The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898
by Emma Helen Blair
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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898

Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century,

Volume XIX, 1620-1621

Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson with historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne.

Contents of Volume XIX

Preface Documents of 1620

Reforms needed in the Filipinas (concluded). Hernando de los Rios Coronel; (Madrid, 1619-20) Letter to Alonso de Escovar. Francisco de Otaco, S.J.; Madrid, January 14. Decree ordering reforms in the friars' treatment of the Indians. Felipe III; Madrid, May 29. Relation of events in the Philipinas Islands, 1619-20. (Unsigned); Manila, June 14. Compulsory service by the Indians. Pedro de Sant Pablo, O.S.F.; Dilao, August 7. Letter from the Audiencia to Felipe III. Hieronimo Legaspi de Cheverria, and others; Manila, August 8.

Letter to Felipe III. Alonso Fajardo de Tenza: Manila, August 15. Letter to Alonso Fajardo de Tenza. Felipe III; Madrid, December 13.

Memorial, y relacion para sv magestad, Hernando de los Rios Coronel; Madrid, 1621. Bibliographical Data. Appendix: Buying and selling prices of Oriental products. Martin Castanos (in part); (undated.)


Autograph signature of Alonso Fajardo de Tenza; photographic facsimile from MS. in Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla Title-page of Memorial y relacion, by Hernando de los Rios Coronel (Madrid, 1621); photographic facsimile from copy in Library of Congress


The documents in the present volume cover a wide range. In greater or less detail are discussed affairs in the islands—civil, military, and religious, in which all the various ramifications of each estate are touched upon. Reforms, both civil and religious, are urged and ordered; and trade and commerce, and general economic and social conditions pervade all the documents. The efforts of Dutch, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish in eastern waters are a portent of coming struggles for supremacy in later times. Japan, meditating on the closed door to Europeans, though still permitting the Dutch to trade there, continues to persecute the Christians, while that persecution is, on the other hand, lessening in violence in China. The piracies of the Moros endanger the islands, and allow the Dutch to hope for alliance with them against the Spaniards; and the importance of the islands to Spain is urged forcibly.

A letter addressed by Los Rios Coronel to the king (probably in 1620) urges that prompt aid be sent to Filipinas for its defense against the Dutch and English who threaten its coasts. To it he adds an outline "treatise on the navigation of Filipinas," which sustains his demand by forcible arguments. The rich Oriental trade amounts to five millions of pesos a year, which mainly goes to sustain the Dutch and their allies, the enemies of Spain, whose commerce they will utterly destroy unless some check is placed on their audacity; and the effectual method of doing this is to deprive them of that trade. An armed expedition for the relief of the islands is being prepared by the king; it should be despatched via the Cape of Good Hope, and all possible efforts should be made to drive out the Dutch and English from the Eastern seas. Los Rios proposes that for this purpose loans be asked from wealthy persons in Nueva Espana and Peru; and that the vessels needed be built in India. He makes recommendations for the routes and equipment of the vessels, both going and returning; and for the seasons best for sailing.

A letter from Francisco de Otaco, S.J. (January 14, 1620), mentions various arrangements for the despatch of more missionaries to the islands, and laments the recent loss of a fleet sent to the aid of the Philippine colony. A royal decree of May 29 in the same year orders the governor and Audiencia to correct the religious who have levied on the Indians exactions of forced service.

The Jesuit chronicler of events in 1619 continues the record for the year ending July, 1620. Some account of the war waged by the Chinese and the Tartars is given. The persecution of the Christians in China has slackened, and the authorities of that country are more favorable to the Jesuit missionaries there. But in Japan the persecution continues, and the college at Macao is crowded with Jesuits who are disappointed in their efforts to enter Japan. Letters from Jesuits in that country enumerate many martyrdoms, of both missionaries and their converts, and describe their holy zeal and faith in suffering death. The authorities and influential men of Japan consider it well to harbor the Dutch there, and even talk of conquering the Philippines, in order to get rid of the Spaniards; but it is rumored that they also contemplate the expulsion of all Europeans from Japan. In the Malucas "there is constant strife between the English and the Hollanders," and the French are obtaining a foothold. Portuguese India has but inadequate means of defense against the Dutch and other foes. An interesting and picturesque account is given of the religious fiestas held in Manila to celebrate the festival of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary; the chief features are processions, dramatic representations, dances, fireworks, etc.—to say nothing of the bull-fights and masquerades of the laity. Fearful earthquakes, with considerable loss of life, have occurred in the islands, especially in Ilocos and Cagayan of Luzon; they are ascribed to the influence of the comets seen in the preceding year. The commerce of Manila is increasing; rich cargoes arrive there from all parts of the world; and Manila is a magnificent city, surpassed by few in Europe.

A letter from the Franciscan, Pedro de Sant Pablo (August 7, 1620), calls upon the king to abolish the repartimientos of forced service and supplies levied upon the Indians for shipbuilding and other public works by the colonial authorities. He recounts the oppression, cruelty, and enslavement caused by this practice; and in the name of both the Spaniards and the Indians he asks that the repartimientos be commuted for certain payments of money, in proportion to the means of each household.

The Audiencia of Manila send to the king (August 8, 1620) a roll of complaints against Governor Fajardo. They accuse him of abusive and violent language toward the auditors, and arbitrary conduct in both sentencing and releasing prisoners; and of granting certain illegal appointments and privileges to the friends and relatives of himself and the royal officials. His conduct of an expedition made ready to repel the Dutch from the islands is sharply criticised; covert attack is made on him as defrauding the treasury by the sale of Indian orders, and allowing reckless expenditures of the public moneys; and he is blamed for failing to enforce the regulations as to the sale of the Chinese goods.

Fajardo sends a long report of affairs to the king (August 15, 1620). The coming of the ships this year was delayed; and by storms and an encounter with the Dutch both were wrecked—but on Philippine coasts, which enabled them to save the rich cargo. As the Dutch failed to secure this prize, they have lost in prestige, while the Spaniards have gained accordingly. A marginal note here, apparently the reply of the Council of the Indias to this clause of Fajardo's letter, censures him for allowing the ships to leave Manila so late, and warns him to send them hereafter promptly, and not overladen. He is also directed to remonstrate with the Japanese officials who are aiding the Dutch with arms and other supplies; and to strive to break up their friendship with the Dutch. Fajardo proceeds to say that he is equipping the ships for both the outward and return voyages with various supplies, to avoid the greater expense of buying these in Nueva Espana; and for the same object is asking the viceroy of that country to make no unnecessary repairs on the ships. He complains of the reckless and arbitrary proceedings of the officials in charge of the ships at Acapulco. He is advised by the Council to send them a detailed statement of all matters in which unnecessary expense can be avoided. Fajardo recounts his difficulties with the viceroy of Nueva Espana over the appointments to offices in the trading fleet, and with the pretensions of certain Philippine residents who claim rewards and appointments without meriting these. He complains that the troops just arrived from Nueva Espana are mostly "boys, mestizos, and mulattoes, with some Indians;" the viceroy is directed to send better and more effective soldiers to Filipinas hereafter. Fajardo is uncertain how far he can depend on aid from the viceroy; and he proposes that those troops and supplies be sent to him from Spain by way of Panama, enumerating the advantages and economy of that plan over the present one. He thanks the king for sending aid to Filipinas by the India route, and asks that such aid be regularly provided for some years to come; while he states in general terms what he has accomplished during the last two years with the limited public funds of the islands. He has equalized the pay of the soldiers at Manila and Ternate, and has sent large reenforcements and supplies to the latter region. Fajardo complains of the opposition and intrigues of the religious. He desires the royal appointment of a governor for Ternate, and the adjustment of certain difficulties connected therewith. He is informed that this appointment has been already conferred on Pedro de Heredia; and is advised not to allow the religious to interfere in purely secular matters, especially in those which concern the conduct of government officials, and to warn the religious orders to refrain from meddling with these matters. Dutch pirates infest the China Sea, plundering the Chinese trading ships when they can; but Fajardo is able to save many of these by warning them beforehand of the danger, and he has been able to keep them in awe of his own forces. He has begun to have ships built in Japan for the Philippines, which can be done there more conveniently and cheaply; the Council would like to provide thus ships for the South American colonies.

