The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898
Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century,
Volume XVII, 1609-1616
Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson with historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne.
CONTENTS OF VOLUME XVII
Preface 9 Documents of 1609
Laws regarding navigation and commerce. Felipe II and Felipe III; 1583-1609 27 Jesuit missions, 1608-09. (From Annuae litterae; Dilingae, 1610.) 53 Decree regulating services of Filipinos. Felipe III; Aranjuez, May 26 79
Documents of 1610
Petition of the Recollects. Dionisio de la Anunciacion, and others; Manila, June 30 85 Dominicans request suppression of the Audiencia. Baltasar Fort, O.P., and others; Manila, June 30 89 Relation of 1609-1610. Gregorio Lopez, S.J.,; Manila, July 1 100 Letter to Felipe III. Juan de Silva; Cavite, September 5 144 Letter to Silva. Felipe III; Madrid, December 7 151
Documents of 1611
Foundation of the college of Santo Tomas of Manila. Bernardo de Santa Catalina, O.P., and others; Manila, April 28 155 Hospital at Nueva Caceres. Pedro Arce, O.S.A.; Manila, July 20 172 Letters to Juan de Silva. Felipe III; Guadarrama and Madrid, November-December 174 Letters to the Dominican provincial. Felipe III; Madrid, December 31 183
Documents of 1612-1613
Status of missions in the Philippines. Gregorio Lopez, S.J., and others; [Manila, ca. 1612] 189 Trade of the Philippines. Juan, marques de Montesclaros; Los Reyes, April 12, 1612 213 Letter from the bishop of Nueva Segovia [Domingo de Soria, O.P.]; Manila, August 15, 1613 233 Letter to Silva. Felipe III; Pardo, December 2, 1613 237
Documents of 1616
Recommendations regarding the archbishopric of Manila. [Council of the Indias?]; Madrid, 1613-16 245 Letter to Felipe III. Valerio de Ledesma, S.J.; Manila, August 20 249 Portuguese and Spanish expedition against the Dutch, 1615. Juan de Rivera and Valerio de Ledesma, S.J.; [Manila, 1616?] 251
Bibliographical Data 281 Appendix: Chronological list of the governors of the Philippines, 1565-1899, and the administration of the islands at different periods 283
Title-page of Annuae litterae Societatis Iesv (Dilingae, M. DC. X); photographic facsimile, from copy in Library of Congress 51 Title-page of Documentos, datos, y relaciones para la historia de Filipinas—MS. collection of transcripts from documents in Spanish archives, for the period 1586-1792, by Ventura del Arco (Madrid, 1859-1865), possession of Edward E. Ayer, Chicago; photographic facsimile 101 Autograph signature of Gregorio Lopez, S.J.; facsimile from tracing of original, in Ventura del Arco MSS. (Ayer library) 141
The present volume covers the seven years from 1609 to 1616, the leading subjects in the documents therein being commerce and navigation, missions, and ecclesiastical affairs. The commercial and navigation laws covering a quarter of a century previous to this period give incidentally much curious information on social and economic conditions in the islands. The outflow of silver from Nueva Espana to China via Manila still causes alarm; but it is evident that the suppression of the trade between Acapulco and Manila is not an infallible remedy for this difficulty. As it is, the islands are suffering from the injuries to their trade that the Dutch have inflicted, and from the ruinous expenses caused by their wars with these persistent enemies. No less do the Indians suffer from the exactions levied upon them for the public works and defense; but the home government attempts to lessen these burdens, and protect the natives from oppression. The missions of the Jesuits are reported as making rapid progress; and statistics of the work conducted by them and by the other religious orders give a view of the general missionary field. The Dominicans begin their college of Santo Tomas at Manila; and their officials urge upon the king the suppression of the Audiencia. The relations between the various orders appear to be not strictly harmonious. The power of the Spaniards in the Orient, and the future of the Philippine colony, are seriously menaced by the increasing gains of the Dutch in the Moluccas.
Various laws regarding the navigation and commerce of the Philippines are presented, in chronological order, dated 1583-1609. The sale of merchandise by pancada is to be retained, and regulations are made therefor. Trade between the American colonies with China or Filipinas is prohibited; and the citizens of Filipinas are granted a monopoly of the trade to Nueva Espana. But this is limited to a specified amount and only two ships may be sent annually. The goods thus sent to Nueva Espana must be consumed there. Copies of the merchandise registers of these vessels must be sent to the Council of the Indias. Persons who have been exiled to Filipinas must be compelled to reside there. No slaves may be taken thence to Nueva Espana, except a small and specified number allowed as servants of royal officials. The number of officers and men allowed to each ship is limited and specified. The soldiers sent must be effective and suitably equipped. The ships must not be stripped of their defenses by Filipinas officials. Pilots must undergo examination for this voyage. Information regarding the money and goods carried on these vessels must be exchanged by the officials at Manila and Acapulco. Ships must not be overladen. No person may go from Nueva Espana to the islands unless he give bonds for becoming a permanent resident of them, or is sent thither as a soldier. Officials of the trading vessels may not engage in trade in any form. The fares paid by passengers thereon shall be regulated, and so adjusted that they shall pay their share toward the expenses of carrying on this commerce. Due inspection of merchandise shall be made at Acapulco and in Mexico. No Chinese goods may be traded or conveyed, in any way, between Nueva Espana and Peru. The dues collected at Acapulco on Filipinas merchandise shall be spent for the needs of the islands. The amount of money which may be carried back from Mexico is strictly limited to five hundred thousand pesos; and in this amount must be included, to avoid frauds, all amounts of legacies, and gifts for benevolent works, sent to Filipinas. No wrought silver may be carried thither, except under close restrictions. The governor of Filipinas and the viceroy of Nueva Espana shall exchange reports of the business carried on by these ships. A trustworthy person must be appointed at Manila to regulate the migration of Chinese and other foreigners to the islands. Directions are given for the placing of cargoes, marine stores, etc., on the ships; and their rigging must be obtained at Manila instead of Acapulco. The ships and their crews must be suitably armed for defense; and the men may not carry any baggage save what they actually need for the voyage. No slave women shall be allowed on the ships, nor any married woman who is not obliged to make the voyage. The citizens of the islands may trade with Japan; but the Japanese shall not be allowed to go to the Filipinas.
In Annuae litterae for 1610 is a report of the Jesuit missions in the Philippines. Beginning with some tabulated statistics, there are presented separate accounts of the college at Manila and the various mission stations. Two lay brethren in that college have died, whose lives and virtues are briefly reviewed. Religious zeal is growing among the people of Manila. The Jesuit church has been greatly adorned and improved, and their Indian disciples have erected in a new church several handsome statues. One of the Jesuit fathers devoted himself to the care of the heretics captured in the battle with the Dutch, and secured recantations from twenty of these. The new governor, Juan de Silva, has given to the Jesuits not only favor but substantial aid. In Antipolo and Taitai are many zealous and devout converts, of whom various incidents are related. The church at Antipolo has been often burned, but again rebuilt. Several miraculous cures are related. At Zebu the Jesuits have done much to cultivate religion among the Spanish residents, and to promote the peace and welfare of the community. In Bohol many conversions have taken place, and the headmen have become most helpful to the missionaries. Even some of the priests of the heathen are zealous converts to the true faith. The Indian converts are displaying true faith and charity, and support a hospital. No longer consulting their idols, they now invoke the Virgin Mary, an act which brings them great success in hunting. At Dulac much success has been obtained—sometimes impeded, however, by the plots of the Evil One. Palapag has suffered from scarcity of food, but the Jesuits have from their own stores cared for the poor. A new church has been erected there, and many conversions are reported. The expedition to the Molucca Islands was accompanied by the Jesuits; there are many Christians there, who are oppressed by the Dutch heretics. Many of the reports in this document mention miraculous cures, and deliverances from danger; and state that in many cases the Indian converts practice scourging as a token of devotion.
A law dated May 26, 1609, regulates the services of the Indians. When possible, the men needed for public works shall be hired from among the Chinese and Japanese; and the Filipino natives shall be expected to work voluntarily. If these measures shall not provide sufficient laborers, the natives may be forced to work, but only under certain conditions. Such work must be of absolute necessity; no one shall be forced when there are enough voluntary laborers; the conscription must be made as considerate and equitable as possible; the governor shall assign their hours of labor, and their wages shall be paid fairly and promptly. Such requisitions shall be made at seasons when they do not interfere with the agricultural labors of the natives. The vessels shall be provided with shelter for the rowers against rain and storm. Any ill-treatment received by the Indians shall be vigorously punished, especially when the offender is a royal official.
