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The Plattsburg Manual - A Handbook for Military Training
by O.O. Ellis and E.B. Garey
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THE

PLATTSBURG MANUAL

A HANDBOOK FOR MILITARY TRAINING

BY

O. O. ELLIS MAJOR, UNITED STATES INFANTRY

AND

E. B. GAREY MAJOR, UNITED STATES INFANTRY

(INSTRUCTORS, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP, 1916) (INSTRUCTORS, OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP, FT. MCPHERSON, GA., 1917) (INSTRUCTORS, OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP, FT. OGLETHORPE, GA., 1917)

WITH MORE THAN 220 ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK THE CENTURY CO. 1918



Copyright, 1917, by The Century Co.

Published, March, 1917 Second Edition, March, 1917 Third Edition, April, 1917 Fourth Edition, April, 1917 Fifth Edition, May, 1917 Sixth Edition, May, 1917 Seventh Edition, August, 1917 Eighth Edition. September, 1917 Ninth Edition, January, 1918 Tenth Edition, May, 1918



TO THOSE FAR-SEEING MEN WHO INAUGURATED AND ATTENDED THE FIRST FEDERAL TRAINING CAMP THIS TEXT IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED



FOREWORD

The Plattsburg Manual, written by Majors Ellis and Garey, will prove very useful to men who are contemplating military training. It will also be of great value to those who are undergoing training.

It is full of practical information presented in a simple and direct manner and gives in detail much data not easily found elsewhere. It is a useful book, easily understandable by those who have had little or no military experience.

It will be useful not only at training camps but it will be of very great value at schools and colleges where military instruction is being given.

The authors of this book have performed a valuable service, one which will tend to facilitate and aid very much the development of military training in this country. In addition to the purely mechanical details of training the book presents in a very effective and simple manner the tactical use of troops under various conditions.

In a word it is a useful and sound work and one which can be commended to those who contemplate a course in military training.

(Signed) Leonard Wood, Major General U. S. A.

February 27, 1917.



PREFACE

This book is intended to serve as a foundation upon which the military beginner may build so that he may in time be able to study the technical service manuals intelligently. It has been written as an elementary textbook for those who desire to become Reserve Officers, for schools and colleges, and for those who may be called to the colors.

The authors have commanded companies at Plattsburg, New York, and, noting the need of such a text, compiled their observations while there.

The average man undergoing military training wants to know as much as possible about the art and science of war. He wants to acquire a good knowledge of the principles involved. He is interested in the technique of movements. He is willing to work for these things, but he often becomes lost in confusion when he attempts to study the technical service manuals. He does not know how to select the most important and omit the less important. The authors have selected from the standard texts some of the vitally important subjects and principles and have presented them to the civilian in a simple and plain way.

The first part of the text is for the beginner. It tells him how to prepare physically for strenuous military work. After assisting him through the elementary part of his instruction, it presents for his consideration and study the Officers' Reserve Corps.

The second part, or supplement, is a more technical discussion of those subjects introduced in the first. It is intended principally for those who have made excellent progress.



CONTENTS

I General Advice 3 II Physical Exercise 21 III School of the Soldier 28 IV School of the Squad 63 V School of the Company 86 VI Fire Superiority 130 VII The Service of Security 136 VIII Attack and Defense 144 IX General Principles of Target Practice 153 X Practice March or "Hike" 159 XI Officers' Reserve Corps 169

SUPPLEMENT

I The Theory of Security 221 II Attack and Defense 242 III Patrolling 254 IV Target Practice 260 V Tent Pitching 292 VI Signals and Codes 297 VII First Aid to the Injured 309

Appendixes 321

Index 331



THE PLATTSBURG MANUAL



CHAPTER I

GENERAL ADVICE



The United States is divided geographically into military departments with a general officer commanding each department. The departments and their headquarters are as follows:

(1) The Northeastern Department, with headquarters at Boston, Massachusetts.

(2) The Eastern Department, with headquarters at Governors Island, New York.

(3) The Southeastern Department, with Headquarters at Charleston, South Carolina.

(4) The Central Department, with Headquarters at Chicago, Illinois.

(5) The Southern Department, with Headquarters at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

(6) The Western Department, with Headquarters at San Francisco, California.

