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The Pecan and its Culture
by H. Harold Hume
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THE PECAN

AND

ITS CULTURE

BY

H. HAROLD HUME

PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA THE AMERICAN FRUIT AND NUT JOURNAL 1906

Copyright, 1906. By H. HAROLD HUME.



CONTENTS.

PART I.

Introduction. Botany.

CHAPTER I. Commercial and Ornamental Importance of the Pecan.

CHAPTER II. Native and Cultivated Range.

CHAPTER III. Pecan Botany.

PART II.

Varieties.

CHAPTER IV. Varieties.

CHAPTER V. Pecan Judging.

PART III.

Cultural.

CHAPTER VI. Propagation of the Pecan.

CHAPTER VII. Top-working Pecans.

CHAPTER VIII. Soils and their Preparation.

CHAPTER IX. What Varieties to Plant.

CHAPTER X. Purchasing and Planting Pecans.

CHAPTER XI. Cultivation and Fertilization.

CHAPTER XII. Pruning.

PART IV.

Harvesting. Marketing.

CHAPTER XIII. Gathering, Storing and Marketing Pecans.

PART V.

Diseases. Insects.

CHAPTER XIV. Fungous and other Diseases of the Pecan.

CHAPTER XV. Insects Attacking the Pecan.

PART VI.

Uses. Literature.

CHAPTER XVI. Pecan Kernels.

CHAPTER XVII. Literature.



ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATES. Page

Frontispiece, 2

An avenue shaded by pecan trees, 13

Pecan flowers, 21

A pecan nursery, 71

Budding tools, 73

A two-year top-worked pecan tree, 85

An old pecan tree top-worked, 88

The pecan bud moth, 136

The case-worm, 139

A pecan catocala, 141

FIGURES.

Approximate pecan areas, 17

Money-maker, Post, San Saba, Bacon, 29

Curtis pecan, 32

Mammoth, Dalzell, Kennedy, 33

Frotscher pecan, 35

Georgia pecan, 36

Schaifer, Ideal, Ladyfinger, Atlanta, 41

Mantura pecan, 43

Pabst pecan, 46

Russell, Franklin, Kincaid, 49

Schley pecan, 51

Stuart pecan, 52

Success pecan, 53

Van Deman pecan, 55

Nussbaumer, 58

H. minima and two hybrids, 59

Schneck hybrid, 60

Grafting iron, Budding knife, 72

Scions, 76

Annular budding, 78

Veneer shield-budding, 79

Chip-budding, 80

Cleft grafting, Whip grafting, 81

One-year pecan in fruit, 82

Pecan tree grown on quicksand, 90

View of bud union, 99

View of whip graft, 100

Annular bud, 101

Rectangular planting system, 104

Hexagonal planting system, 105

Planting-board, 107

A nursery tree with good root system, 119

Taproot cut and uncut, 120

Spraying pecan trees, 131

Nut crackers of different types, 149

Woodson's power kernel extractor, 151



PREFACE.

In the horticultural development of the country, new fruits, new groups of fruits, new fruit industries are coming into prominence. Our native fruits in particular are now receiving, in many parts of the country, a larger share of the attention which they have always merited, and none has proven itself more worthy of careful study and painstaking care than the pecan.

Within the last ten or fifteen years it has rapidly emerged from a wild or semi-wild condition to the status of an orchard nut. The foundations of its culture were laid a considerable time ago, but only now is it coming to its own, its well merited standing among the fruits of the country.

In any horticultural industry many questions must be asked of the plant, the soil, the climate, in short, of the plant in its environment. They must be answered aright, if the industry is to succeed. The newer the plant in cultivation, the more numerous the questions are, the more difficult to answer.

In an endeavor to aid in solving some of the problems connected with the culture of the pecan this small volume has been prepared. Pecan culture has been the subject of careful study, observation and experimentation on the part of the author for a number of years and the results of these studies are presented in the following pages.

To the many who have so kindly and willingly assisted in its preparation, my thanks are herein expressed.

H. HAROLD HUME. Raleigh, N. C., Aug. 1, 1906.



PART I.

Introduction. Botany.



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE.



CHAPTER I.

COMMERCIAL AND ORNAMENTAL IMPORTANCE OF THE PECAN.

In all-around excellence, the pecan is equalled by none of the native American nut-bearing trees and certainly it is surpassed by no exotic species. It stands in the list of nut trees with but few equals and no superiors. With this fact known and admitted by all, it seems reasonable to suppose that the pecan will be grown and cultivated much more extensively than it now is. Its intrinsic worth deserves a large share of attention, more than it has received. At present it is gaining a position of so much importance as an orchard tree, that, ere long, it will become an extremely important item in the horticultural wealth of the Southern and Southwestern States.

Large quantities of pecans are sold in the American markets. These are the product of uncultivated or forest trees. Many orchards of considerable size, planted with meritorious budded and grafted varieties, are now in bearing, but the product of these plantings is entirely used by what may be termed a private trade, either by seedsmen, or by private individuals for dessert purposes. Some day, varieties of pecans will become known in the markets just as varieties of grapes, apples or pears are known. People ask for Niagara or Concord grapes, Northern Spy or Greening apples, Bartlet or Seckel pears—ask for what they want, and know what they are getting. The day is far distant when Frotscher, Schley, San Saba, Curtis, Georgia or other varieties of pecans will be known by name by the purchasing public, asked for in the markets and recognized when procured. But that time must and will come, and until then there is no danger of the industry being overdone, and not even then, because our population is constantly growing; because the pecan nut is being put to a variety of new uses, and as yet the export trade is comparatively undeveloped. (See table, page 15.) It would seem then that the pecan might reasonably be expected to replace to a certain extent the foreign nuts in our own markets.

According to the investigations of Woods and Merrill,[A] the pecan has a higher food value than either the walnut, filbert, cocoanut, almond or peanut. The results of their analyses are as follows:

-+ -+ -+ EDIBLE PORTION. + + + + -+ + Edible Carbo- Fuel Portion. Water. Protein. Fat. hydrates. Ash. Value per Pound.[A] -+ -+ + + + -+ + per cent. pr ct. pr ct. pr ct. pr ct. pr ct. Calories Pecans, kernels 100.0 2.9 10.3 70.8 14.3 1.7 3445 Walnuts, kernels 100.0 2.8 16.7 61.4 14.8 1.3 3305 Filberts, kernels 100.0 3.7 15.6 65.3 13.0 2.4 3290 Cocoanuts, shred'd 3.5 6.3 57.3 31.6 1.3 3125 Almonds, kernels 100.0 4.8 21.0 54.9 17.3 2.0 3030 Shelled Peanuts 100.0 1.6 30.5 49.2 16.2 2.5 2955 -+ -+ + + + -+ +



It is a fact worthy of note that the average man requires 3,500 calories of energy each day, an amount which must be secured from food consumed. One pound of pecan kernels, according to the above analysis, would supply 3,445 calories, or only 55 calories less than the amount required per day. We are not, be it understood, pointing out this fact because we believe that the pecan alone would be a satisfactory food, though it is wholesome, nourishing and palatable and should be used in larger quantities than is usually the case, but simply to emphasize its high food value.

According to the foregoing analysis, the pecan is richer in fat than any of the other nuts. Seventy per cent. of the kernels is fat. The pecan may at some time be in requisition as a source of oil—an oil which would doubtless be useful for salad purposes—but it is never likely to be converted into oil until the present prices of the nuts are greatly reduced.

If we turn from the dietary value of the nut to the ornamental value of the tree, we cannot but be forcibly impressed with its value as a shade and ornamental tree. For these purposes it may be planted far outside the area in which fruit may be reasonably expected. If given good soil and sufficient food supply, it grows quite rapidly, making a stately, vigorous, long-lived tree. In its native forests it is a giant tree, sometimes reaching a height of upwards of two hundred feet with a trunk of six feet. Isolated specimens, grown in the open, come to maturity with wide-spreading branches and the whole tree has an exceedingly graceful appearance. Wherever it will succeed, no other shade tree is so worthy of attention as the pecan, and in the fruiting area, beauty and healthful shade may be combined with utility.

As an orchard tree it is well worth planting. The ground in which the trees are planted may be cultivated in other crops for a number of years, thus reducing to a minimum the cost of maintaining the planting, and when the trees have come into bearing, the same area in trees will yield more in net returns than the same area in cotton or corn at the usual market prices.

On the whole, considered from whatever standpoint we may choose, the pecan is a valuable tree, whether cultivated for its nuts or planted for shade or ornamental effect.

Exports of Nuts from United States for Years 1900-1904 inclusive.

1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 VALUE. VALUE. VALUE. VALUE. VALUE. $156,490 $218,743 $304,241 $299,558 $330,366

Importations of Nuts into the United States for the Years 1899 to 1904 inclusive, according to the most authoritative statistics.[B]

- 1899 1900 1901 - VARIETY Quant'y Value. Quant'y Value. Quant'y Value. OF NUTS. lbs. lbs. lbs. - Almonds 9,957,427 $1,222,587 6,317,633 $949,083 5,140,232 $946,138 Cocoanuts. 625,789 702,947 804,233 Walnuts (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) Other 879,166 1,326,804 1,518,184 - Total Nuts $2,727,542 $2,978,834 $3,268,255 - 1902 1903 1904 - VARIETY Quant'y Value. Quant'y Value. Quant'y Value. OF NUTS. lbs. lbs. lbs. - Almonds 9,868,982 $1,240,886 8,142,164 $1,337,717 9,838,852 $1,246,474 Cocoanuts. 832,383 908,242 971,852 Walnuts (a) (a) 12,362,567 1,106,033 23,670,761 1,729,378 Other 1,971,072 1,514,406 1,523,462 - Total Nuts $4,044,341 $4,866,398 $5,471,166 -

FOOTNOTES:

[A] Calculated from analysis.