The Augustinian Recollects write to the king (June 30, 1610) asking to be released from the restrictions imposed upon them by the visitor of that order, claiming that otherwise their work will be ruined. They also ask for royal bounty in its aid. The Dominicans at Manila, on the same day, memorialize the home government for the suppression of the Audiencia in the islands. They claim that the royal decrees are not obeyed as they should be. The royal fiscal is accused of illegal traffic, and the opportunities and means of profit are given to relatives or friends of the auditors. The Dominicans suggest that the archbishop and the religious orders be authorized to serve as a check on the governors, the only real use of the Audiencia. They ask the king to increase the income of the archbishop, and take occasion to commend the honor and integrity of the royal officials at Manila. Their letter is accompanied by a list of the reasons why the Audiencia should be suppressed in the islands. The number of lawsuits is much greater since the reestablishment of that court, and the prisons are crowded; while many persons are neglected and languish in prison for many years. Justice is not done in the Indian lawsuits, the Spanish procedure being entirely unsuitable for these cases; and the innocent suffer the penalties, while the guilty escape. Dignities and offices are given to the unworthy and incompetent, and to relatives of the auditors. Criminals connected with the auditors go unpunished. The auditors engage openly in trade, by which they have gained enormous wealth. The royal intention that they should advise the king regarding the governor's conduct is frustrated, since they are in such relations with the governor that they will not oppose him.
The Jesuit Gregorio Lopez relates (July 1, 1610) events in the islands for the past year. Rumors of an invasion by the Dutch cause Silva to fortify Cavite, hitherto unprotected. Several disasters befall the Spaniards—among them the treacherous murder of a large number of Spaniards by their Chinese and Japanese rowers; and the Chinese need to be pacified. During the latter part of 1609 and the early months of 1610 the Dutch squadron commanded by Francis de Wittert remains near Manila, capturing the Chinese and other vessels that trade with Luzon. Meanwhile, the Spaniards collect military supplies and make all other preparations for defense. On April 24 the Spanish squadron encounters that of the Dutch at Playa Honda, outside Manila Bay; after a hot contest in which Wittert is killed, the Dutch flagship surrenders, as does their almiranta; another ship is destroyed by fire, and the rest take to flight. Many ceremonies, both religious and secular, signalize the rejoicings in Manila over the victory of the Spaniards, as well at their mourning for the slain. Then the spoils of the conquered are distributed, amounting to nearly four hundred thousand pesos. Many of the Dutch heretic captives are reconciled to the Church through the ministrations of a Jesuit priest. Lopez relates various incidents connected with this war, and gives a vivid account of the perils and hardships of the ocean voyages, especially in relating the shipwreck on the Japan coast of the galleon "San Francisco." A boat carrying supplies to the Jesuit mission at Maluco is captured by the Dutch and with it Father Masonio; but he escapes their hands, after many dangers. His companion, Father Gabriel de la Cruz, dies after a long sickness; and Antonio Pereira, sent to take his place, dies on the voyage. The Dutch pay a heavy ransom for their captive commander van Caerden.
Governor Silva advises the king (September 5, 1610) of affairs in the islands, especially of those in the Moluccas. The Dutch have regained everything there except the fort at Ternate; they have also secured a foothold in Japan, and are striving to do the same in China. If they obtain control of the trade from those countries, the Spanish colonies in India and the Philippines will be ruined. Accordingly, Silva is preparing to go, in conjunction with the Portuguese troops from India, against the Dutch, to recover the Moluccas. He will also take the captive Ternatan king back to his own country, as he promises to become a vassal of Spain and to refuse intercourse with the Dutch. Silva has, however, but little money for this expedition, for the royal treasury is heavily in debt. The king writes to Silva (December 7, 1610) ordering him to investigate the complaint of the Indians of Quiapo against the Jesuits.
The establishment of the college of Santo Tomas at Manila is begun in 1611 by the Dominicans, its foundation being a bequest left for this purpose by the late Archbishop Benavides, and certain other legacies. The articles of establishment and the endowment are presented, showing the funds, location, management, and character of the institution. It is provided, among other things, that if any ecclesiastical or secular power should claim jurisdiction over the conduct or property of the college, all the possessions of the college shall become the absolute property of the Dominican order and province.
The bishop of Nueva Caceres asks the king (July 20, 1611) for aid for the hospital there. In the same year, the king writes several letters to Silva. He orders the governor (November 12) to restrain, but with prudence, the arrogance of the religious; to check evasions of the laws regarding commerce, and to make certain regulations regarding the Mexican trade; to continue the prohibition of Japanese from residing in the islands; and to cease the military training hitherto given to the natives. On November 20 he sends an order to Silva to set at liberty van Caerden and other Dutchmen held captive in Manila, provided they shall not have given any cause for being recaptured. On December 19 he commands Silva to keep a squadron of ships on guard near the Luzon coast, to prevent the Dutch from plundering the vessels that go to the islands for trade. Letters from the king to the Dominican provincial at Manila (December 31) warn him to correct the lawless and disobedient proceedings of certain of his friars; to maintain amicable relations with the governor; and not to allow his friars to go to Japan without the governor's permission (commands of like import with this last being sent also to the provincials of the other orders).
Interesting statistics of the houses and missions of the various religious orders in the islands are furnished (ca. 1612), at the royal command, by their superiors. The Augustinians enumerate fifty-six houses with one hundred and fifty-five priests and thirteen lay brethren. The Jesuits maintain two colleges (Manila and Cebu), six residences and two missions; in these are forty-five priests, twenty-eight lay brethren, eight novices, and eleven scholastics—in all ninty-two religious. Each "residence" is a center of missionary activity for all the Indian villages around it, in some of which are churches, and to others visits are paid more or less frequently by the fathers who live at the residence. The Franciscans have forty-eight houses in their missions to the Indians, and four in the Spanish towns; they also maintain six hospitals. They have one hundred and one priests and thirty-eight lay brethren, besides twenty-one religious in Japan. The Dominicans have eighteen houses, and one hospital, with sixty-two friars; besides these, they have three houses in Japan, with nine religious. The field occupied by the Augustinians is in Western Luzon, Panay, and Cebu; and the villages in which they minister number 58,800 tributes—which, at three persons to each tribute, means a population of 176,400 souls. The Jesuits conduct missions in Luzon, Panay, Leyte, Samar, Bohol, and adjacent islands; they have sixty-eight churches, besides those in Manila and Cebu, and are in charge of about 50,000 souls. The Franciscans have missions in Luzon, with 80,000 souls; also some in Maluco and Japan. The Dominicans also work in Luzon, ministering to somewhat more than 16,000 souls.
The viceroy of Peru writes to Felipe III (April 12, 1612) in regard to the Philippine-Mexican trade, giving his report and opinion, at the king's command, regarding the request of the Sevilla merchants that the Philippine trade be taken from Mexico and transferred to Spain and Portugal. This letter is an interesting exposition of the theories regarding colonial administration then held by certain Spanish statesmen—and, more or less, of the policy then pursued by the Spanish government: for Montesclaros had already been a viceroy of Spanish colonies in America for nine years, at the time of this report, and was highly regarded by his home government. He describes the progress of commerce since the colonization of the New World began, and shows that the markets of the latter are overstocked with European merchandise, and thus the profits of the trade are greatly decreased. The viceroy carefully analyzes the proposal to transfer the Philippine trade to Spain, and shows its probable results. The Manila merchandise is almost entirely silk; this could be replaced in Mexico with the cotton fabrics made by the Indians in that country, and the silk industry might be introduced into Mexico and made a success there. Nevertheless, the Philippines would be injured by the suppression of their Mexican trade, and there would not even be a corresponding benefit to Spain. He has not much confidence in the disinterestedness of the Sevilla merchants, and refutes some of their arguments. The Spanish goods sent to Manila via Acapulco are mainly articles of luxury, and in small quantity; and the cloth stuffs of Spain are not desired in Japan or Luzon. He disapproves any course which would bring the Chinese silks into Spain, for thus the silk industry of that country would be ruined; moreover, the Chinese goods are poor and have little durability. Montesclaros emphatically denies that the stoppage of Philippine trade will materially affect the outflow of silver from Nueva Espana, or benefit Spain; and advises the king not to favor the Seville merchants or the Portuguese of India to the neglect of his Castilian subjects. He compares the advantages of the two routes between Manila and Spain, and considers that by the Pacific Ocean the better. The viceroy discusses the matter of sending reenforcements to the Philippines, and suggests that it might be advantageous to send troops to Acapulco via the Isthmus of Panama. He points out various dangers from the proposed suppression of he Philippine-Mexican trade.
