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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XXV, 1635-36
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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898

Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century,

Volume XXV, 1635-36



Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson with historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV



Preface 9

Documents of 1635

Laws regarding navigation and commerce, 1611-35. Felipe III and Felipe IV; 1611-35 23 Royal decrees, 1633-35. Felipe IV; Madrid, 1633-35 38 Memorial to the king, in the year 1635. Juan Grao y Monfalcon; Madrid, September 6 48 Manila treasury accounts, 1630-35. Geronimo de ——, and Francisco Antonio Manzelo; August 18, 1638 74 Letter of consolation to the Jesuits of Pintados. Juan de Bueras, S.J.; Manila, February 1 87 Letter to Felipe IV. Andres del Sacramento, O.S.F.; Nueva Caceres, June 2 95 Letter from the Franciscan commissary-general of the Indias. Francisco de Ocana, O.S.F.; Madrid, June 28 98 Opinion of Council and royal decree concerning request of Manila Jesuits for alms. Felipe IV, and others; Madrid, July 10 100 Letter to Felipe IV. Pedro de Arce; Manila, October 17 104

Documents of 1636

Discussion regarding Portuguese trade at Manila. Joseph de Navada Alvarado, and others; 1632-36 111 Decree extending the tenure of encomiendas. Felipe IV; Madrid, February 1 145 Military services of Filipinos. Juan Grau y Monfalcon; [Madrid], June 13 148 Conflicts between civil and ecclesiastical authorities, 1635-36. Casimiro Diaz, O.S.A.; from his Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (published at Valladolid, 1890, but written early in eighteenth century) 151 Letter from a citizen of Manila to an absent friend. [Unsigned; Fabian de Santillan y Gavilanes?]; Manila, June 15 201 Request for Jesuit missionaries. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera; Cavile, June 19 297 Letter from the bishop of Nueva Caceres to Felipe IV. Francisco de Zamudio, O.S.A.; Manila, June 20 301 List of prominent ecclesiastics in Manila and the islands. Hernando de Guerrero, archbishop of Manila; 1636 305

Bibliographical Data 321



ILLUSTRATIONS



Map of portion of Philippine Islands and other eastern islands; photographic facsimile of original Portuguese MS. map of 1635, by Pedro Berthelot, in the British Museum 56, 57 View of Chinese junks; photographic facsimile of engraving in Recueil des voiages Comp. Indes Orient. Pais-Bas (Amsterdam, 1725) iii, p. 285; from copy in the library of Wisconsin Historical Society 116 Plan of the "island of Manila;" drawn by a Portuguese artist, ca. 1635; photographic facsimile of the original MS. map in British Museum 133 Autograph signature of Sebastian de Corcuera; photographic facsimile from MS. in Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla 299



PREFACE

The scope of the present volume (1635-36) is mainly commercial and financial matters on the one hand, and ecclesiastical affairs on the other. The paternalistic tendencies of the Spanish government are obvious in the former direction, with various restrictions on trade, and annoying imposts on all classes of people. The Portuguese of Macao are accused of ruining the Chinese trade with the islands, absorbing it to their own profit and the injury of the Spaniards. In ecclesiastical circles, the topic of prime interest is the controversy between Governor Corcuera and Archbishop Guerrero, ending in the latter's exile to Mariveles Island; it is an important episode in the continual struggle between Church and State for supremacy, and as such rightly demands large space and attention in this series. In this and several other documents may be noticed the steadily increasing influence and power of the Jesuit order in the Philippines at that period.

From Recopilacion de leyes de las Indias (lib. ix, tit. xxxxv) are compiled a series of laws relating to navigation and commerce, dated from 1611 to 1635—in continuation of those already given in VOL. XVII of this series. Married men going from Nueva Espana must take their wives also, or provide for them while absent. Convents shall not allow Chinese merchandise to be concealed in their houses. Royal officials who may sail in any fleet sent from Spain to the Philippines are forbidden to carry any merchandise thither on their private accounts. Flour for government use in the islands shall be provided there, and not be brought from Nueva Espana. The lading on the trading ships to that country must be allotted more equitably, and for the general welfare of the Philippine colonists. Disabled or incapable seamen must not be taken on these ships; provision is made for the protection and safety of the Indian deck-hands thereon; and only persons of rank are allowed to carry more than one slave each. Trade between Mexico and Peru is again forbidden; and private persons in the Philippines are not permitted to send ships, soldiers, or seamen to the mainland or other regions outside the islands. The valuation of merchandise taken to Nueva Espana from Filipinas shall be made at Mexico, according to certain regulations. The officers of the trading ships shall be paid for four months only, each voyage; and the ships must leave Acapulco by December, and reach the islands by March. Extortion from the sailors by the royal officials at Acapulco is strictly forbidden. The official appointed to inspect the Chinese ships at Manila must be chosen, not by the governor alone, but by him and the Audiencia jointly. The shipment of money from New Mexico to Filipinas in excess of the amount allowed is forbidden under heavy penalties. The governors of Filipinas must keep the shipyards well equipped and provided. The ships that sail thence to Nueva Espana must depart in June; and careful account must be taken, by special officials, of all goods in the cargoes, and of all that the vessels carry on the return trip.

A group of royal decrees and orders occurs during the years 1633-35, concerning various interests of the Philippines. The viceroy of Nueva Espana is ordered (September 30, 1633) to see that the seamen needed in the islands be well treated at Acapulco, and allowed to invest some money in the Mexican trade. The governor of the Philippines is warned (March 10, 1634) to see that the lading of vessels in that trade be equitably allotted to the citizens. The viceroy is directed, at the same time, to send more reenforcements of men to the islands. The moneys granted to the city for its fortifications have been diverted to the general fund; the governor is notified (September 9, 1634) to correct this, and, two months later, to prevent the Portuguese of Macao from trading in the islands. Again (February 16, 1635) he is directed to prevent people from leaving the Philippines, and religious from going to Japan; and at the same time is despatched a reply to the Audiencia regarding some matters of which they had informed the king. The governor is ordered (November 5, 1635) to see that the garrisons in Ternate are regularly changed.

Juan Grau y Monfalcon, procurator-general for the Philippines at the Spanish court, memorializes the king (1635) regarding the importance of those islands to Spain, which country should preserve her domain there, not only for the service of God and the spread of the Catholic faith, but for the increase of the royal revenues. The writer gives a summary of the Chinese population in the islands, and the extent of their trade; the number of Indians paying tribute, and their products. The Spaniards of Manila are greatly impoverished by their losses in conflagrations and shipwrecks, and need royal aid. If it be not given them, Manila will be lost to the Dutch, whose increasing power and wealth in the Orient is described. Especially do they request the abolition of the additional duty of two per cent on goods exported to Nueva Espana, which they are unable to pay. The history of this tax is outlined, and numerous reasons for its abolition are adduced. The inhabitants of Manila no longer make large profits in their trade with Nueva Espana; nor are the expenses of that trade such a burden as formerly on the royal treasury. The same results are really obtained from the tax levied on the Chinese goods that are carried to Manila, and this additional tax is too heavy a burden on the people. The royal duties alone amount to twenty-seven per cent on their investments of capital, and the costs and expenses to even a greater sum. Too much pressure of this sort will cause the people of Manila to abandon entirely a profitless trade; in that case the customs duties would cease, and the islands would fall into the hands of the Dutch. The misfortunes and losses of Manila by fires and shipwrecks must also be taken into account, as well as the loyalty with which they serve the crown—always ready to risk their lives and property for it, and often loaning money to the treasury in its needs. The royal fiscal makes reply to this document, advising the royal Council to give this matter very careful attention, and to consider not only the need of the inhabitants but the low condition of the royal finances; he recommends mild measures. The procurator thereupon urges, in brief, some of his former arguments (also citing precedents) for the discontinuance of the two per cent duty. An interesting compilation from the accounts of the royal treasury at Manila shows the total receipts in each of its different funds for the five years ending January 1, 1635, each year separately.

A letter of consolation to the Jesuits of Pintados who have suffered so much from the Moro pirates is sent out (February 1, 1635) by the provincial of the order, Juan de Bueras. Andres del Sacramento, a Franciscan friar at Nueva Caceres, complains to the king (June 2, 1635) of interference in the affairs of that order by certain brethren of the Observantine branch, who have by their schemes obtained control of the Filipinas province; and asks that the king assign the province to one or the other branch, allowing no one else to enter it. About the same time, a high Franciscan official at Madrid writes, probably to one of the king's councilors, promising to investigate and punish certain lawless acts by Manila friars of his order.

The Jesuits of Manila having asked for a grant from the royal treasury to rebuild their residence there, the matter is discussed in the royal Council, and a decree issued (July 10, 1635) ordering the governor of the Philippines to investigate the need for such appropriation, and to report it, with other information, to the king. Pedro de Arce, who has been ruler ad interim of the archdiocese of Manila, notifies the king (October 17, 1635) of his return to his own bishopric of Cebu; and of his entrusting to the Jesuits the spiritual care of the natives of Mindanao, where the Spanish fortress of Zamboanga has been recently established. He asks the king to confirm this, and to send them more missionaries of their order.