[B] Yearbook U.S. Dept. of Agr., 1903, page 686, and 1904, page 728.



CHAPTER II.

NATIVE AND CULTIVATED RANGE.

The pecan is found as a forest tree in the moist bottom lands along the Mississippi river and its tributaries, from Indiana southward to Mississippi, and from Iowa to Texas and Mexico.

This region (see Fig. 1) in which the pecan is, or has been found, native, reaches its northern limit at Davenport, Iowa. It skirts the Wabash as far north as Terre Haute, Indiana, and along the Ohio river nearly to Cincinnati, Ohio. From thence its range extends south to Chattanooga, Tenn., and on to Vicksburg, Miss. From Vicksburg it skirts the Gulf of Mexico at a distance of seventy-five to one hundred miles to Laredo, Texas; thence along the Salado river into Mexico. The western boundary embraces the headwaters of the Colorado river and returns more or less directly to Davenport, Iowa. On the outskirts of this area, it extends farthest in all directions along the streams and rivers, while on the drier intervening ground the line does not extend so far from the center of the region. Particularly is this true in Southwestern Texas, where the pecan is confined almost solely to river bottoms.

CULTURAL AREA.

The area in which the pecan is cultivated as an orchard tree is not confined to the limits of its native range. Plantings have been made outside its native home in New Mexico, California and Oregon in the West, and in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Southern Alabama and the Gulf regions of Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. In many other States experimental plantings have been made. Leaving these out of consideration, however, it will be seen that in about twenty States the pecan is either found as a native tree in the forests or is cultivated in orchard form. The area corresponds in some measure with that in which cotton is grown, though it extends farther north and west than the cotton region.



The attempts which have been made from time to time to cultivate the pecan in the more northerly States have not proved successful. The tree has, in many cases, grown well, but fruit has not been produced. The pistils and stamens of the pecan are not found in the same flower but in different flowers borne some distance apart on new and one-year-old wood, respectively. Consequently, it frequently happens that the flowers are not matured at the same time, as a result of which pollination cannot take place. Moreover, late spring frosts often destroy one or both sets of flowers, and the result, as far as fruit is concerned, is the same in either case. As a result of these experiences, the pecan cannot be recommended as a nut-bearing tree north of its natural range in the Mississippi Valley, neither will it succeed at the high elevations in the Alleghany mountains. It reaches its most northerly cultural extension in the Mississippi valley and in the coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard. But it grows well and makes a good shade tree farther north, and at elevations far above its native range. Even then, however, the nuts from which these seedling shade trees are grown should be brought from the northern sections of its natural distribution. They are much more likely to withstand the rigorous cold of winter.

Frequently the question is asked as to whether the pecan can be grown in a certain given locality. Such a question can be answered only in the most general way. The presence of the larger species of hickories in the vicinity may be used in some parts of the country as an indication of the success which might attend the planting of pecan trees, but such a guide should not be followed too implicitly, and even if the pecan tree should grow well, fruit might not be secured.

The presence of pecan trees, single specimens perhaps, or two or three, in yards or about buildings here and there throughout a region, may be taken as a guide in the matter of planting, and no better can be had. Nothing will take the place of a practical demonstration in the way of a vigorous fruiting tree.



CHAPTER III.

PECAN BOTANY.

The aborigines of the country used hickory nuts of different kinds as food, and in the region in which the pecan grows as a native tree, it was valued by them above all its relatives.

Penicaut found in his travels that the Indians stored large amounts of pecans for winter use. The scientific name of the pecan is appropriately derived from two Indian words, "powcohiccora" and "pacan."

In 1785, the pecan was described under the name Juglans Pecan, by Marshall in his Arboretum Americanum. In 1818, Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist, separated the hickories from the walnuts and butternuts, putting them under a new genus which he called Carya, naming the pecan Carya olivaeformis. Nuttall's classification was followed for many years until it was found that in the year previous to the publication of his work, 1817, C. S. Rafinesque, a French naturalist, had separated the hickories along the same lines as Nuttall and published them under the name Hicoria. In accordance with the laws of priority, Rafinesque's name, Hicoria, takes precedence over Carya.

The family Juglandaceae, embraces but two genera, Juglans and Hicoria, the former including the walnuts and butternuts, and the latter the pecan and other hickories. With the exception of the Shellbark hickory, Hicoria ovata Britton, and the Big shellbark, Hicoria laciniosa Sargent, the pecan is the only one of the genus worthy of cultivation.

Family. Juglandaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 180. 1836. Trees with alternate pinnate leaves and monoecious bracted flowers. Staminate flowers in long, drooping catkins, provided with three or more stamens and occasionally with an irregular-lobed perianth adnate to the bractlet and a rudimentary ovary. Anthers erect, with short filaments, two-celled; dehiscent longitudinally. Pistillate flowers bracted with a three to five, normally four-lobed calyx and sometimes with petals. Ovule solitary, erect, styles two, stigmatic along the inner surface. Fruit a bony nut, incompletely two to four-celled. Seed large, two to four-lobed, cotyledons corrugated, oily, without endosperm.

Genus. Hicoria Raf. Med. Rep. (II) 5:352. 1808. Trees, with close or scaly bark, odd-pinnate leaves and serrate leaflets. Staminate flowers in slender drooping catkins, borne in groups of three, occasionally on the new shoots, but usually from buds just back of the terminal buds on last year's shoots, calyx naked, adherent to the bract, unequally two-third lobed or cleft; stamens with short filaments, three to ten in number. Pistillate flowers, two to eight, produced on a terminal peduncle, calyx four-parted, petals none, styles two to four, short, papillose. Fruit oblong, or obovoid, the husk separating into four parts; nut smooth or angled, bony, incompletely two to four-celled. Seed oily, sweet, edible or bitter and astringent. Natives of eastern North America and Mexico.

Species. H. Pecan (Marsh.) Britton. Bull. Torr. Club, 15:282. 1888. Pecan, Illinois nut, a large tree, 75 to 170 feet in height and a diameter reaching 6 feet, with rough-broken bark. Young twigs and leaves pubescent, later nearly or quite glabrous; leaflets seven to fifteen, falcate, oblong—lanceolate, sharp-pointed, serrate, green and bright above, lighter below; staminate catkins five to six inches long, sessile or nearly so, sometimes borne near the base on the young shoots but usually from the uppermost lateral buds on last year's shoots; pistillate flowers terminal on shoots of the current season's growth, produced singly or in clusters of two to nine; fruit oblong cylindrical; husk four-valved; nut 3/4 to 2-1/2 inches in greatest diameter, roundish, or cylindrical and pointed, two-celled at the base, partition thin, bitter, seed deliciously sweet. Found native on the moist bottom lands along streams from Indiana south to Kentucky and from Iowa south to Texas, principally along the Mississippi and its tributaries, the Colorado river in Texas, and along some of its tributaries into Mexico.



POLLINATION.

Since two kinds of flowers are produced on the pecan, one bearing the pistils, the other stamens, the pollen must be transferred from the latter to the former in order that pollination may take place. In many plants the pollen is transferred from one plant or flower to another by means of insects; but in the pecan there are no bright colors, no nectar, no scent to attract insects to carry pollen, but, instead, the wind is the carrying agent and it needs no attractions. Pollen is produced in large quantities, necessarily so, since much of it is wasted.

Unfavorable weather conditions at time of blooming may, however, interfere seriously with pollination. Heavy winds or wind-storms, and rains of several days duration, may prevent the necessary and desired distribution of the pollen, as a result of which no fruit is formed.

Sometimes the staminate blooms are destroyed by frost while the pistillate ones escape. It makes little difference which is destroyed, however, as in either case the result is the same—no fruit sets.

The staminate flowers push out from the lateral buds at the same time the new shoot develops from the terminal one. The pistillate blossom does not appear until the terminal shoot has grown six or eight inches, and in the meantime it is protected by the unfolded leaves. The staminate bloom, on the contrary, is exposed from the first, having no leaves to protect it. In consequence it is much more likely to be cut off by frost. Dr. Trelease refers to several observations on proterandry (maturing of the pollen before the stigmas of the pistils) in the pecan. This, together with the unprotected condition of the staminate blooms, we believe, accounts in a large measure for the non-setting of fruit on the northern boundaries of the pecan area.

The artificial or hand pollination of the pecan is an easy matter and offers an inviting field for those interested in plant breeding. Emasculation, or the removal of the stamens from the flowers necessary in breeding so many plants, is not necessary in the pecan. All that is needed is to cover the pistillate blossoms with a sack until they are matured. At this time the inner or stigmatic surfaces of the pistils will be exposed and ready for the pollen. The pollen, collected from adjoining trees in bloom or brought from a distance, can then be placed upon the stigmas and the sack replaced. When the fruit is set, the paper sack should be replaced by one of mosquito netting. Some careful work has already been done along this line, and it is hoped that many more will take up the work. Much yet remains to be desired, and varieties may be better adapted to different sections. The ideal, large, full-meated, thin-shelled, prolific and precocious variety of pecan has not yet been brought forward. It may be accidentally discovered; it may be produced and can be produced by systematic, painstaking work in breeding. It is hoped that the number of workers in this inviting field may be increased. Some may be deterred by the fact that it will take the seedlings so long to come into bearing. But scions may be taken from the seedlings raised from cross-bred nuts, top-worked on large trees, and fruit could be obtained in many cases in a period not exceeding five or six years from the seed. Those which would not produce fruit in six years in this way might perhaps as well be discarded.



