium, 7.

So also in the other Sex, there are, a Girl, 8. A Damosel, 9. a Maid, 10. Sic etiam in altero Sexu, sunt, Pupa, 8. Puella, 9. Virgo, 10. A Woman, 11. an elderly Woman, 12. and a decrepid old Woman, 13. Mulier, 11. Vetula, 12. Anus decrepita, 13.



XXXVIII.

The Outward Parts of a Man. Membra Hominis Externa.



The Head, 1. is above, the Feet, 20. below. Caput, 1. est supra, infra Pedes, 20. the fore part of the Neck (which ends at the Arm-holes, 2.) is the Throat, 3. the hinder part, the Crag, 4. Anterior pars Colli (quod desit in Axillas, 2.) est Jugulum, 3. posterior Cervix, 4.

The Breast, 5, is before; the back, 6, behind; Women have in it two Dugs, 7. with Nipples, Pectus, 5. est ante; Dorsum, 6. retro; Foeeminis sunt in illo bin Mamm, 7. cum Papillis.

Under the Breast is the Belly, 9. in the middle of it the Navel, 10. underneath the Groyn, 11. and the privities. Sub pectore est Venter, 9. in ejus medio, Umbelicus, 10. subtus Inguen, 11. & pudenda.

The Shoulder-blades, 12. are behind the back, on which the Shoulders depend, 13. Scapul, 12. sunt a tergo, quibus pendent humeri, 13. on these the Arms, 14. with the Elbow, 15. and then on either side the Hands, the right, 8. and the left, 16. ab his Brachia, 14. cum Cubito, 15. inde ad utrumque Latus, Manus, Dextera, 8. & Sinistra, 16.

The Loyns are next the Shoulders, with the Hips, 18. and in the Breech, the Buttocks, 19. Lumbi, 17. excipiunt Humeros, cum Coxis, 18. & in Podice, (culo) Nates, 19.

These make the Foot; the Thigh, 21. then the Leg, 23. (the Knee, being betwixt them, 22.) Absolvunt Pedem; Femur, 21. tum Crus, 23. (Genu, 22. intermedio.) in which is the Calf, 24. with the Shin, 25. then the Ankles, 26. in quo Sura, 24. cum Tilia, 25. abhinc Tali, 26. the Heel, 27. and the Sole, 28. in the very end, the great Toe, 29. with four (other) Toes. Calx, (Calcaneum) 27. & Solum, 28. in extremo Hallux, 29. cum quatuor Digitis.



XXXIX.

The Head and the Hand. Caput & Manus.



In the Head are the Hair, 1. (which is combed with a Comb, 2.) two Ears, 3. the Temples, 4. and the Face, 5. In Capite sunt Capillus, 1. (qui pectitur Pectine, 2.) Aures, 3. bin, & Tempora, 4. Facies, 5.

In the Face are the Fore-head, 6. both the Eyes, 7. the Nose, 8. (with two Nostrils) In facie sunt Frons, 6. Oculus, 7. uterque, Nasus, 8. (cum duabus Naribus) the Mouth, 9. the Cheeks, 10. and the Chin, 13. Os, 9. Gen, (Mal) 10. & Mentum, 13.

The Mouth is fenced with a Mustacho, 11. and Lips, 12. A Tongue and a Palate, and Teeth, 16. in the Cheek-bone. Os septum est Mystace, 11. & Labiis, 12. Lingua cum Palato, Dentibus, 16. in Maxilla.

A Man's Chin is covered with a Beard, 14. Mentum virile tegitur Barba, 14. and the Eye (in which is the White and the Apple) with eye-lids, and an eye-brow, 15. Oculos vero (in quo Albugo & Pupilla) palpbris, & supercilio, 15.

The Hand being closed is a Fist, 17. being open is a Palm, 18. in the midst, is the hollow, 19. of the Hand. Manus contracta, Pugnus, 17. est aperta, Palma, 18. in medio Vola, 19. the extremity is the Thumb, 20. with four Fingers, the Fore-finger, 21. the Middle-finger, 22. the Ring-finger, 23. and the Little-finger, 24. extremitas, Pollex, 20. cum quatuor Digitis, Indice, 21. Medio, 22. Annulari, 23. & Auriculari, 24.

In every one are three joynts, a. b. c. and as many knuckles, d. e. f. with a Nail, 25. In quolibet sunt articuli tres, a. b. c. & totidem Condyli, d. e. f. cum Ungue, 25.