The bishop of Nueva Segovia writes (August 15, 1613), apparently to some high official at the Spanish court, asking that aid may be furnished to the recently founded college of Santo Tomas. Soria complains of the Jesuits and the governor, who are opposing the Dominicans. More priests of that order (to which the writer belongs) are needed in the islands. Soria makes various accusations against the Augustinians and their leading officials, and recommends Aduarte and his mission to his correspondent's favor.
Felipe III writes to Silva (December 2, 1613), directing him to send to Mexico all the quicksilver that he can procure in China. The king approves Silva's acts in regard to Chinese immigration, and investigation of corrupt officials. He asks for further information as to Japanese trade, the treatment of the Indians by the religious, etc. One of the royal councils makes recommendations to the king—by communications dated respectively June 28, 1613, and July 1, 1616—that for the aged archbishop of Manila shall be appointed a coadjutor, who shall receive one-third of the former's stipend, with certain fees. An abstract of a letter from the Jesuit Ledesma to Felipe III (August 20, 1616) presents a gloomy view of the condition of the islands. Their trade has greatly decreased; the expeditions against the Dutch have nearly ruined the citizens; the Indians are exhausted by the burdens and taxes levied upon them; and the islands are in constant peril and are frequently harassed by their numerous enemies. The king is asked to send aid for the colony without delay.
A prominent Jesuit in Manila, Juan de Ribera, writes (probably in 1616) an account of an expedition sent from India in 1615 for the aid of the Philippines. The Dutch are obtaining so firm a foothold in the Orient that the Spanish commerce is not only much decreased, but is in constant danger from the attacks of the "Dutch pirates." Silva despatches Ribera to India, to ask from the viceroy aid for the Philippines; he sends with the envoy four galleons, which, after a voyage of many delays and hardships, reach Malacca. There they encounter a large Malay fleet, which they defeat, with great loss on both sides. A few weeks later a Dutch fleet arrives at Malacca, intending to unite with these very Malays; a fierce battle ensues, in which the Portuguese galleons are destroyed. In February 1616, Silva arives at Malacca with his fleet; but soon afterward he is attacked by a fever which causes his death (April 19). To this is added another version of Ribera's letter, and a letter by Valerio de Ledesma—both obtained from Colin's Labor evangelica. These cover the same ground as the preceding letter, but contain some matter not found therein, including an account of the battle at Playa Honda.
A biographical and chronological list of all the Spanish governors of the Philippines, from 1565 to 1898, is here presented. It is prepared by a careful collation, sifting, and verification of data obtained from the best authorities extant; and will be found useful for reference by general readers, as well as by students of history. This is followed by a law of 1664, providing for the government of the islands ad interim; and an extract from the Historia of the Jesuit Delgado (1751), "Some things worth knowing about the governors of the Filipinas Islands." He says: "In no kingdom or province of the Spanish crown do the viceroys or governors enjoy greater privileges, superiority, and grandeur than in Filipinas." Delgado moralizes on the qualifications necessary for such a post, illustrating his remarks by historical examples. He outlines the intercourse and relations of the Philippines with the peoples about them, and the conquests made by the Spanish colonial governors. Next is given a chapter from the Estado de las Islas Filipinas en 1842 of Sinibaldo de Mas—a Spanish diplomat who visited the islands—on "the administration of government and the captaincy-general" therein. He, too, describes the great authority and privilege of the governor of the Philippines; and outlines the plan of the general, provincial, and local governments. The mestizos, when numerous in any community, have their own separate government. As the cabezas de barangay and some members of their families are exempted from paying tributes, they form a privileged class which is a burden on the taxpayers—a serious defect in the system of government. A special arrangement is made for the Chinese residing in Manila, and they are enrolled and classified for the payment of taxes. Finally, a chapter on "the political and administrative organization of Filipinas" is presented, from Montero y Vidal's Archipielago filipino (1886). He devotes special attention to the subject of local government in the native towns; and explains why the Filipino natives are so anxious to obtain the post of gobernadorcillo. The writer describes the mode of dress and the customs in vogue among these local dignitaries, as well as their methods of administration. There are certain other petty officials, whose functions are described; and he ends by stating the powers and functions of the provincial rulers and those of the governor and captain-general of the islands, and sharply criticising "the vicious, anomalous, and unsuitable organization of the provinces of Filipinas."
DOCUMENTS OF 1609
Laws regarding navigation and commerce. Felipe II and Felipe III; 1583-1609. Jesuit missions, 1608-09. (From Annuae litterae; Dilingae, 1610.) Decree regulating services of Filipinos. Felipe III; May 26.
Sources: Two of these documents are taken from Recopilacion de leyes—the first from lib. ix, tit. xlv; the third, from lib. vi., tit. xii (ley xl). The second is obtained from Annuae litterae (Dilingae, 1610), pp. 507-532.
Translations: The first and third of these documents are translated by James A. Robertson; the second, by Henry B. Lathrop, of the University of Wisconsin.
LAWS REGARDING NAVIGATION AND COMMERCE
[The following laws are translated from Recopilacion de leyes, lib. ix, tit. xxxxv, "Concerning the navigation and commerce of the Filipinas Islands, China, Nueva Espana, and Peru."  The various laws of the Recopilacion are not arranged chronologically, but they are here thus given—retaining, however, the number of each law. Those laws given in the present installment range in date between 1583 and 1609, those beyond the latter date being reserved for a future volume. Some of the laws, as shown by various dates, were promulgated more than once, either in the original form, or possibly amended. When there is more than one date, the chronological order follows the earliest of these.]
The appraisements and registers that shall be made of the merchandise shipped in the vessels despatched from Filipinas to Nueva Espana and other places, shall be made solely by the officials of our royal exchequer. The distribution [of cargo] that shall be made in the vessels of the said islands, and of the merchandise shipped on our account, and the appointment and examination of the pilots, masters, and other officials, shall be made in the presence of the aforesaid persons; and the laws ordained by this titulo shall be observed. [Felipe II—San Lorenzo, June 14, 1583.]
It having been committed to, and charged upon, the governor and captain-general of the Filipinas that he should endeavor to introduce, in the exchange and barter for the merchandise of China, trade in other products of those islands, in order to avoid, when possible, the withdrawal of the great sums of reals which are taken to foreign kingdoms, the governor executed it in the form and manner that he considered most fitting; and a method called pancada  was introduced, which has been observed and executed until now. It is our will that that method be observed and kept, without any change, until we order otherwise. [Felipe II—Anover, August 9, 1589; Toledo, January 25, 1596.]
We order that a duty be collected on the first and subsequent sales or all the merchandise shipped from Filipinas to Acapulco, and the pesos per tonelada on freight according to custom; for this sum and much more is needed to pay the troops, and equip the vessels that engage in commerce. In this there shall be no innovation. [Felipe II—Anover, August 9, 1589.]
We ordain and order that there shall be no permission to trade or traffic between Peru, Tierra-Firme, Guatemala, or any other parts of the Indias, and China or the Filipinas Islands, even though it be by license of the viceroys, audiencias, governors, or magistrates, under penalty of confiscation of the merchandise that shall be shipped. The masters and pilots shall also incur the confiscation of all their property and ten years in the galleys. [Felipe II—San Lorenzo, December 18, and February 6, 1591.]
Inasmuch as it is advisable to avoid trade between the West Indias and China, and regulate that of Filipinas, as it has increased considerably, thus causing the decrease of that of these kingdoms: therefore, we prohibit, forbid, and order, that no person of the natives or residents of Nueva Espana, or any other part of the Indias trade or be allowed to trade in the Filipinas Islands. Should anyone do so, he shall lose the merchandise with which he shall trade, and it shall be applied, one-third each, to our royal exchequer, the denouncer, and the judge who shall sentence him. In order to show favor to the citizens and inhabitants [of Filipinas] and that that trade may be preserved to sufficient extent, we consider it best that they alone may trade with Nueva Espana, in the manner ordained by the other laws, with this provision, that they convey their goods, or send them with persons who shall come from the said islands. They cannot send them by way of commission or in any other form to those who actually reside in Nueva Espana, in order to avoid the frauds of consigning them to other persons—unless it be because of the death of those who should come with the goods from the said islands; for in such case it can be done. And we also order that the inhabitants of Filipinas cannot consign their merchandise to generals, commanders, captains, officials, soldiers, or sailors of the vessels of that commerce, or of any other vessels, even though these be inhabitants of the said islands as well as the persons above mentioned.  [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593. Felipe IV—Madrid, February 10, 1635.]