Overseas { (7) The Philippine Department, with Headquarters at Departments { Manila. { { (8) The Hawaiian Department, Departments with { Headquarters at Honolulu, Hawaii.

(For States comprising each department, see Appendix)

If you are a civilian and desire any information in regard to the army, any training camps, the officers' reserve corps, or any military legislation or orders affecting you, write to the "Commanding General" of the Department in which you live. Address your letter to him at his headquarters.



MAIL

Mail is most often delayed because there is not sufficient information for the Postmaster on the envelope. The delivery of your mail will be delayed unless your letters are sent to the company and the regiment to which you belong. Therefore, prepare, before you reach camp, several stamped postal cards, addressed to your family and business associates, containing directions to address all communications to you care of Company——, Regiment——. As soon as you are assigned to a company and regiment, fill in these data and mail these postal cards at once. This should be done by wire in case important mail is expected during the first week of camp. Mail is delivered to each company as soon as a complete roll of the organizations can be made out and sent to the post-office.



INOCULATIONS AND VACCINATION

As soon as you become a member of the army, whether as a private or as an officer, you will receive the typhoid prophylaxis inoculation and be vaccinated against smallpox.



WHAT TO BRING

1. Travel light. Bring only the bare necessities of life with you. Don't bring a trunk. Enlisted men (not officers) will be supplied with all necessary uniforms and underwear. This includes shoes.

2. Bring a pair of sneakers, or slippers. They will add greatly to your comfort after a long march or hard day's work. A complete bathing suit often comes in handy.

3. Report in uniform if you have one.

4. The Government will provide you with the necessary shoes. However, if you can afford it, buy before you report for duty, a pair of regulation tan shoes, larger than you ordinarily wear, and break them in well before arrival. Rubber heels are recommended.

5. Bring your toilet articles (comb, brush, mirror shaving equipment, etc.), and a good supply of handkerchiefs, and towels.



WHAT TO DO ON YOUR ARRIVAL

There is a general rule of procedure to follow in reporting for duty at any post or training camp.

1. If you receive an order directing you to report for duty at a camp or post at a certain specified time, read it carefully, put it in a secure place, and, on the day that you are to report for duty at the camp or post, present yourself in uniform, if you have one, with your order. Be careful not to lose your order or leave it at home. Have it in your pocket book.

2. Upon being assigned to a company, unless you receive orders to the contrary, report at once with your baggage to your company commander (captain), whom you can easily find when you reach your barracks or company street. If you cannot locate your company commander, report to the first sergeant.

3. It is a custom of the service to have an experienced soldier explain to a new man exactly where he is to go and what he is to do. Feel no embarrassment at being ignorant of your new duties and surroundings. The Government does not expect anything of you except eagerness to learn and willingness to obey.

4. After reporting to your company commander or first sergeant, you will have a bed assigned to you and you will be issued the property and uniforms necessary to your comfort and duties. Check your property carefully as it is issued to you. You will have to sign for all of it. Look after your property at all times.

5. After checking your property, make up your bed and arrange neatly your personal and issued property on or under your bed or cot.

6. Spend all your spare time cleaning your rifle and bayonet until they satisfy your company commander. Then keep them clean.

7. Don't leave the company street or barracks on the first day, except with the permission of your company commander. Don't ask for this permission unless you have a valid reason.



RULES OF CONDUCT FOR CAMP LIFE

The first few days will be easy and profitable if you will read carefully and adhere to the following plan of procedure:

1. Get up at the first note of reveille and get quickly into proper uniform.

2. Get within two or three feet of your place in ranks and await the sounding of assembly for reveille and then step into ranks.

3. Stand at attention after the first sergeant commands "Fall In." Remember that this command is equivalent to "Company, Attention."

4. After reveille, make up your bed, arrange neatly your equipment, and clean up the ground under and around your cot. The company commander will require the beds made up and the equipment arranged in a prescribed way.

5. Wash for breakfast.

6. Upon returning from breakfast, go at once to the toilet. Next, prepare the equipment prescribed to be worn to drill. This is especially important when the full pack is prescribed. Assist your tent mates in policing the ground in and around your tent.

7. If you need medical attention give your name to the first sergeant at reveille and report to him at his tent upon your return from breakfast. Don't wait until you are sick to report to the hospital, but go as soon as you feel in the least unwell.