The governor has many annoyances regarding the Audiencia, which circumstances compel him to endure as best he can. He is directed to check trading by government officials, and to punish those who are guilty; and to do all that he can to obtain funds from the islands for their expenses, by opening the mines of Luzon and trading-posts in the Moluccas. In answer to his complaint that the auditors meddle in judicial proceedings in the military department, he is informed that they must observe the laws already enacted for such matters; and is ordered to punish severely anyone who shall obstruct the course of justice in the islands. Fajardo recounts various other annoyances experienced at their hands—they claiming authority to restrict the Chinese immigration, and the right to appoint certain minor officials; and he regrets that the auditors should be all new at one time, and so ignorant of their duties. He suggests that the king avail himself of the abilities of Archbishop Serrano, in case of his own death or other emergency requiring an ad interim governor; and describes the character of Auditor Rodriguez. The trials of persons involved in the scandal at Sancta Potenciana have not pleased the governor, some whom he regards as guilty having been acquitted. The official inspection of the country, especially for the sake of the natives, Fajardo has committed to Auditor Mesa, but the latter is unwilling to undertake it. The Council order that no auditor shall shirk this important duty. The governor mentions in detail various minor matters, showing anxiety to act as the home government shall approve. He has been ordered to reduce military salaries, but objects to this, and enumerates the amounts paid to each officer. Directions for arranging this reduction are given by the Council, as also for the governor's management of expenses, etc., Fajardo makes recommendations as to certain crown encomiendas, at present unproductive. This is approved by the Council, who order him to prevent any unjust collections. He commends certain officers as deserving rewards, and exonerates many of the religious from the blame of harassing the Indians. He is able to maintain amicable relations with the orders, especially by allowing the religious to transact certain secular business for him; but he finds them domineering and self-willed, and suggests that they cannot be kept in order without some change in their present mode of government. He is advised to check their arrogance, especially in their open and public censures of their superiors, whether ecclesiastical or secular. He relates his difficulties with Pedro Alvarez over the countersigning of Sangley licenses. He has sent an expedition to attempt the opening of mines in the Igorrote country—an undertaking in which he has received the support and countenance of the religious orders. He commends the Augustinian Recollects as not meddling in governmental affairs that do not concern them, and offering to take distant missions. The tributary Indians are peaceable, and appreciate with gratitude Fajardo's efforts to relieve them from taxes and wrongs. One of their burdens has been the erection of many churches—of which there are thirty, almost all of stone, in Manila and its immediate vicinity alone. The Council order that no religious house or church be hereafter erected without the permission of both secular and ecclesiastical authorities. At the end of Fajardo's letter are added certain comments and directions by the Council. They are inclined to send reenforcements, supplies, and merchandise to Filipinas via Panama, as Fajardo suggests, but direct the vessels to return to Acapulco instead. Illicit participation of government officials in trade shall be severely punished. The official visitations recommended by the governor are to be made, and the auditors are commanded to serve in this duty.

A letter from the king to Fajardo (December 13, 1620) answers previous despatches from the latter. He commends Fajardo's proceedings in discontinuing certain grants, and orders him to be careful in making his reports, to maintain harmony in the Audiencia as far as possible, to investigate the conduct of the auditor Legaspi, to correct with vigor the scandals at Santa Potenciana, to enforce discipline in the military department, and to maintain friendly relations with Japan. Felipe returns thanks to the colonists for their loyalty and services in public affairs, and to the Augustinian order in the islands for their zeal in his service.

A document of especial interest and value is the Memorial (Madrid, 1621) of Hernando de los Rios Coronel, long procurator-general of the Philippine Islands. Introducing the work with a statement of his coming to Spain as an envoy from "that entire kingdom and its estates," he begins with an historical account of the discovery and settlement of the islands, and the growth of the Spanish colony. The earlier historical matter in Part I of the Memorial is presented to our readers in synopsis, as being largely a repetition of what has already appeared in our former volumes. In chapter vii Los Rios gives some account of the government of Juan de Silva, especially of the latter's infatuation for shipbuilding, and its baneful effects on the prosperity of both the colony and the natives. He recounts the disastrous attempt to expel the Dutch by means of a joint Spanish and Portuguese expedition (1615-16), and its ruin and Silva's death at Malaca. Then he describes the opposition to Silva's schemes that had arisen in Manila, where, although, he had a faction who supported his ambitious projects, "all desired his absence." Los Rios cites part of a letter from Geronimo de Silva to the governor, blaming the latter for not going to Maluco, where he could have secured the submission of the natives in all those islands; and urging him to do so as soon as possible, as that is the only means of preserving the present foothold of the Spanish. The Dutch fleet there sets out for Manila, and, hearing in Mindanao of Silva's death, they concert plans with the Moros for ravaging the Philippines. Part of the Moros are defeated on the coast of Panay, but they meet with enough success to embolden them to make further raids; these go unpunished by the Spaniards, and thus the islands are being devastated and ruined. The Christian and friendly Indians are at the mercy of these cruel foes, from whom the Spaniards do not defend them; accordingly, they demand freedom and arms, that they may defend themselves against the invaders. All would revolt, were it not for the influence of the missionaries, especially the Jesuits.

Los Rios makes complaint of the apathy, negligence, and blunders exhibited by the governors of the islands in regard to their defense from so many enemies, supporting his position with detailed accounts of the damages thereby suffered in raids by the Dutch and Moros, and failures to achieve success that was within the grasp of the Spaniards.

In the second part, Los Rios discusses "the importance of the Filipinas, and the means for preserving them." He enumerates the reasons why the crown of Spain should keep the islands, indicating a curious mixture of worldly wisdom and missionary zeal; and refutes the arguments of those persons who advocate the abandonment of the Philippines, or its transfer to Portugal in exchange for Brazil. Los Rios explains at length the desirability of retaining Manila, and its importance and desirability as a commercial and military center, and a check on the ambition of the Dutch. He then asserts that the money sent to the islands by the Spanish government is mainly expended not on the Philippines, but for the defense of the Moluccas; and he enumerates the resources of the former, which but for that diversion would support them without aid from the crown. He then enlarges upon the great wealth which is found in the islands, especially in the gold mines of the Igorrote country; and urges upon the king the necessity of developing these mines, and of converting the Indians of that region. He asks that the governors sent to the Philippines be better qualified for that post; praises Gomez Perez Dasmarinas as being the best governor of all who have ruled there; and describes the qualifications needed for a good governor. Los Rios considers the measures that should be taken for growth and preservation of the Philippines. He recommends that a fleet be sent to aid and reenforce them. If that cost too much, eight galleys should be sent to Ternate—a proposal which the writer urges for many reasons, explaining in detail the way in which these vessels could, at little cost, be made highly effective in checking the Dutch. They could be manned by captive Moros and others taken in war, or by negro slaves bought at Malacca. The third measure is one which he "dare not write, for that is not expedient," but will explain it to the king in person. Again he insists on the necessity of a competent and qualified person as governor of the islands, enlarging upon the great power and authority possessed by that official, and the consequent dependence of all classes upon his arbitrary will or prejudices. Los Rios cites various instances which prove his position, and expressly states his good opinion of the present governor, Fajardo. He would prefer to see the Audiencia abolished. A special inspector is needed, with great experience and ability, and authority to regulate affairs and redress all grievances in the islands. The immigration of Chinese and Japanese into the colony should be restricted; and the Mindanao pirates should be reduced to submission. The opening already made for commerce and friendly relations with the king of Macassar, and for preaching the gospel there, should be at once improved, and Jesuits should be sent there as missionaries. More care should be exercised to despatch with promptness the ships to Nueva Espana. More attention should be given to the garrisons, especially those in the Moluccas, to keep the men from discontent; and measures should be taken to encourage and aid new colonists to settle in the Philippines. The late restrictions on the possession and enjoyment of encomiendas should be removed. A letter from Lucas de Vergara, commandant in Maluco, is here inserted. He recounts the losses of the Dutch in their late attack on Manila (1617), and their schemes for driving out the Spaniards from the Moluccas; also his own difficulties in procuring food, fortifying the posts under his care, and keeping up his troops who are being decimated by sickness and death. He urges that the fleet at Manila proceed at once to his succor, and thus prevent the Dutch from securing this year's rich clove-harvest.

In the third part of the Memorial, Los Rios gives a brief description of the Philippines and the Moluccas, with interesting but somewhat desultory information of their peoples and natural products, of the Dutch factories, and of the produce and value of the clove trade. He describes the custom of head-hunting among the Zambales, and advocates their reduction to slavery as the only means of rendering the friendly natives safe from their attacks. The numbers of encomiendas and their tributarios, and of monasteries and religious, in the islands, are stated, with the size and extent of Manila. All the natives are now converted, except some tribes in Central Luzon. Los Rios describes the Malucas Islands and others in their vicinity, and enumerates the Dutch and Spanish forts therein; and proceeds to state the extent and profits of the spice trade. He closes his memoir with an itemized statement of the expenses incurred by the Spanish crown in maintaining the forts at Tidore and Ternate. These amount yearly to nearly two hundred and twenty thousand pesos.

In an appendix to this volume are presented several short papers which constitute a brief epitome of early seventeenth-century commerce in the Far East—entitled "Buying and selling prices of Oriental products." Martin Castanos, procurator-general of Filipinas, endeavors to show that the spices of Malucas and the silks of China, handled through Manila, ought to bring the Spanish crown an annual net income of nearly six million pesos. Another paper shows the extent and value of the trade carried on with Japan by the Portuguese at Macao; and another, the kind of commerce maintained by those enterprising traders with the countries of southern Asia from the Moluccas to Arabia. All these enumerate the various kinds of goods, the buying and selling prices of most articles, the rate of profit, etc.

The Editors

September, 1904.

Documents of 1620

Reforms needed in the Filipinas (concluded). Hernando de los Rios Coronel; [1619-20]. Letter to Alonso de Escovar. Francisco de Otaco, S.J.; January 14. Decree ordering reforms in the friars' treatment of the Indians. Felipe III; May 29. Relation of events in the Philipinas Islands, 1619-20. [Unsigned]; June 14. Compulsory service by the Indians. Pedro de Sant Pablo, O.S.F.; August 7. Letter from the Audiencia to Felipe III. Hieronimo Legaspi de Cheverria, and others; August 8. Letter to Felipe III. Alonso Fajardo de Tenza; August 15. Letter to Alonso Fajardo de Tenza. Felipe III; December 13.

Sources: All of these documents, except the second, fourth, and eighth, are obtained from the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla. The second and fourth are from the Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid; and the eighth from the Archivo Historico Nacional, Madrid.

Translations: The second and fourth are translated by Herbert E. Bolton, Ethel Z. Rather, and Mattie A. Austen, of the University of Texas; the eighth by Robert W. Haight; and the remainder by James A. Robertson.