It is our will that the trade and commerce of the Filipinas Islands with Nueva Espana be carried on for the present as ordained. Under no consideration shall the amount of merchandise shipped annually from those islands to Nueva Espana exceed two hundred and fifty thousand eight-real pieces, nor the return of principal and profits in money, the five hundred thousand pesos which are permitted—under no pretext, cause, or argument that can be advanced, which is not expressed by a law of this titulo; and the traders shall necessarily be citizens of the Filipinas, as is also ordained. [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593. Felipe III—December 31, 1604; Madrid, May 4, 1619; Lisboa, September 14, 1619.]
From Nueva Espana to Filipinas only two vessels can sail annually, up to three hundred toneladas' burden. In them shall be carried the reenforcements of men and supplies, and they shall bear a permit. For this purpose there shall be three ships, one of which shall remain in readiness at the port of Acapulco, while the other two make the voyage. For the security of the voyage, those who go on account of our royal treasury shall endeavor to see that the cost be drawn from the freights. From Nueva Espana not more than two hundred and fifty thousand pesos de tipusque shall be taken in the vessels during any one year. Whatever above that amount is taken shall be confiscated and applied in three equal parts to the exchequer, the judge, and the denouncer. We order the governor of Filipinas to inspect the ships when they reach port, and execute the penalty. [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593. Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
We order and command that no person trade or traffic in the kingdoms or in any part of China, and that no goods be shipped from that kingdom to the Filipinas Islands on the account of the merchants of those islands. The Chinese themselves shall convey their goods at their own account and risk, and sell them there by wholesale. The governor and captain-general with the council of the city of Manila shall annually appoint two or three persons, whom they shall deem best fitted, to appraise the value and worth of the merchandise, and shall take the goods at wholesale from the Chinese, to whom they shall pay the price. Then they shall distribute it among all the citizens and natives of those islands, in accordance with their capital, so that they may all share in the interest and profit that arises from this traffic and trade. The persons thus appointed shall keep a book, in which they shall enter the amount of money invested each time, the price at which each class of merchandise is valued, among what persons the merchandise is divided, and the amount that falls to the share of each. The governor shall take particular pains to ascertain and discover how the said deputies make use of their commission. He shall not allow them to be rechosen the following year. He shall send annually a report, signed by them, of all the aforesaid to our council, and another to the viceroy of Nueva Espana. [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593.]
The apportionment of the permitted amount of two hundred and fifty thousand pesos, conceded to the inhabitants of the Filipinas Islands, must be made among them, and the whole amount must be registered. Endeavor shall be made to have less than one third part return in gold; and the governor shall prevent and take precautions against any fraud or deceit, and shall take what measures he deems expedient. This also we charge upon the viceroy of Nueva Espana in whatever pertains to him. [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593.]
We declare and order that the Chinese merchandise and articles which have been and shall be shipped from Filipinas to Nueva Espana, can and shall be consumed there only, or shipped to these kingdoms after paying the duties. They cannot be taken to Peru, Tierra-Firme, or any other part of the Indias, under penalty of confiscation of all those found and apprehended in the possession of any person whatever, and shall be applied to our exchequer, the judge, and the denouncer.  [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593; Felipe IV—Madrid, February 10, 1635.]
We order and command, that under no consideration in any manner can any ship go from the provinces of Peru, Tierra-Firme, Guatemala, Nueva Espana, or any other part of our Western Indias, to China to trade or traffic, or for any other purpose; nor can any ship go to the Filipinas Islands, except from Nueva Espana, in accordance with the laws of this titulo: under penalty of the confiscation of the ship; and its value, money, merchandise, and other things of its cargo shall be sent to these kingdoms in accordance with law 67  of this titulo, and thus it shall be executed. We prohibit and forbid any merchandise being taken from Nueva Espana to the provinces of Peru and Tierra-Firme, that shall have been taken there from Filipinas, even if the duties should be paid according to the rules and ordinances; for it is our purpose and will that no goods shipped from China and the Filipinas Islands be consumed in the said provinces of Peru and Tierra-Firme. Whatever shall be found in the possession of any person, we order to be confiscated, applied, and regulated, as contained in this law. [Felipe II—Madrid, January 11, 1593, and July 5, 1595. Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
It is advisable for our service to have constant reports on what passes in the trade and commerce between the Filipinas and Nueva Espana, in order to ascertain and discover whether it continues to increase, and what kinds of merchandise are traded, their prices, and in what money or material. Accordingly we order the viceroys of Nueva Espana to send to our royal Council of the Indias in each trading fleet, a copy of the registers that the ships brought from those islands, and also of those of the ships sent thither; and all shall be made with great distinctness and clearness. [Felipe II—Madrid, January 17, 1593; and Toledo, June 9, 1596.]
The viceroys, presidents, and auditors, and all other officers of justice shall make efforts to find all those who shall have been sent to Filipinas to reside during the time of their obligation, who have remained in Nueva Espana and other parts of their jurisdiction, and shall force them with all rigor to go to reside in those islands, proceeding against their persons and properties and executing the penalties that they shall have incurred. The fiscals of our Audiencia in Manila shall plead what is advisable in regard to the aforesaid. [Felipe II—Madrid, February 20, 1596.]
We order that the governors of Filipinas shall not allow slaves to be sent to Nueva Espana as a business transaction or for any other reason—except that, when the governor goes there, his successor may give him permission to take as many as six slaves with him; to each of the auditors who shall make the voyage, four; and to other respected persons, merchants with capital, and officials of our royal treasury who go and do not return, two. We order the viceroy, alcalde-mayor and officials of Acapulco, to see to the fulfilment and execution of this law, and to confiscate the slaves in excess of this number. [Felipe II—Madrid, April 10, 1597]
We order that there be but one commander and one lieutenant (who shall be admiral) for the two ships from Filipinas to Nueva Espana; that each ship shall take no more than one military captain, besides the ship master and as many as fifty effective and useful soldiers in each ship with pay, and the sailors necessary to make the voyage properly each way—who shall be efficient and examined—and one pilot and assistant to each ship; for both ships one purser [veedor] and accountant. All appointments to the said posts shall be made by the governor and captain-general alone, without the intervention of the archbishop, or of any other person, notwithstanding what shall have been provided to the contrary. We order that choice be made from among the most respected and influential inhabitants of those islands, and of those most suitable for the said offices and the duties that the appointees must exercise. If they shall not be such, the matter shall be made an article in the governor's residencia. [Felipe III—Barcelona, June 15, 1599; Valladolid, December 31, 1604; San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608; Madrid, May 23, 1620.]
We charge and order the viceroys of Nueva Espanna that the troops that they send to Filipinas be useful, and that they go armed; and that the men go to the governor of the islands to ask for the pay that the captains take from their soldiers. In regard to this the governor shall take legal action and punish those whom it touches. [Felipe III—Denia, August 16, 1599.]
The governors of Filipinas are wont to take the artillery and arms from the ships that sail from Nueva Espana. Inasmuch as the vessels return unarmed and without the necessary defense, we order the said governors not to take, or allow to be taken, from the said ships the artillery, arms, supplies, or war-materials that those ships carry for their defense on the return voyage, for it is not advisable to risk what is so important. [Felipe III—Valladolid, July 15, 1601.]
Since there are skilled and examined pilots for the Filipinas line, those who are not such shall not be admitted in our ships and other craft. [Felipe III—Valencia, December 31, 1603.]
The utmost diligence shall be taken in the port of Acapulco to ascertain and discover the reals, silver, and other things taken to the Filipinas, and our officials of the said port shall take account of it all. They shall advise the governor and royal officials of the islands of it, sending them the registers, and notifying them of what is advisable. The royal officials of Filipinas shall do the same with those of Acapulco. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
Inasmuch as the ships of the Filipinas line have been overladen, many have been wrecked and their crews and cargoes lost; and, inasmuch as it is advisable to provide beforehand the remedy, therefore we order that great care be taken so that the toneladas [assigned] be those that the ships can carry, in accordance with their capacity. The things conveniently necessary for the crew, and the necessary food, with a reserve in case the voyage be prolonged, shall be left in them. Especial care is to be taken that the ships do not sail overladen, or embarrassed, because of the danger of being wrecked in any misfortune. They shall make the voyage each way as lightly laden as is necessary for the chance of storms and enemies. Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
Illegal acts have been committed in taking more artillerymen and sailors than were necessary, and some of them useless, in the trading ships from Filipinas to Nueva Espana. We order that this be avoided and remedied. For each piece of artillery, only one artilleryman, and no more, shall be taken and superfluous pay shall not be given. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
Inasmuch as the majority of those going annually from Nueva Espana to Filipinas do not stop there, but return immediately, after investing their money: therefore, we order the viceroy of Nueva Espana to permit no one to go to Filipinas, unless he give bonds that he will become a citizen and live there for more than eight years, or unless he be sent as a soldier to the governor.  On those who violate this, and their bondsmen, shall be executed the penalties that they incur, without pardon. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
We order and command that the generals, captains, agents, and officials of the Filipinas ships give bonds, to what sum the governor and captain-general shall deem best, for the greater security of what shall be in their charge. They shall give their residencia of each voyage before the auditors of our royal Audiencia of Manila and shall render satisfaction in the aforesaid. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604; Madrid, May 23, 1620. Carlos II (in this Recopilacion)—1681, the date of first edition of Recopilacion de leyes.]