In 1632 a memorial is presented before the municipal council of Manila by one of its regidors, representing the injuries and losses arising from the trade which has been commenced there by the Portuguese of Macao. It seems that they have absorbed the trade formerly carried on by the Chinese with Manila, and have so increased the prices of goods that the citizens cannot make a profit on the goods that they send to Nueva Espana. Navada presents seventeen considerations and arguments regarding this condition of affairs. He states that in earlier years the authorities of Manila forbade the Portuguese to come to Manila, for the same reasons that are now so urgent; that investments of capital are now seldom made by citizens of the Philippines, for lack of returns thereon; and that the royal revenues are defrauded by the enormous losses in the proceeds from the customs duties on the goods brought by the Portuguese, as compared with those realized on the goods of the Sangley traders. The Portuguese are making enormous profits, and this is ruining the citizens of the islands; moreover, they buy their goods from the Chinese at sufficient prices to satisfy the latter, and they misrepresent the condition and actions of the Spaniards, so that the Chinese are prevented from coming to Manila. The Portuguese will make no fair agreement as to prices, and some of them remain in Manila to sell their left-over goods; and these even ship goods to Nueva Espana in the royal ships, with the connivance of certain citizens—all of which defrauds the Spaniards, and violates the royal decrees. Moreover, the Portuguese bring from China only silks, for the sake of the great profits thereon; while cotton cloth and other articles needed by the poor (which formerly were supplied by the Sangleys) are now scarce and high-priced. The Portuguese should be forbidden to carry on the China trade; this would quickly restore its conduct by the Chinese themselves, and funds to the royal treasury from the increase in customs duties. Manila is the only market for this trade, and can easily hold it. The Portuguese have even carried their insolence so far as to attack the Chinese trading ships (for which the Audiencia has neglected to render justice to the Chinese); they also ill-treat Spaniards who go to trade at Macao, and deal dishonestly with those who let them sell goods on commission. If the Portuguese are forbidden to trade in Manila, the Chinese will again come to trade; the citizens will enjoy good profits on their investments, and incomes from their possessions in the Parian. This memorial by Navada is discussed by the city council, who unanimously decide to adopt his recommendations and to place the matter before the governor and the citizens. The Spanish government favor (1634-36) depriving the Portuguese of the Manila trade, and decrees are sent to the islands empowering the governor and other officials to do what seems best in the case. To these papers are added a letter to the king by Juan Grau y Monfalcon, urging that the decree of 1593 be reissued, forbidding any Spanish vassals to buy goods in China, these to be carried to Manila by the Chinese at their own risk. He submits, with his letter, tables showing the comparative amounts of duties collected at Manila on the goods brought by the Chinese and the Portuguese respectively; also a copy of the aforesaid decree of 1593.

A royal decree of February 1, 1636, prolongs the tenure of encomiendas for another generation, in certain of the Spanish colonies, in consideration of contributions by the holders to the royal treasury; and various directions are given for procedure therein. The procurator Monfalcon, in a letter to the king (June 13, 1636), commends the military services of the Filipinos, and asks for some tokens of royal appreciation of their loyalty.

An account of conflicts between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities in 1635-36 is taken from the Conquistas of the Augustinian writer Fray Casimiro Diaz. With this main subject he interpolates other matters from the general annals of that time. Among these is a relation of the piratical raids of the Moros into Leyte and Panay in 1634; the invaders kill a Jesuit priest. In June of the following year arrives the new governor, Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera. At the same time, Archbishop Guerrero begins his rule over the churches of the islands; and controversies at once arise between him and the governor over the royal patronage and other church affairs. Among these is an attempt to divide the Dominican province into two, which is favored by Corcuera. This arouses bitter controversies, which involve both ecclesiastics and laymen and many conflicting interests. A case occurs in Manila in which a criminal's right of sanctuary in a church is involved; this leads to various complications between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities, involving also the religious orders—the Jesuits siding with the governor, the other orders with the archbishop. The successive events and acts in this controversy are quite fully related, the writer, as would naturally be expected, placing most of the blame upon the governor. A truce is made between the parties (January, 1636), but it soon falls apart and the quarrels begin anew; they go to such lengths that finally (in May of that year) the archbishop is sent into exile on Mariveles Island, in Manila Bay. The cathedral cabildo take charge ad interim of the archdiocese. Within a month, however, the archbishop is released, and permitted to return to the charge of his diocese, but on humiliating conditions. Diaz notes that ever after this episode Governor Corcuera was followed by losses, troubles, and afflictions; that many of his relatives and partisans came to untimely ends; that the archiepiscopal palace of that time was utterly destroyed in subsequent earthquakes; and that after the persecution of the archbishop the sardines in Manila Bay almost wholly disappeared. Even after the prelate's restoration, other controversies arise, which embitter his few remaining years; and he narrowly escapes capture by the Moro pirates.

Another account of the contentions of the governor with the archbishop and the orders is that given in a "letter written by a citizen of Manila to an absent friend" (June 15, 1636); it is obtained from one of the Jesuit documents preserved at Madrid. The events of that controversy are narrated from a different standpoint than Diaz's—defending the governor and the Jesuits, and blaming the friars for having caused most of the trouble. The writer makes his account more valuable by presenting various documents and letters concerned in the affair; and describes many occurrences that do not appear in other accounts. This letter is also avowedly despatched to refute certain statements made by the Dominicans in their version of the controversy of 1635-36. It is evidently written by some friend of the Jesuits who was a lawyer—possibly by Fabian de Santillan, whom they appointed judge-conservator against the bishop. In it is a curiously lifelike and interesting picture of the dissensions that then involved all circles of Manila officialdom, both civil and religious; and of certain aspects of human nature which are highly interesting, even if not always edifying.

Governor Corcuera writes to Felipe IV (June 19, 1636), commending the Jesuits and their work in the islands, and asking that more of them be sent thither, in preference to those of other orders. The bishop of Nueva Caceres also writes by the same mail, commending Corcuera and complaining of the hostility displayed by the orders against the governor, and of their ambition and arrogance. The bishop (himself an Augustinian) arraigns all the friar orders except his own, in scathing terms, saying of these religious: "They live without God, without king, and without law, ... as they please, and there is no further law than their own wills." "They say openly in their missions that they are kings and popes." Zamudio accuses them of being "notorious traders," of domineering over both the Indians and the alcaldes-mayor, and of infringing upon the royal patronage; and claims that the conduct of the Franciscans in Camarines is such that he cannot remain there in his own diocese. He ascribes the late troubles with the archbishop mainly to the mischievous influence of the friars, and explains his restoration to his see as "the act of a Christian gentleman" on Corcuera's part. The friars in Zamudio's diocese have refused to let him make a visitation among them, although he obtained from the governor a guard of soldiers to protect him. He recommends that the friars be deprived of their missions, and replaced by secular priests.

The archbishop of Manila furnishes (1636) a list of the persons composing the ecclesiastical cabildo of the Manila cathedral; and another, of ecclesiastics outside that body from whom might well be supplied any positions in the cabildo which his Majesty might be pleased to declare vacant. In each case the archbishop mentions various particulars of the man's age, family, qualifications for office, etc., and of his career thus far in the Church. According to the archbishop, some of those now in the cabildo are quite unworthy or incompetent for such positions.

The Editors

April, 1905.



DOCUMENTS OF 1635



Laws regarding navigation and commerce, 1611-35. Felipe III and Felipe IV; 1611-35. Royal decrees, 1633-35. Felipe IV; 1633-35. Memorial to the king, in the year 1635. Juan Grao y Monfalcon; September 6. Manila treasury accounts, 1630-35. Geronimo de ——, and Francisco Antonio Manzelo; August 13, 1638. Letter of consolation to the Jesuits of Pintados. Juan de Bueras, S.J.; February 1. Letter to Felipe IV. Andres del Sacramento, O.S.F.; June 2. Letter from the Franciscan commissary-general of the Indias. Francisco de Ocana, O.S.F.; June 28. Opinion of Council and royal decree concerning request of Manila Jesuits for alms. Felipe IV, and others; July 10. Letter to Felipe IV. Pedro de Arce; October 17.



Sources: The first of these documents is taken from the Recopilacion de leyes de Indias, lib. ix, tit. xxxxv; the second, from the "Cedulario Indico" in the Archivo Historico Nacional, Madrid; the third, from a MS. in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid; the fourth, sixth, and seventh, from MSS. in the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla; the fifth, from a MS. in the Academia Real de la Historia, Madrid; and the last two, from Pastells's edition of Colin's Labor evangelica.

Translations: All these documents are translated by James A. Robertson.



LAWS REGARDING NAVIGATION AND COMMERCE

[The first installment of these laws is given in VOL. XVII, pp. 27-50. The laws in the present installment date from 1611 to 1635. The method of treatment is the same as in the laws of the above volume.]

LAW XXX

The viceroy of Nueva Espana shall not allow any married man to pass thence to Filipinas unless he take his wife with him, or unless he have permission to leave the country for a limited time, after giving bonds that he will return within the time set; and provided he leave his wife what is necessary for her support. In no other way [shall he be allowed to go]. [Felipe III—Guadarrama, November 12. 1611.]

LAW XXXIII

Many religious and laymen come to these kingdoms from the Filipinas Islands by way of Eastern India, abandoning their ministries and employments. We order the governor and captain-general to be very careful about applying the remedy, and that he give notice of this to the bishops and to the superiors of the orders in what pertains to them; and the said governor shall maintain especial watch over the laymen so that they may not go by that route. [Felipe III—Valladolid, November 4, 1612.]

LAW LXXII

We charge the regular prelates that they watch very carefully and give strict commands in all the convents and houses of their orders, that under no consideration shall Chinese merchandise be concealed or hidden therein; and any violation of this rule shall be punished. [Felipe III—Valladolid, August 20, 1615.]