Reforms Needed in the Filipinas (concluded)

Aid against the Dutch requested


Hernando de los Rios Coronel, procurator-general of the Filipinas Islands and of all their estates, declares that he came the past year to inform your Majesty and your royal Council of the Indias, in the name of those islands, of the desperate condition to which the Dutch enemy have brought them. Desiring that your Majesty understand the importance of the matter, he gave you a long printed relation in which he discussed points important for their recovery from the enemy and the expulsion of the latter from that archipelago. Your Majesty, upon seeing it, ordered a fleet to be prepared; but that fleet was so unfortunate as to be lost before beginning its voyage. Although your Council of the Indias is discussing the formation of another fleet to sail by way of the Strait of Magallanes, or by the new strait [i.e., of Le Maire], it cannot, if it leaves here any time in July (which is the earliest time when it can be sent from Espana) possibly arrive [at Filipinas] until one and one-half years from now—or a little less, if it has no bad luck. Now considering the watchfulness of the enemy, and the forces that they are sending this year, namely, forty ships, which have left Olanda—whence can be inferred the importance to them of making themselves masters of those regions, since they are so persistent in their efforts, and incur so heavy expenses—he [i.e., Los Rios] advises you for the discharge of his conscience, and his obligation, and his duty as a good vassal of your Majesty, that there is urgent need that, notwithstanding the relief that your Council of the Indias is about to despatch by way of the straits, other help be furnished from Nueva Espana and Piru; of both men and money, and to employ this [aid from Espana] with as great care as the gravity of the matter requires, and to realize the fact that, were it lost, both Eastern and Western India would be endangered. They would be in great danger, as would also these kingdoms; for it would mean to permit the enemy to become so powerful and so rich as all know who are aware of the wealth of those regions. Besides, it would mean the extinction of whatever Christian element is there, and would shut the doors to the preaching of the gospel, which your Majesty and your ancestors have procured with so great glory and so many expenses. [That relief of Nueva Espana and Piru should be prepared] also, for if the relief [from Espana] should suffer an equal disaster with the last, and that country could not be succored, it would all be lost.

I petition your Majesty to order that this matter be considered, as a matter of so great importance; and that your president of the Indias call a conference of those most experienced in the Indias, so that they may discuss what measures can be taken most fitting for the relief of that country, and as speedily as possible, where he [i.e., Los Rios] will also declare the measures that occur to him.

[Endorsed: "To the president of the Indias. Examined, in the meeting of April 7, 620."]

Treatise on the navigation of Filipinas, reduced to four chapters


Your Majesty orders me to declare my opinion in regard to the navigation from Espana to the Philipinas and Malucas Islands, from them to Espana, the mutual navigation between those island groups; and the seasons suitable for such navigation. In obedience to your royal order, I declare, Sire, that the propositions cover four principal points, each of which I shall explain in order. [The original document contains a marginal abstract of each of the four points that follow; but these abstracts are here omitted.]

First point. This point contains in brief the substance of all the others. In explaining it, I declare that the navigations from these kingdoms to those islands are so worthy of consideration, and so important, that no others in the world at this time are equal to them. For the drugs, fragrant gums, spices, precious stones, and silks that the Dutch enemy and their allies bring thence—obtained partly by pillaging, and partly by trading in their forts and factories which they own throughout that archipelago—amount, as they do at present, to five millions [of pesos] annually. It has been stated how paramount is this undertaking to any others that can today be attempted; for besides the spiritual injury inflicted by those heretical pirates among all that multitude [of heathen peoples] (which I think the universal Master has delivered to your Majesty so that you may cultivate it and cleanse it for His celestial granaries), it is quite certain—since the enemy are collecting annually so large a mass of wealth; and since the sinews of war consist in that, both for attack and defense—that they are acquiring and will continue to acquire those riches daily, with greater forces. And, as they continue to increase in strength, their ambitious designs will also extend further. In the same degree as the enemy grows stronger, it is certain that our forces will continue to decrease—and so much that, if relief does not arrive there in time, the day will come in which not one of your Majesty's vessels can be placed on the sea, because of the many that the enemy will have there. Inasmuch as there is no one in the world today who can oppose the enemy except your Majesty, they hate our interests with all their strength, and will attempt to destroy and ruin them by all possible methods.

The method of preventing all those most considerable troubles is the one that your Majesty is attempting, by despatching the eight vessels that you are sending under color of reenforcements—and would that it had been with a fleet of sixteen vessels, each one of which would carry three hundred sailors and soldiers and be very well armed with artillery. For with that the rest [of the enemy's forces] would be driven away, and that crowd of thieves, who are becoming arrogant and enriching themselves—so much to the cost of our holy religion, of your Majesty's reputation and prestige, and of your most loyal vassals, by disturbing your Majesty's most holy designs—would be forced from those seas and even from these. For it is very certain that if that [trade] be taken away, the enemy would have no resources with which they could preserve themselves; while if your Majesty has all that profit—as beyond doubt, God helping (for whose honor it is being done), you will have it, by encouraging your royal forces and by enforcing your holy purposes—all the heads of that many-headed serpent of the enemy will be destroyed.

Inasmuch as it is proper for us who, like myself, are zealous for your royal service, let us hasten on that service, by as many roads as God makes known to us. I declare, Sire, that in order to encourage those most loyal though most afflicted vassals whom your Majesty has now in Manila, it is advisable for the present reenforcement to be sent; and that its route be by the shortest path and the one of least risk—namely, by way of the Cape of Buena Esperanca; not only is the weather more favorable in that route, but it passes through less longitude.

I mention the weather, for from this time on the weather is favorable, as was determined in a general council of experienced pilots of all nations that was held at Manila by Governor Don Juan de Silva. [I mention] also the longitude, because the time taken to go by the above route is known—namely (to one who follows his course without making fruitless stops) seven months; which, counted from the first of December, places the arrival there at the end of June.

Some one may object to all this by saying that the intention is to import this relief into Manila, so that all that region may not be lost; and that, if it shall go by that route [i.e., of the Cape], it runs the risk of meeting the enemy and of being lost, and incidentally that all that region [of Filipinas] will remain in its present danger, and even greater, because of your Majesty's resources being wasted, and the necessity of getting together a new relief expedition—but [such objector would say], if this relief be sent by another route all those troubles will be obviated and the purpose attained. I answer that objection by saying: First, that eight vessels are not so weak a force that they should fear those of the enemy who, on their homeward trip—inasmuch as they do not fear along that route any encounter that will harm them—come laden with their goods, in great security, and carelessly; and they have at best only two or three galleons, while our eight galleys, ready and prepared for fighting, not only have nothing to fear, but can from the start expect the victory, in case they meet the enemy. Second, for this reason, if once our galleons cause the enemy loss in the chief thing that takes the latter there, namely, trade, they will have to diminish their forces, and will lose credit with their backers. Hence I infer that not only should this route and [possible] encounter not be avoided, but that express orders be given to the commander of this relief expedition to follow the routes taken by the enemy and to reconnoiter their chief factory of Batan, which is not fortified. For if God permits him to find and destroy that place, many and very important results will follow: First, that immediately word will be passed to all those nations—who love changes and cry "long live" to the conqueror—and they will lose the little affection that they have for the enemy at present; while they will incline toward and join us, turning against our enemy, as they have promised. Second, that our soldiers, flushed with the beginnings of victory, will be worth after that for other victories just twice as much; nor will they be without military discipline for the first victory, for the Spanish infantry begins its military duty from the day when it establishes its camp, and daily becomes more valuable. Third, inasmuch as when the vessels of this relief expedition reach Manila, they will necessarily arrive there in need of rest, and already the enemy will be warned to resist whatever sally they try to make, that which will now be made against them with eight vessels cannot later be made against them with many more. Fourth, because, on the journey they will lay down the complete and fixed route that should be taken by that course, so that your Majesty's fleets may go and come as do those of the enemy. Fifth, because the enemy are at present not only not sending any fleet to those regions, but are obliged to collect their forces in order to resist those of your Majesty in their own territory, because of the expiration of the truce. [1] Consequently the attempt must be made to inflict all the damage possible on the enemy during these years, until they are driven entirely out of the Orient and your Majesty becomes lord of it all. For if that result be once accomplished, the fruits of that victory will allow sufficient fleets to be maintained, both in these seas and in those, for the defense and conservation of that region and much more. Moreover, in order to check the enemy and to remove completely from their eyes this illusion that has given and gives them so strong a belief that your Majesty's forces are exhausted by the large sums that you have spent in protecting our holy religion, I declare, Sire, that an effective plan occurs to me whereby this matter may be concluded without the expense of one single maravedi from your royal treasury. This is, that loans be asked from the rich and wealthy persons in the provinces of Nueva Espana and Peru (for there are many such), until you have two millions [of pesos]. Your Majesty can prepare a large fleet with that sum, and will finish with the enemy once for all. The vassals of those kingdoms will give that loan cheerfully if you ask it, proportioning to each one the amount in accordance with what he can give without inconveniencing himself. For they are also greatly interested in this matter; and the payment will be easily made, if the result be thus attained. With that money, it would be best to go to Yndia to build the fleet; for there it can be built better and at a less cost than anywhere else.