8. When the first call for drill is blown, put on your equipment, inspect your bed and property to see that everything is in order, and then go to your place in ranks.

9. After the morning drill, get ready for dinner. Get a little rest at this time if possible.

10. After dinner a short rest is usually allowed before the afternoon drill. Take advantage of this opportunity; get off your feet and rest. Be quiet so that your tent mates may rest.

11. Following the afternoon drill there is a short intermission before the ceremony of retreat. During this time take a quick bath, shave, get into the proper uniform for retreat, shine your shoes and brush your clothes and hat. Be the neatest man in the company.

12. Supper usually follows retreat.

13. After supper, you usually have some spare time until taps. The Y. M. C. A. generally provides a place supplied with Bibles, newspapers, good magazines, and writing material. Don't be ashamed to read the Bible. Don't forget to write to the folks back home.

14. Be in bed with lights out at taps. After taps and before reveille, remain silent, thus showing consideration for those who are sleeping or trying to sleep.

15. Consult the company bulletin board at least twice daily. On this bulletin board is usually found the following information:

(a) A list of calls. (b) The proper uniform for each formation. (c) Schedule of drills. (d) Special orders and instructions.

16. Get all your orders from (a) the bulletin board, (b) the first sergeant, (c) the acting noncommissioned officers, (d) the company commander. Don't put much faith in rumors.



ADVICE REGARDING HABITS

Your life in camp in regard to food, exercise, hours of sleep, surroundings, and comforts, will differ greatly from that you lead as a civilian. You will submit your body to a sudden, severe, physical test. In order to prepare your body for this change in manner of living and work, we recommend that for a short time prior to your arrival in camp, and thereafter, you observe the following suggestions:

1. Use no alcohol of any kind.

2. Stop smoking, or at least be temperate in the use of tobacco.

3. Eat and drink moderately. Chew your food well. It is advisable, however, to drink a great deal of cool (not cold) water between meals.

4. Don't eat between meals.

5. Accustom yourself to regular hours as to sleeping, eating, and the morning functions.

6. Keep away from all soda fountains and soft drink stands.

7. For at least two weeks prior to your arrival at camp, take regularly the exercises described in this book.

Most men are troubled with their feet during the first week of each camp, usually because they do not observe the following precautions:

1. If you have ever had trouble with the arches of your feet, wear braces for them.

2. Lace your shoe as tightly as comfort will permit.

3. Wash the feet daily.

4. Every morning shake a little talcum powder or "Foot Ease" in each shoe.

5. Each morning put on a fresh pair of socks. Your socks should fit the feet so neatly that no wrinkles remain in them and yet not be so tight that they bind the foot. Do not wear a sock with a hole in it or one that has been darned.

6. Some men cannot wear light wool socks with comfort. Do not wear silk or cotton socks until you have given light wool socks a fair trial.

7. In case of a blister, treat it as directed in Chapter X.

8. Most of the foot troubles are caused by wearing shoes that do not fit properly. If the shoe is too large it rubs blisters, if too small it cramps the foot and causes severe pain. Marching several hours while carrying about thirty pounds of equipment causes each foot to expand at least one half a size in length and correspondingly in breadth; hence the size of the shoe you wear in the office will be too small for training camp use. If you have been living a sedentary life, ask for a pair of shoes larger than you ordinarily wear.

9. In case the tendon in your heel becomes tender, report at once to the hospital tent and get it strapped.



A DISCIPLINED SOLDIER

You will be expected to become quickly amenable both mentally and physically to discipline. A clear conception on your part of what drills are disciplinary in character and what discipline really is, will help you to become a disciplined soldier. Drills executed at attention are disciplinary exercises and are designed to teach precise and soldierly movements and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which is essential to proper military control. Hence, all corrections should be given and received in an impersonal manner. Never forget that you lose your identity as an individual when you step into ranks; you then become merely a unit of a mass. As soon as you obey properly, promptly, and, at times, unconsciously, the commands of your officers, as soon as you can cheerfully give up pleasures and personal privileges that conflict with the new order of life to which you have submitted, you will then have become a disciplined man.