LAW XLVI

Our fiscal of the royal Audiencia of Manila shall take part in the allotment of the toneladas that are allowed to be distributed; and it shall be done with his consent and in his presence. In the same way he shall be present at the transaction of business in our royal treasury. Nothing shall be attended to unless he be present, and he shall endeavor to avoid the losses and injuries that may arise in the aforesaid [his absence]. [Felipe III—Merida, May 4, 1619.]

LAW XXXVII

If any foreigners are engaged in the Filipinas Islands in the occupation of sailors, or if they come to Nueva Espana in the ships, in the line of that trade-route, they shall not be molested, nor shall they be obliged to make agreements. If any trouble result from this, we order the viceroy of Nueva Espana and the governor of Filipinas to advise us thereof in our Council of the Indias, so that suitable measures may be taken. [Felipe III—Santaren, October 13, 1619.]

LAW VII

It may be necessary and advisable to send a fleet from these kingdoms to the Filipinas Islands by the cape of Buena Esperanza or the straits of Magallanes and San Vicente. Those who shall sail to serve us may happen to carry in the fleet investments of merchandise, wines, oils, and other things, and with that object undertake that voyage, and be the cause of delay or loss to the fleet by their making a pretext of difficulties, from which might result great inconveniences. In order that such may be prevented, we order that when any such fleet shall be sent, no person, of whatever rank or condition he be, shall lade or allow to be laded in it any of the aforesaid goods, under penalty of losing his life and of the confiscation of his property. If such a thing happens [i.e., that a fleet be despatched], this law shall be proclaimed in the port whence the said fleet sails, so that it may be obeyed and observed. [Felipe III—Madrid, December 12, 1619.]

LAW VIII

In the fleets that shall sail from these kingdoms to Filipinas in order to succor them, or for matters of our service, married pilots may embark, even though they leave their wives in these kingdoms. And because when they shall have reached the said islands, they will wish to return to their families, and it is right that no obstructions be placed in their way, and in that of others, we order the governors to allow them to return and perform their voyage, and to give them the necessary despatches. [Felipe III—Madrid, December 12, 1619.]

LAW XXVI

There is sufficient flour in the Filipinas for the supplies that are provided there on our account. Inasmuch as that taken from Nueva Espana is not so good, we order that provision of this product be not made from Nueva Espana, in consideration of the fact that it is advisable to benefit our royal treasury as far as possible. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 23, 1620.]

LAW XLV

In the permission conceded to the inhabitants of Filipinas of the lading-space in the ships that sail to Nueva Espana, it is ordered that this be distributed according to their rank and wealth. Notwithstanding, the governors do not make the allotment in accordance with this order. Sometimes they give it, under pretext of gratuities, to officers on half-pay, thus obliging the inhabitants to buy space at excessive prices. Sometimes they allot many toneladas for charitable purposes, in order that these may be sold, and the price [obtained for them] be used therefor, to the prejudice of the general welfare; this results from causing them to be sold to those who will pay the best price for them, and merchants who have companies in Mejico buying them—to whom a great part of the merchandise generally belongs, to the prejudice of the citizens to whom is conceded the permission by which favor is shown them. We order and command the governors to observe the ordinance; and if they violate it, it will be placed as a clause in their residencia. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 23, 1620.]

LAW XIX

The ships which shall be built for the trade between Filipinas and Nueva Espana shall have and shall without fail carry their hearths under the forecastle, and in no other part. In no case shall they be carried above deck. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 29, 1620.]

LAW XLIX

The accommodations distributed to the officers in the ships of Filipinas shall be moderate, and shall conform to the capacity of the ships. The governor shall assign to each one the space which he may occupy and fill, and he shall not exceed it. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 29, 1620.]

LAW LI

In the enrollments of seamen which are made in Filipinas, it occurs that a ship admits and carries sixty sailors, not thirty of whom are of use, and in time of need there is no one to work; and there is signal danger in so long and difficult a voyage. We order the governor and captain-general always to provide and order that the sailors and common seamen be effective. If our officials do not comply with this, it shall be placed as a clause in their residencias. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 29, 1620.]

LAW LIII

The Indian deck-hands on the ships of Filipinas shall all be from that coast; and shall be clothed, in order to protect themselves from the cold of the voyage. Our fiscal of the Audiencia of Manila shall enroll, and take a memorandum of, the Indian deckhands who shall be embarked. On the return from the voyage, he shall take account from the ship's officers of the payments and treatment that shall have been given the Indians. If any of them shall have died from the causes above mentioned, complaint shall be lodged against the guilty, until they are punished as a warning and example; and it shall be a charge in their residencia against the said officers, who must be obliged to give account of those Indians. If any Indian die from sickness or accident, a report must be made of it in the same vessel, as soon as it happens; and if they do not do that, and the Indian dies, they shall be considered as confessed criminals, guilty of the crime. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 29, 1620.]

LAW LV

Inasmuch as many slaves are usually carried in the ships from Filipinas, who consume the provisions, we order and command that no passenger or sailor shall take more than one slave, except persons of rank, and that for good cause, and with careful restriction. And inasmuch as the duties are paid in Acapulco on those who are sold there, because of the inconvenience of paying them in Manila, we order that the president and auditors of our royal Audiencia of Filipinas provide that it be so observed and executed. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 29, 1620.]

LAW LVII

We order that our royal Audiencia of Manila rate the amount of what the mates on the ships shall exact in the port of Acapulco for the guard of boxes, barrels, and other articles of merchandise. If this be exceeded, claims may be made against them in their residencias at the end of their voyages. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 29, 1620.]

LAW LXXVII

Some ships sail from the ports of Callao and Guayaquil to Nicaragua and Guatemala, under pretext of going for pitch and other things, and then often go from there to the port of Acapulco to lade Chinese cloth, in return for a great sum of silver which they carry, practicing many efforts and frauds. We order that under no consideration may any ships or other vessels from the said ports or provinces of Peru go to that of Acapulco; and that the viceroys shall order and take what measures may be necessary so that this be obeyed and observed. They shall impose what penalties they choose; and they shall execute those penalties on the transgressors in a severe and exemplary manner. [Felipe IV—San Lorenzo, October 20, 1621.]

LAW XXXVIII

We order and command the governors of Filipinas not to permit private persons of those islands to despatch ships to Macan, Malaca, Siam, Camboja, and other parts of that archipelago, or to take seamen or soldiers in them; for it is advisable to have ships and a fleet ready for the defense of Manila, which can be defended or garrisoned in no other way; and they shall attend to the correction of this as a thing so important, and shall give such orders as are most expedient. [Felipe IV—Madrid, December 31, 1622.]

LAW LXIII

By reason of haste in the despatch [of the ships], the clerks of the register are usually left, through forgetfulness, with some registers which have been made of the merchandise; and, as the registers do not appear, the judges condemn the goods as confiscated. We order the viceroy and auditors of our royal Audiencia of Mejico that, when this happens, they shall enact justice [1] so that the parties' right to collect it shall remain free. [Felipe IV—Madrid, October 9, 1623.]

LAW XXII

The governors and captains-general of the Filipinas Islands and Maluco, and our other judges and justices, shall observe and shall cause to be observed all the privileges, immunities, and exemptions of the artillerymen on that route and commerce, and of those who live at the ports, forts, and fortifications, which for that reason belong to them, in respect to the trade of the Indias from these kingdoms to those islands, in accordance with titulo 22 of this book. [2] [Felipe IV—Madrid, December 6, 1624.]

LAW LXXIX

We permit the viceroys, auditors, governors, royal officials, and government agents who shall have been appointed, and who have to go by way of the South Sea from Nueva Espana to Petu, and from there to Nueva Espana, to take their property registered, if they swear that it is their own and not another's under penalty of incurring confiscation [of the same]. [Felipe IV—Madrid (?), October 5, 1626.]

LAW LXII

We declare and order that the valuation of merchandise taken to Nueva Espana from Filipinas shall be made in Mejico by an accountant of the bureau of accounts, an officer of our royal treasury of the said city, and one of the members of the consulate of the said city. The viceroy shall appoint them every year, one fortnight before the said valuations are to be made, and he shall have special care in the making such appointment. In case that there shall be any discord between the three said persons, the viceroy shall appoint another accountant and royal official other than the first, so that these may meet with them. That measure which has two votes shall be adopted, even though they be but two who are in complete harmony. And if they should not be in harmony, and should be two to two of different opinions, they shall have recourse to the viceroy; and the decision of that side with which he shall agree shall be put into execution, without reply or contradiction. [3] [Felipe IV—Madrid, June 4, 1627.]

LAW LXVII

We order all the judges and justices before whom Chinese cloth shall be denounced as being contraband, not to condemn it as confiscated; but to send it to these kingdoms in a separate account directed to the president and official judges of the House of Trade of Sevilla, so that it may be sent from there to the treasurer of our Council of the Indias. Thus shall it be done on all the occasions that arise. [4] [Felipe III—Madrid, April 18, 1617; Felipe IV—Madrid, March 3, 1629.]

LAW L

The commander and officers whom the governor of Filipinas appoints for the ships sailing to Nueva Espana, shall not be aided with pay for more than four months, both in Mejico and Filipinas. At the termination of the trip, their accounts shall be balanced, and the remainder for the time while they shall have served, and no more, shall be paid them. [Felipe IV—Madrid, December 14, 1630.]

LAW XIII

Our fiscal of the Audiencia of Filipinas shall, according to the settled custom, be present at the inspection of ships which is made in the port of Manila, on those ships which come from Nueva Espana and other parts; and he shall denounce those which carry more than what is permitted. The judges who shall try the cause shall apply the merchandise denounced to our royal exchequer, and shall punish the guilty rigorously. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 4, 1619; Felipe IV—Madrid, March 25, 1633.]