XL.

The Flesh and Bowels. Caro & Viscera.



In the Body are the Skin with the Membranes, the Flesh with the Muscles, In Corpore sunt Cutis cum Membranis, Caro cum Musculis, the Chanels, the Gristles, the Bones and the Bowels. Canales, Cartilagines, Ossa & Viscera.

The Skin, 1. being pull'd off, the Flesh, 2. appeareth, not in a continual lump, but being distributed, as it were in stuft puddings, Cute, 1. detract, Caro, 2. apparet, non continu mass, sed distributa, tanquam in farcimina, which they call Muscles, whereof there are reckoned four hundred and five, being the Chanels of the Spirits, to move the Members. quos vocant Musculos, quorum numerantur quadringenti quinque, canales Spirituum, ad movendum Membra.

The Bowels are the inward Members: Viscera sunt Membra interna:

As in the Head, the Brains, 3. being compassed about with a Skull, and the Skin which covereth the Skull. Ut in Capite, Cerebrum, 3. circumdatum Cranio, & Pericranio.

In the Breast, the Heart, 4. covered with a thin Skin about it, and the Lungs, 5. breathing to and fro. In Pectore, Cor, 4. obvolutum Pericardio, & Pulmo, 5. respirans.

In the Belly, the Stomach, 6. and the Guts, 7. covered with a Caul. In Ventre, Ventriculus, 6. & Intestina, 7. obducta Omento. The Liver, 8. and in the left side opposite against it, the Milt, 9. the two Kidneys, 10. and the Bladder, 11. Jecur, (Hepar) 8. & sinistro oppositus ei Lien, 9. duo Renes, 10. cum Vesica, 11.

The Breast is divided from the Belly by a thick Membrane, which is called the Mid-riff, 12. Pectus dividitur Ventre crass Membran, qu vocatur Diaphragma, 12.



XLI.

The Chanels and Bones. Canales & Ossa.



The Chanels of the Body are the Veins, carrying the Blood from the Liver; Canales Corporis sunt Ven deferentes Sanguinem ex Hepate;

The Arteries (carrying) Heart and Life from the Heat; Arteri, Calorem & Vitam Corde;

The Nerves (carrying) Sense and Motion throughout the Body from the Brain. Nervi, Sensum et Motum, per Corpus a Cerebro.

You shall find these three, 1. everywhere joined together. Invenies hc tria, 1. ubique sociata.

Besides, from the Mouth into the Stomach is the Gullet, 2. the way of the meat and drink; Porr, ab Ore in Ventriculum Gula, 2. via cibi ac potus; and by it to the Lights, the Wezand, 5. for breathing; & juxta hanc, ad Pulmonem Guttur, 5. pro respiratione; from the Stomach to the Anus is a great Intestine, 3. to purge out the Ordure; ventriculo ad Anum Colon, 3. ad excernendum Stercus; from the Liver to the Bladder, the Ureter, 4. for making water. ab Hepate ad Vesicam, Ureter, 4. reddend urin.

The Bones are in the Head, the Skull, 6. the two Cheek-bones, 7. with thirty-two Teeth, 8. Ossa sunt in Capite, Calvaria, 6. du Maxill, 7. cum XXXII. Dentibus, 8.

Then the Back-bone, 9. the Pillar of the Body, consisting of thirty-four turning Joints, that the Body may bend it self. Tum, Spina dorsi, 9. columna Corporis, constans ex XXXIV. Vertebris, ut Corpus queat flectere se

The Ribs, 10. whereof there are twenty-four. Cost, 10. quarum viginti quatuor.

The Breast-bone, 11. the two Shoulder-blades, 12. the Buttock-bone, 13. the bigger Bone in the Arm, 15. and the lesser Bone in the Arm. Os Pectoris, 11. du Scapul, 12. Os sessibuli, 13. Lacerti, 15. & Ulna.

The Thigh-bone, 14. the foremost, 16. and the hindmost Bone, in the Leg, 17. Tibia, 14. Fibula, 16. anterior, & posterior, 17.

The Bones of the Hand, 18. are thirty-four, and of the Foot, 19. thirty. Ossa Mans, 18. sunt triginta quatuor, Pedis, 19. triginta.

The Marrow is in the Bones. Medulla est in Ossibus,



XLII.

The Outward and Inward Senses. Sensus externi & interni.