We prohibit and forbid, under any circumstance, commanders, admirals, and officials of the commerce between Filipinas and Nueva Espana from trading or trafficking, seizing, or lading anything, in any quantity in the ships during the voyage under their command, under their own name or another's. Neither shall toneladas be apportioned to them as to the other citizens, nor can they take or buy them from others, under penalty of perpetual deprivation of the said posts of the said line and the confiscation of what goods they lade, carry, or take, which shall be found to be theirs. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604. Carlos II (in this Recopilacion)—1681; see preceding law.]
We order the viceroy of Nueva Espana and the governor of Filipinas, each one as it pertains to him, to adjust and regulate the fares to be paid by passengers, according to the place that each shall occupy, in the ship on which he sails, with men and goods; and what is to be paid on the trips going and coming, according to the expense incurred by the ships, in accordance with their burden and crew. They shall apportion it in such manner that superfluous and useless expenses shall not be caused. And unless it lacks what is necessary and requisite, it shall be unnecessary to supply anything from our treasury toward the expenses of that fleet. We order that the advisable care and effort be given to this by the overseer [veedor], accountant, and royal officials of the Filipinas Islands. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604; San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]
The registers of all shipments from Filipinas shall be opened in the port of Acapulco, by the person to whom the viceroy of Nueva Espana entrusts it, and the officials of our royal treasury of the said port. They together shall examine and investigate the bales and boxes, and shall make as close and careful an examination as shall be necessary to discover what may have come outside of the register and permission. They shall send the registers to Mejico, as has been the custom, with all investigations made at the port of Acapulco, by a sufficiently trustworthy person, or by one of our said officials. In Mejico everything shall be again investigated, and the duties appertaining to us shall be appraised and collected; and all other investigations requisite to ascertain and discover what has come unregistered shall be made. All that shall have been sent without register and in violation of the prohibition shall be confiscated. No permission shall be given by this means, pretext, and occasion, to cause any unreasonable injury to the owners of the goods. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604; San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608; clause xi.]
In the vessels that we shall permit to sail from Peru to Nueva Espana and the port of Acapulco or from Nueva Espana to Peru and its ports, no quantity of Chinese stuffs can be laden, sold, bought, or exchanged, even though it may be reported to be gratuitously as a gift or charity, or for the service of divine worship, or in any other quality or form, in order that the prohibition may not be evaded by such pretexts and frauds. In case that any shall be convicted of the above as chief factors, associates, or participants, or of aiding or giving advice, they shall, besides the confiscation of their goods and boat, incur on their persons the civil and criminal penalties imposed on those who handle contraband goods, and of perpetual banishment, and deprivation of the post that they shall have obtained from us in the Indias. In regard to the above we charge the conscience and care of our servants. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604 (?); San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608 (?); clauses 16 and 17.] 
If any quantity whatever of Chinese stuffs be found in any boat sailing from Nueva Espana to Peru or in the opposite direction, the inspector, royal officials, and the other persons who take part in the register and inspection shall be considered as perpetrators and offenders in this crime; so that, taking example from them, others may abstain from similar transgressions. The captains, masters, boatswains, and other officers whose duties extend to the management of vessels, shall also be considered as offenders and accomplices. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604 (?); San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608 (?); clause 18.]
We order the viceroys of Nueva Espana to maintain very special care of the observance and execution of the ordinances for the commerce of the Filipinas line, established by the laws of this titulo; and to keep at the port of Acapulco, in addition to the royal officials who shall be there, a person of great honesty and trustworthiness, with the title of alcalde-mayor, so that everything be done with very great caution, and justice be observed. He shall not permit more silver to be taken to Filipinas than that conceded by these laws, with or without license. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
The viceroy of Nueva Espana, and the governor and captain-general of Filipinas, all other of our judges and magistrates, and private individuals, each one in what pertains to him, shall observe, and cause to be observed and fulfilled, the ordinances regarding this traffic and commerce, and shall execute them exactly without remission or dispensation. In their residencias, especial attention shall be paid to their omission and neglect. We charge the archbishop of Manila to exercise the same care in what shall be specially entrusted to him, which is not repealed or altered by these laws. Of all, advice shall be given us. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
We charge and order the viceroys of Peru to see that all the ordinances in regard to the prohibition of Chinese stuffs be fulfilled and executed exactly. For their execution and fulfilment, they shall appoint an auditor of our royal Audiencia of Los Reyes, in whom they can place entire confidence. They shall see that he proceeds thoroughly and executes the penalties with the required rigor, without any dispensation. The auditor shall privately try these cases in the said city and its districts in so far as he shall have cause to invoke the law; and all other justices in their territories shall do the same. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]
Permission was given for two ships to go to Nueva Espana annually from Peru for commerce and trade to the value of two hundred thousand ducados; which was afterward reduced to one ship, with certain conditions. And inasmuch as the trade in Chinese stuffs has increased to excessive proportions in Peru, notwithstanding so many prohibitions expedient to our royal service, the welfare and utility of the public cause, and the commerce of these and those kingdoms; and a final decision of the viceroy, Conde de Chinchon,  having preceded, and a vote of the treasury to suppress absolutely any opportunity for this trade: therefore we order and command the viceroys of Peru and Nueva Espana to prohibit and suppress, without fail, this commerce and trade between both kingdoms,  by all the ways and means possible; and that it be not carried on by any other regions, for we by this present prohibit it. This prohibition shall be kept strictly and shall continue to be so kept. [Felipe III—Valladolid, December 31, 1604; San Lorenzo, June 20, 1609; Madrid, March 28, 1620, clause 1. Felipe IV—Madrid, November 25, 1634; Madrid, March 29, 1636, a clause of a letter to the Conde de Chinchon.]
The inspection of ships sailing from Nueva Espana to Filipinas shall be made by our royal officials, according to custom. They shall examine in great detail the lists of soldiers and sailors of the ships, in order to abolish the places that shall be found without justification; and they may proceed by law, when they discover any infraction or fraud in this. Such shall be visited on the person causing it, with the greatest severity. [Felipe III—Valladolid, January 25, 1605. Felipe IV—Madrid, October 16, 1626.]
We order that the duties and freight customs collected in the port of Acapulco on the Filipinas merchandise, shall not be placed in the royal treasury of Mejico, but shall be expended in things necessary to those islands; and the sum lacking [for those necessities] shall be sent from the treasury of Mejico. The viceroy and the governor of Filipinas shall send us a particular report for each voyage of the amount of the duties and freight customs and what must be sent. [Felipe III—Valladolid, February 19, 1606.]
We declare that in the five hundred thousand pesos granted by permission [to be sent] from Nueva Espana to Filipinas, must and shall be entered the amounts of legacies, bequests, and charities [obras pias], with the wrought silver and all other things carried thither; and nothing shall be reserved, except the pay of the sailors, as is ordered by the following law.  [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606.]
We grant permission to the sailors serving on the trading ships between Nueva Espana and Filipinas to carry in money the actual and exact sum of their pay, in addition to the general permission. Thus shall the viceroys of Nueva Espana provide, unless they perceive some considerable objection. They shall see to it that the said sailors or other persons shall not be allowed to exceed the amount permitted by this law. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606.]
No wrought silver can be taken to Filipinas, even when for the service of those who shall go thither, or for any other purpose, unless bonds are first given to return it, or unless it shall have been included in the permission. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606.]
The governor of Filipinas shall send the viceroy of Nueva Espana a report of the apportionment of toneladas that he shall make, and what is to be laden in the ships of that commerce. The viceroy shall send the former a report of the money that shall be sent in accordance with the ordinance. The latter shall pay consideration and attention to the reports sent him by the said governor, so that he may adjust more equitably and circumspectly the licenses of this kind that he shall give. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606; Madrid, June 4, 1620.]
Inasmuch as it is advisable for the security and conservation of the Filipinas Islands that great care and vigilance be taken there regarding the foreign nations and Sangleys who live in Manila; and inasmuch as there should be a trustworthy, influential, and disinterested person in the said city, who should have charge of purifying the country and giving license to those who must remain there: therefore we order the governor to take charge of his appointment and to appoint for the said commission the person most suitable for it in that community, of whose zeal for our royal service and the common welfare, and of whose trustworthiness and care, he has the greatest assurance. The governor shall not appoint for this office and employment any of his servants, inasmuch as we expressly prohibit that. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, March 6, 1608.]