PART II.

Varieties.



CHAPTER IV.

VARIETIES OF PECANS.

While the list of varieties of pecans is comparatively small, yet a surprisingly large number of names has been used. The attempt has been made to collect all the names which have appeared in different publications. These have presumably all been applied to some pecan at some time or other, but many of them have never been propagated by budding or grafting and a very large proportion of them have been lost track of entirely. In short, they are now represented by names only. However, they are all given, for the reason that it would be well not to apply any of these names to other varieties. It might be well to emphasize the fact that many meritorious varieties would be the better for re-naming.

In the original descriptions, it will be noted that the thickness of the shell is given in millimeters. A piece of the shell about the center of the side covering the back of the half kernels, was accurately measured. These measurements must not be regarded as absolute, but they are comparative. All nut illustrations are natural size.

For the origin and synonomy of many varieties credit must be given to the excellent work of Mr. William A. Taylor, of the United States Department of Agriculture, who has probably done more than any one else to straighten out the tangled nomenclature of the pecan.

CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES.

Heretofore, no attempt has been made to group or classify the different varieties of pecans. Classification does not become necessary until the number of varieties has increased sufficiently. The following classification of the varieties with which the author is acquainted, is based entirely upon the shape of the nuts. No classification of those varieties of which descriptions are copied has been attempted, as the descriptions are frequently so meagre as to render it impossible:

1. Varieties: Hound or roundish oblong. Types—Post, Hollis, Money-maker.

Bacon, Bolton, Extra Early, Georgia, Hollis, Money-maker, Post, Randall, San Saba, Thomas.

2. Varieties: Oblong, rounded at the base, blunt and quadrangular at the apex. Types—Pabst, Success.

Frotscher, Pabst, Pegram, Perfection, Success, Sweetmeat.

3. Varieties: Oblong in general outline, rounded, blunt and abruptly tipped at the base, and abruptly short-pointed at the apex. Types—Russell, Stuart.

Alley, Carman, Capital, Franklin, Havens, Jacocks, James No. 1, Kincaid, Lewis, Moore, Morris, Russell, Stuart.

4. Varieties: Oblong cylindrical to almost conical, rounded at the base, sloping from the middle or above to the sharp-pointed apex. Types—Jewett, Curtis, Schley.

Clarke, Curtis, Daisy, Dalzell, Dewey, Hume, James' Giant, Jewett, Kennedy, Mammoth, Rome, Schley, Young.

5. Varieties: Usually long in proportion to thickness, more or less pointed at both base and apex. Types—Atlanta, Ideal, Schaifer.

Atlanta, Centennial, Delmas, Domestic, Ideal, James' Paper-shell, Ladyfinger, Longfellow, Louisiana, Monarch, Money, Schaifer, Van Deman.

6. Hybrid Varieties: Nussbaumer, McCallister, Schneck, Pooshee, Westbrook.

ALBA. Size below medium, cylindrical, with pointed apex; cracking quality good; shell of medium thickness; corky shell lining thick, adhering to the kernel; kernel plump, light colored; quality good. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893: 295, 1894).

ALLEY. Size medium, 1-5/8 x 7/8; form ovate; color grayish-brown with a few purplish-black markings about the apex; base rounded, tipped; apex abruptly short-pointed, slightly four-angled; shell brittle, thin, .8 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality excellent; kernel full, plump, bright straw-colored, sutures narrow, moderately deep, secondary sutures slightly marked; texture firm, compact fine grained; flavor sweet, delicate, pleasant; quality very good and a good keeper.

Described from specimens received from Mr. Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, Miss.

ATLANTA. Size medium, 1-7/8 x 7/8 x 11/16 inches; ovate, compressed; color dull gray liberally specked with small, dark dots, splashed with purplish markings from middle to apex; base sloping, blunt-pointed; apex sloping, short-pointed; shell brittle, moderately thin; partitions rather thick, corky; cracking quality quite good; kernel full, plump, sutures narrow of medium depth, secondary sutures lacking; color light yellowish-brown, bright; texture solid, compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Originated by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga., and first catalogued about 1900.

BACON. (Syn.: Bacon's Choice.) Size small, 1-1/4 x 7/8 inches; rounded, compressed toward the apex; color dull brownish-gray, thickly dotted with dark specks, liberally splashed with purplish-brown markings toward the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly blunt-pointed; shell thin, .85 mm.; cracking quality excellent; partitions thin, papery; kernel roundish, bright, light brownish-yellow, plump, full, smooth, sutures broad, of medium depth; flavor sweet, nutty, good; quality very good.

A small pecan of good quality, originated by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga., and introduced by him in 1900.



BARTOW. Medium size, thin shell and fine flavor. (Bacon's Cat., page 29, 1904.)

BEAUTY. Illustrated in "The Pecan and How to Grow It." (Stuart Pecan Co., 1893, p. 59, fig. 5.)

BELLE. Medium, ovate, quality very good. (J. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.)

BIEDIGER. Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Pomology, 64, 1896.

BILOXI. (W. R. Stuart, Ocean Springs, Miss.) Medium size, cylindrical, pointed at each end; surface quite regular, light brown; shell thin; cracking quality medium; kernel plump, with yellowish-brown surface; free from astringency, of good quality, and keeps well without becoming rancid. Introduced several years ago by W. R. Stuart as Mexican Paper-shell, but the name has since been changed to Biloxi. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893. 295, 1894).

BLACK JACK. Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Pomology, 64, 1896.

BOLTON. Size medium, 1-3/8 x 1 inches; ovate conical; color dull gray marked with purplish-brown blotches about the apex; base rounded; apex angled, blunt, sloping gradually from the center; shell thick, 1.9 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quality medium; kernel brownish-yellow, somewhat wrinkled; sutures broad, deep, inner surface wrinkled, broadly oval in outline, texture rather open; flavor sweet, nutty; quality good.

Originated in Jefferson county, Florida. Described from specimens received from J. H. Girardeau, Monticello, Fla.

BRACKETT. Named for our U. S. Pomologist. It is a very fine market pecan, unexcelled in richness of flavor, and has a thin shell. Trees are fine growers, heavy bearers, and with proper care and attention come into bearing at six years old. (Bacon's Cat., 1900).

BRADLEY. Large, oblong, ovoid, shell thin, kernel plump, best. (J. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.)

BRIDEX. Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Pomology, 64, 1896.

BULLETS. A decided novelty in pecans. As its name indicates, it is of bullet shape, being almost perfectly round. It has a fine flavor, shell is very thin. (Bacon's Cat., 1900).

CAPITAL. Size medium to large, 1-7/8 x 7/8 x 3/4 inches; ovate oblong, compressed with well-marked sutures; color light-brown streaked and splashed with purplish-brown markings from center to apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex abruptly short-pointed, nippled; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions of medium thickness; cracking quality very good; kernel plump, filling the shell, brownish-yellow in color, primary sutures broad and fairly deep, secondary ones well defined, running almost the length of the kernel; texture rather open; flavor good; quality good.

Described from specimens received from Mr. Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, Miss.

CARMAN. Size medium, 1-7/8 x 3/4 inches; oblong, compressed; color light yellowish-brown marked with splashes and blotches of brownish-black about the apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex abruptly-pointed, shouldered and four-angled; shell brittle of medium thickness, 1.2 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel long, slender, plump, straw-colored, sutures straight, narrow, shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, pleasant; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. Originated and introduced by Mr. S. H. James, Mound, La.

CENTENNIAL. Size large, 2 x 7/8 x 3/4 inches; oblong, compressed, constricted in the middle, with well marked sutures; color grayish-brown, bright, marked with a few purplish markings in the grooves at the apex; base tapering to a blunt point; apex tapering, pointed, wedge-shaped, sometimes curved; shell medium thick, 1.5 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality medium; kernel plump, full, brownish-yellow, bright, sutures rather small, straight, secondary ones marked by a line, surface rather wrinkled; flavor sweet, delicate; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Mr. J. F. Jones, Monticello, Fla. "The original tree stood on the Anita plantation of Mr. Amant Bourgeois, on the east bank of the Mississippi river in St. James Parish, La."[C] It was destroyed March 14, 1890, by the Anita Crevasse. Sixteen trees were grafted in 1846 and 1847 by the slave gardener, Antoine, of Mr. Telesphore J. Roman, owner of Oak Alley plantation. Two of these earlier trees are still standing. Nuts were exhibited at the Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, in 1876, by Hubert Bonzano. Under the name Centennial, it was probably first catalogued by the late Richard Frotscher, of New Orleans, in 1885.

CHIQUITA. Small, ovate, shell medium, best, long keeper. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, December 3, 1904, p. 2.)

CLARK. Size medium to large, 1-3/4 x 7/8 inches; ovate oblong; color dull gray, with a few purplish spots about the apex; base rounded; apex blunt; shell brittle of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; cracking quality medium; partitions thick, corky; kernel full and plump with narrow sutures of medium depth, light yellow in color and marked here and there with black dots; texture rather open; flavor good; quality good.

Obtained of J. H. Girardeau, Monticello, Fla.

COLORADO. Mentioned by Andrew Fuller in "The Nut-Culturist," 1896, p. 169.

CURTIS. (Syn.: Curtis No. 2). Medium, 1-5/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate, conical, compressed; color brownish-gray, marked throughout with dark specks and a few purplish specks about the apex; base rounded; apex sloping, pointed; shell thin, .7 mm.; cracking quality excellent; partitions thin, smooth; kernel bright straw-colored, plump, full, with narrow sutures of medium depth; texture compact, firm; flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality excellent.