Second point. In order to return from those islands to Espana, it will be advisable to come but lightly laden, and well provided with arms, in order to withstand any encounter with the enemy; and that they follow the same route that is taken by the Dutch, or by the fleets of Portugal, for by no other route can the voyage be made so quickly as by that route—considering that, if one wishes to come by way of Nueva Espana (which is the shortest course except that by the Cape of Buena Esperanca), the voyage from Manila to Acapulco will last five or six months, even with favorable weather. Arrived there it is necessary to cross from one sea to the other over one hundred and sixty leguas of very bad road, and then to sail for another three months before reaching Espana; and the vessels must wait from January, the time when they arrive from Philipinas, until June, when they embark for Espana. In all more than thirteen months will be spent in the voyage. In case that one should prefer to come not by way of Nueva Espana, but by the Strait of Magallanes or that of Mayre, the delay is equal or greater, and the food will of necessity spoil and the men die; for the food of Manila, as that is a hot country, very soon spoils and rots.

Third point. The voyages from Manila to Terrenate are three hundred leguas, or a trifle more or less; and those from Manila to Malaca a trifle more than four hundred.

Fourth point. The seasons required for those voyages are as follows: To go from Espana to Philippinas it is advisable to sail from Espana after the sun passes the equator in the direction of the Tropic of Capricorn, namely, from September twenty-third on; for, since one must mount to thirty-five degrees of latitude in the southern hemisphere, it is advisable to be in that hemisphere when the sun by its presence has put to flight the furies of the winds of those seas, since even with that care that Cape of Buena Esperanca bears the reputation of a stormy headland: In order to return, one would better, for the same reasons, sail from Manila during the time when the sun is still in the southern hemisphere, if he has to double the Cape.

The suitable time to sail from Manila to Terrenate is when the winds in those seas are blowing from the north (because Manila lies almost due north of Terrenate), namely, during November and December. The same season is suitable to sail to Malaca, as Manila lies almost due northeast of Malaca. For that voyage the brisas that set in in January are also favorable. The return trips from Maluco and Malaca to Manila are during the season of the winds from the south and the vendavals, which generally begin, the winds from the south by the middle of May on, and the vendavals during June, July, and August, etc.

I petition your Majesty to deign to honor this humble service as such, by the benignity of your royal sight, so that I may gain strength to serve you to the measure of my desires.

[Endorsed: "Juan de Sigura Manrrique. Have each point abstracted, so that it may be attended to in the Council." In another hand: "Abstracted." "Examined."]

Letter from Francisco de Otaco, S.J., to Father Alonso de Escovar

Pax Christi, etc.

I have been urging Father Figueroa about the efforts to be made in regard to that grant of money, and he always replies with regret that other measures must first be taken in Sevilla, as he has written to your Reverence. For my part, I must bring this matter to a head; for I have been much grieved by what your Reverence recently told me to the effect that they will charge to that poor province the four hundred ducados paid for provisioning the fathers. Your Reverence may be assured that I cannot permit the departure in the fleet, if the cost is to be charged in this way. I supposed that the going of Father Bilbao and his companions would be at the expense of his Majesty, as it has always been.

I am now writing to Father Simon Cota that I have received that amount from your Reverence; and although by means of your order I have paid the debt already contracted, and have also funds to defray immediate expenses that cannot be avoided, yet, for the needs that are certain to arise in the future, I shall require help to the amount of more than two thousand reals, because it is better that I should have too much than too little. And things are so expensive in all this country of Spain, that to collect and convey the fathers to Sevilla will cost even more than the sum I estimate. Your Reverence will kindly send the amount to me at the time and in the manner most convenient.

Sad was the news that yesterday came to this court concerning the loss of our fleet, [2] and such has been the grief that I do not know how to describe it to your Reverence. The president wept like a child, more especially because, to make this news worse, other bad news came from Flandes at the same time; this information was that the Hollander was setting out, or had already set out, with his twenty-five galleons. The president himself told this. He already considers our possessions in Philippinas and Yndias as lost; for it seems as if courage has deserted these men, and that no means for further aid remain. May God our Lord forbid this, and encourage them, in order that they may take heart in this difficulty, that valor and fortitude may be shown in the cause of God our Lord and of the king, and that the enemy may not prevail. There is no lack of people who are already encouraged, and are seeking remedies and forming plans. Your Reverence will kindly inform me of such plans as may occur to you, for those who are trying to give courage in this emergency desire light on all projects.

The loss of our fleet is known here only in a general way. Your Reverence will please give me all the particulars, and inform me whether our Lord took our fathers unto Himself, which we much fear from the reports. Still, because their death has not been verified or related in detail, the masses which should be said in this province for Father Bilbao, in the other two provinces for their two fathers, and in the province of Philippinas for all three, have not been ordered. I, for my part, have many to say for them if dead—or if alive, in case our Lord has spared them. It has also been said that the cargo of the flagship floated ashore. I hope that our boxes of books which were in it were spared, for, so far as such things are concerned, I feel the loss of them greatly, although their loss is not to be mentioned in connection with that of our fathers. If the Divine Majesty has chosen to inflict this heavy blow upon us, supra modu, sed domini sumos et iustos est et rectu iudiciu eius. [3] Such a fleet, and so well adapted for the grand service of God! And those three apostolic men, going with such zeal—if in such a cause, they have already ended in a death resembling martyrdom, blessed be the Lord! From here the authorities sent some person, I know not whom, as comissary to recover what was lost from the flagship which ran ashore. Your Reverence, being near, will know whether any particular measure is necessary for our interests, etc.

When your Reverence remits the money spoken of above, do not send it through our Father Figueroa. For, although he assures me that the last order is good, since it has been acknowledged, yet he asks for forty days' time, which is very long. I say this because to your Reverence I may speak freely and confidentially, for you know the good father. I have already determined not to trouble Father Figueroa about my own money, because I drew it for my private expenses, and it must be used in this way only, as I told him before I went to Rome. He now charges to me items of expense not conformable to this arrangement, although justified from his standpoint—for the good father is a saint and most faithful in everything, though not very prompt or skilful in accounts and correspondence, as is well known. Because I have written at length, and more especially because I am so disturbed by grief at the news, I close this letter to your Reverence. May God guard your Reverence as I desire.

The [word illegible in MS.] procrastinate here, and indicate that we are bound to have contests and wrangling with our fathers, wherefore there is much to fear lest they delay me, and frustrate my plans to go with a few [religious]. Now, too, with what has befallen the fleet, I think that these lords must perforce undertake the preparation of another large one, to go via the Strait, and that people there will desire us to come. I am prudent and on the lookout, and will promptly inform your Reverence of everything; for to you I always look for advice, light, and strong support in the Father. Madrid, January 14, 1620.


Francisco de Otaco

Decree Ordering Reforms in the Friars' Treatment of the Indians

The King: To the president and auditors of my royal Audiencia which resides in the city of Manila of the Philipinas Islands. I have been informed of great transgressions committed by certain religious in making repartimientos for their works on the Indians; and that the religious take, for their support, from the natives their fowls and other food at less [than the just] price, and practice on them injuries and annoyances for their own gains. And inasmuch as it is advisable to correct this, by ordering that the religious shall not use the Indians, unless they pay them their just wage; and that, except by license of you my governor, they shall not make repartimientos on the Indians or oblige them to render service: therefore, my royal Council of the Indias having examined the matter, I have considered it fitting to have the present issued, by which I order you to attend to the above matter in the assembly of the Audiencia there. And in what concerns my royal patronage, my royal fiscal of my Audiencia shall prosecute as he may deem best, so that those impositions and injuries may cease. The visitors and corregidors of the districts shall take especial care to prohibit them, and shall reform those who shall be guilty. By virtue of the contents of this my decree, you shall despatch an order to the said religious, so that they shall, under no circumstances, inflict such injuries upon their parishioners. This likewise do I charge upon the archbishop and bishops of those islands, and on the provincials of the orders therein. Issued in Madrid, May twenty-nine, one thousand six hundred and twenty.

I The King

Countersigned by Pedro de Ledesma, and signed by the Council.

[Note at beginning of MS.: "Procurator for the Indians of Philipinas. To the Audiencia of Philipinas, in respect to redress for the wrongs committed by the religious on the Indians."]

Relation of Events in the Philipinas Islands and Neighboring Provinces and Kingdoms, from July, 1619, to July, 1620

In the same style and order in which I last year reported the various events in the Philipinas Islands, and in neighboring kingdoms and provinces upon which the welfare of the Philipinas depends, I will now write what has happened this year. There have not been so many and various warlike occurrences as in former years, for it has been somewhat more peaceful here. I will relate briefly what has happened as occasion may require.

Of Great China

Although last year I gave an account of the war which the Chinese were carrying on with the Tartars, I will now return to this point, because we have received letters from our fathers in China. To begin with the earliest events, there was in the province of Teatum, [4] one of the provinces of Great China adjoining Tartaria, a powerful eunuch who collected taxes in the name of the king, and who had some seventy servants in his following. They committed a thousand robberies and tyrannies among the people. The mandarins who governed that district reported this to the king. He ordered them to bring the eunuch in custody to Tiquin, where he is still in prison. The eunuch's servants were hunted by the mandarins in order that they might be given the punishment they deserved for their crimes; but they, with many other Chinese, fled to the Tartars, whom they begged and persuaded to invade and destroy China, offering themselves to serve as guides. It was not difficult to induce the Tartars to do this, since for other reasons they were already angry with the Chinese. So they planned that these Chinese traitors and some Tartars should go with concealed weapons, and in the guise of friends, to a certain place. They went there, and one night suddenly seized their arms, killed the greater part of the soldiers, sacked the place, and, pretending to flee, withdrew with the spoils. They left a great number of people in ambush, in the woods. The Chinese viceroy of that district, learning of the affair, immediately sent a large body of soldiers who are always on duty there. The troops pursued the Tartars, but unexpectedly fell into the ambush and were completely routed. When the Tartars saw that they were victorious, they returned to the fort and destroyed it. When this was learned in Paquin the mandarins came together to discuss with the king some means of redress. As the king did not wish to see them he simply ordered that they should consult among themselves and then report everything to him. Now the Tartars sacked and destroyed some other smaller forts, as well as one very important stronghold called Sin Hon [i.e., Tsingho]. From this point they made their forays through the whole of that district, and sacked a large part of it.