DRESS

The uniform you will wear stands for Duty, Honor, and Country. You should not disgrace it by the way you wear it or by your conduct any more than you would trample the flag of the United States of America under foot. You must constantly bear in mind that in our country a military organization is too often judged by the acts of a few of its members. When one or two soldiers in uniform conduct themselves in an ungentlemanly or unmilitary manner to the disgrace of the uniform, the layman shakes his head and condemns all men wearing that uniform. Hence, show by the way in which you wear your uniform that you are proud of it; this can be best accomplished by observing the following rules:

1. Carry yourself at all times as though you were proud of yourself, your uniform, and your country.

2. Wear your hat so that the brim is parallel to the ground.

3. Have all buttons fastened.

4. Never have sleeves rolled up.

5. Never wear sleeve holders.

6. Never leave shirt or coat unbuttoned at the throat.

7. Have leggins and trousers properly laced.

8. Keep shoes shined.

9. Always be clean shaved.

10. Keep head up and shoulders square.

11. Camp life has a tendency to make one careless as to personal cleanliness. Bear this in mind.



SALUTING

The military salute is universal. It is at foundation but a courteous recognition between two individuals of their common fellowship in the same honorable profession, the profession of arms. Regulations require that it be rendered by both the senior and the junior, as bare courtesy requires between gentlemen in civil life. It is the military equivalent of the laymen's expressions "Good Morning," or "How do you do?" Therefore be punctilious about saluting; be proud of the manner in which you execute your salute, and make it indicative of discipline and good breeding. Always look at the officer you are saluting. The junior salutes first. It is very unmilitary to salute with the left hand in a pocket, or with a cigarette, cigar, or pipe in the mouth. Observe the following general rules:

1. Never salute an officer when you are in ranks.

2. Indoors (in your tent) unarmed, do not salute but stand at attention, uncovered, on the entrance of an officer. If he speaks to you, then salute.

3. Indoors, armed, render the prescribed salute, i.e., the rifle salute at order arms or at trail.

4. Outdoors, armed, render the prescribed salute, i.e., the rifle salute at right shoulder arms.

5. Outdoors, unarmed, or armed with side arms, salute with the right hand.



ARMY SLANG

The following army slang is universally employed:

"Bunkie"—the soldier who shares the shelter half or tent of a comrade in the field. A bunkie looks after his comrade's property in the event the latter is absent.

"Doughboy"—the infantryman.

"French leave"—unauthorized absence.

"Holy Joe"—the chaplain.

"K.O."—the commanding officer.

"On the carpet"—a call before the commanding officer for admonition.

"Q.M."—quartermaster.

"Rookie"—a new recruit.

"Sand rat"—a soldier on duty in the rifle pit during target practice.

"Top sergeant"—the first sergeant.

"Come and get it"—the meal is ready to be served.



HOW TO CLEAN A RIFLE AND BAYONET

Get a rag and rub the heavy grease off; then get a soft pine stick, pointed at one end, and with this point remove the grease from the cracks, crevices and corners. Clean the bore from the breech. When the heavy grease has been removed, the metal part of the gun, bore included, should be covered with a light coating of "3-in-1" oil. Heavy grease can be removed from the rifle by rubbing it with a rag which has been saturated with gasoline or coal oil.



FRIENDS

There are a few men in all companies who play, loaf, and who are constantly in trouble. As the good men in each company will not become friendly with them, they seek their acquaintances among the new men on whom they have a baneful influence. We wish to warn you about making friends too quickly.



FINAL SUGGESTIONS

Don't be profane or tell questionable stories to your bunkies or around the company. There is a much greater number of silent and unprotesting men in camp than is generally supposed, to whom this is offensive. Keep everything on a high plane.



CHAPTER II[1]

Read this chapter as soon as you decide to attend a Camp.



PHYSICAL EXERCISE

The greatest problem you will have to solve will be that of making your body do the work required. Every one else will be doing exactly what you are doing, and you have too much pride to want to take even a shorter step than the man by your side. Some men have to leave the training camps because they are not in the proper physical condition to go on with the work. If this chapter is taken as seriously as it should be, it will be of great help to you.

If you have not a pair of sensible marching shoes (tan, high-tops, no hooks on them) get a pair. These shoes should be considerably larger than a pair of office shoes.

Walk to and from your business. Take every opportunity to get out in the country where the air is pure. Fill your lungs full. Get into the habit of taking deep breaths now and then. Don't make this a task, but surround it with pleasantries. Get some delightful companion to walk with you. Walk vigorously.