There are five outward Senses; Sunt quinque externi Sensus;

The Eye, 1. seeth Colours, what is white or black, green or blew, red or yellow. Oculus, 1. videt Colores, quid album vel atrum, viride vel coeruleum, rubrum aut luteum, sit.

The Ear, 2. heareth Sounds, both natural, Voices and Words; and artificial, Musical Tunes. Auris, 2. audit Sonos, tum naturales, Voces & Verba; tum artificiales, Tonos Musicos.

The Nose, 3. scenteth smells and stinks. Nasus, 3, olfacit odores & foetores.

The Tongue, 4. with the roof of the Mouth tastes Savours, what is sweet or bitter, keen or biting, sower or harsh. Lingua, 4. cum Palato gustat Sapores, quid dulce aut amarum, acre aut acidum, acerbum aut austerum.

The Hand, 5. by touching discerneth the quantity and quality of things; Manus, 5. tangendo dignoscit quantitatem, & qualitatem rerum; the hot and cold, the moist and dry, the hard and soft, the smooth and rough, the heavy and light. calidum & frigidum, humidum & siccum, durum & molle, lve & asperum, grave & leve.

The inward Senses are three. Sensus interni sunt tres.

The Common Sense, 7. under the forepart of the head, apprehendeth things taken from the outward Senses. Sensus Communis, 7. sub sincipite apprehendit res perceptas a Sensibus externis.

The Phantasie, 6. under the crown of the head judgeth of those things, thinketh and dreameth, Phantasia, 6. sub vertice, dijudicat res istas, cogitat, somniat.

The Memory, 8. under the hinder part of the head, layeth up every thing and fetcheth them out: it loseth some, and this is forgetfulness. Memoria, 8. sub occipitio, recondit singula & depromit: deperdit qudam, & hoc est oblivio.

Sleep, is the rest of the Senses. Somnus, est requies Sensuum.



XLIII.

The Soul of Man. Anima hominis.



The Soul is the Life of the Body, one in the whole. Anima est vita corporis, una in toto.

Only Vegetative in Plants; Tantm Vegetativa in Plantis;

Withal Sensitive in Animals; Simul Sensitiva in Animalibus;

And also rational in Men. Etiam Rationalis in Homine.

This consisteth in three things; Hc consistet in tribus:

In the Understanding, whereby it judgeth and understandeth a thing good and evil, or true, or apparent. In Mente (Intellectu) qu cognoscit, & intelligit, bonum ac malum, vel verum, vel apparens.

In the Will, whereby it chooseth, and desireth, or rejecteth, and misliketh a thing known. In Voluntate, qu eligit, & concupiscit, aut rejicit, & aversatur cognitum.

In the Mind, whereby it pursueth the Good chosen or avoideth the Evil rejected. In Animo, quo prosequitur Bonum electum, vel fugit Malum rejectum.

Hence is Hope and Fear in the desire, and dislike. Hinc Spes & Timor, in cupidine, & aversatione:

Hence is Love and Joy, in the Fruition: Hinc Amor & Gaudium, in fruitione:

But Anger and Grief, in suffering. Sed Ira ac Dolor, in passione.

The true judgment of a thing is Knowledge; the false, is Error, Opinion and Suspicion. Vera cognitio rei, est Scientia; falsa, Error, Opinio, Suspicio.



XLIV.

Deformed and Monstrous People. Deformes & Monstrosi.



Monstrous and deformed People are those which differ in the Body from the ordinary shape, Monstrosi, & deformes sunt abeuntes corpore communi form, as the huge Gyant, 1. the little Dwarf, 2. One with two Bodies, 3. One with two Heads, 4. and such like Monsters. ut sunt, immanis Gigas, nanus (Pumilio), 2. Bicorpor, 3. Biceps, 4. & id genus monstra.

Amongst these are reckoned, The jolt-headed, 5. The great nosed, 6. The blubber-lipped, 7. His accensentur, Capito, 5. Naso, 6. Labeo, 7. The blub-cheeked, 8. The goggle-eyed, 9. The wry-necked, 10. The great-throated, 11. Bucco, 8. Strabo, 9. Obstipus, 10. Strumosus, 11. The Crump-backed, 12. The Crump-footed, 13. The steeple-crowned, 15. add to these The Bald-pated, 14. Gibbosus, 12. Loripes, 13. Cilo, 15. adde Calvastrum, 14.

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