The decision reached in the consultation by the mandarins was that the king should order all the noted captains who were not holding office, and who had retired to their homes, to come to the court; that a large number of soldiers should come from all the provinces to lend aid and to meet the demands of the occasion; and that the mandarins who were for various reasons at their homes should come to the court of Paquin. All this was soon carried out by the king's order. He likewise commanded that heavy taxes should be gathered for supplying the soldiers; that a large number of horses should be collected; land that the tuton, or the viceroy of that district, should be imprisoned. He sent another viceroy in his place with extensive powers, even with authority to put to death the chief captains who, on account of their fear, were contemplating flight. He sent other mandarins of great executive ability and prudence to help the viceroy; and, in order to prevent excitement among the people, he ordered that the students [letrados] [5] of the district should not come that year, as usual, to the court for examination and graduation as licentiates, but promised them their degrees for the following year. In addition to this, he ordered that the news from Leatum should not be divulged to the people. Although the gates of the city of Paquin and those of the royal palace had always had a strong guard of soldiers, he doubled the guard and closed the gates at sunset. And although, according to the custom of the Chinese, people could enter wearing spectacles and a mask, now, as a greater precaution, when one came through the gates of the city they made him show his face, in order that they might know whether he was a friend or not, and in order that enemies might not come into the city unperceived. All this has been brought about by their fear. The king likewise ordered that four hundred thousand soldiers should be stationed at different places and posts of the province of Leatum to impede the passage of the Tartars. The Corias, who were subject to China, sent the king seven hundred horses as a present, and ten thousand infantry to help in the war.

The western Tartars, hearing of the good fortune of the eastern Tartars, came upon invitation to the aid of the latter, but were defeated by the Chinese. Another neighboring nation also came for the same purpose, but they were bought off by the Chinese with a great amount of silver, and so they returned to their homes satisfied.

Finally, the best captains joined together to act upon this matter. But their efforts were quite unsuccessful, because, when they entered further into the interior of Tartaria than was safe, the Tartars, awaiting a good opportunity, fired into them on all sides, wounded and killed the most celebrated Chinese captains, and destroyed almost all of the army that was there last year, 1619. It is a common saying in China that all the brave people died at this time, and that if now the Tartar should come he would meet with no resistance, and that he could easily make himself master of everything. It is estimated that the total number killed, part of whom died by the sword, part from unbearable cold, part from hunger, and part from lack of other necessaries, reaches three hundred thousand. But this loss is insignificant to a people who are so numerous as the Chinese are today.

At the beginning of that year, 1619, the king of these Tartars—who is even now styled king of Paquin, just as if he had already conquered it [6]—sent to the king of China a memorial of complaints against the Chinese, reciting in it reasons for his revolt (for it must be supposed that he was formerly in a certain way subject). These reasons I will briefly state. 1st, because some years ago the Chinese had killed his grandfather; 2d, because, when he was at war with the northern Tartars, the Chinese aided them against him; 3d, because the Chinese had often gone into his country to plunder, and had captured some people, and, when he had made complaints of this injury to the mandarins of Leatum, they had contented themselves with degrading [acortar] the delinquents, whereas they well deserved death; 4th, because the Chinese had broken up a marriage for which he was making arrangements with the northern Tartars, a rupture which he deeply felt; 5th, because the Chinese had destroyed the grain-fields that his people had near the great walls, the strong ramparts that divide the two kingdoms, and had driven off a great quantity of stock that his people also had there; 6th, because the Chinese had induced other Tartars, his enemies, to write him some very offensive letters; and, 7th, because in different wars the Chinese of Leatum had aided his enemies, although this was without the knowledge of the king of China. Wherefore he asked that the Chinese king should order the people of Leatum to be punished as their crimes merited, and threatened that if this were not done he would take the punishment into his own hands, as he had, indeed, already begun to do.

The king of China made no answer to this memorial, for both he and the mandarins think that they have not broken any of the agreements entered into with the Tartars, and that all that the Tartars say is false—except that they admit that they killed the Tartar king's grandfather, but only because he had been caught robbing in the Chinese territory. It is known that since this occurred bloody war has gone on between these two populous and powerful nations; that the Tartars have always gained the advantage therein; and that if they had so desired they could have come to the very gates of the court of Paquin, since fear has taken such hold upon the Chinese that they have closed all the gates of the city, except one which they use, and have made another wall completely encircling the one that was already around the city.

The persecution against the Christians and against our Society which has been going on in China during the past years is now mild. Hence people are being converted to Christianity as formerly; and our fathers are safe, for a great mandarin presented to the king a memorial in our favor, in which he refuted the calumnies that a powerful enemy of ours had launched against us, and that had been the cause of this persecution. And, although the king made no answer, by his silence he consents to our fathers' remaining in China, for it was asked in the memorial that our fathers should not leave that kingdom; and since the mandarins know that the king has seen the memorial, and that he tacitly consents to it, they also, are satisfied with it. As this same memorial has been circulated throughout the whole of China, everybody has learned of our innocence and of the excellence of the law of God, which was dwelt upon at length in the memorial. Accordingly, as they inform us from here, a great number of literati and mandarins have become friendly toward Ours, and wish them to spread the holy gospel to the most interior parts of China. Hence it is believed that from this time on our holy law will take deeper root in this kingdom.

The bishop of Japon, Don Diego Valente, of our Society, came this year to Macan, where he is detained because of the bloody persecution in Japon. Because of the persecution, also, Father Matos, [7] who went to Rome as procurator and took a number of our men for Japon, left part of them in India; while ten who went with him to Macan have been detained there.

Father Nicolas Trigaucio [8] went to China as procurator, and returned this year with some of Ours. Some of them, for reasons unknown to me, he left in India, and seven he took with him to Macan.

Of the members who came with these two father procurators, five died during the trip over, after leaving Lisboa. But if the persecution continues in Japon as it is at present, they will not be missed. Indeed there will be too many of Ours, for even now there is so great a number in Macan that it is often said that there is not standing-room in our college.

Of the Kingdoms of Japon

I will begin my account of the affairs of this kingdom with the cruel and bloody persecution against Christianity which is now at such a height, and in which they put so many to death for the faith that, to me, it seems a picture of what happened in the primitive church during the early persecutions by the emperors. What I have said may be realized from part of a letter dated in Nangasaqui October 14, 1619, from Father Matheo de Couros, [9] provincial of Japon, to Father Valerio de Ledesma, provincial of these islands. Translated from Portuguese into Spanish it is as follows: "In regard to news from Japon I will not write you at length, since I understand that the father visitor has done so. In temporal affairs everything is quiet. Persecution of Christians has been and is very severe in Meaco, where almost sixty are prisoners for the faith. Five or six of these Christians died in prison there, thoroughly resigned to the divine will. In this city of Nangasaqui there are twenty-eight imprisoned for Christ, in three prisons. In Omura seven religious are imprisoned, four of the Order of St. Dominic, one of the Order of St. Francis, and two of our Society. With them are imprisoned ten other Christians. Of the inhabitants of the same city of Omura three were martyred—Lino, Pedro, and Thome—the first, because when he was guarding the prison in which the religious I have mentioned were confined, he allowed too much food to be given to the holy prisoners, as he was a Christian at heart himself; the second, because from time to time he sent food to them; and the third, because he carried the food. All three were promised their lives if they would renounce our holy law; but they chose rather to die, in order that they might live forever in heaven."

In another letter dated November 10, 1619, the same father writes: "On the sixth of October, Meaco offered to heaven the richest gift that has ever been seen in that great and populous city. The gift consisted of fifty-four Christians, who were burned alive for the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have already written how there was in the public prison at Meaco a large number of the faithful, incarcerated because they would not bend the knee to Baal. Nine of these died in the prison on account of the excessive labors and hardships which they suffered there. They died thoroughly resigned to the divine will, and rejoicing in their happy fate. When the emperor came to the court of the Dayri, [10] the metropolis of the whole of Japon, they told him of the imprisoned Christians; and since he is an implacable enemy of our holy faith, he ordered that they should all be burned alive. Thereupon twenty-six stakes were set up in a public place in front of the temple of Daybut, a large and magnificent building, at a distance from the river that flows by the place. On Sunday, the sixth of October, they took the holy prisoners from the jail, not sparing even the tender young girls nor the babes at their mothers' breasts. They marched them through the principal streets of Meaco, accompanied by a crier who announced that they had been condemned to be burned alive because they were Christians. Most of the soldiers of Jesus Christ were dressed in white, and their faces were so happy and so resolute that the power of the divine grace which upheld them was plainly shown. They encouraged one another for the trial, and with great calmness bade good-by to the friends and acquaintances whom they met along the way. From time to time they proclaimed aloud that they were dying for the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ. When they had come to the place where they were to offer their lives to the Lord as an acceptable sacrifice, they appeared more joyful, as does one who is about to gain the eternal reward. Two by two they were now tied to the stakes, the women with their babes in their arms. Some of our daiicos—people of our Society like lay brothers, who aid us in preaching [11]—as well as other Christians who went to the place to encourage the martyrs, were present. But the servants of the Lord showed such remarkable strength that they really encouraged the spectators. When the wood was finally set on fire, the majority of these fortunate martyrs turned their eyes toward heaven, and, without moving them in the least, remained in this posture after death. During the first few days a strict watch was kept over the blessed bodies to prevent the Christians from taking them away, but through the efforts of our fathers who live in that city some have already been recovered." So far I quote from the father provincial. To this I will add some points taken from other letters and relations.