LAW LXXIII

In the court trials regarding the seizures of smuggled goods from China which shall be seized in Peru, what shall pertain to the denouncers—namely, their third part—shall be paid to them immediately in money, provided it does not pass or exceed that ordered by laws of titulo 17, libro 8, which treat of seizures of smuggled goods, irregularities, and confiscations; and provided that the money be not taken from our royal treasury under any consideration, but from expenses of justice or fines forfeited to the treasury, or from the proceeds from merchandise or other articles which generally come with those that are contraband and outside the register, which are not from China, or of those prohibited to be sold or traded in Peru. We charge the viceroys to advise us on all occasions, with specification, of these denunciations, and of the part given to the denouncer, and in what quantity and kind, making us a clear and distinct relation. [Felipe IV—Madrid, March 31, 1633.]

LAW XXXI

It was ordered that the ships that go from Nueva Espana to Filipinas must sail from the port of Acapulco by the end of March, without extending even a day into April. And inasmuch as we are informed that that is inconvenient, we order that the ships be prepared with all that is necessary by December, so that at the end of that month, they may leave the said port of Acapulco, so that they may be able to arrive at the said islands, at the latest, some time in March. It is our will that this be executed inviolably, and it will be made a charge of omission in the residencia of the viceroys of Nueva Espana; and, if they do not so do, we shall consider ourselves disserved. [Felipe IV—Madrid, August 26, 1633.]

LAW XXV

We order the viceroys of Nueva Espana to give the necessary orders, and to take suitable precautions, that the provision which is made annually for the departure of the ships which sail from the port of Acapulco to Filipinas be made there very seasonably, so that the ships may not be detained, or those who are to embark suffer because of the short time allowed for departure or the inadequate provision of food. [Felipe IV—Madrid, September 30, 1633.]

LAW LXI

Inasmuch as it has come to our notice that the agents and officials of our royal treasury at the port of Acapulco maltreat the sailors and others who come from the Filipinas Islands, and cause them much trouble and vexation, by obliging them to give up what they carry, obtained through so long and arduous a voyage: we order the viceroys of Nueva Espana to have the matter examined, and the guilty punished. They shall establish what remedy seems to them most effective, so that like offenses may be avoided. [Felipe IV—Madrid, September 30, 1633.]

LAW III

It is usual for the governor and captain-general of Filipinas to appoint a person for the inspection of the Chinese ships when they come with their merchandise to the city of Manila. That person is usually one of his household, and from it follow certain injuries, and no one dares to demand satisfaction. We order the said governor and the royal Audiencia of Manila to meet to discuss this matter, and to choose a suitable person for this office. They shall endeavor to select one fitted for this task, and acceptable to the natives and foreigners. They shall take in this regard the measures which are expedient, and shall always advise us through our Council of the Indias of the person whom they shall elect, and of all else necessary for the good of that community. [Felipe III—San Lorenzo, August 25, 1620; Felipe IV—Madrid, November 10, 1634.]

LAW XIV

We order that money from Nueva Espana shall not be sent to Filipinas in excess of what is permitted; and all that is found en route from Acapulco without a written permit, beyond the apportionment made of the five hundred thousand pesos permitted, shall be confiscated and applied to our treasury and exchequer. The driver who shall carry such money shall incur the confiscation of his beasts of burden and slaves, and a fine of two thousand Castilian ducados, applied in the same way [as the above], and the stewards in charge of the illegal funds shall be punished with ten years' service in Terrenate. [Felipe IV—Madrid, January 30, 1635.]

LAW XLIII

The governors of Filipinas appoint commander, admiral, and officers for the ships which sail to Nueva Espana; and in case of the death or absence of these, they make appointments of other persons, in accordance with the usual procedure. And inasmuch as it is advisable to do this, we order our viceroys of Nueva Espana to observe and cause to be observed what is ordained in this regard, and the custom which has always been observed, without making any innovation. [Felipe IV—Madrid, February 5, 1635.]

LAW XXXVI

We charge and order the governors of Filipinas to be very careful to see that the shipyards do not lack lumber for the repair of ships, rigging, war-stores, and food; and that they provide throughout a sufficient supply of these articles and of all else necessary, with careful precaution. [Felipe IV—Madrid, February 21, 1635.]

[Although the final dates of the two following laws are later than 1635, they are here included in order to keep the laws of this titulo together.]

LAW XXXII

The ships which are to be despatched and to sail from the Filipinas Islands for Nueva Espana shall depart in the month of June; for there is great danger of their having to put back or of being wrecked if they sail later. We order the governor and captain-general of those islands to have it observed and executed accordingly. But this must be after holding a council of persons experienced in that navigation—so that, having heard and weighed their opinions, the most advisable measures may be enacted. [Felipe IV—Madrid, December 31, 1622; January 27, 1631; February 14, 1660.]

LAW XLI

The overseer and accountant of these voyages shall have everything in charge, and they shall set down and keep in their books an account of what is laden in merchandise, and what is carried on the return trip of the ships. They shall be chosen from persons who are well approved, who have given satisfaction, and are trustworthy, and they shall be given the proper and sufficient salary, which shall not exceed two thousand ducados apiece for the voyage; for they shall not lade any quantity of merchandise, under penalty of the fines imposed by law 48 of this titulo. [5] We order that they sail going and coming, one in the flagship and the other in the almiranta, alternating in all the voyages. The governor shall give them the instructions which they are to observe during the voyage. Their residencia must be taken as soon as the voyage is finished, as is done with the other officers of that fleet, before they can sail on another voyage. [Felipe III—Madrid, May 23, 1620; Carlos II (in this Recopilacion).]



ROYAL DECREES, 1633-35

The King. To the Marques de Cerralvo, my relative, member of my Council of War, my viceroy, governor, and captain-general of those provinces of Nueva Espana, and president of my royal treasury therein; or the person or persons to whose charge the government of them may be entrusted: the king my sovereign and father (whom may holy paradise keep!) ordered to be issued, and did issue, a decree (which is found at folio 163 verso, of this same volume, number 144). [6] And now Don Juan Grau Monfalcon, procurator-general of the city of Manila of the Filipinas Islands, has related to me that, as is well known, there is great need of sailors and seamen in the navigation of the said Filipinas Islands, and that, for the islands to obtain these men it is advisable that good treatment and [an opportunity for] passage be given to them in the seaports; and that they be granted some means of gain, so that they might, by reason of that self-interest, be encouraged and induced to serve in the voyages—shielding them from the annoyances inflicted upon them by the officials at the said ports. He has petitioned me that I be pleased so to order, and that their chests be not opened; that permission be granted them so that each seaman may carry up to seven thousand pesos of investments in that voyage, in which is to be included the quantity which they have hitherto been permitted to carry; and that the castellan and my other employees at the port of Acapulco shall cause them neither vexations nor injuries. The matter having been examined in my royal Council of the Yndias, I have considered it fitting to issue the present, by which I order you to observe and fulfil, and to cause to be observed and fulfilled, the decree herein incorporated, in toto and exactly as is therein contained, and that you do not violate it or pass beyond its tenor and form. [7] In its fulfilment, you shall give what orders may be necessary, so that care may be taken of those men at the port of Acapulco and so that all proper facilities and despatch may be accorded them. Madrid, September 30, 1633.

I the King

By order of the king our sovereign: Don Francisco Ruiz de Contreras

The King. To my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas islands, and president of my royal Audiencia therein. Don Juan Grau y Monfalcon, procurator-general of that city, has informed me that I ordered, by a decree of May 23, 1620, that the cargo of the ships be distributed to the inhabitants with all fairness; but that, contrary to the orders therein contained the governors have introduced the custom of giving a part of the cargoes to the sailors and seamen, and to the soldiers, hospitals, works of charity, clerics, and their own servants, as also to the auditors, fiscals, and officials of my royal treasury, whereby the favor that had been shown the inhabitants has been diminished. He also states that Don Juan Nino de Tavora tried to make the said allotment, although it belonged to the city; and that the people most needy, and those to whom there are greater obligations, did not enjoy the benefit of this favor. He petitioned me to be pleased to order that those decrees which have been given be observed, since that city has served me, and always serves me with the love and zeal which has been experienced—and lately, notwithstanding the losses that they suffered in the flagship which sank in that port, they gave me an offering of four thousand ducados; and that, whenever that allotment be made, it be with the consent of my governor and the approval of the city. By that means the complaints and dissatisfaction among them will be avoided. The matter having been examined in my royal Council of the Yndias, I have deemed it best to order and command you, as I do order and command you, to observe and fulfil, and cause to be observed and fulfilled, the things that are ordered by virtue of decrees, and the orders that have been given, since you see how just it is to give entire satisfaction to the parties [concerned]; and that your measures be such that those allotments be made with all equity and justice, preventing the quarrels and complaints that might arise on that account if the contrary were permitted. Madrid, March 10, 1634.