The original tree of this variety is to be found in the grove of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. It was raised from seed secured from Arthur Brown, Bagdad, Fla., and planted in 1886. It is a meritorious variety, being prolific, of good appearance and excellent quality.

DAISY. Medium to large, 1-7/8 x 13/16 x 3/4 inches; oblong cylindrical; color reddish-brown marked with a few purplish-brown spots about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly tapering, rather short; shell brittle, thin .93 mm.; cracking quality fairly good; partitions thick; kernel light brownish-yellow, full, plump, with broad and very shallow sutures; texture firm and compact; flavor sweet, good; quality good.

Obtained of S. W. Peek, Hartwell, Ga.

DALZELL. Large, 2 x 7/8 x 3/4 inches; cylindrical flattened; dull grayish-brown, pebbled, marked with narrow splashes of purplish-brown from center to apex; base rounded; apex abruptly sharp-pointed, four-angled and shouldered; shell rather thick, brittle, 1.4 mm.; cracking quality medium; partitions thin; kernel long, narrow with deep sutures, yellowish-brown in color, texture firm and compact; flavor sweet, good; quality good.

Obtained of S. H. Graves, Gainesville, Fla. The original tree[D] stands in a 14-acre grove, four miles south of Gainesville. The grove was planted in 1888, by Mr. J. R. Zetrour, now of Rochelle, Fla.

DELMAS. Size large, 1-7/8 x 1 inches; ovate, marked with four distinct ridges; color dull dark gray marked with dark specks and blotches with purplish-black from center to apex; base sloping, rounded, blunt; apex abruptly short-pointed, four-angled; shell thick, brittle, 1.4 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking quality good; kernel bright light yellow, sutures broad, open, shallow, secondary ones almost lacking, sometimes slack at bottom end; texture rather open; flavor sweet; quality good.



Described from specimens received from Mr. Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, Miss. A large nut of fairly good quality, said in some cases to have been substituted for Schley, from which it is very distinct.

DEWEY. Medium to large, 1-7/8 x 3/4 inches; ovate pointed; color dull gray, marked with splashes of purplish-brown; base rounded; apex sharp; shell brittle and thin, .88 mm.; cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel full, plump, smooth, bright light straw-colored, with narrow sutures of medium depth; texture firm and solid; flavor sweet, rich, good; quality very good.

Specimens for description obtained of H. K. Miller, Monticello, Fla. Originated in Jefferson county, Fla.

DEWITT. An oddity, having the shape of a spinning top. Shell is thin, and its rich meat is easily extracted on account of its peculiar shape. (Bacon's Cat. 1900.)

DOMESTIC. Large, 2 x 3/4 inches; oblong ovate, compressed toward the base; color light reddish-brown, with splotches of purplish-brown throughout; base sloping, pointed; apex four-angled, abruptly blunt-pointed; shell brittle, thin, .95 mm.; cracking quality good; partitions thick, red, corky; kernel brownish-yellow, plump, full, wrinkled on the sides with straight, narrow, deep sutures and secondary ones fairly well developed; texture compact and fine grained; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Specimens for description obtained from Frank H. Lewis, Scranton, Miss.

EARLY TEXAN. (Louis Biediger, Idlewild, Tex.) Size above medium, short, cylindrical, with rounded base and blunt conical crown; shell quite thick, shell lining thick, astringent; cracking quality medium; kernel not very plump, of mild nutty flavor; quality good. (Report Sec'y Agr., 1893: 295, 1894.)

EGG. (Syn.: Eggshell.) Medium; ovate; shell thin; partitions thin; kernel plump; quality good. D. L. Pierson, Monticello, Fla. Grown from seed procured from Louisiana in 1889. (Hume, Bul. 54, Florida Exp. Station, 203, 1900.)

EXCELSIOR. A variety reported by Ladd Bros., Stonewall, Miss. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Pomology, 64, 1896.)

EXTRA EARLY. Size medium to large, 1-3/8 x 1 inch; oblong ovoid abruptly-pointed; color grayish-yellow with small purplish blotches more or less over the whole surface; base rounded; apex abruptly-pointed, blunt; shell of medium thickness, 1.15 mm.; partitions of medium thickness; cracking quality good; kernel filling the shell, plump, smooth, sutures broad, open, deep, not clasping the shell, color brownish-yellow, texture open; flavor very good, quality fair.

Described from specimens received from E. E. Risien, San Saba, Texas; not catalogued, so far as we are aware.

FAUST. (O. D. Faust, Bamberg, S. C.) A pecan of large size; very long in shape; quite thin shell; kernel separating readily from shell; quality best. (Report Sec'y Agr., 1891, p. 395: 1892.)

FAVORITA. A variety named and grown at one time by Arthur Brown, Bagdad, Fla. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," U. S. Dept, Agr., Div. Pomology, 64, 1896.)



FRANKLIN. Size medium large, 1-5/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate; color dull grayish-brown splashed about the apex with purplish-black; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex blunt-pointed, four-angled; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.32 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quality good; kernel full, plump, bright brownish-yellow, primary sutures of medium width, deep, secondary ones almost lacking; texture rather coarse, fairly firm and compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from S. W. Peek, Hartwell, Ga.

FROTSCHER. (Syn.: Frotscher's Eggshell, Eggshell, Olivier, Majestic.) Large, 1-5/8 x 1-7/8 inches; cylindrical, ovate; color bright yellowish-brown, with a few black splashes about the apex; base broad, rounded; .9 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality excellent; kernel brownish-yellow, dark veined, frequently slack at one end; sutures of medium depth, rather narrow, secondary sutures well marked; texture dry, rather coarse; flavor good; quality fair to medium.

The above description was made from specimens received from the J. Steckler Seed Co., New Orleans, La. The original tree stands in the garden of H. J. Pharr, Olivier, La.; the place was formerly owned by Oscar Olivier. The variety was first propagated by William Nelson, and catalogued as Frotscher's Eggshell, by Richard Frotscher, in 1885. The variety is precocious, productive, and succeeds over a wide range of country.



GEORGIA. (Syn.: Georgia Giant.) Size large, 1-1/2 x 1/8 x 1 inches; rounded ovate; color brownish-gray marked with splashes and dots of dark brown covering a good part of the surface; base rounded; apex tapering, blunt; shell brittle, medium in thickness, 1.3 mm.; cracking quality medium; partitions thick, corky, red; kernel bright reddish-brown, plump, full, rather deeply sutured, two secondary sutures fairly well developed; texture compact, fine grained; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Originated and introduced by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga. Said to be a precocious and prolific bearer.

GEORGIA MELON. Size above medium, short, rather blunt at apex; cracking quality medium, shell thick; kernel plump, brown; meat yellow, moderately tender, pleasant, good. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893, 295: 1894.)

GIANT. Named, and at cue time propagated, by Louis Biediger, Idlewild, Tex. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," 64, 1896.)

GONZALES. (T. V. Munson, Denison, Tex.) Above medium size, with firm, clean shell; quality excellent. Originated in Gonzales county, Tex. (Report Sec. Agr. 1893, 295: 1894.)

GRAFF. Named, and at one time propagated, by Louis Biediger, Idlewild, Tex. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," 64, 1896.)

HALBERT. Very large, oval, shell thick, fair quality. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, p. 2, Dec. 3rd, 1904.)

HAMILTON. (Syn.: R. Hamilton.) Illustrated in Farm and Ranch, Vol. 23, No. 49, p. 1, Dec. 3rd, 1904.

HARCOURT. (Syn.: Helen Harcourt?) Size medium, short, slightly acorn-shaped; cracking qualities medium; Shell rather thick, but very smooth inside; kernel short, very plump; meat yellow; very tender; rich; very good. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893, 295: 1894.)

HAVENS. Large. 1-7/8 x 1 x 7/8 inches; ovate, compressed; color dull gray specked and splashed with purplish-brown; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex abruptly short-pointed, four-angled; shell brittle, thin, .85 mm.; partitions of medium thickness; cracking quality excellent; kernel very plump, full, brownish-yellow marked with dark specks, primary sutures narrow, deep, secondary ones very slightly marked, bottom ends of halves of kernel divided; texture solid, compact, fine grained; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Frank H. Lewis, Scranton, Miss.

HOLLIS. (Syn.: Post's Select in part.) Size medium, 1-3/8 x 1 inches; form roundish ovate, marked with four more or less prominent longitudinal ridges; color dull brownish-yellow, slightly splashed with purplish-brown about the apex; base rounded; apex roundish, blunt; shell thick, 1.6 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quality medium; kernel plump, filling the shell, quite smooth, broadly and deeply grooved, oval in outline, light brownish-yellow in color; texture fine grained; flavor delicate, good; quality good.

Described from specimens received from Herbert Post, Fort Worth, Tex. The seed nuts of this variety have been sold under the name, "Post's Select." It originated at Bend, San Saba county, Texas.

HUME. (Syn.: Curtis No. 5.) Size medium, 1-1/2 x 7/8 inches; short, oblong cylindrical, marked with two longitudinal ridges; color grayish-brown marked with a number of short, narrow purplish-brown splashes; base rounded, very blunt-tipped; apex abruptly-pointed, flattened on two sides; shell thin, .8 mm.; partitions medium, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel full, plump, light yellowish-brown, marked and dotted with dark spots, sutures straight, narrow, of medium depth; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, pleasant, quality very good.

The original tree of this variety stands in the grove of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. It was grown from seed secured from Arthur Brown, Bagdad, Fla., in 1886. It is a shy bearer.