The above-mentioned father provincial is a strong pillar in Japon, and an excellent interpreter. He is director of the Christian community there, by virtue of a brief from his Holiness, which arrived last year, and in which, it is ordered that in default of a bishop in japon the provincial of the Society who may be in office at the time shall rule that bishopric and Christian community. Therefore, although the bishop has come; the provincial has governed up to the present time, and continues to govern, because, as I have said, conditions in Japon do not admit of the bishop's going there, since it is feared that the situation may be aggravated and persecution increased thereby. Consequently his Lordship is now in Macan.

About two years ago our father general appointed Father Francisco Vieira as visitor of Japon. He is a man already past sixty, and, indeed, is nearing seventy; but in spite of this he is so vigorous that when the persecution was at its height he, with great courage, went from Macan to Japon. He was often in imminent danger of being imprisoned. He took refuge in Canzuca, a place in the lands of Arima, where he abode in a hut of straw. Here, on account of the hardships he endured, he was frequently attacked by a kidney disease which caused him great pain. Once he had so violent an attack that he sent in great haste to get holy oil in order that he might take the holy sacrament. Again the same disease, accompanied by a severe pain above the heart, attacked him with such violence that he could scarcely breathe. So he determined that extreme unction should be administered to him; but, remembering that he had a written signature of our holy father, he placed it with great devotion over his heart and commended himself to the saint [12]—through whose merits the Lord caused the pain to be assuaged within an hour, and he became entirely well. From Canzuca the father visitor went to Nangasaqui, to take ship to return to Macan. He was kindly received, and with due precaution taken into the house of a certain Portuguese. But still he ran great risk of being imprisoned by the servants of the heathen president, who were searching for another religious, named Fray Bartholome Gutierrez, of the Order of San Agustin, who was wearing the Spanish dress. They suddenly entered three Portuguese houses, and the father visitor scarcely had time to retire from one house to another. In short, the labors and dangers that he suffered in Japon were great. But they had no power to turn him from so glorious an undertaking until he had been there fourteen months. During that time he had visited all the Christians and all the posts that are ordinarily visited during times of peace. He had to visit Macan, where most of our fathers were taking refuge from the persecution; the missions of Cochin China, and of China, where there was also persecution, were likewise under his charge. Moreover, the bishop of Japon and the two procurators of China and Japon, who were returning from Rome, had arrived at Macan. For all these and other reasons he was obliged to leave Japon with great grief in his heart, and even with copious tears. Accordingly, on the twenty-sixth of October, 619, he embarked in a patache which went as flagship of five galeotas. He finally reached Macan, where, a few days after, on Christmas eve, he died. Father Geronimo Rodriguez, who was there, and who had been appointed by our father general in the private assignment, succeeded him in office.

Father Carlos Espinola, of our Society, is still in prison, waiting each day for the crown. It has incurred to me to insert here a letter which he wrote to the father provincial of this province of Filipinas. It reads as follows:

"The Lord so ordained it that at midnight after St. Lucia's day I was made a prisoner, together with Brother Ambrosio Fernandez, my companion, and Domingo Jorge, a Portuguese at whose house we were seized. The soldiers told us that they wished us to go on board a ship that was about to sail for the city of Manila. On the one hand I regretted this, because I was being driven from Japon, and was losing a good opportunity to give my life for the service of God, which for many years I had desired to do. On the other hand, I was delighted because His most holy will was being fulfilled in me. We made a very different voyage [from the one promised], for we were carried from Nangasaqui to this prison of Omura, in company with two religious of St. Dominic and three of our Japanese servants. They took us through some of the streets of Nangasaqui and finally embarked us for this place, handcuffed and with chains about our necks. It was daytime, and all the city turned out to see the spectacle and to take leave of us with cries and tears. Father Fray Thomas, of St. Dominic, and father Fray Apolinar, of St. Francis, with six Japanese, had already been here for some time. Here we are in great concord, just as if we were of the same religious order. And although there is no lack of suffering, because the house affords us but poor shelter, and although at times the guards will not allow anything to come in from outside except the little given us as rations (which is just enough to starve on), yet at times it is ordered by the Lord, in His fatherly care, that in the gifts sent us by the devout we have more than we could desire. Above all, suffering for the love of God, and the expectation of the happy fortune that may befall us, makes it all easy to us and hardships a source of joy. I am most content with the favors received, and, although I fear that because of my sins—because I have not worked in this vineyard as I should have done, and because of my great ingratitude for the many mercies that the Lord has bestowed upon me—I have been driven from Japon as useless, still I console myself that I have come to be manacled and imprisoned in the service of God, which is no small mercy. I also trust that His Divine Majesty, who in awarding these crowns sometimes does not consider the merits of men, but in His infinite mercy bestows them generously, will consider it right to reward this poor beggar as well as these holy religious that deserve more than I. I beg that your Reverence, in visceribus Iesu Christi, will help me to give due thanks to the Lord, quod dignus factus sim pro nomine Iesu contumeliam pati, [13] and to obtain for me my profession for this novitiate with holy sacrifices, etc. From this prison of Omura, March 5, 1619. From your servant in the Lord,

Carlos, a prisoner for Christ."

This ends the letter of Father Carlos. I have nothing to add to it except that this Domingo Jorge, whom he mentions therein, was burned alive, in November, in Nangasaqui, because he sheltered preachers of the holy gospel in his house. Brother Leonardo, a Japanese who had been imprisoned for three years, and four others, were burned with him. After this, eleven other Japanese were beheaded. Later on, in January, 620, Brother Ambrosio Fernandez, a Portuguese who was the companion of Father Carlos Espinola, died in jail from hunger, and excessive cold, and the hardships and discomforts of the prison, and thus gained the martyr's crown. He was seventy years old.

Although so many in Japon have thus become blessed martyrs, two persons bent the knee to Baal and miserably recanted for fear of torture. A Japanese religious who was in Rome and Spain, and who is now an apostate, did the same thing. He often says that when he was in Madrid he knew that certain religious were persuading the king to conquer Japon, but that our fathers dissuaded him from this. He adds that, although it is a fact that religion is our primary motive for entering Japon, yet it is our intention through religion to prepare matters for conquering the country. With this and other lies this apostate has done great harm to Christianity. The governors and principal men of Japon are so thoroughly convinced of our evil intentions that they say that one of the principal reasons for keeping the Hollanders in Japon is for their own greater security and to annoy us. They even have begun to discuss the possibility of conquering the Filipinas, in order not to have the Spaniards so near. On the other hand, it is said that in Japon they are thinking of driving out all Europeans from that kingdom—Spanish, Hollanders, Portuguese and English. If this is done it will not be possible for any of our fathers to remain there. At present they escape notice among other Europeans by wearing European dress—I mean that of Castilians and Portuguese; but if the Europeans are driven from Japon this will no longer be possible.

Passing from spiritual affairs to those temporal affairs of Japon that concern these islands, let me say that on the twelfth of July, 619, there arrived at Firando, a port of Japon designated for the trade of the Hollanders, four of their ships, which, as I informed you last year, have been off the coast of Manila. When our fleet prepared to sally out, the Dutch ships withdrew in good order, carrying with them a great many sick, beside the large number who had died from disease and from an infection which they say was given them in Bigan, a village on the coast of Manila. Since this is not known here, it must be their own imagination. Many of their people were drowned, also. In one ship which sank suddenly many people were drowned, among them a large number of Japanese, who were brought from Japon in the service of the Hollanders. These ships plundered nothing but three Chinese vessels of little value, which were coming to this city. A ship and a patache were sent from this coast of Manila to Maluco. It is well known that the ship was lost on the same coast by running aground, although the Hollanders hide the fact. The patache, driven by contrary winds, soon put into harbor. It reached Firando on the fourteenth of July; and as soon as it secured munitions, provisions, and people was sent to wait for the Portuguese galeotas which were going from Macan to Japon. But it was the Lord's will that it should not find them, and so it returned to Firando. On October 3, however, it was sent to Pulocondor [i.e., Condor Island], opposite Camboxa, with thirty men, fourteen pieces of artillery, munitions and provisions, to search for the crew and artillery of a ship that the Hollanders lost there.

On the twelfth of October of the same year, 619, another ship, greatly injured and with its crew wounded and crippled, came to the same port of Firando from Patane, on the further side of Malaca. It, with two other Dutch ships, had fought, in the port of Patane, two English ships that were there. Although anchored and unprepared, the latter fought to the death, over the anchor-ropes. The smaller English vessel, seeing that it could not defend itself, and that there was no help for it, blew itself up by setting fire to the powder. The larger ship, when nearly all the crew were dead, and the general himself had been killed by a ball, was overcome and boarded by the Hollanders. They say that they secured two hundred thousand pesos in that ship. It may be true, but I do not vouch for that. Two Portuguese had gone from the shore, on the preceding day, to see the English ships. They were seized by the Hollanders, who carried them to Japon in the ship which I mentioned, together with some Englishmen. When the prisoners reached Firando they formed a plot and escaped to land in that kingdom, where all the world is allowed.