The cargo of the ships of the line, on both outward and return trips between Nueva Espana and Filipinas, shall be stowed in the fore-hold; and only the sea stores, the sailors' and mess chests, the rigging, sails, and all the necessities, between decks. Likewise rigging shall be taken to the port of Acapulco, in consideration of the fact that the city of Manila has it at cheaper rates than the port of Acapulco—whither it is carried from San Juan de Ulua  at very great cost and expense. We order this to be so executed, providing there is no inconvenience; and if there should be any, we shall be advised in order to provide the advisable measures. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]
The governor and captain-general of Filipinas shall furnish the ships of that commerce from Nueva Espana with the arms needed for their defense, and shall see that the soldiers, sailors, and passengers go well armed. He shall order each ship to carry a person to whose care the arms shall be confided, and who shall have charge of them, and shall make efforts to preserve them, as is advisable. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]
Great disorder has occurred in the Filipinas ships, and the sailors have been permitted to take two or three very large boxes, under pretext that these contain wearing apparel, and thus cumber the ships. We order that no irregularity be permitted in this, and that the utmost circumspection be exercised; and that the sailors be not allowed to carry more boxes or clothing on the said ships than that indispensably needed for the voyage. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]
It has been reported that the passengers and sailors of the trading ships of Filipinas transport and carry slave-women, who are the cause of very great offenses to God, and other troubles; this should be prohibited and reformed (and more reasonably so in a navigation so long and dangerous), and all occasions for offending God suppressed. For the remedy of this, we order and command the president and auditors of our royal Audiencia of Manila not to permit any slave-women to be transported or carried on those ships. They shall pay particular attention to the correction of the aforesaid evil, so that those difficulties may cease and be avoided. We also order and command the fiscal of the Audiencia to see to its execution. The senior auditor shall inspect the ships at the time of their sailing, and see if any married woman is aboard, who has no necessity for making the voyage. The trying of any cause shall be before the said president and auditors, who shall provide justice, and this shall be made a clause of their residencias. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]
After those who wish to go to the Filipinas have bound themselves and given bonds to live in the islands for at least eight years, the viceroy of Nueva Espana shall permit them to take thence their own property in money, outside of the general permission. He shall take precautions and ordain that there shall be no fraud; and that such persons shall not carry more than the value of their own property, under any consideration. In case of a violation of this, the penalties imposed shall be executed. [Felipe III—El Pardo, November 20, 1608.]
The trade, commerce, and navigation from the Filipinas to Japon shall be made by the citizens of the former islands, and the Japanese shall not be allowed to go to the islands. On the merchandise carried in the ships despatched on the account of our royal treasury, no less freight charges shall be collected than those caused in the ships of private persons, so that the cost of the merchandise may be assured. If there should be any inclination or substance in this trade, so that the duties may be paid and our treasury relieved of a portion of its costs and expenses that be paid from them, we order that they be collected and paid. [Felipe III—Segovia, July 25, 1609.]
JESUIT MISSIONS, 1608-09
Province of the Philippine Islands
These islands have ninety-one [sic] members of the Order. Four have passed away; and the same number have been received into the Order.
Total Priests Preceptors Scholastics Lay Brethren
Manila College XXXII XII XI IX Seminary of St. Joseph III I II Elementary School XI IX II Establishment at Silang II I I Establishment at Antipolo VII IV III Cebu College VIII IV IV Bohol Residence V IV I Carigara Residence VI IV II Dulac Residence VI IV II Tinagon Residence V IV I Palapag Residence V IV I Arevalo Mission II I I
Adults cleansed by holy baptism, two thousand three hundred and eight-three. Heretics condemned, twenty-three.
Chastity protected against suitors or immodest women, fifteen times.
Heretics reconciled, seven times.
The sacred commentaries have been used by eleven.
The Holy Cross and the recitation of the Gospel of St. John has rescued thirteen persons from various dangers; the Blessed Virgin, two; the Blessed Ignatius and Xavier, five.
The College at Manila
I. Since last year's letters regarding this college were very full, we shall deal with it now very briefly; we will begin with two brethren who have finished their course of life: Luis a Figueroa and Didacus de Zarcuela. Luis was of noble birth, but of nobler nature. When he had studied the humanities, he could not be persuaded that he might be admitted to sacred orders; and when the fathers hesitated to admit him into the Society because of a lack of strength in his feet, "Receive me," he said, "I beg you, as a servant, to set fire to the wood others have cut; and, when the work is done, to cover the fire with ashes or put it out." Being admitted in so humble a frame of mind, he took care for the most part of the wardrobe, being best satisfied with the lot of Martha, which he praised wherever he had the opportunity. So powerful and effective was he in persuasion and dissuasion that one of his associates declared that he went to his work more readily on account of Luis's words in conversation than through the formal speech of any orator whatsoever. He exhibited the virtue of charity in the highest degree; and although unable to tolerate the slightest deficiency in himself, he strove with love and prudence to effect the same perfection in others. Receiving from Rome at the end of his illness letters by which he was formally enrolled among the lay brethren, he was so penetrated with joy that he had strength to offer his vows in the church—after which, his illness increasing again, he soon died. Didacus also attained the same vows, having been two and twenty years a servant of the Society; of this number he devoted not a few to the seminary of St. Joseph. He was a man who set a good example, and was of extraordinary diligence. So desirous was he of the salvation of the Indian races that he said: "If Spain were only two leguas away, I should not care to go thither. Nothing would induce me to exchange my lot with any brother in Europe"—which saying he repeated oftener as death approached. He died of a fever, contrary to the expectation of the physicians, but not to his own; for he declared that he should die when his illness attacked him, and so he passed away. Some persons who took refuge from external danger, under the protection of the Blessed, our fathers Ignatius and Xavier, were preserved alive. To three women Ignatius granted easy childbirth; and one Basque they relieved of toothache, when he prayed to them. Xavier came to the aid of a Spanish commander of a battalion of soldiers, who was near to death; and prolonged his life in return for two wax candles promised him.
II. As for the rest. Among those of all ages, Christianity advances daily throughout the population of Manila, so that the devotion of youths cannot be affected by entreaties or overcome by reward—especially among those who glory in the name of members of sodalities; while women do not at all fall behind men in fervor and piety. Although on account of their sex they cannot join men's associations, they think that they have the right to perform the same acts which would be praised in the members of sodalities. There are some of the Spanish women who fast three times a week; they sleep on the ground; in their private chambers, among their intimate friends, they scourge themselves until they draw blood. One woman who was delivered by the Virgin from a grievous illness vowed that everything she and her women could make with the needle should be wrought to adorn our church. She has already finished many articles; and, because she seemed to have vowed beyond her strength, she was directed to cease. Her answer was that she had taken her vow to do this, so that if Ours refused the work she would bestow it on some other church. Other decorations have been added to this church, so that it is almost unique in the islands; and, as a result, the religious services which are wont to be held on the three days of the Carnival  have been attended by much larger congregations. For, before, bare tiles scarcely covered it; and the dripping water penetrating when it rained, the church was defiled by a multitude of bats. By the contributions of very many pious men a new ceiling has been added to the roof, adorned and wrought with various decorations, so that it gives dignity and splendor to the place—a work worth many a piece of gold, because it seems very great, considering the poverty of the city. Those Indians, too, whom many years ago the Society supported near this city, have now set up in a newly-built church a statue of their patron Saint Michael, together with a new and beautiful image of the Virgin Mother of God, and other statues—marks of no small piety in a small town.
III. The heretics among the prisoners taken in the Dutch fleet last year (they were over ninety)  have been visited and assisted by Father Andrea de la Camara very often, both those in prison and the wounded in hospitals. Of the Lutherans and Calvinists in both those places he taught over twenty to recant their heresies—and those generally of the higher rank among them, masters, superintendents, surgeons, etc., and (if he ought to be named in the same class) a minister of the Word. This man, ashamed of his ignorance, readily gave us his hand, and the letters which he had received from his anti-bishop in testimony of his authority, having been in a manner dragged from pitch and shoemaking to the ministry of the Word. These all are now as true lovers of our Society as before they were bitter adversaries of it. When on account of the scarcity of workers Father Camara was sent to the Pintados Islands, these men went to the vicar of the Holy Inquisition, and asked him that he would not suffer them to be without some Jesuit, whose ministry they might enjoy—even through an interpreter, if need be. For, they declared, they were persuaded that Ours might differ in language, but not in character.