IDEAL. Medium, 1-7/8 x 3/4 x 5/8 inches; oblong, somewhat compressed, slightly constricted in the middle; color bright grayish-brown marked with narrow strips of purplish-brown at the apex; base sloping, pointed; apex sloping, pointed; shell thin, brittle, .9 mm.; partitions medium thick; cracking quality good; kernel full, plump, smooth, bright straw-colored, sutures very narrow, shallow; texture compact, firm; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from S. W. Peek, Hartwell, Ga.

IDLEWILD. Medium size, thick shell, kernel good. Louis Biediger, Idlewild, Tex. (Thomas' American Fruit Culturist, 21st ed. 452, 1903.)

JACOCKS. (Syn.: Jacocks' Mammoth.) Size large or very large, 1-7/8 x 1 inches; ovate, long; color bright yellowish-brown; base rounded, abruptly blunt-pointed; apex blunt, four-angled, slightly wedged; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions very thick, corky, red; cracking quality medium; kernel light yellowish-brown, full or sometimes shrunken, sutures broad, of medium depth, secondary sutures well developed and fairly deep; texture open, rather coarse; flavor sweet, rather dry; quality fairly good.

Introduced by Mrs. C. W. Jacocks, Formosa, Fla., from whom specimens were received.

JAMES GIANT. Medium to large, 2 x 7/8 inches; ovate cylindrical; color brownish-gray, marked with a few purplish splashes about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly sharp-pointed with four rather prominent ridges; shell thin, 1. mm.; cracking quality good; partitions medium thickness; kernel bright light yellow, with narrow deep sutures and well defined secondary sutures; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Obtained of Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La.

JAMES NO. 1. Size large, 2 x 13/16 x 3/4 inches; oblong, ovate, compressed; brownish-yellow in color with a few brownish streaks about the apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex abruptly blunt-pointed, four-angled, nippled; shell thin, .8 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel straw-colored, usually full and plump, though sometimes shrunken at one end, primary sutures broad, shallow, secondary ones well defined; texture solid, fine grained; flavor very good, sweet; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. Originated and introduced by S. H. James, Mound, La.

JAMES PAPER-SHELL. Medium to large, 1-7/8 x 3/4 inches; cylindrical or slightly quadrangular, slender; color yellowish-brown marked with purplish splashes from center to apex; base rounded; apex abruptly-pointed, four-angled; shell thin, .96 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel sometimes slack at one end, usually plump, smooth, bright brownish-yellow; sutures narrow, shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor very good, sweet; quality very good.

Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La., and described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La.

JEWETT. Large, 1-7/8 x 7/8 inches; obovate, flattened, angular, frequently constricted at the middle; color dull reddish-brown, marked with large purplish splashes; base rounded; apex blunt four-angled, frequently curved; shell brittle, thick; cracking quality very good; partitions of medium thickness; kernel bright straw-colored, plump, smooth, somewhat triangular, with broad, open, shallow sutures; texture firm, compact; flavor fair; quality medium.

Obtained of Chas. E. Pabst, Ocean Springs, Miss.

JUMBO. Size large, 1-5/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate, slightly tapering; color grayish-brown marked with a few narrow streaks about the apex; base rounded; apex four-angled, wedged, blunt-pointed; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking quality medium; kernel full, plump, straw-yellow in color, primary sutures broad, deep, secondary sutures almost lacking; texture fairly solid, fine grained; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla.

KENNEDY. Large, 1-3/4 x 7/8 inches; ovate-conical, flattened; color dull brownish-gray, marked with a few narrow streaks of purplish-black about the apex; base rounded; apex sharp-pointed, flattened on two sides; shell of medium thickness, .98 mm.; cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel bright, plump, full, smooth with narrow sutures of medium depth and secondary ones marked by a line; texture firm and compact, flavor rich, sweet; quality excellent.

Described from specimens received from Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. Origin similar to Curtis.

KENTUCKY GEM. Listed. (Burnette, F. H., Bul. La. Exp. Station, sec. ser. No. 69, 1902, p. 875.)

KIDD. Illustrated in Farm and Ranch, Vol. 23, No. 49, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 1.

KINCAID. Size medium to large, 1-5/8 x 1 inches; ovate compressed with well defined sutures; color light brownish-yellow, bright, marked with narrow splashes of purplish-black at the apex; base almost flattened, blunt-tipped; apex blunt-pointed, slightly wedged, four-angled; shell brittle, compact, thin, .98 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel very full and plump, smooth, bright, light straw-colored, primary sutures broad and deep, secondary sutures creased and very shallow; texture fine grained, solid, compact; flavor sweet, rich, good; quality excellent; a good keeper.

Described from specimens received from E. E. Rislen, San Saba, Texas. This apparently is a very good variety of pecan.



KRACK-EZY. Medium, ovoid, very thin shell, full of meat, best (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.)

LADYFINGER. Size small, 1-1/2 x 5/8 inches; ovate pointed at both ends; color grayish-brown marked with a very few small narrow streaks about the apex; base pointed; apex pointed; shell thin, 1. mm.; partitions of medium thickness; cracking quality excellent; kernel small and narrow, plump full, smooth, sutures narrow and shallow; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from the Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla. Originated on the grounds of this nursery company in Jackson county, Fla. A small nut of very fine quality, but too small to be recommended for extensive planting.

LAMAR. Large, oblong, pointed, medium shell, full, best. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 8, 1904, p. 2).

LEWIS. Large, 1-5/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate, compressed; color bright yellowish-brown marked with purplish-brown blotches three-quarters of the distance back from apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex blunt-pointed, slightly wedged; shell thin, .98 mm.; cracking quality good; partitions thick; kernel plump or sometimes shrunken at lower end, wrinkled on the sides, bright, light yellow in color, primary sutures broad, of medium depth, secondary ones very shallow, wrinkled; texture fine grained, solid; flavor sweet, pleasant; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Frank H. Lewis, Scranton, Miss.

LONGFELLOW. Large, 1-7/8 x 7/8 inches; obovate, angular, sutured; color light yellowish-brown strongly marked with purplish-black splashes throughout; base sloping, rounded; apex shouldered, abruptly-pointed, flattened and quadrangular; shell of medium thickness, 1.15 mm.; partitions very thin; cracking quality good; kernel full, plump, somewhat wrinkled; light straw-colored, sutures narrow of medium depth; texture fine grained, compact; flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality excellent.

Described from specimens received from E. E. Risien, San Saba, Texas. A pecan of good quality and an excellent keeper.

LOUISIANA. Size medium, 1-7/8 x 7/8 x 3/4 inches; oblong cylindrical; color grayish-brown, marked with splashes of purplish-black towards the apex; base rounded, sloping; apex sloping, pointed; shell rather thick, 1.4 mm.; partitions of medium thickness; cracking quality very good; kernel full, plump, dark yellow, sutures broad, shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla.

MAGNUM BONUM. Medium, ovate; shell thin; partitions thin; kernel plump, sweet; quality very good. (Hume, Bul. 54, Fla. Exp. Station, 1900, 207).

MAMMOTH. (Syn.: Steckler's Mammoth.) Large to very large, 2 x 1 inches; form ovate; color dull gray, pebbled, with a very few dark lines at the apex; base rounded; apex flattened, four-angled, blunt; shell thick, 1.4 mm.; cracking quality very poor; partitions corky, very thick; kernel bright yellowish-brown with broad, deep sutures and fuzzy lining adhering to kernel; texture coarse; flavor sweet and good; quality quite good.

Obtained of J. Steckler Seed Company.



MANTURA. Size large, 2 x 13/16, 1-7/8 x 7/8 inches; oblong, oval; color dull reddish-brown liberally marked with large, irregular black splashes; base taper-pointed, blunt; apex sharp-pointed, nippled; shell very thin, .78 mm.; brittle, dense; cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel dark straw-colored, plump, smooth, oval, with open sutures of medium depth; texture firm, solid; flavor sweet, nutty; quality very good indeed.

Described from specimens received from Wm. N. Roper, Petersburg, Va., by whom it was named and introduced in 1906.

The original tree of this variety stands on the Mantura homestead, in Surry county, Va., two miles south of the James river, now owned by W. P. Wilson. Mr. Wilson's mother planted four trees from nuts secured from a tree at Surry Courthouse, Va., the Mantura being one of the four, The parent tree measures about fourteen feet around the body, and bears crops of good sized nuts. It stands about ten miles from the site of the Mantura tree.

The Mantura tree is a large, symmetrical specimen with wide-spreading branches. It is about eighty feet high and measures about eleven feet around the trunk. It has been bearing for the past fifteen years, and in 1905 yielded 275 pounds of nuts.

This variety will doubtless prove a valuable acquisition for planters on the northern limits of the pecan area, as the particular strain from which it comes has been growing in Virginia for more than sixty years.

MEXICAN PAPER-SHELL. Reported by Ladd Bros., Stonewall, Miss. Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," 1906, p. 64. (See Biloxi.)

MEYERS. The fruit of a variety of this name was distributed by Judge Samuel Miller, Bluffton, Mo. (Andrew Fuller, in The Nut Culturist, p. 170, 1896.)

MONARCH. (Syn.: De Witt Mammoth.) Large, 2 x 7/8 inches; ovate, sloping to base and apex; color dull gray strongly marked with purplish-black splashes; base pointed; apex pointed, wedged; shell medium thick, 1.1 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking quality poor; kernel frequently badly filled at base, sutures of medium width and depth, color yellowish-brown; texture firm; flavor good, rather dry; quality good.