I the King

By order of his Majesty: Don Gabriel de Ocana Y Alarcon

The King. To Marques de Cerralvo, my relative, member of my Council of War, governor and captain-general of the provinces of Nueva Espana, and president of my royal Audiencia therein: Don Juan Grau y Monfalcon, procurator-general of the city of Manila, has informed me that there is great need of sailors and soldiers in those islands, and that they need at least 2,200 soldiers for the defense of those islands—600 being assigned to the city; in the fort and redoubt, 100; in the fort of Cavite, another 100; in the galleys, a like number; in Cibu and Caragua, 200; in the island of Hermosa and Cagayan, 400; and in Terrenate, 600. There can be no security without them, and although some reenforcements are sent from Nueva Espana, as these are so few those needs are not remedied. It is also necessary that the ships that sail from Acapulco to the said islands leave at the latest by the twenty-fifth of March, because of the troubles that result if the contrary be done. He petitioned me to order you to make the reenforcements to the fullest extent possible, and to send annually at least four hundred soldiers, eight hundred and fifty sailors and the artillerymen that you can send, since the conservation of the islands depends on them. The matter having been examined in my Council of War of the Yndias, I have considered it fitting to give the present, by which I charge and order you to fulfil in both matters the commands of my decrees in this regard. Madrid, March 10, 1634.

I the King

By order of his Majesty: Don Gabriel de Ocana y Alarcon

The King. To Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, knight of the Order of Alcantara, my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia resident therein, or the person or persons in whose charge their government may be: Don Juan Grau y Monfalcon, procurator-general of that city, has informed me that that said city has been granted, for its fortification, the proceeds of the income from the monopoly on playing-cards and other articles, and that the money that has been received from those sources was always paid into the fortification fund; but that, in violation of that, Don Juan Nino de Tabora, my former governor of those islands, ordered that the said sums be placed in my royal treasury, as was done. On that account, the money that is so necessary for the different works, the repairs, and fortifications that arise daily, is lacking. He says that the city having petitioned the governor to have the sums that belonged to the said fund returned, he refused to comply; but on the contrary ordered that the city furnish, from its communal property, all that was thus placed in my royal treasury. He petitioned me to be pleased to have my royal decree issued ordering that no room be given for such innovation, that the city and its council might spend and distribute their communal funds freely, as they have always done, since that pertains to the city; and that the kinds of income that have been customary in the past be placed therein and in no other fund. The matter having been examined in my royal Council of the Yndias, I have considered it fitting to give the present, by which I order you to cause to be observed and fulfilled exactly the orders that were given and commanded in this regard before the said Don Juan Nino de Tavora made this innovation. Madrid, September 9, 1634.

I the King

By order of the king our sovereign: Don Gabriel de Ocana y Alarcon

The King. To the president and auditors of my royal Audiencia of the Filipinas Islands: Don Juan Gran y Monfalcon, procurator-general of that city, has reported to me that the Portuguese nation who are living in Eastern Yndia have attempted trade and commerce with those islands, to the detriment of the Sangleys who go to sell their merchandise at that city; and that that intercourse was already established, contrary to the orders and decrees that have been given, to the very great damage and prejudice of my royal treasury and the good government of the islands. He petitioned me to be pleased to have a speedy and efficacious remedy applied to so grave a matter and one of so great importance. All the papers that were presented in regard to this matter, together with what my fiscal declared and alleged therein, having been examined in my royal Council of the Yndias, I have considered it fitting to send you a copy of them so that you may examine them; and, should the relation made therein appear to you to be correct, you shall immediately apply the remedy for this injury. By another decree, [8] I order my fiscal of my Audiencia there to take up that case, and to plead all that he shall deem advisable for the advantage and increase of my royal treasury, and the observance of the orders and decrees that have been issued, since that pertains to him by reason of his office. You shall continue to advise me of all steps that you shall take, and of what you shall do in the future, in this matter. Madrid, November 10, 1634.

I the King By order of the king our sovereign: Don Gabriel de Ocana y Alarcon

The King. To Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, whom I have appointed as my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia therein: a letter which was written to me under date of the former year 633, by Don Juan Cerezo de Salamanca, my governor ad interim of the said islands, on a matter of government, has been received by my royal Council of the Yndias, and answer is given in this present letter. He says that the relationship with Japon has been destroyed because the Dutch have angered that king by their accustomed trickery, under pretext of the religious who have preached—by reason of which, fearful of new conquests, all his oldtime friendship has been converted in those parts into hatred, and he makes use of severe methods with the Catholics—and that many of the said religious who have gone to that kingdom have acted with some imprudence, causing more trouble than gain. For the remedy of that, he considers it advisable to charge the provincials not to grant such licenses. Notwithstanding that that has been commanded on other occasions, as you will understand by the decrees that have been issued, it has seemed best to me to advise you of it, so that you may pay heed to this matter, and so that you may take such measures as are most advisable for my service and the conservation of those islands.

He also advises us that there is a lack of people in those islands, and that their inhabitants are decreasing in number by reason of the unhealthful climate; and that it would be important to provide a remedy for that, because of the need for it. I charge you to avoid, as far as possible, the giving of passports for granting passage from the islands. The viceroy of Nueva Espana is ordered to have a care in this, and to send more people than is his regular custom. Madrid, February 16, 1635.

I the King

By order of the king our sovereign: Don Gabriel de Ocana y Alarcon

The King. To the auditors of my royal Audiencia of the Filipinas Islands: the letter which you wrote me under date of August 8 of the former year 1633 has been received and examined in my royal Council of the Yndias, and answer is made to you in this present letter.

The reformation that you have made in the licenses that were given by the government for rice-wine stills, in which so great a quantity of rice was consumed, is well advised for the present, as it is beneficial to the common welfare; and if you shall encounter any difficulties in regard to this in the future, you shall advise me of them.

You say that when that Audiencia was governing because of the death of Don Alonso Faxardo de Tenza, they began to introduce the inspection of the prisons of the Parian and of Tondo, on the Saturday of each week, as they are very near that city. Afterward in the time of the other governors, that custom was dropped, as they thought that it deprived them of some of their gubernatorial powers. As it is advisable that more attention be given to the alcaldes-mayor, and that certain annoyances to the prisoners be avoided, the said visits were continued, as they were so advisable to the service of God our Lord and to my own. I charge you to continue them for the present, if there is no disadvantage to prevent it.

The efforts that you have made in regard to the building of a galleon that is being constructed, in the province of Camarines, have met my approval.

As for the encomenderos who may have recourse to that Audiencia beyond the limits of its commission, whose encomiendas were declared vacant by the visitor, as they had failed to secure their confirmations within the specified time, justice will be done to the parties when they come to ask for what is necessary for them.

In regard to the allotment of the lading-space in the ships, that you made to the inhabitants of that city, in accordance with the agreement that was made for that purpose, it is approved. Madrid, February 16, 1635.

I the King

By order of the king our sovereign: Don Gabriel de Ocana y Alarcon

The King. To Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, knight of the Order of Alcantara, my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia therein: I have been informed that the reenforcements for Terrenate are the matters that give most anxiety to those who serve me in that government, and that these are made at great risk and at great expense to my treasury; that that of the former year 1632 had gone there in very creditable manner, because it was carried by a fortified ship, which could act defensively and offensively against the Dutch; that on account of the information received that the enemy was preparing to await with greater forces the ship that was to sail in the year 633, the reenforcements were prepared in two war galleons; that, in the future, the attempt would be made to send all the reenforcements with two entire infantry companies, so that two other companies could return thence—by which method [the garrison of] that presidio will be changed every three years, and all the companies of the army will share the work equally; and that it was advisable for my service that I order you to do this with exactness, since trouble arises by sending parts of companies, as only the favored ones leave that presidio, and by exchanging entire companies all will enjoy the privilege of all the aforesaid. Accordingly, I have thought best to order and command you, as I do order and command you, to see to it that remnants of companies are not sent to Terrenate; but that entire companies go, in the form and manner herein contained, so that entire companies of those who are exchanged may return. You shall advise me of whatever you shall enact in this matter. Madrid, November 5, 1635.

I the King

By order of the king our sovereign: Don Gabriel de Ocana Y Alarcon



MEMORIAL TO THE KING BY JUAN GRAO Y MONFALCON IN THE YEAR 1635

The procurator-general of the city of Manila and the Philipinas Islands, to his Majesty. He considers the reasons why it is advisable to pay careful attention to the preservation of those islands; and entreats his Majesty to have the collection of the two per cent duty recently imposed on merchandise shipped for the commerce of Nueva Espana discontinued.

Sire:

Don Juan Grao y Monfalcon, procurator-general for the distinguished and loyal city of Manila, the metropolis and capital of the Filipinas Islands, declares that the preservation and protection of these islands are of the utmost consideration and importance, and deserve the most careful attention, on account of the great advantages and profits which they afford—to say nothing of the principal consideration, namely, the service of God, and the propagation of religion and the Catholic faith. In the aforesaid city and in the other islands that faith is established, and will steadily become stronger, increasing and spreading not only among those but other and neighboring islands. This is especially true in Great China and Japon, which from continual intercourse and friendly relations with the said Filipinas Islands may—if the Christian faith is preserved and permanently maintained in the latter, and as deeply rooted and as pure and constant as at present—look, in the said matter of religion, for felicitous and great results. The same [may be said] for what concerns the service of your Majesty, and the profitable and advantageous increase of the royal estate, since even the profits which your Majesty at present enjoys and possesses in the said city and the other islands are many, and of great importance. For in one village alone, which they call Parian, an arquebus-shot from the said city [of Manila], more than twenty thousand Chinese Indians called Sangleys, and in the other islands over ten thousand more, have all come from Great China and Japon for their own private affairs and interests. It is they who build up and maintain the greater part of the traffic and commerce of the islands. From that result the trade with Nueva Espana, and the ships which sail thither annually, laden with many different kinds of merchandise (carried [to Manila] and bartered by the said Sangleys)—such as much gold (wrought, and in sheets); diamonds, rubies, and other gems, besides a great quantity of pearls; many silk textiles of all colors—taffetas, damasks, satins, silk grograms, and velvets—and raw silk; a quantity of white and black cotton cloth; amber, civet, musk, and storax. Thence arises annually great gain to the royal treasury, on account of the many considerable duties which are paid and collected—both when the ships leave the said city of Manila, and their islands and ports, and in that of Acapulco; and later, when they enter Nueva Espana and the City of Mexico. There, when the ships leave for the said Filipinas, the duties are doubled, as well as in the said port of Acapulco, by those duties anew incurred and paid, the [trade of the] said Sangleys being a great part in this receipt [adquisicion]. Of no less consideration is the tribute which the Sangleys pay to the royal treasury for their license, and right of entrance and residence in the said village of the Parian, and in the other islands where they reside. Since the said Sangleys number thirty [thousand], they pay in most years an annual sum of two hundred and seventy thousand reals of eight (which means nine reals of eight for each license), which are placed in the royal treasury. In the islands of Pintados and other islands which belong to the said Filipinas, there are one hundred and fourteen thousand two hundred and seventeen Indians, all paying tribute to the royal treasury. Their conservation is very necessary, as they are no longer wild and are excellent workmen, and for that reason are people of utility and profit for any occasion that may arise—especially as there are also many gold mines in the said islands, whence is obtained a quantity of gold. There are also other fruits of the land in great abundance, especially wax, cotton, large cattle, swine, fowls, rice, and civet, besides other innumerable products and means of gain. All of this tells and publishes the great importance of the said city and its islands, and of their preservation; and the many incomparable wrongs which would follow if the said city, the capital of the others, were to become depopulated, ruined, or destroyed. It is very near to that, because of the great and continual misfortunes and disasters which the inhabitants of it have suffered and are suffering, caused by fires that have destroyed almost the entire city and the property of the said inhabitants, and the shipwreck and loss of many different vessels, which have been miserably wrecked during the usual voyage from the said city to Nueva Espana, with the destruction of the goods and wealth of the said inhabitants which are carried in the ships. The effects from so many and so large losses last and will last always; for those losses have ruined and impoverished the inhabitants to a degree very different from what one can imagine and explain. Consequently, if the generosity, magnificence, and powerful hand of your Majesty do not protect it, one can and must fear the very certain ruin and destruction of the said city and of the other islands, which are under its government and protection. From that [ruin] will follow great and intolerable disadvantages and losses to the disservice of the royal crown, the loss of that land and community, and (what is most reprehensible) that of religion and the Catholic faith. Although this is so deeply rooted in the said city and in the other islands, it would be lost, if the Dutch gained possession of Manila, as they have done of many neighboring islands and forts: namely, the island of Motiel; that of Maquien, where the Dutch have two forts, named Talagora and Mosaquia; the island of Ambueno, where the above-mentioned people are fortified with considerable artillery and a Dutch population; that of Xacadra, where the said Dutchmen have their capital and where a captain-general and an Audiencia composed of four auditors reside, and a settlement and population of one thousand Dutch inhabitants; the islands of Xaba Major and Minor, and that of Mindanao. In some of those islands they have established their factories, where they collect what they pillage, and [carry on] their trade with the Chinese and other nations. They gather in the said islands (whose products consist of cloves, pepper, and nutmeg) an exceedingly great quantity [of this produce], for which three ships are annually despatched to Olanda, laden with more than three thousand five hundred and fifty valas [i.e., bares = bahars] of cloves (each vale [sic] containing four hundred and sixty libras), with a great quantity of pepper, and of the said nutmeg and its mace; also silks, cinnamon, and other products. Hence they are extremely well fortified in the said islands, as well as in others, as they have an understanding with the surrounding kings. For the king of Daquen gives them eighty thousand ducados annually in order to have them protect his country, and so that his vassals may go and navigate safely in those straits on their trade and traffic with the islands surrounding his kingdom. All of that obliges the said city of Manila and its other islands to be more watchful and to maintain larger forces and supplies. For were there neglect in this, the power and invasion of the said Dutch, who have so frequented and learned the said straits (of which they have so thoroughly taken possession and with so many forces, as above narrated), could be feared.

Although the said city and its inhabitants have been and are always very careful and vigilant (as is very well known); defending, at the cost of their lives and goods, the land from the incessant bombardments, surprises, and attacks of the said Dutch, with the forced obligation of very generally keeping their arms in readiness all the time; enduring a servile life full of annoyance and danger, although they could leave it, and it would be better and more worth living if it were less grievous, and free from so many dangers and difficulties: nevertheless they endure them, in consideration of the service of your Majesty, and in continuation of the many services which they have rendered in the defense and preservation of that country; and hoping that the greatness and liberality of your Majesty will protect and relieve them, so that they may accomplish their purpose better. Particularly do they ask that you order to be repealed the collection of the two per cent, the imposition of which was ordered by a decree of the former year six hundred and four on the merchandise exported from the said islands to the said Nueva Espana, in addition to the three per cent paid on them by the merchants of the said city—which heard and received notice of the said royal decree in the year of six hundred and seven, while Don Rodrigo de Vibero was governor. At that time the decree was not made effective or fulfilled, as the difficulty and great disadvantages that accompany it were recognized. Consequently, it remained in that condition until the year six hundred and eleven, when the collection of the said duty was again charged to Governor Don Juan de Sirva [i.e., Silva]. He, trying to carry out its provisions, recognized the same difficulties, for the many reasons advanced by the city, which were so just and relevant that they obliged him to call a treasury council. Having there discussed and conferred upon those reasons, and it having been seen that they were so urgent and necessary that they strictly prevented and ought to prevent the execution of the said royal decree of 604, he suspended it for the time being, giving your Majesty notice [thereof]. The decree remained in this condition until the year six hundred and twenty-five, in which the royal officials again discussed the matter of the collection of the said two per cent, during the government of Don Fernando de Silva. He, recognizing the same obstacles, and that those obstacles were much greater then because of the worse condition and the notable change and damage to which the affairs of the said city had come—the property, traffic, and means of gain of its inhabitants—with a great reduction and difference from that which they had in the said year of six hundred and seven, concurred with what had been provided by his predecessor, the said Don Juan de Silva, and ordered that no innovation be made in it. The same was done by the governor who succeeded him, Don Juan Nino de Tabora. Thus, the said governors, as each confronted the matter, always came to see very plainly the said difficulties, which at present are not only of the above-mentioned character, but are impossible to overcome because of the condition of affairs, the poverty of the inhabitants, and the great decrease and diminution of the trade and commerce of former times. That is given more prominence by the efforts of the visitor, Licentiate Don Francisco de Rojas, who made strenuous efforts to have the collection of the two per cent carried out. Nevertheless, he saw with his own eyes the said disadvantages that resulted from the said collection. One of them was the resolution of the inhabitants not to export their goods and merchandise; nor could they do so, because of the great losses, both past and present, which they have encountered. This is the greatest damage that can happen to the royal treasury; for if the export and commerce ceases, not only will the said two per cent be lacking, but also the old three per cent which has always been paid, as well as the other three per cent which was lately imposed upon the merchandise which the Chinese Indians bring to the said city and the Filipinas Islands. Accordingly, if the commerce of the islands with Nueva Espana fails, it is certain and infallible that that of the said Chinese, which forms the whole export to Nueva Espana, will also fail.

Therefore, the said visitor, notwithstanding the great desire which he showed of putting the said collection into execution, did not dare to do it; but considered it better to suspend it, and report to your Majesty. Although he tried to have it collected as a voluntary service for the future, the citizens, seeing their great lack of wealth, could not conform to that measure, although for that time only they gave a subsidy of four thousand pesos, on condition that it should not serve as a precedent for the future, and that there should be no further talk of the said collection [of the said two per cent] until, after your Majesty had examined it, a suitable decision should be adopted. They petition your Majesty to be pleased to consider the very necessary and urgent causes and reasons why the said collection of the said two per cent should not be carried on, but that its execution be abrogated, which are as follows:

First, that the motive and cause declared in the said decree of six hundred and four for the said imposition, was the declaration that there was suffering because of the great profits of those who were trading and trafficking in the Filipinas commerce. It was said that the profits were one hundred per cent, and at times two hundred. Although the said Sangleys, antecedent to the said year of six hundred and four, brought the merchandise from China to the said city, and sold it at prices so low that when taken and sold in Nueva Espana it allowed a very great profit: still that ceased many years ago, from the said year of six hundred and four, when the Dutch enemy and pirates began to continue in and infest those islands with many different plunderings of the merchandise that the Chinese ships brought to the said city of Manila. On that account the said trade has gone on diminishing from day to day, very fast and steadily, to the pass to which the said Dutch have brought it by their pursuit and pillaging of the said Chinese ships. From that has resulted the ruin of the said commerce, and for the same reason the profits of it [have declined] to so great a degree that scarcely can one now buy one pico of silk for the price that he formerly paid for two and one-half picos. This has been the reason why, since the merchandise of the Chinese was lacking to the inhabitants for their investments, they have had to buy the goods from the Portuguese of Macan, at prices so high and excessive that they make no considerable profit in Nueva Espana. Consequently, the profits that the inhabitants of Manila formerly had have come to be made by the said Portuguese of Macan. Thus the reason and motive for the said royal decree has entirely and surely disappeared; and this same fact ought to do away with its ruling.