The quantity of munitions and provisions which the Hollanders secure every year from Japon for supplying all their fortifications is very great, and therefore if they were not harbored there, it would be a great injury to them and of much benefit to these islands.

Of the Islands of Maluco

With the lure of the cloves and drugs which are found in these Malucas Islands, more and more ships from foreign nations are continually coming to them; The French have built a factory in Macasar and have at present four ships there. Between the English and the Hollanders there is constant strife. In Jaba and Sumatra the English have twenty galleons; the Dutch general set out for that place with sixteen galleons which he had collected, but it is not known how the affair has ended, although it is known that there has been war between the two nations.

This year Don Luis de Bracamonte was sent from this city of Manila as governor of the military posts in Maluco. He took with him two galleys and four or five pataches, loaded with a great quantity of supplies and more than two hundred infantry. When the galleys and the pataches had entered our fortress of Terrenate, one of them, called the "Sant Buena Ventura," remained behind as rearguard. A Dutch ship well supplied with artillery attacked it, and in sight of our own fortress overpowered it. Our galleys then sailed out and attacked the Dutch ship; but the wind arose, and thus the enemy had an opportunity to take shelter under their fortress at Malayo. This victory was felt by us, because the enemy took from the patache a quantity of money, three thousand fanegas of rice, and other provisions and munitions belonging to his Majesty. The worst of all is that they took over one hundred men—Spaniards and Indians—and the capture cost them nothing. May God remedy this by giving us some great victory by means of which the loss may be repaired.

On the way from India to Maluco two Portuguese galeotas encountered and conquered a good Dutch ship loaded with cloth and other merchandise; the Hollanders themselves escaped in the batel [i.e., launch]. In the same way, one of our pataches took from the people of Terrenate a ship loaded with provisions.

Of Eastern India

When Don Alonso Fajardo, governor of the Filipinas, saw the necessity for having a strong fleet here for such troubles as might arise with the Holland enemy, and that the impossibility of preparing it here was as great as the necessity for it, he sent Captain Vidana to Eastern India to arrange with the viceroy that he should send us some galleons to help us in the defense of this archipelago. At the same time he sent the viceroy a very rich present, consisting of various articles of great value. In return, the viceroy sent a very costly present to our governor, and also an urca, which may prove very useful when occasion arises, for it mounts twenty-four pieces of artillery. Thereupon the captain returned to Filipinas, because India will have little power to defend herself against her enemies, even without dividing her small force with other kingdoms.

Of these Filipinas Islands

I will begin a discussion of this year's events in these islands with an account of the solemn fiestas of the immaculate conception of the holy Virgin. Let me say that these fiestas have been such that in the grandeur with which they have been celebrated, Manila has not been inferior to places in Europe and America. They lasted nineteen days. Leaving aside the celebration by the laity—the bull-fights, masquerades, etc., and the many illuminations and fireworks which took place every night, and for which the Chinese are very famous—I will describe only the ecclesiastical part. The festivities were held [as a rule] in the cathedral. On the first day, which was Sunday, December 8, they were celebrated there with great magnificence. In the afternoon there was given a drama on the beauty of Rachel. On Monday the religious of St. Francis held their fiesta in the same church. In the morning one of the grandest processions ever seen in this vicinity set out from their house for the cathedral. First came the whole force of Manila in perfect order, the arquebusiers and musketeers firing their pieces at intervals. Next came a rich standard bearing the image of the conception of the Virgin, and at her feet Escoto [14] on his knees, inscribed, Dignare me laudare te, etc. After the standard, which was borne by the father guardian, came a lay friar called Fray Junipero—who, like the other, is regarded as a holy and simple man; he was dancing, and calling out a thousand silly phrases about divine things. [15] Now followed banners, crosses, and candlesticks. After these came on floats eight saints of this order, so richly adorned that the people did not know whether to marvel most that there should be so large a quantity of gold, jewels, and precious stones in Manila, or that the fathers should have collected so many of them. These saints were accompanied by eight groups of Indian dancers—one with each saint, and each with its own device. One represented canons, one cardinals, another pastors, etc. The last sang while dancing. The intercalary stanza was:

Now we can speak aloud, And without fear; We can cry aloud to all the world, Without misgiving.

The dancers repeated this aloud three times, and then danced with their timbrels in their hands until they were exhausted. Last of all came the most holy Virgin of the conception. The procession reached the cathedral and the fiesta was held. In the afternoon they presented a very devout drama, on the martyrs of Japon.

On Tuesday the fiesta of St. Augustine began. In the morning this order likewise had a very grand procession, in which the soldiery led, as on Monday. There were many dancers, etc. In the afternoon there were balls, Indian dances [mitotes], and a thousand other lesser amusements.

On Wednesday we of the Society began our festivities; and, although we had no procession, as is our custom, the celebration at night was by no means inferior. On the contrary, there was burned a great quantity of illuminations—rockets, bombs, and other fireworks. Our people played a thousand musical instruments. During the day we held mass, in our impressive manner, and then had a sermon; and in the afternoon we presented a remarkable drama on the conception. All the people said they had never seen anything like it.

On Thursday the fiesta was again held in the cathedral. In the afternoon there was another drama, about the sale of Joseph.

On Friday the Augustinian Recoletos began their fiesta. In the morning there was a great procession. First came all the soldiery—not only the regular troops, as was the case on former days, but all the companies composed of citizens of this city as well. Master-of-camp Don Geronimo de Silva, who was on horseback, commanded the troops. After the soldiery followed a very fine procession. In the afternoon was presented the drama of the Prince of Transilvania, in which they brought out our father assistant, Alonso Carrillo, in a long taffeta robe and a linen frill with points. In order to announce who he was, a person who took part in the drama said, "This is one of those who there are called Jesuits, and here we name Theatins." [16]

On Saturday there were two fiestas. One was held in the cathedral, as the preceding ones had been, while the other was at our house—where it seemed expedient to hold it in order that the cathedral and the religious of St. Francis should not monopolize the entire celebration, and acquire such a right for the future. That night there were many more illuminations and fireworks than there had been on the previous Wednesday. At nightfall our collegians of San Joseph formed a procession remarkable enough to have appeared in Madrid. At the head were three triumphal chariots. In the first were the clarion-players; in the second the singers, singing motets and ballads; and in the third various musical instruments—harps, guitars, rebecks, etc. Next came the standard of the immaculate conception, carried by Don Luis Faxardo, a student and a brother of the governor. At his side came Don Geronimo de Silva, master-of-camp and general of the artillery, and Don Fernando Centene, general of the galleys. Then came the alcaldes, the regidors, and other gentlemen, all on horseback and very richly dressed. These were followed by all the collegians, also on horseback two by two, wearing their usual robes of brown silk with facings made of fine scarlet cloth, and with shoulder-stripes of lace. Their caps were a blaze of gold and precious stones. About their necks they all wore many chains and jewels. Each of the prominent nobility of the city had ahead of him, as a body-guard, six or eight servants, with large tapers of white wax in their hands. They carried staffs having upon them large placards with various pictures, letters, and hieroglyphics, all appropriate to the occasion. Next came a very prominent collegian carrying a staff. Upon it was a placard with the oath (which they took the following day) always to defend the immaculate conception of the most holy Virgin. Finally came a very beautiful triumphal chariot drawn by two savages, and decorated with many arches of flowers and gilded figures of angels. In the midst of these and among a great number of lights went, enthroned, a beautiful carved figure of our Lady of the Conception. Before the chariot was a band of clarion-players. They followed eight children dressed in silk garments and carrying silver candles. They represented angels with candles in their hands, singing and reciting in praise of the Virgin. After the chariot came Original Sin, tied with a chain, and so well made up for his part that he became a mark for the blows and pinches of the people. Next day there was another very magnificent fiesta, in which a dance was given by more than sixty Japanese, who danced and sang to the accompaniment of various instruments, according to their custom.

After this, on Sunday, the Order of St. Francis began their eight-day fiesta. Another was held at the port of Cavite, in which, as in Manila, all the orders took part—except one, which during all this time did not leave its house, enter the cathedral, nor display illuminations. About this there was no lack of gossiping in the city.

The effects of last year's comets have been very frightful this year, especially in two provinces of the Filipinas, Ilocos and Cagayan—the former of which is entirely under the instruction of the fathers of St. Augustine. The earthquakes in Ilocos have been so violent and so continuous that the people have gone about with severe headaches, as if seasick. At noon on St. Andrew's day, in the village of Batano, the church, the house, and the granary (a very substantial one) fell because of the vibrations. The friars cast themselves from the windows and thus escaped with their lives, although they were badly injured. In Dinglas a large portion of the church fell, and the prior of the convent leaped through a window. In Sinai the church was overturned Great cracks have opened up in the ground in which men fall, but only one has lost his life in this way. In the mountains of Bigan two distant ranges came together and caught between them two heathen villages. All the people were buried, only one man escaping. In the province of Cagayan, which is included within the island of Manila and which is under the instruction of the fathers of St. Dominic, the earthquakes were even more horrible. On the same day, that of St. Andrew, it seemed that the prophecy of the Evangel had come true. On the following day, which was the day of Judgment, the earth tossed the people with such violence that men were not able to keep their seats; and they walked about as dizzy and as dazed as if they were intoxicated. In Nueva Segovia, the capital of that province, the church was demolished, as well as a part of the convent, which was a very handsome and substantial structure built entirely of stone. The religious there were injured, although all escaped in different directions with their lives; only two boys perished. The same thing happened in the church of St. Vincent of Tocolano, which also had very strong walls. Many other temples and stone buildings in this province likewise fell; but in order to make my story short, I will not mention them separately. Large forests were overthrown; great springs opened up; rivers changed their courses; and many other very strange things occurred.