Originated by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga. (of the G. M. Bacon Pecan Co.), and introduced about the year 1900. Owing to the preemption of the name Mammoth, by another variety introduced by the late Richard Frotscher, of New Orleans, La., the name DeWitt Mammoth was changed to Monarch.[E]

MONEY. (Syn.: Senator Money.) Size large, 1 x 7/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate, somewhat four-angled, color light brown marked with blotches of purplish-brown sometimes throughout; base abruptly blunt-pointed; apex wedged, pointed; shell brittle, medium to thick, 1.3 mm.; partitions medium; kernel plump, full, bright light yellow, sutures broad, shallow, secondary ones indistinct; texture rather open, of medium grain; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

A large, plump-meated pecan of very good quality, described from specimens received from Frank H. Lewis, Scranton, Miss.

MONEY-MAKER. Size medium, 1-5/16 x 1 inches; ovate, oblong; color light yellowish-brown with a few purplish-brown marks about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly rounded, slightly wedged; small nipples; shell of medium thickness, 1.1 mm.; partitions medium thick, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel full, plump, broadly oval, sutures straight, broad, shallow, secondary ones small; texture firm, solid; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. This pecan was originated and introduced by S. H. James, Mound, La.; the quality is very good and the variety is precocious, prolific and hardy.

MOORE. Size small, 1-3/8 x 3/4 inches; ovate; color light yellowish-brown marked with a few small purplish spots about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly nippled, short; shell brittle, thin, 1.1 mm.; partitions rather thin; cracking quality very good; kernel dark yellow, plump, full, sutures narrow, shallow; texture firm, compact, solid; flavor sweet and good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from J. H. Girardeau, Monticello, Fla. The variety is so small that we deem it scarcely worthy of propagation.

MORRIS. Size medium, 1-5/8 x 3/4 inches; ovate; color light brown, bright, clean, base sloping, rounded; apex tapering abruptly to a blunt point; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.45 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quality very good; kernel plump, filling the shell, straw-colored, primary sutures broad and deep, secondary ones shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla.

NELSON. Nut the largest of all known; some specimens weighing nearly one ounce; elliptical-oblong in shape; medium thin shell, clean, bright in color; kernel plump, sweet and rich; quality very best, a quick grower; early bearer, very prolific; habit of growth like the Frotscher, forming a round-headed tree. (Catalogue J. Steckler Seed Co., 1905, p. 172.)

NIGGER. Medium, short oval, thin shell, full, excellent. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.)



PABST. Size large, 1-5/8 x 7/8 inches; oblong cylindrical; color dull gray marked with broad splashes of purplish-black; base rounded; apex blunt, four-angled, grooved; shell of medium thickness, 1.22 mm.; partitions rather thick; cracking quality fair; kernel plump, large, thick with broad, shallow sutures, secondary sutures short, shallow, bright yellow in color; texture fine; flavor good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Wm. A. Taylor, United States Department of Agriculture. The original tree, according to Mr. Taylor, is one of a number of seedlings on the grounds of the late William E. Schmidt at Ocean Springs, Miss. The original tree is now about thirty years old. Quite productive and recommended for planting by those who know it.

PAN-AMERICAN. Large, oblong, thick shell, full, best. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.)

PEARL. (E. E. Risien, San Saba, Tex.) Medium size, thin shell, sweet kernel; no corky growth inside. A choice nut for family use, but said to be too small for market. (Thomas' Am. Fruit Culturist, 21st Ed., 1903.)

PEARL. This is a very productive pecan, originated by Mr. James. It is distinct from the Pearl which originated in Texas. (Burnette, Bul. Sec. Series, 69, La. Exp. Station, 874, 1902.)

PEGRAM. Size medium, 1-1/2 x 7/8 inches; oblong; color light grayish-brown marked with a few purplish-brown markings at the apex; base rounded; apex blunt, quadrangular; shell creased, roughened, brittle, of medium thickness, 1.15 mm.; partitions medium thick, corky; cracking quality medium; kernel plump, full, quite smooth, sutures narrow and of medium depth; texture firm, compact, solid; flavor sweet and good; quality good.

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La.

PERFECTION. (Syn.: James' Perfection.) Size medium, 1-3/8 x 7/8 inches; oblong; color grayish-brown marked well down the sides from the apex with purplish-black splashes; base flattened, rounded; apex abrupt, blunt; shell slightly ridged, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions rather thick, corky; cracking quality medium; kernel full, plump, brownish-yellow, narrow and moderately deep, sutures narrow, of moderate depth, secondary ones well defined; texture fairly solid; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La.

PETITE. Small and plump; white hull; very desirable. (Helen Harcourt, Florida.)

PRESIDENT. Large, oblong, pointed, thin shell, full, best. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2).

PRIMATE. (W. R. Stuart, Ocean Springs, Miss.) Of medium size, slender, rather long; shell thin; quality good; ripens in September, thirty days before the other nuts. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893, 295: 1894.)

POST. (Syn.: Port's Select in part.) Size medium, 1-3/4 x 1 inches; short, obovate, compressed on the upper half color light brownish-yellow, marked with a few purplish splashes about the apex; base rounded; apex blunt, abruptly shouldered; shell of medium thickness, 1.35 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quality medium; kernel plump, bright straw-colored, deeply grooved and wrinkled, texture firm, solid; flavor sweet, delicate; quality good.

Described from specimens from the original tree, received from Wm. A. Taylor, U. S. Department of Agriculture. The original seedling tree stands on H. B. Freeman's farm on the Colorado river bottom, San Saba county, Texas. It took its name from Mr. Post, a former owner of the place.[F]

RANDALL. (Syn.: Curtis No. 3.) Small, 1-3/8 x 1 inches; ovate-oblong; color grayish-brown splashed with broad marks of purplish-brown, and covered with small dots throughout; base rounded; apex abruptly blunt-pointed; shell rough, of medium thickness; cracking quality very good; partitions corky, of medium thickness, 1.25 mm.; kernel medium size, smooth, roundish sutures, reddish-yellow in color; texture firm and compact; flavor sweet and good; quality very good.

Specimens for description obtained of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. Origin similar to Curtis.

REPTON. Large, shell rather whitish one end round, the other decidedly pointed; black points; meat sweet and tender; tree remarkably beautiful. From one Repton tree, said to be forty years old, over five hundred pounds of nuts were gathered the season of 1904. (Helen Harcourt, "Florida Fruits and How to Grow Them," 1886, p. 212.)

RIBERA. Size above medium; oblong-ovate; cracking quality good; shell thin; kernel plump, light brown, free from the bitter, red, corky growth which adheres to the shell; meat yellow; tender, with rich, delicate, pleasant flavor, (Report Sec. Agr., 1893, 295: 1894.)

RISIEN. Large ovate; quality excellent. E. K. Risien, San Saba, Texas. (Thomas' American Fruit Culturist, 21st Ed., 453, 1903.)

ROBSON. A medium-sized, very thin-shelled nut, oblong ovoid in shape. A comparatively new variety, but of considerable merit. (Bacon's Cat., 1904, p. 28.)

ROME. (Syn.: Century, Columbia, Columbian, Mammoth, Pride of the Coast, Southern Giant, Twentieth Century.) Size large to very large, 1-7/8 x 1 to 2 x 1 inches; oblong cylindrical or cylindrical ovate; color grayish, dirty, much splashed and spotted with dirty, black marks sometimes throughout; base rounded; apex abruptly-pointed, flattened on two sides; shell hard, brittle, thick, 1.6 mm.; cracking quality poor; partitions thick, corky; kernel frequently shrunken, bright yellowish in color, sutures of medium depth, secondary ones well marked, fuzzy material often adhering to lower end; texture coarse, rather dry; flavor dry, lacking in character; quality fair.



Described from specimens received from J. Steckler Seed Co., New Orleans, La. This much-named variety, according to Taylor, was originated by the late Sebastian Rome, at Convent, St. James Parish, La., about 1840. Catalogued by the late Richard Frotscher, under the name "Rome," in 1885. It cannot be recommended for planting.

RUSSELL. Size medium to large, 1-5/8 x 7/8 inches; form ovate, slightly compressed; color grayish-brown with small specks and splashes of purplish-black; base rounded, blunt-pointed; apex abruptly sloping; shell very thin, brittle, .74 mm.; partitions very thin: cracking quality excellent; kernel usually plump though sometimes shrunken at the base, sutures broad and shallow; texture fairly compact; flavor dry, sweet; quality good.

Described from specimens received from Chas. E. Pabst, Ocean Springs, Miss. The original tree stands in the yard of Mrs. H. F. Russell, at Ocean Springs, and is one of a lot of seedlings raised by the late Col. W. R. Stuart, about 1875. The tree was planted where it now stands by Peter Madsen. It was named by Mr. Pabst, and propagated by him in 1894.

RUSSELL NO. 1. Large, long-ovoid, shell thin, plump, good. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.)

RUSSELL NO. 2. Very large, ovoid, shell rather thick, very good. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3rd, 1904, p. 2.)

SAN SABA. Size small, 1-3/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate, slightly compressed toward the apex; color bright reddish-yellow, marked with purplish-brown splashes extending from about the middle of the apex; shell very thin and brittle; partitions thin; cracking quality excellent; kernel very plump, smooth, deeply and broadly grooved, bright straw-colored, oval in outline; texture solid, fine grained; flavor rich, sweet, delicate; quality excellent.

The San Saba may be regarded as a standard of quality among pecans, as the Seckel is among pears. Described from specimens received from E. E. Risien, San Saba, Texas. The variety was introduced by Mr. Risien about 1893. The original tree stands on the San Saba river near its intersection with the Colorado river in Texas.

SCHAIFER. (Syn.: Kate Schaifer.) Size medium, 1-3/4 x 3/4 inches; cylindrical, slender; color light yellowish-brown, marked with a few narrow, purplish splashes at the apex; base sloping, pointed; apex sloping, sharp-pointed; shell rather thick, 1.35 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking quality quite good; kernel bright yellowish, plump, filling the shell, smooth, sutures shallow of medium width; texture fine grained; flavor sweet, good; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La. Said to be prolific.