The second reason also is founded on the expense and cost that had to be incurred for the security and defense of the trading ships from the said islands to Nueva Espana, with the fifty soldiers, military captain, and other officers; that the said ships had to be of a certain tonnage; and that for this reason of the said expenses and costs, the said decree ordered the imposition of the said two per cent in order that it should be unnecessary to have recourse to the royal treasury. It ordered the proceeds therefrom to be deposited in a separate fund and account, for the said expenses which had to be incurred with the said ships and their crews. That reason likewise has had no effect, for the said expenses have not been made, nor are they made; nor do the said military captain, soldiers, or other officers sail in the said ships. Neither are the said ships—those that there are—of the said burden and tonnage, but smaller. Therefore the said expenses and costs cease, upon which the said decree is grounded; accordingly, that which is ruled and ordered by it ceases, for the reason stated, and, indeed, should cease.

Third, because by the former year of six hundred and eleven, the said governor, Don Juan de Silva, seeing the unsatisfactory method and arrangements existing for the collection of the said two per cent, tried to supply it—and did so—by the method that he thought least harmful, and of greater profit to the royal treasury—namely, to impose in its stead another duty of three per cent on the merchandise brought by the Chinese to sell in the said city of Manila. But, although the said imposition is ostensibly on the said Chinese, it comes, in fact, to be imposed on the inhabitants of Manila themselves; for the latter, being the purchasers, necessarily have to pay more, the Chinese sellers taking into consideration the new charge and imposition which has been levied on them. Consequently, the said two per cent has come to have actual effect and with greater profit by the said three per cent substituted in its place, which fact the said governor, Don Juan de Silva, had in mind. If the decree were again to be carried out, it would mean a double imposition for the above-mentioned damages and obstacles, and there would be no possibility of executing it.

Fourth, because the royal duties which the inhabitants pay on the said investments that they make, are very great; for on every thousand pesos of principal that they invest the duties in the said city and in Nueva Espana amount to two hundred and seventy pesos and more, while the cost and expense incidental to the said investments amount to two hundred and eighty pesos more. Consequently, the said royal duties alone for each one thousand pesos invested inevitably amount, as is well known, to five hundred and fifty pesos. Therefore, within four years, setting aside the said costs and expenses, the said inhabitants come to pay more than the said one thousand pesos of capital for the said royal duties. The same thing happens in the same proportion when larger sums are invested.

The fifth springs directly from the preceding reason; for since the said duties and said costs and expenses are so great, and the profits so slight and uncertain, as above stated, the said inhabitants cannot continue the said trade and commerce of Filipinas with Nueva Espana; for to do that would be a poor management and administration of their possessions, carrying them over seas at so many risks, and in danger of catastrophes such as generally happen, which are daily becoming greater; while there is no profit, or so little that, with the said two per cent, the profits will be of little or no consideration, for which they will not expose their goods and capital to so great a risk.

Sixth, because, if the said collection and enforcement of the said two per cent were to be insisted upon, it would be a foregone conclusion that the inhabitants would abandon the said trade and commerce, and would not make the said investments, for the reasons stated above. That has proved to be so on the occasions on which the said collection has been discussed with some warmth—and especially when the said visitor, Licentiate Don Francisco de Rojas, tried to effect it, when the said inhabitants were firm and were resolved not to appraise, register, or lade anything in the ships, which were all ready to sail to Nueva Espana. Thereupon the said visitor thought it advisable and necessary to repeal the said enforcement. Although the inhabitants, on that occasion, because of the great pressure exerted and the advantageous reasons put forward by the visitor, offered to aid with a gift of four thousand pesos, it was with the said condition that it was to be for only that one time, and with the said condition that nothing was to be said of the said collection.

Seventh, the great damage and injury that would assuredly follow to the royal treasury if the said commerce were abandoned; for since the said three per cent that is first collected as a customs duty, and the other three per cent imposed anew in the said year of six hundred and eleven, amount and are worth a very great sum and number of pesos annually to the royal treasury, that sum will not increase with the imposition of the said two per cent, but, on the contrary, both the one and the other duty will be lost; or at least they will be reduced to a very great loss, damage, and diminution of the royal treasury, and the reason therefor is very clear and evident. For in every year, and in that of the imposition of the two per cent of which we are treating, the duty amounted to about four thousand; and to that amount now, without the imposition of the said two per cent, all the inhabitants of the said city, both rich and poor, trade and traffic. By that means are caused the said customs duties not only at departure from the said city of Manila, but at entrance into the said City of Mexico, and on their returns afterward, from the investments, and on the kinds of merchandise that are sent back by the same ports and places to be traded at the said city of Manila. For since the number of those who traffic is large, the said duties which are caused and paid are also large. But if the said two per cent be put in force, although it may be stated that some of the said inhabitants will continue to trade, they would be very few; and the trade would be reduced to those who are richest and those with most capital, who are not many. But among all the others who are not rich, money and capital would fail, and they would refuse to [trade] and could not risk their little capital without gain or profit, as they will have no profit with the said two per cent. And it would not be right or expedient, for the sake of the said new imposition (since the reasons and motives for it are lacking, as above stated), to place the income and value of the said customs duties in danger and peril, as it is so great and considerable, or to risk that of the other three per cent of the said year 611—the one dependent on and inseparable from the other; for, beyond all doubt, both would fail if the said commerce failed or diminished. The said danger can be regarded as certain, both for the abandonment of the said commerce and of the colony of those islands; and that would allow the Dutch, who are so powerful in the surrounding islands, as above stated, to gain an entrance in them, for the lack of troops caused by the said imposition. That is a matter which your Majesty should have examined with great attention, because of the many precedents that have been seen in like cases in these kingdoms [i.e., of Espana] with the great injury and loss to the royal treasury which could not be restored later—as happened in the increase [of the tax] on playing cards, one real more than the usual tax being imposed. That income, being valued at that said time at from forty-four to forty-five million maravedis annually in the three districts of Castilla, Toledo, and Andalucia, dropped to twenty-two millions because of the new imposition, thereby losing a like sum annually. And, although the damage was afterward seen, and the attempt was made to correct it by repealing the said new imposition, and reducing the tax to the old amount, the amendment did not follow; for because of the frauds and cheats caused by the said income in its first condition, it never returned to that condition, and remained with the annual loss and decrease of fourteen million maravedis from what it had at the time of the said new imposition. The same thing happened in the thirty per cent which was imposed on the trade of foreign merchants while the court was in Valladolid. The result of that was that the foreign merchants abandoned the commerce, and looked for new methods, applying themselves to gaining a foothold in the Eastern Indias. The said imposition was thus the reason for the many important lands and ports of which the foreigners have gained possession and which they hold, which we have lost for the said reason. Both these instances are very certain, well-known, public, and notorious.

The eighth reason, a very urgent and cogent one, is that since the year six hundred and seven, when the said commerce was in a much better condition, and the said Dutch had not begun to make their raids, or all the great damages that they have inflicted on the said islands and those near by, and on the said Sangleys and Chinese—nevertheless, the said governors, Don Rodrigo de Vivero, Don Juan de Silva, and Don Juan Nino de Tabora (who succeeded him), seeing the difficulties involved in the said imposition, did not consider it advisable, nor did they dare, to put it into force. Much less could it be done today, after the lapse of almost thirty years, at a time when the inhabitants are suffering from so great distress and necessity, caused by the many losses, as above stated, of many ships—some of which have sunk, while others have of necessity sought port on the coasts of Japon and other districts where so great riches were lost without its being possible to secure them, or for anything to be saved; and by the fires which they have suffered, on one occasion the greater part of the city, as well as the possessions of the inhabitants being burned. A few years ago our flagship "Nuestra Senora de la Vida" [i.e., "Our Lady of Life"] was wrecked on the island of Verde [9] while en route to Nueva Espana, with the possessions and capital of the aforesaid citizens. In the former year of thirty-one, the ship "Sancta Maria Magdalena" went to the bottom in the port of Cabite with all the goods and cloth aboard it. Although the cargo was taken out, it was after it had been in the water more than one and one-half months. Consequently the damage to the owners was great and notable; and on that account all the capital was ruined, the trade limited, and the goods destroyed—so much so that if the said two per cent be put in force, it will have the above defects, and the said trade will be ruined.

The ninth reason is of great importance, and consists in the many great services that have been performed for your Majesty by the said city of Manila, and those which its inhabitants are performing every day; for when occasion demands—as it does often, when there is a lack of regular infantry, because it has gone away or been employed in something else—the inhabitants enter the guard, as that city is surrounded by so many heathen; and they have always hastened with all the loyalty and love possible to serve on any expedition that has offered against the Dutch and other nations, with their persons and possessions, and are the first to take arms.

Another thing is of great consideration, namely, that in the great necessities that arise in the royal treasury, which has not the wherewithal to take care of them, the said inhabitants have aided it; and they aid it very often with very considerable sums, depositing therein from eighty to one hundred thousand pesos, without receiving any interest. That money is retained in the said royal treasury, and the owners are not repaid for more than two years. The loss of interest on so great a sum for so long a period constitutes a great service, for merchants and men of business. They only think of the great desire that they have always had, and have, for the service of your Majesty; and that is so great that many poor inhabitants, not having any capital to allow them to make loans to the royal treasury as the other inhabitants do, beg for a loan in order to be enabled to attend to your Majesty's royal service. In the assessments continually levied upon them by the governor, consisting of jars [of oil or wine], rice, and other things necessary for the relief of Terrenate and the island of Hermosa, the said inhabitants contribute very eagerly and willingly; and on the voyages made by the galleys, if slaves are needed (as often happens), they give their own. With the same willingness did they make the gift of the said four thousand pesos in the year 632.