Let down on your smoking. Better to leave it alone for a while. You will enjoy the air. Deep breathing seems to be more natural.

Make it a work for your country. View it in that light. If you are not going to be called upon to undergo the cruel hardships and physical strain of some campaigns, your son will be, and you can be of great help to him by being fit yourself. You and your sons will form the backbone of America's strength in her next peril.

You will have a great deal of walking after you arrive in camp, possibly a great deal more than you have ever had, and probably a great deal more than you expect, even with this word of warning. If you have failed to provide yourself with proper shoes and socks, great will be the price of your lack of forethought. You will wince at your own blisters. You will get no sympathy from any one else. It is the spirit of the camp for each man to bear his own burdens. So arrive at camp with hardened legs and broken in shoes. Don't buy shoes with pointed or narrow toes. They should be broad and airy.

Immediately after you arise in the morning and just before you retire at night, go through the following exercises for two or three minutes. In a short time you may want to make it more. No objection. Give it a fair trial. Be brisk and energetic. Forget, for the time being, what you are going to get out of it. Give and then give more. The result will take care of itself.

1st Exercise

Involving practically every important muscle in the body.



From first position spring to second position; instantly return to first position and continue.

Be light on your feet. Alight on your toes. Begin with a limited number of times. Day by day increase it a little until you reach a fair number. Be most moderate at first. Never allow yourself in any exercise to become greatly fatigued.

2d Exercise

To reduce waist, strengthen back muscles, and become limber.



Assume position No. 1.

Swing to position (No. 2), return at once to No. 1, and continue.

Shoot your head and arms as far through your legs as your conformation permits.

3rd Exercise

To harden leg muscles and exercise joints.



From position No. 1 come to position No. 2. Return at once to No. 1 and continue.

Toes turned well out. Body and head erect. Up with a slight spring. After a little practice, you will have no difficulty with this exercise in balancing yourself.

4th Exercise

To exercise arms and shoulders and organs of chest and shoulder muscles.



From position No. 1 thrust arms forward to position No. 2, and return at once to position No. 1.



Vary by thrusting arms downward, sideward and upward. Be moderate at first. Grow more vigorous with practice.

5th Exercise



To strengthen ankles and insteps.

From position No. 1 rise on the toes to position No. 2, return at once to position No. 1, and continue.

Go up on your toes as high as you can.



CHAPTER III

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations



Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training; hence the excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency. Your instruction will be progressive in character, and will have as its ultimate purpose the creation of a company measuring up to a high standard of field efficiency.

The Preparatory Command, such as Forward, indicates the movement that is to be executed.

The Command of Execution, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, commences the execution of the movement.

Preparatory Commands are distinguished by bold face, those of execution by capitals. As, 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

The average man understands better and learns faster when you show him how a thing is done. Don't be content with telling him how. Bear this in mind when you become an instructor.

On account of the absence of the Regular Army on the border, it was not practical to obtain photographs of regular troops with which to illustrate this book. The photographs used were taken under the direct supervision of the authors.



POSITION OF A SOLDIER AT ATTENTION



No. 1. Eyes to the front. Hands hang naturally. Rest weight of the body equally on feet. Feet turned out making angles of 45 deg..

No. 2. Head erect. Shoulders down and back. Chest out. Stomach up. Thumb along the seams of trousers. Knees straight, not stiff. Heels on line and together. Do not stiffen the fingers: The mind ought also to be at attention.



No. 1. Don't gaze about. That's not playing the game. Don't turn your feet out making an angle of 100 deg..

No. 2. Don't slouch. Hold yourself up. Keep your eyes off the ground.

These are the common errors of beginners.

1. Parade, 2. REST.



No. 1. Clasp hands without constraint in front of center of body. Left hand uppermost. Fingers joined. Thumb and fore finger right hand clasps the left thumb.

No. 2. Bend left knee slightly. Right foot is carried 6 inches straight to the rear.



No. 1. Not looking straight to the front. Right foot not carried straight to the rear.

No. 2. Leaning back too far. Right foot carried back too far.

1. Hand, 2. SALUTE.



No. 1. Look toward the person saluted.

No. 2. Tip of forefinger right hand touches cap or hat above right eye. Thumb and forefingers extended and joined. Hand and wrist straight. Palm to the left.



No. 1. Palm of the hand to the front and fingers not joined.