SCHLEY. Size large, 1-7/8 x 7/8 x 3/8 inches; oblong, oval, flattened; color light reddish-brown, marked with small specks about the base and small splashes of purplish-brown about the apex; base rounded, abruptly short nippled; apex abrupt, flattened on two sides and rather sharp pointed; shell brittle, dense, thin, .75 mm.; cracking quality excellent, shell breaking easily and readily separating from the kernel; kernel very full and plump, smooth, with shallow sutures and almost entirely free from wrinkles, bright light yellowish-brown in color; texture very firm; flavor rich, sweet, nutty; quality best; season early.

Obtained from Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla. Not as prolific as some varieties, but, in point of quality, unsurpassed.

SENATOR. Medium; ovate; shell and partitions thin; kernel full and plump; quality excellent. G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga. (Hume, Bul. 54, Fla. Exp. Station, 204, 1900.)

SOVEREIGN. Origin, San Saba, Texas. A seedling of San Saba, grown and introduced by E. E. Risien, of San Saba, Tex. Cylindrical, medium to large, with very thin shell and full kernel of fine quality. A new variety of very much promise. (Taylor, Wm. A., Cyclopedia Am. Hort., 1256, 1901.)

STEVENS. Named for Hon. O. B. Stevens. Commissioner of Agriculture. Not very Large, but bright, pretty and neatly shaped. Very thin shell and always full of nice, rich meat, whether the seasons are wet or dry. Trees medium bloomers, and full bearers of nuts uniform in shape and size. (Bacon's Cat., 1900.)



STUART. (Syn.: Castanera.) Size large to very large, 1-7/8 x 1 inches; ovate cylindrical; color grayish-brown splashed and dotted with purplish-black; base rounded, tipped; apex blunt, abrupt, somewhat four-angled; shell medium in thickness, 1.1 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel plump, full, bright straw-colored, sutures moderately broad and deep, secondary sutures not well defined; texture solid, fine grained; flavor rich, sweet; quality very good.

Described from specimens received from the Stuart Pecan Co., Ocean Springs, Miss. This variety has been tested and found to succeed over a wide range of country. The original tree,[G] grown from a nut planted by John R. Lassabe, about 1874, stood in the garden now owned by Capt. E. Castanera, Pascagoula, Miss. It was blown down in October, 1893, but a new shoot, now in bearing, has sprung up from the roots.



SUCCESS. Size large, 1-9/16 x 1 inches; oblong-ovate tapering from near base to apex; color light yellowish-brown strongly marked with purplish-brown splashes about the apex; base flattened, roundish; apex blunt, four-angled; shell thin, .93 mm.; cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel large, full, plump, filling the shell, light yellow in color, sutures broad of medium depth, inner surface wrinkled, oval in outline; texture firm, solid, compact; flavor sweet, rich; quality very good.

The original tree was found "growing in a crowded row of seedlings planted at Ocean Springs, Miss., by the late W. B. Schmidt, about ten years previously. The original Success tree first attracted attention in the fall of 1901." Described from specimens received from Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, Miss.

SWEETMEAT. Size medium, 1-1/4 x 7/8 inches; color bright grayish-brown marked with small streaks of purplish-brown about the apex; abruptly blunt; shell thin, .8 mm.; partitions of medium thickness, corky; cracking quality good; kernel plump, full, light yellow, sutures broad, shallow; texture fine grained, compact; flavor sweet; quality good.

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla.

TEXAS. Quite large, some very long; white hull; black points. (Helen Harcourt, "Florida Fruits and How to Grow Them," 1886, p. 212.)

TEXAS PROLIFIC. Large, oblong, shell thin, cream, clean, plump, best. (T. V. Munson, Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3rd, 1904, p. 2.)

THOMAS. Size small, 1-1/8 x 1 inches; short, roundish oblong; color brownish-gray dotted with small specks throughout, marked with dark purplish splashes from middle to apex; base rounded; apex abruptly short, pointed, nippled; shell of medium thickness, 1.2 mm.; partitions thick, corky, reddish; cracking quality quite good; kernel plump, filling the shell, sutures of medium depth, narrow, texture compact, fine grained, solid; flavor good; quality good.

Described from specimens received from Walter Thomas, Palatka, Fla.

TURKEY EGG, JR. Smaller and shorter than the above; cracking quality medium; shell of medium thickness; kernel plump, light colored; tender, oily, rich; good. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893, 296: 1894.)

TURKEY EGG, SR. Large, long, pointed; cracking quality very good; shell of medium thickness; kernel long, plump; brownish-yellow; separates readily from the shell; meat yellow, a little tough; not of highest quality. (Report Sec. Agr., 1893, 296: 1894.)

TURNER. Medium; elliptical oblong; shell thin; partitions slightly corky; kernel plump, sweet; quality excellent. G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla. (Hume, Bul. 54, Fla. Exp. Station, 203, 1900.)

VAN DEMAN. (Syn.: Bourgeois, Duminie Mire, Southern Beauty, Paragon in part.) Large to very large, 2-1/8 x 1 x 7/8 inches; oblong cylindrical; color reddish-brown with splashes and streaks of purplish-brown; base sloping, blunt-pointed; apex tapering, sharp-pointed; shell of medium thickness; cracking quality fine; partitions thick; kernel light brownish-yellow, sutures rather deeply and narrowly grooved with secondary sutures forming a mere line; kernel fine grained and compact, sometimes slack at the end; flavor sweet and delicate; quality very good.



Specimens for description obtained of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. The original tree of this variety was grown from a nut planted by the late Duminie Mire, of Union, St. James Parish, La., in 1836. The tree still stands, thrifty and vigorous, bearing 200 to 300 pounds of nuts yearly. It was first widely distributed by the late Col. W. R. Stuart, Ocean Springs, Miss., who gave it the name Van Deman. Previously, it had been propagated and distributed locally by the late Emil Bourgeois.[H]

VALSIES. Reported by Ladd Bros., Stonewall, Miss., and listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Pomology, 1896, 64.

WILLINGHAM. Illustrated in Farm and Ranch, Vol. 23, No. 49, Dec. 3rd, 1904, p. 1.

YOUNG. Medium to large, 1-5/8 x 1 inches; ovate cylindrical, rounded at the base; color grayish-brown, splashed with purplish-brown markings from center to apex; base rounded; apex sloping rather abruptly, nippled; shell brittle, thin, .76 mm.; cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel full, plump, slightly wrinkled with broad and shallow sutures; texture fairly solid; flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality very good.

Obtained from Chas. E. Pabst, Ocean Springs, Miss. Originated by and named for B. M. Young, Morgan City, Louisiana.

HYBRID PECANS.

The pecan appears to inter-pollinate freely with some of the other species of hickory, particularly H. minima, H. laciniosa and H. alba. A number of what are believed to be well-marked hybrids of the pecan with these different species have been found, the most noteworthy of which, perhaps, are given below:

MCCALLISTER. (Syn.: Floyd.) Received from O. L. McCallister, Mount Vernon, Ind. This is probably a hybrid. It is the largest nut among all the hickories received at this office. The hull is about one-fourth of an inch thick when dry, and opens readily to the base with four valves. Nut 2-1/8 inches long, 1-5/16 inches wide, and 1-1/16 inches thick; base broad, rounded; apex broad, blunt, angular. In compressed form, in color of nut, also in the angularity and thickness of shell, it is quite similar to shellbark hickory. The kernel of a well-filled specimen is in color, consistency and flavor more like a shellbark of high quality than a pecan. The tree is reported to be "so similar to pecan in bark and leaf that it would be impossible to detect the difference," yet the buds and young wood more closely resemble shellbark. The tree was found many years ago on a farm now owned by Mr. McCallister. The nuts have little pomological value, as grown on the original tree some years, the kernel being shriveled and not filling more than one-third of the space within the shell; yet nuts from the crop of 1893 have been received at the Division of Pomology which were well filled with a kernel of very pleasant flavor. Possibly it may become more uniform in maturing fruit in Mississippi or Texas, where the season is longer than in Indiana. It is well worth a trial by experimenters in those States. Sargent gives a short description of this nut under the name Floyd, and accredits the points of his description to A. S. Fuller in New York Tribune, weekly edition, July 9th, 1892, and says it is perhaps a hybrid. (Nut Culture in the United States, 1896, p. 63-4.)



NUSSBAUMER. In the American Agriculturist for 1884, p. 546, fol., A. S. Fuller published an account of a supposed hybrid between this species and the pecan, which has been called the Nussbaumer hybrid, after J. J. Nussbaumer, of Okawville, Ill., who first brought it to the attention of Judge Samuel Miller, of Bluffton, Mo. Mr. Nussbaumer writes me that the original tree, which stands in the bottom between Mascoutah and Fayetteville, Ill., in general appearance resembles laciniosa, though the bark is intermediate between that of the Pecan and Mockernut. Prof. Sargent states (Silva, vii, 158) that a small tree grown from this in New Jersey, by Mr. Fuller, cannot be distinguished from laciniosa of the same age; and I should hardly be able to distinguish an imperfect twig from a small tree, cultivated by Judge Miller, from laciniosa. The nut, however, is very peculiar, being more elongated than is usual in that species, and widened upwardly, less acutely angled "as if the ridges had been sandpapered down," and so thin-shelled that it can be crushed easily by pressing two together in the palm of the hand. A somewhat similar nut, originally from Indiana, was described by Mr. Fuller In the New York Weekly Tribune, July 9, 1892 (Sargent's Silva, l.c.), as cultivated by R. M. Floyd, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. And in the autumn of 1895, Dr. J. Schneck sent me ample fruit, twig and leaf specimens of a similar hickory from Posey county, Indiana. The nut of this last is almost identical with a specimen of the Nussbaumer nut in the Englemann herbarium, while its twigs closely resemble those of laciniosa, and the leaves are decidedly of the pecan type. I am led to the conclusion, therefore, that these several forms really represent hybrids between H. pecan and H. laciniosa. In size, quality, and thinness of shell they appear to be the most valuable of American nuts. (Trelease, Wm., 7th Report Mo. Bot. Garden, 1896, pp. 40-41.)