The island of Jolo was at one time subject to the king [of Spain], but some years ago it rebelled; and now its natives, in company with some other enemies of ours, the people of Mindanao, go about with little fleets committing robberies upon these seas and doing all the damage in their power. This year they set out with only three caracoas, ships something like galleys. But when they discovered that an armed fleet of caracoas, which had been equipped in the city of Zebu, had set out on the eleventh of November in search of them, and that another fleet had set out from Oton on the same quest, they returned to their own country, having committed almost no damage except that they captured some three Spaniards—of whom, they say, they killed two.

This year there was completed in these islands one of the strongest and most remarkable galleons ever built here. It was at once equipped, along with another very large galleon, two [smaller] ones, and a patache. In March, 620, this fleet set out for the port where they are accustomed to go to watch for the Chinese ships that bring merchandise to this city. They went to protect the Chinese; for, although it was not known that there were Hollanders there, it was thought best to take timely precaution, lest they come to commit robberies, as they have done in previous years. The galleon which went as admiral's ship sprang such a leak that it was forced to return to port, but when it had arrived there the rest of the fleet continued their journey. They were in this place [where they meet the Chinese] until the beginning of May, when they returned to Cavite. Don Luis Fajardo, brother of the governor, went as general of the fleet, and, as he was very young, other captains, brave and experienced in war, were assigned to him as companions and counselors.

The number of ships which have come this year to these islands from all parts of the world with rich merchandise has been great. Some four or five have come from Japon, although some of them were lost on the coast of Manila with all their large cargoes. Some of the Japanese in them were drowned, but others escaped to land. From Macan ten Portuguese ships have come with much valuable merchandise.

Last year the governor of the Filipinas sent to Macan to buy a very handsome galleon which was there. Those who went for the purpose bought it, loaded it with merchandise, and left Macan for the Filipinas on July 2, 619. They encountered such violent storms that at the end of two months, after having been in great danger of shipwreck, they returned to Macan without masts, and with a large part of their merchandise so wet and rotted that it was worthless—damages frequently sustained under such circumstances. They once more equipped themselves, and this year left Macan in the month of May. They had a very difficult voyage, but at the end of more than twenty days they succeeded in making port in Cavite, on the seventh of June, the first day of Pentecost. The galleon is a very fine one, and it will be very useful when occasion arises. It brought much very rich and valuable merchandise.

From Great China also have come many ships with silks and other merchandise. All these goods have been necessary, and indeed they have not even sufficed to supply the lack of merchandise which, because of the wars of the past years, has been very extreme in this city of Manila. There have been, moreover, some losses. If the wars with the rebellious Hollanders should entirely cease, the wealth and grandeur of these islands would be remarkable. Indeed, in spite of these wars and the losses that have been sustained, Manila is a very grand city; and there are few cities in Europe that surpass it in trade and traffic, for almost the whole world comes to these islands.

Since writing this, I have learned that a large junk (a certain kind of ship) set out from Japon with a large quantity of provisions and munitions of war, and with five hundred infantry, whom the Hollanders were bringing to supply and reenforce their strongholds in the Malucas. But God was pleased that they should run aground on the coast of Japon, where everything was lost, and nearly all the people were drowned. A galleon likewise set out from Japon with a Dutch patache to come to these coasts, to steal whatever they could, as they have done in years past. But God frustrated their attempts by running the galleon aground on Hermosa Island, which is between Japon and this country. It is said that all those on board were drowned. Although this is not known surely, it is a fact that many were lost.

May God confound their arrogance, in order that this land may raise its head; and that the faith of Christ may be spread throughout many provinces and kingdoms into which the holy Evangel would enter were it not hindered by these heretics, who have hitherto been such a stumbling-block and so great an obstacle in these parts.

It has occurred to me to write this to your Reverences as a consolation to many people who wish to know about affairs here. May God keep all your Reverences, to whose holy sacrifices and prayers I earnestly commend myself. Manila, June 14, 1620.

Compulsory Service by the Indians

Opinion addressed to his Majesty by Fray Pedro de Sant Pablo, preacher and provincial minister of the province of Sant Gregorio of the discalced religious of the Philipinas Islands, of the Order of the seraphic Father St. Francis, for the increase and conservation of the said states of his Majesty, by reason of the building of ships and repartimiento [17] for the service of his Majesty.

The native Indians of the Philipinas Islands enjoyed great temporal prosperity and peace until the year 1609, when Governor Don Juan de Silva established in these islands the shipyards for constructing the fleets that he built. For that purpose he imposed the very burdensome taxes, and made repartimientos among the natives of the said islands—not only personal, but for wine, oil, timber, and other supplies and materials, in the greatest quantity. That has remained and been established as a custom. Those materials and supplies have been taken by some without payment, while others have paid the fourth or third part of the just and current value. Hence his Majesty owes them a great sum, but he cannot pay it, nor has he the money to pay it in these islands. When personal services are commanded, the Indian, in order not to go to the forests to cut and haul the wood, subject to the cruel treatment of the Spaniard, incurred debt, and borrowed some money at usury; and for the month falling to him, he gave another Indian six or seven reals of eight at his own cost, in order that the other should go in his stead. He who was taxed as his share one-half arroba of oil went, if he did not have it from his own harvest, to the rich man who gathered it; and, not having the money wherewith to buy it, he became the other's slave or borrowed the money at usurious rates. Thus, in the space of ten years, did the country become in great measure ruined. Some natives took to the woods; others were made slaves; many others were killed; and the rest were exhausted and ruined: all of which is evident from the summary of the account that I send his Majesty with the present. There can this truth be seen and recognized. In order that the injury committed may be more clearly evident, it is to be noted that these Indians are in the depth of poverty, and have no possessions of value. Neither do they inherit anything save a little plot of land which they sow with rice—not to sell, but only for what is necessary for their families. Their houses are built on four posts; their walls are of bamboo and thatch, and are very small. Such was the spoliation committed on a people so poor and wretched that they would say: "Father, I will give the king twenty reals of eight annually, so that they will spare me from repartimientos;" but, having investigated, all their property is not worth an equal sum. This granted, request is made, by the common opinion and consent of the governor, Audiencia, bishops, orders, the Spaniards, and the Indians themselves, for permission from your Majesty for the following:

The Indians of all these islands are willing to contribute annually to his Majesty all the aid that may be necessary, and what they are able to contribute, for the defense and conservation of these islands, the building of ships, and all other things needful, in the following manner. Every household and family will give, each year, such a sum as may be ordered and as shall appear necessary, in this manner. The Indians living at Manila, inasmuch as they have more property and money, will give one or two pesos per house; and those more remote the half or third part of that sum, or the fraction that shall seem advisable, inasmuch as they are less established and are very poor. This sum shall be collected and placed in one depository, which shall be in common for all the islands, and shall be in charge of a faithful person; and it shall have three keys. This money having been collected, whenever his Majesty may need one, two, or three vessels, more or less, in these islands, and shall choose either to buy them in India or to build and construct them in these islands, he needs fifty thousand pesos for that purpose. After first taking from his royal chest and treasury the usual sum, the balance and remainder—which is generally levied from the Indians at very low rates, or without paying them at all—let him get from that chest of the common fund of the Indians. Then the sum given by his Majesty and the aid furnished by the Indians can be put together, and those boats built or bought without making repartimientos among the communities of the Indians. If common seamen be needed, then a proclamation can be issued to see if there are any volunteers who will sign the register; and surely there will be many, as usual. The number lacking [to serve as volunteers] shall be paid from that fund [i.e., the natives' chest] and from what his Majesty usually gives them. The same shall be done if soldiers are needed for Terrenate, or rice and any other supplies. Thus will everything necessary be provided, and that without delay; and the country will not be harassed or the Indians afflicted.

Supposing that from the sum given this year by the Indians, there should be a surplus, because of no war or shipbuilding, then that sum would be kept, and the following year there would be no repartimiento nor would the amount be again collected. And supposing that the sum that was collected should be insufficient because of the many expenses of that year, then the Indians would be again asked for what should seem necessary. If this were done with due system and method in using the chest, and in a Christian spirit, each Indian would be saved, besides his discomforts, persecutions, and afflictions, more than fifteen or twenty pesos; his Majesty would be served better; and many mortal sins committed by the officials—who rob the Indians on one side, and on the other defraud his Majesty's treasury—would be avoided; for (as has been experienced) the alcaldes-mayor or judges who go to get rice and the other things belonging to his Majesty send it by the quantity of five hundred baskets at cheaper rates. They get another equal amount for themselves, for which repartimiento is made among the Indians at the same prices [as for the king]. Many deaths among the Indians in the shipbuilding would also be avoided; for, supposing that ships are to be built in the islands (which must be avoided as much as possible), they can he built by the Chinese for pay. Consequently the Indian will live comfortably, and will feel more love toward the Spaniard and his king, and will attend better to his soul and the service of God. He will become a man of worship and devotion; while in temporal affairs he will become more prosperous, and will have something with which he can be of use to his Majesty in case of any necessity.

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