No. 2. Arm held too high. Fingers not perfectly joined.

No. 3. Fingers not extended and joined. Left hand not by side while salute is being made.

Some beginners forget, while saluting, to remove their pipes, cigarettes, or cigars from their mouths. This proves clearly that they are beginners, for trained and experienced men are careful about military honors and salutes.



THE RESTS

Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE; and 1. Parade, 2. REST.

At the command fall out, the men may leave the ranks, but are required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former places, at attention, at the command fall in.

At the command rest, each man keeps one foot in place, but is not required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command at ease, each man keeps one foot in place and is required to preserve silence, but not immobility.

1. Parade, 2. REST. Previously explained.

To resume the attention: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. The men take the position of the soldier.



EYES RIGHT OR LEFT

1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.



At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same rank. At the command front, turn the head and eyes to the front. Notice the right file does not turn the eyes to the right.



FACINGS

To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE.



Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left face is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

Right (left) Half Face is executed similarly, facing 45 deg..

To the rear: 1. About, 2. FACE.

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the left. There is no left about face.



STEPS AND MARCHINGS

All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right step, begin with the left foot.

The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by calling one, two, three, four, or left, right, the instant the left and right foot, respectively, should be planted.

All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed in quick time unless the squad be marching in double time, or double time be added to the command; in the latter case double time is added to the preparatory command. Example: 1. Squad right, double time, 2. MARCH (School of the Squad).



QUICK TIME

Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

At the command forward, shift the weight of the body to the right leg, left knee straight.

At the command march, move the left foot smartly straight forward 30 inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double time: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the right leg. At the command march, raise the forearms, fingers closed, to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in double time.

To resume the quick time: 1. Quick time, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick time, dropping the hands by the sides.



TO MARK TIME

Being in march: 1. Mark time, 2. MARCH. At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2 inches and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command march, raise and plant the feet as prescribed above. Common errors are to raise the feet several inches and to run up the cadence, i.e., go too fast.

1. Half step, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time.

Forward, half step, halt, and mark time may be executed one from the other in quick or double time. Any step less than the full step (i.e., half step, right step, or backward) is apt to be too fast, i.e., greater than 120 steps a minute.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.



SIDE STEP

Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Right (left) step, 2. MARCH.

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the left foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed at trail without command.



BACK STEP

Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Backward, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed at trail without command.



TO HALT

To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. Squad, 2. HALT.

At the command halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.



TO MARCH BY THE FLANK

Being in march: 1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH.



The command march must be given when the right foot is on the ground as shown in No. 1. Then advance and plant the left foot and turn on the toes to right as shown in No. 2, and step off with the right foot.



TO MARCH TO THE REAR

Being in march: 1. To the rear, 2. MARCH.



At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

The turn is made on the toes as shown.

The command march must be given when the right foot is on the ground. The left foot is then advanced to the position shown.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.



CHANGE STEP

Being in march; 1. Change step, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command march being given as the left foot strikes the ground.



MANUAL OF ARMS

To acquire proficiency in the Manual of Arms, you should practice, practice, and practice.

Position of order arms standing, i.e., the position of attention under arms.



No. 1. Arm and hands hang naturally. Right hand holding piece between thumb and fingers. Butt rests evenly on ground. Barrel to the rear.

No. 2. Toe of the butt on a line with toe of and touching the right shoe.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: "By the Numbers"; all movements divided into motions, are then executed singly. That is to say, make one motion and then wait until a further command for another. This is for the purpose of correcting erroneous positions and giving detailed instructions. We are explaining the manual by the numbers.



Being at order arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. It takes two counts.

At command arms, with the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of the body. Barrel to the rear and vertical. Grasp it with left hand at the balance. Left forearm is horizontal and rests against body. The balance of the piece is approximately the position of the rear sight.



At command two, grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.



No. 1. Thumb along barrel.

No. 2. Piece held too low. The front sight will be a little above the eyes when the left fore arm is horizontal.

No. 3. Piece not vertical; too close to body.



Being at order arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It takes one count.



At the command ARMS, with the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body, grasp it smartly with both hands; the right; palm down, at the small of stock; the left, palm up, at the balance; barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the neck with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal; left forearm resting against the body. The rifle is held in a vertical plane parallel to the front.