In fact, many others have been reconciled to us, or at least, if friends have been made, more friendly. Distinguished among them is he who governs these islands in the royal name, Don Juan de Silva; for he has showed forth his love toward God and us in many ways. He has especially done so by the restoration, at no small expense, of the chapel in which the relics of the saints are kept, for which he also provided that a lamp should be kept constantly burning. He has also liberally assisted us with money and other things in a sickness which afflicted us all for a short time. We have restored to not a few persons their friends, from whom they had been torn by covert grudges; but I wish to avoid unpleasant allusions; and I only praise the greatness of soul of one woman in forgiving injuries. She sailed all the way from Europe, first to Mexico, then to these Philippine Islands, and finally to the Malucas, in search of her absent son. She found him at last in the island of Ternate, where he held an official position; but while she was rejoicing at finding her son, she was deprived of this brief joy also. For soon after her coming her son, pierced with many wounds, was slain in a quarrel; and she had again lost him whom she had found with so great efforts and after so many journeys. This misfortune the woman has borne in such a spirit that she has not only freely forgiven the slayer, but, turning this grief to a good use, has begun to give herself wholly to the praises of God and to heavenly actions. Every day she devotes four hours to prayers; thrice in the week she fasts; thrice she mortifies herself with a hair-shirt, thrice with scourging; and partaking on the Lord's Day of the divine feast, she continues to this day in this most beautiful mode of life.
Establishments at Silan and Antipolo, With the College of Cebu
IV. The town of Silan is accessibly and commodiously situated. Hence it is easily and frequently visited by sojourners, the more so because the inhabitants themselves are uncommonly humane and devoted to Christian piety. It happened that some Indians turned aside from their journey to visit one of the inhabitants; and as they were taking out of a little chest some clothes that they were carrying with them, packed up, it happened that they took out along with them a tiny idol formed of a twisted mass of hair. The people of Silan who were present were frightened when they saw this, and told one of Ours, who was stationed there, of it. He went to the house as if on another errand, and uncovered the deceit together with the idol. Then taking advantage of the occasion, he made a serious address to the Indians, warning them against such wickedness; and he inspired in the owner of the idol (who was a woman) a better mind. With the help of God she abjured the impious worship of hair, which she had before pursued, and also abandoned and corrected another sin of no small heinousness. The delights of a festival which had been announced were almost destroyed by a great misfortune which accidentally befell this place. For while all were looking forward to the day sacred to All Saints, when all the inhabitants had prepared themselves for the proper reception of the feast, behold, at the oncoming of night the fury of all the winds arose. The rain and storm which followed did not cease to rage until they had overthrown more than two hundred houses, to the incredible alarm of the Indians, who left their own houses to take refuge as quickly as possible in our church, where nearly the whole night was spent in hearing their confessions. But not even here were they safe enough, for the wind blew the boards off the walls and whirled them away; so that the whole body of people took refuge in the sanctuary, where they waited for death and the last hour.
V. At the proclamation of the same feast in the village of Antipolo ninety persons received communion—sixty more than in that of Taitai—which is a large number for new Christians. And among these tribes, as has been elsewhere said, that cross is still much visited to which in this year a woman brought a public attestation of the recovery, on two occasions, of her health. The inhabitants of the village have given a silver cup and other ornaments to the church.
VI. The women of Taitai, who formerly surpassed all other Indians in their worship of idols, are now as completely devoted to the pursuit of Christian rites and customs. Even those of high rank among them are not ashamed to sweep the floor of our church, and to appear in public with broom and water, in order that they may be able to command their servants to do the like. This is the praise due to the women; the men deserve another. A very old man dropped from his hands the slip of paper given to him monthly, on which was written the name of the saint whom he had received by lot. Grieved at his loss, the good old man ran back to the village of Taitai, which is about a mile from his own; and thence (as he did not find the father who used to distribute that kind of slips of paper) he went on to Antipolo, over a rough and hilly road. When he reached there, after going four miles, he first asked the father's pardon for his carelessness; and then begged him not to refuse to give him another in place of his lost patron. This fact shows plainly enough with what zeal these tribes strive after the greater matters of salvation. In another place an Indian was lying sick, and had received communion and been anointed with the holy oil. Early in the evening he began to be in such agony that the people in the house took him for dead, and, after laying out the body, put him on his ancestral bier. After they had watched the whole night about his body, when dawn returned he returned also, stammered something, and about noon uttered his words articulately. Then he said first that he seemed to have been dead three years, because of the cruel torments which he had himself suffered in hell, and which he had seen an infinite number of Indians suffer. There demons—as it were, smiths—kindled forges with bellows, poured melted iron over the wretched souls, and in the midst of their pitiful howlings burnt them forever with never-ceasing tortures. After he had seen these things, he said, he had been led by a venerable old man away to a higher place, by reaching which (for he thought it was heaven) he was filled so full of bliss that he was unwilling to leave it. But when he was commanded, he returned to life, to inform the living about each place to which men are consigned, that of the blessed and that of the damned; and this command, he affirmed, was laid upon him under a heavy penalty; for there are among mortals not a few who by the pretense of virtue deceive themselves and others, and although they are looked upon as good, yet are very far from the service of God. Then he added that his conductor told him to bid his fellow-townsmen be of good courage, for the church they were then engaged in building would be better and stronger than the others. The Indian, after he had said these things, recovered, and a general confession was appointed. He continues to this day to show by his life and example that those things which he reported were no dreams. The improvement of morals which has followed in many others who heard of these things has almost entirely put an end to pretexts for doubt and suspicions of deceit.
The prophecy, moreover, with regard to the church—that it should be stronger than the others—has been fulfilled. A few months before, the church of these Indians had burned down for the second time, together with our house. The fire broke out in the following manner. Some of the townspeople were out hunting, and, a dispute arising among the barbarians about the hunt, they came to blows. Soon after the quarrel, fire was thrown on our house, and destroyed the new church with almost all the furniture. The relics of the saints and the images were in part saved from the fire by the dexterity of the Christians. But Ours after no long delay bent themselves to the work again, and erected another church for themselves, at no trifling expense, and with no small labor on the part of the Indians. This is the seventh church erected in the ten years since the founding of the town. A further fortune which befell an Indian woman confirmed many in the Christian faith. She had ventured, without confessing her sins after the manner of Christians, to receive Christ in the communion; after she went home, she began to suffer from such agony in her throat that she thought she should choke to death. Thus she suffered, complained, an wailed until, having recognized the cause of her suffering, she went to the church that very evening. She prayed and besought the father to hold back her soul, already departing; and to succor an unhappy woman, whose throat was burned by the host as if by a flaming torch. When the father heard this, he instantly besought God, and God instantly showed mercy. She declared her sins, and thereupon all her torment ceased; and by this salutary remedy of confession the maladies of many Indians have been suddenly dispelled by Ours, the name of God or of some saint being invoked.
At the college of Zebu one of the Society, when in the town one day, heard weeping not far away; and when he followed it he discovered a mother bitterly lamenting the death of her new-born infant. Touched by her grief, the father went a short distance away, and entreated God, in the name of the Virgin Mother, to help this afflicted woman. Instantly the child revived, without a trace of sickness left upon him. Whether it was his senses or his soul that had left him, it is surely to the divine goodness that his sudden revival is to be attributed. The recitation of the Gospel of St. John has also benefited many sick persons; but Ours have found nothing so fit for removing the sicknesses of souls as the salutary Exercises of our blessed Father [i.e., Loyola], which the very heads of each magistracy, the sacred and the civil, have employed—not alone to private but also to public advantage. Their example, imitated by some of those in the higher ranks, has been followed by the same results. The rest of the people have been marvelously stirred up by the renewed fervor of the members of the sodalities, among other things; and by the new confidence given them by letters from Rome received this year, to the great delight and approval of all; which letters have much promoted the worship of the most blessed Virgin, and have also kindled those who are reckoned among the first in the city to accept the advice to join a sodality. By these means cares have been turned aside, and four bitter family quarrels, in which the very heart of life and salvation was attacted, not without public scandal, were brought to an end with the desired success.