Since all above stated is so, and since the inhabitants are perpetually and continually serving your Majesty with their persons, lives, and possessions, and by the intolerable burden of always bearing arms; and since all that is related in this memorial is evident from the investigations made at the citation of the fiscal, and by what the governors and the orders write: therefore it is just for your Majesty to honor and reward the inhabitants, since their services are so worthy of reward and remuneration; and since the said imposition of the said two per cent would be only an affliction and punishment, to have its enforcement discontinued, so that there may be no further question of it—which, as can be understood by the reasons above stated, has been and is the royal intention and purpose of your Majesty. For during the so many years that its execution has been suspended, your Majesty having been informed by the letters of the governors and royal officials of the difficulty of its observance, it has been abandoned and repealed in order to avoid so many and so great dangers as above stated, and injuries to the said inhabitants and residents of those islands—an intent quite in accord with the first decree of the said year six hundred and four, in which, although it was ordered to impose the said two per cent, it commanded that this was to be done with the greatest mildness possible. Consequently, as this mildness was not and could not be exercised, the imposition occasioning only great troubles and difficulties, the decree itself intimates, as if by express statements, that the said collection was impracticable.

Thus the request of the said city and its inhabitants, and of the said islands, is that your Majesty be pleased to have it so declared and ordered, not only for the future, but also for the past; since the said royal decree has not been put in force, nor has it been advisable at any time, for either the future or the past. The impossibility [of enforcing the decree] is even greater [at this time], because of the many years that have passed, and the many persons against whom it might be attempted, who have died; so that to undertake it would mean nothing else than a beginning of lawsuits, and the disquiet and revolution of all the inhabitants of the said city, or of most of them—for those who have trafficked here from the said year of six hundred and seven are many, and most of them have died, without leaving any property from which to collect the arrears of duty—in case that that effort is made. By that [concession] the inhabitants will receive an especial favor, as is hoped from the greatness of your Majesty. Madrid, September 6, 1635.

Reply of the fiscal

The fiscal declares that he has examined the documents sent with this memorial, and the other papers and letters from the Audiencia, the visitor, and the superiors of the orders; that the decision [of this question] demands close attention, and all that the council is wont to exercise for its sure action, for the great necessity of its inhabitants which the city represents, confronts us. We must consider not only the impracticability of enforcing the impost, but no less his Majesty's lack of means (caused by the wars and necessary occasions for expense that have limited the royal incomes), which constrains him so that he can do no more—a course which, as so Christian and pious a king, he would avoid, if it were possible. Having considered everything, what the visitor writes has much force with the fiscal, and persuades him that it is expedient and necessary to consult with his Majesty regarding this letter—so that, having examined its contents, and that, besides, which the council shall advise, he may be pleased to order what may be most to the welfare of his vassals, in whose conservation consists his best service; and approving the mild method pointed out by the visitor (of which he availed himself, in order that the trade might not cease, with the obvious danger of greater loss), he concurs in everything, and thus petitions. Madrid, September six, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five.

Don Juan Grao y Monfalcon, procurator-general of the distinguished and loyal city of Manila, metropolis and capital of the Filipinas Islands, in answer to what was said and alleged by his Majesty's fiscal to the memorial and arguments which he has presented, in order that the effort for the collection of the two per cent may cease and be abandoned, declares that your Majesty, in heeding the arguments that he has presented in another memorial, does not give up nor is he excluded from what is alleged on the other side. On the contrary he expressly recognizes (a fact that cannot be denied) the justification and urgent reasons that are necessary and unavoidable, which strenuously oblige to what the said city has entreated. In the name of the city, he accepts what is said and alleged in its favor by the said fiscal. But inasmuch as the fiscal mentions his approbation of the method which the visitor approves—and of which he availed himself, so that the said trade might not cease, which, he says with good reason, would be of greater loss—and says that with the said method everything would turn out well, he excludes the condition that it will not provide for everything, but only for the effort to enforce the said duty of two per cent. The difficulty would remain present, and the reasons and arguments of the said city be as if they were not; and it and its commerce would be left without any remedy, or means to preserve itself. Nor is there nor can there be considered any difference of opinion in the necessity that is mentioned of the royal treasury; for, although this necessity is great, the contention of the said city concerns not necessity, but the limits of impossibility. Consequently, [the interests of] the city ought to prevail and be preferred. This conclusion was reached by experience, on the occasion of the former year 632, when the said visitor tried to put the said duty in force, in which he found himself confounded; for he beheld the cessation of commerce, and the resolve made by the said inhabitants that they would not export or risk their wealth, without receiving any profit—by which it resulted that the despatch of the ships which were being sent to Nueva Espana was delayed, the cause of which was the said visitor, because of the said collection that he was trying to enforce. The governors of those islands—of whom there have been many, very prudent and clear-headed, and eminent in their zeal for the service of your Majesty—never came to such a determination, in all these years. And the strength and resistance of the obstacles that they found, and which they were considering in person, compelled them to consult with your Majesty, as they always have done—regarding that as much more proper than to execute [a decree] and risk the condition of those islands, and considering the matter with mature judgment and prudent deliberation. Consequently, they never reached the said decision that the said visitor attempted. And although the latter tried to remedy it, by proposing the means (that he alleges as a counterbalance) of the payment of four thousand pesos, by way of gift and gracious service, that gift was not perpetual, as appears on the contrary, and as is given to understand; but it was only for that time, and until the decision of your Majesty should be made. That is well verified by the fact of what afterward occurred; for in the following year the said visitor—recognizing that the gift of the four thousand pesos had been limited, and for once only, and that by virtue of that the said inhabitants were not bound to anything—attempted to make again, through some of the regidors, the same suspension that he had already made of the execution of the said duty, until your Majesty determined with what they should serve, with some gift, even though it should be only a small sum. That which was finally assigned was from one to two thousand pesos, the visitor again with this new occasion placing the despatch of the said ships in peril, causing by the least delay more loss than the said profit. Therefore the royal Audiencia, in order to proceed with more certainty, called a council of the bishop who was governor of that archbishopric, the archbishop, and the superiors of the orders. All of them agreed and concurred that the despatch ought to be made in the manner in which it had always been done, without allowing any innovation. Consequently all, and on all occasions, have always recognized the impossibility, and the new damages and obstacles that would result from the said enforcement.

In consideration of the above, he petitions and entreats your Majesty that you be, nevertheless, pleased to provide and order the discontinuance of the collection of the said two per cent, according to his petition. Thereby he will receive an especial favor, as that city and kingdom hopes from his Majesty's greatness and royal hand.



MANILA TREASURY ACCOUNTS, 1630-35

Relation of the receipts of the treasury of Manila from January seven, one thousand six hundred and thirty, until January six, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five, a period of five years

Common gold [Pesos] [tomins] [granos]

The balance found in the said treasury on the said day, January seven, 1630, amounted to [10] 11,561 8 6

The total from the fines of the exchequer [11] from the said day until March six, 1631, amounted to 2,073 6 1

That from the [unspent?] balances of war funds [alcances de guerra] for the said time amounted to 20,317 5 0

That of the army fund for the said time amounted to 15,797 1 5

That from the licenses of Indians [sic; sc. Chinese] for the said time 87,606 4 0

That from loans made to the treasury for the said time amounted to 71,057 7 0

That from mesada taxes [12] for the said time amounted to 917 1 11

That from import and export duties for the said time amounted to 33,448 7 0

That from offices sold for the said time amounted to 29,458 3 0

That from expenses of justice for the said time amounted to 75 0 0

That from royal situados for the said time amounted to 4,124 2 4

That from condemnations for the building of houses during the said time amounted to 374 5 4

That from fiestas for the said time amounted to 281 3 0

That from the tenths of gold for the said time amounted to 48 3 0

That from transportation of passengers [on the royal ships?] for the said time amounted to 300 0 0

That from the proceeds for war from the cattle tithes for the said time amounted to 120 3 0

That from the silver and reals received from Nueva Espana during the said time amounted to 278,115 6 0

That from court expenses for the said time amounted to 100 0 0

——————————— During the said time the receipts of the said treasury amounted to 555,775 3 0

Account from April 20, 1631, to January six, 1632

The total from condemnations (in court) for fines of the exchequer for the said time amounted to 1,611 6 0

That from import and export duties amounted to 35,650 1 2

That from loans made to the treasury amounted to 16,600 7 5

That from royal situados from the encomiendas of private persons amounted to 3,708 6 8

That from the balances of accounts amounted to 18,430 3 0

That from extraordinary sources amounted to 6,115 1 0

That from mesada taxes amounted to 112 4 9

That from resultas amounted to 456 3 5

That from tenths of gold amounted to 23 7 8

That from expenses of justice amounted to 8 6 0

That from [the fund for?] expenses of courts [13] amounted to 287 4 0

That from licenses to heathen Chinese amounted to 116,697 4 0

That from offices sold amounted to 646 4 0

That from silver and reals sent from Nueva Espana amounted to. 203,915 0 0

That from passenger transportation amounted to 50 0 0

That from deposits amounted to 2,000 0 0

That from [unspent balance of fund for?] ship-building and forts amounted to 8 0 0

That from the vacant encomiendas amounted to 36 4 0

That from restitutions amounted to. 38 0 0

That which was placed in the treasury at the order of the visitor amounted to 6,117 0 0

That collected from what is owing [to the treasury] amounted to 62,473 3 10

——————————— The receipts of the treasury for the said time amounted to 475,889 1 2

Account from January seven, one thousand six hundred and thirty-two, to January six, one thousand six hundred and thirty-three

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