POOSHEE. Size small, 1-1/4 x 7/8 x 3/4 inches; ovate, flattened wedged, sutures prominent; color dull brown with a very few dark lines at the apex; base rounded; apex flattened abruptly, short pointed; shell medium in thickness, 1.5 mm.; partitions thin, 4-celled at base; kernel rounded in outline, light yellow in color, sutures broad, shallow, halves indented at base; surface much wrinkled and corrugated; flavor sweetish.



Specimens of this nut were secured from Dr. J. F. Wilson, Poulan, Ga., who received them from Prof. Burgess, Clemson College, S. C. The nut presents exactly the same characteristics as the Westbrook, except in flavor and color of kernel. It, too, is doubtless a hybrid, H. minima x H. pecan. The original tree of this variety stands by or in the old Ravenel cemetery, near Pinopolis, Berkely county, S. C.



SCHNECK. In the autumn of 1894, Dr. J. Schneck, of Mt. Carmel, Ill., and F. Reppert, of Muscatine, Iowa, sent to the herbarium twigs and fruit of bottom-land trees that appear to be hybrids of this species with the pecan. The bark of the Iowa tree is described as being much like that of the Mockernut, while the tree of Dr. Schneck is smooth-barked, resembling the pecan. So far as I have seen them, the twigs of both might pass for those of alba, except that the outer scales of the terminal buds are persistent, while the foliage, though intermediate, is strongly suggestive of that of the pecan. The fruit is oblong, almost 2 inches long, the husk 6 mm. thick, parted nearly to the base, with strongly elevated margins to the segments, and rather persistent on the tree. The nuts are nearly as pale as in the Shagbark, conspicuously brown striped, slightly 4-celled at the very base, and with a wall only 1 mm. thick. As is usual in ALBA, they are upwardly attenuate, and frequently the kernel is abortive. (Trelease, Wm., 7th Report Mo. Bot. Garden, 1896, pp. 44-45.)

WESTBROOK. Size small, 1-3/8 x 7/8 inches; ovate, flattened, prominently sutured; color brown with a few indistinct brownish streaks close to the apex; base rounded; apex wedge-shaped, ridge, abruptly-pointed; shell rough and irregular, thin, 8.5 mm.; partitions rather thin, 4-celled at base; kernel reddish-brown, much wrinkled, sutures of moderate width and depth, halves divided at the base, much corrugated in cross section; flavor decidedly bitter and puckery.

The parent tree is one standing in the yard of J. H. Westbrook, Mt. Olive, N. C., and grew from what, to all appearances, was a pecan nut. The foliage and general aspect of the tree closely resembles the pecan, though the serrations on the leaves are coarser and larger. The fruit resembles, in many respects, that of Hicoria minima, and, in short, it appears to be a well-marked hybrid between that species and Hicoria pecan.

FOOTNOTES:

[C] Taylor, Wm. A., Yearbook, 1904.

[D] Letter from Mr. S. H. Graves, dated June 19th, 1903.

[E] The Nut Grower, p. 119, March, 1904.

[F] Taylor, Wm. A., Yearbook, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, 1904.

[G] Taylor, Wm. A., Yearbook, 1904.

[H] Wm. A. Taylor, Yearbook, 1904.



CHAPTER V.

PECAN JUDGING.

Every grower of the pecan should be a judge of pecan nuts, and the ideas of growers, while they may differ on certain minor points, should agree on the more important characters of the nut. To enable growers, nurserymen and judges to work on a common standard of merit, a scale of points, in which each individual characteristic of the nut may receive a certain fixed number of credits, is indispensable.

At the second annual meeting of the National Nut Growers' Association, held in New Orleans, the following scale of points for judging pecans was adopted:

PECAN NUTS.

External characters. Points. Size, 20 Form, 5 Color, 5 Shell characters. Thinness, 10 Cracking quality, 20 Kernel characters. Plumpness, 20 Color, 5 Quality, 15 ——- Total, 100

Tree. Points. Vigor, 10 Habit, 10 Toughness, 10 Resistance to disease, insects, 10 Precocity, 10 Uniformity of ripening, 10 Productiveness, 40 ——- Total, 100

The rating of a variety to be determined by averaging the rating of nut and tree.

EXPLANATORY NOTES, CHARACTER AND CONDITION OF SAMPLES.

All samples submitted for judging shall be fair average samples of the crop and not selected specimens. They should he tree-ripened, and should be thoroughly cured before judging. Polishing, coloring or other manipulation to disqualify:

Size—The nuts should be large and reasonably uniform in size; nuts running smaller than 100 per pound, to be disqualified.

Form—The nuts should be symmetrical in form and reasonably smooth of surface.

Color—The shell should be bright and clear in color without excess of surface markings.

Thinness—the shell should be sufficiently thin in proportion to size of nut to crush readily.

Cracking Quality—The shell should be brittle and should separate readily from the kernel leaving it clean and in perfect halves.

Plumpness—The kernel should fill the shell and must be smooth, externally, with solid meat of fine and uniform texture, free from internal cavities and with high relative weight of kernel to shell.

Color—The kernel should be uniformly bright and attractive in color.

Quality—The flavor should be sweet and rich, free from bitterness or astringence of either meat or skin.



PART III.

Cultural.



CHAPTER VI.

PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN.

The pecan tree is difficult of propagation by budding or grafting. Skillful propagators are satisfied with seventy-five per cent. of living buds or grafts, while very many have to be content with less. The difficulty is due, in part, to lack of skill; in part to lack of judgment in selecting good material with which to work; but in some regions it is due to the attacks of the bud-worm, Proteopteryx deludana, more than to anything else. The buds are eaten out and destroyed by this insect at the time they start into growth. In certain sections spring working of pecans has been abandoned entirely owing to the destruction wrought by this pest. But notwithstanding all the drawbacks, pecan trees can be, should be and are propagated in large numbers by budding and grafting, and the seedling is becoming more and more a thing of the past.

SEEDLING VS. GRAFTED TREES.

It is a fact worthy of note that the beginning of every tree-fruit industry is marked by the use of seedling trees. In the later stages of the development of the industry the seedling, owing to a more intimate knowledge of its failings and shortcomings, gives way to the grafted[I] tree. This stage has already been reached in pecan orcharding.

It has been stated that a certain percentage of pecans would produce nuts identical with those of the parent tree. The author has yet to find the first instance in which this was the case. This truth is borne out by the observations of others.

In view of the fact just stated, if a planter desires to secure a certain definite fixed variety of pecan, it can only be done by planting grafted trees. Even though all the seedlings were of good size, yet the variation in time of ripening, quality, prolificness, form and size would be against them. Take a certain quantity of each of a number of our largest pecans—Stuart, Van Deman, Centennial and Frotscher for instance—mix them together, and under average circumstances the mixed lot will sell for less money in the open market than the same varieties and the same nuts would if marketed separately. Mixed nuts, no matter how good the quality, cannot compete successfully in the market with a single uniform sample of the same or nearly the same quality.

Grafted trees will come into bearing at an earlier age than seedlings. In the case of seedlings it is very difficult to say when they will begin to bear, while grafted trees of the more precocious varieties may be expected to bear quite a little fruit in six or eight years from the time of planting.

The great objection to grafted trees is the first cost, and yet, in the face of that objection, it is best to plant grafted trees even if fewer of them are planted. If grafted trees are out of the question, then plant seedlings and top-work them. Grow the seedlings from nuts if necessary; but to those who live in sections where pecans can be grown, let me say, plant pecan trees; plant budded or grafted trees if you can—but plant pecan trees.

PECAN STOCKS.

Nursery trees are propagated entirely on pecan stocks, and in the present state of our knowledge, it is the best stock to use. It may be that the pecan will grow and thrive as well on a number of different species of hickory, but definite information bearing on this point is lacking. Hicoria tomentosa, H. alba, and H. aquatica have been used for stocks in North Carolina, Florida, and other States, the pecan being top-worked upon them. But for the present, at least, until our experimental knowledge is farther advanced, the safest advice is to use pecan stock only.

Too little attention on the part of propagators has been given to the kind, source and quality of the seed used to raise stocks for propagation work. The main object held in view in making a selection for seed purposes is to get just as many nuts as possible in the pound. The result of this policy is, that, without question, inferior seedlings are often used for stock; they lack stamina and vigor. Frequently in a nursery of budded or grafted stocks, or in a young pecan orchard, a wide variation in the size and vigor of the trees can be noticed. No satisfactory explanation has ever been offered, but there seems little reason to doubt that it is due to the use of heterogenous lots of seed for stock purposes. The point must be emphasized, that greater care should be exercised in the selection of the seed used in nursery work. Nuts from rapid-growing, vigorous, healthy trees only should be used. It is best to plant in spring only nuts which matured the previous autumn. Preferably these nuts should be of fair or medium size for the variety to give the young seedling a fair start in life.

As already pointed out in regard to pecan shade trees for more northerly regions, so in the case of pecan nuts for use in raising stocks in northern sections. It is best to secure nuts from trees near the northern limits of nut production.

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