VII. The harvest of souls at Bohol has increased with the decrease of the audacity of the enemy, and of the almost annual invasion by the people of Mindanao. As many as a thousand have been baptized, if children and adults are reckoned. In this number are several bailans, or priests of idols; and one there was who, before his baptism, did nothing but rage, and attack with teeth and nails those who passed by, who came forth from the waters of the sacred font, gentle and in his right mind. And when some Indians saw this, snatching the cause from the fact, they went to the father and begged him to sprinkle a dying Indian woman with the same healing waters. Our father, suspecting that they made this request with the the purpose of enabling the woman to avoid the trouble of learning the catechism refused, unless she would first learn what Christians know. "Father," said they, "that ought not to be the way in which you act; we want her baptized to keep her alive." "And I," said one, "when I was lying near to death, was by the command of another father sprinkled by an Indian cantor, and as soon as I was sprinkled immediately I began to recover. Then that madman, as you know, washed away his madness in the same font; and this companion of mine, who was already despaired of, when he received baptism was restored to himself and his kinsfolk." The father yielded to all these arguments, ordered the sick woman to be carried into the church, and after putting the questions demanded by the occasion and the need, cleansed her with that purifying sacrament: she immediately began to improve, and soon recovered all her former strength. Every day several feel the healing power of this font. An equally great miracle is that the chiefs of this tribe, who have been very ill disposed towards us, and from whom not even the lives of Ours were safe, have been so suddenly changed at the sight of one of our fathers that they not only—themselves, without being urged—have submitted to the Christian ordinances, but also seek out the barbarians, even in the mountains, where they wander and are dispersed like wild beasts; and partly by the exercise of their authority, partly by persuasion, bring them down to the villages, and offer them to the fathers for instruction and baptism. Together with these there were once offered more than seventy idols, the spoils of the bailans, which were publicly burnt by Ours before the uplifted cross. The same thing has been done again and again elsewhere, especially at Jalibon, Ingaon, Orion, and Canliron, where the joyful Indians in this manner took vengeance upon the evil demon who had so often deceived them by the delusions of idols. The bailans are conspicuous in this zealous attack upon the enemy. They go so far as to scourge themselves  until they draw blood, in order to atone for their sins; and thus they who formerly opened the door to all kinds of impiety are now the means above all others by which the rest of the bailans who still work their impious sacrifices are led to the faith, for the art of these latter loses its power when the others reveal the deceit. Indeed the deceit not seldom reveals itself by their predicting that which never comes to pass, or threatening terrors which injure no one.
VIII. The members of the Sodality of the Blessed Virgin are devoting their attention to themselves, and striving to root out from their souls those sins which have grown old there. There was an Indian woman who was seized by a suitor in her bed, and who, to protect her chastity, threw herself out of the window; there was a youth who, being unable to keep a crowd of wanton girls out of his cottage, so savagely scourged his own back with cords that they, alarmed at the fierceness of the sounds, at last dispersed. There were some who, to avoid the sin of drunkenness, entirely denied themselves the use of wine.
Of old there were among these Indians no bowels of compassion, no signs of family affection. Nay, parents sold their very children for food; children did the same by their parents; and this sort of avarice (or rather of cruelty) was still more common among kinsmen by marriage or blood, so that they did no kindness without doing an injury. Now, by the grace of God, all these things are reversed, and these people delight in doing to others as they would be done by; and on that account the hospital which has been built never wants for necessaries, and always has some, even of high rank, who rejoice in giving themselves to the service of the poor.
Moreover, this hospital is supported thus: during the week a basket is placed before the doors of the church, in which every one puts what he pleases, according to his ability, either of food or herbs, to be carried to the hospital. On Sundays, besides, each village in turn serves the sick, after the following manner. Those whose turn it is go hunting boars or stags, and on the appointed day bring flesh, boiled or roasted, with rice, or bring some equivalent food, for the sick. Now this tribe, which is at this time so Christian, formerly observed the custom of never going hunting without consulting their idols. When they perceived that the fathers of Ours detested this custom, and indeed wholly annulled it, some of them asked them what they ought to do then when they went out on such enterprises. When they were told that they should go to some church and beseech God through the Virgin Mother of God to give them success in their hunting, they did so; and at noon of that very day they killed twenty-two boars and stags not far from the village. When they came home loaded with their game, every one marveled greatly; and they said: "Ah, Father, how good is the God of the Christians! The gods that we used to worship would scarcely grant us, in return for long continued implorations, at last two boars or stags, and most often nothing; but now the true God after having been barely prayed to has freely given us all these beasts in a short time." The pious example of these people having been followed by others in another village, they too had slain five and twenty of this kind of game within three or four hours; and they went about shouting: "Away with you, lying bailans, who were about to destroy us and all that we had! For us there will be henceforth no God but Jesus Christ, who has displayed so great liberality to us who have recently turned to Him." I might say more as to the Gospel of St. John, the saving sign of the cross, and other mysteries of the Christians, whose marvelous efficacy these tribes have experienced; but I would not be prolix. Let it be enough to state that seven or eight sick persons at least have been cured by amulets of this sort.
Establishment at Dulac, Carigara, Tinagon, and Palapag
IX. At the establishment at Dulac Ours have often had the better of the devil, and the devil of them. They certainly believe that what has happened can have had no other author. They had appointed the festival of which we have spoken above; and when they were all assembled in the church and were waiting for divine service, a messenger suddenly appeared and announced that the Mindanaos, their ancient enemies, were at Carigara. As soon as the Indians heard that, they poured out of the church all together in consternation, each trying to pass the other; and leaving the priest, for the mass was not yet finished, they fled from the village and took refuge in the mountains. The priest, when he had finished the divine office, and arranged his affairs as well as time permitted, began himself to think of flight, that the shepherd might be with his flock. However, being detained by an Indian chief, whose wife he had been about to bury, he remained, and performed the rites for the woman—one who had deserved well of the Christians, and who, as her husband testified, had been visited by the Blessed Virgin, In the mean time a messenger brought a more certain report, to the effect that a few small villages on the island had been visited by some five or six ships at Caragara; and that they had captured only twenty Indians, the rest having taken refuge in flight.
They all came back then from the mountains, and in a few days the work of many was accomplished. The number of those who confessed the faith increased so rapidly that the long days seemed short. This, I am sure, grieved the devil not a little; and no less did what Father Christoforo Ximenez effected after he returned to Manila where he put into print the catechism of Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, translated into the Bisayan language.  He went by the order of his superiors to Alongala, then without a priest. When he had remained there up to the beginning of Holy Week, and had made the people ready and active in all works of piety, it happened that a certain idol-worshiper of that island, a man of very high rank, Malacaia by name—who owned over sixty slaves, and who was reverenced by all the Indians most highly, even as a father—was once looking on, and wondering to see many of the natives busied in pious works, and so seriously engaged in scourging themselves. In amazement he said, "Shall I do that, Father?" "Do," replied Ximenez, "what they are doing, and scourge thyself." "Will that scourging do me any good?" asked Malacaia. "It will do thee no little good," answered the father. The other instantly took off his tunic and girded himself for the work, and walking upon the stage with the others, the Christians, he so tragically worked upon himself that, not content with one scourge, although it was rough with little sharp studs, he also snatched the scourge from one standing near, and, as with a two-edged sword, fearfully smote himself upon the back as if with thunderbolts. These scourgings reached even to the man's soul, although at the time he knew not what he was doing; for this noble deed was an example of great profit to others, and he himself, moreover, received at this time the desire for baptism, for which he is now being prepared as a catechumen.
X. The Christians taught by the fathers at the establishment at Cangara have this in common with those at Dulac, that they receive a mighty protection from the services of the church when duly celebrated. For as the former, by setting up a cross in the fields and by the use of holy water, drive the swarms of locusts from their grain, so the latter by bearing palm-branches and seeds to the church effect the same result. An old custom of theirs has been condemned—namely setting up in the fields great beams, which they call Omalagars, upon which they believe the souls of the dead to sit. Here fifty have been initiated in the Christian mysteries, and more would have been if ministers had not been wanting. Forty couples have been joined with a more holy bond. Several persons were found by the marvelous providence of God (for it would be impious to regard that as a chance which was wrought for Ours, kept safe in so many perils), who, being scattered over the mountains, so that they could have no one else, begged for a father to whom they might confess their sins. There were also found in a little island forty lepers loathsome with filth and stench, unclothed, and without food, lacking everything. To all of them first the teaching of Christ, then baptism, and finally food and clothes were given. But one man found God sterner, who, though warned by Ours to desist from his impious habit of swearing, yet never obeyed. He was often wont to use an expression by which he devoted himself to the crocodile; and not long after, being made the prey of one, he taught others by his evil fate to do that which he had refused to do before. As compared with his death all the more happy was that by which Father Alfonso Roderico was taken from us. He had professed the four vows, and was dear alike to Spaniards and to Bisayans. He was so devoted to the good of both that he was not satisfied with the narrow space of twenty-two years, during which he was permitted to live among us, but at his death used the very words of St. Martin: "Lord, if I am still needed by thy people, I do not refuse to labor."