In executing this movement, it is a common error with beginners to raise the piece as though it weighed much more than it does. No part of the body should move except the arms, in coming to "port arms" from "order arms."



No. 1. Arms held away from side.

No. 2. Piece held too low and too close to body.

No. 3. Piece held too high and not in a vertical plane parallel to the body.

Being at present arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It is executed in one count. At the command arms, carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the position of "port arms."

Being at port arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. It is executed in one count. At the command arms, carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center of the body and take the position of present arms.

Being at present or port arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two counts.



At the command arms, let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the right with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand just above the lower band; let go with the left hand and take the position shown here, which is the next to the last position in coming to the order. The left hand should be above and near the right, steadying the gun, fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclined downward. Barrel to the rear. All the fingers of the right hand grasp the gun. Butt about 3 inches from the ground.

Being in the above position, at the command Two, lower the piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop the left hand quickly by the side, and take the position of order arms.

The common errors are to slam the gun down on the ground and to drop the left hand by the side in a slow and indifferent manner.



Common errors in the next to the last positions of order arms.

No. 1. Thumb is up. Gun too far from the ground.

No. 2. Gun too near to ground. Thumb is up. Butt of gun too far to the right.

No. 3. Gun held too high and too far away from body.

Being at order arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in three counts.

At the command arms, with the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, and at the same time grasp the heel between the first two fingers as shown. Note the position of the first two fingers of right hand.



At the command two, without changing the grasp of the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder, right elbow near the side, the piece in a vertical plane perpendicular to the front; carry the left hand, thumb and fingers extended and joined, to the small of the stock, wrist straight and elbow down. Barrel up, and inclined at an angle of about 45 deg. from the horizontal. Trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, tip of forefinger touching the cocking piece. Right fore arm horizontal.



No. 1. Right arms not by side. Left arm too high. Remember that the left arm rests on the chest. This is very commonly confused with the rifle salute.

No. 2. Thumb is up. Butt of rifle carried to the right.

No. 3. Trigger guard not against shoulder. Butt held too low. Hand not straight.



At the command three, drop the left hand by the side.



No. 1. Right arm not by side. Right forearm not horizontal.

No. 2. Heel of gun too far to left.

No. 3. Trigger guard not against shoulder. Butt held too low.

Being at right shoulder Arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. It is executed in 3 counts.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the gun diagonally across the body, to the position shown here.

At the command two, lower the gun and assume the next to the last position of order arms. At the command three, come to the order arms.

The common errors in this movement are to move the head to the left and to throw the gun too far to the front.



Being at port arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in three counts.

At the command arms, change the right hand to the butt.

At the command two and three, come to the right shoulder as from order arms.

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two counts.

At the command arms, press the butt down quickly and throw the piece to the diagonal position across the body with the left hand grasping it at the balance; the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt.

At the command two, change the right hand to the small of the stock.

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. It is executed in three counts.

At the command arms, execute port arms. (This requires two counts.) At the command three, execute present arms.

Being at present arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in four counts.

At the command arms, execute port arms. At the command two, three, four, execute right shoulder arms as from port arms.

Being at port arms: 1. Left shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two counts.



At the command ARMS, carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left shoulder; at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between first and second fingers. Thumb and fingers of right hand closed on the stock. Barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder.



No. 1. Right arm too high. Butt too high.

No. 2. Butt too close to center of body. Not grasping gun correctly with fingers of left hand.

No. 3. Right arm too high. Butt too high.

At the command two, drop the right hand by the side.



The incorrect positions are usually the same as are found in the right shoulder arms, and as illustrated here.



Being at left shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two counts.

At the command arms, grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock.

At the command two, carry the piece, with the right hand to the position of port arms, regrasp it with the left.

Left shoulder arms may be ordered from the order, right shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command arms, execute port arms and continue to the position ordered.

Being at order arms: 1. Parade, 2. REST. It is executed in one count.

At the command rest, carry muzzle in front of the center of the body, barrel to the left. Grasp piece with the left hand just below the stacking swivel, and with the right hand below and against the left. Left knee slightly bent. Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear.



Being at parade rest: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. Executed in one count.

At the command attention (it is a custom of the service to execute the movement at the last syllable of the command), resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the right hip.

Being at order arms: 1. Trail, 2. ARMS.

At the command arms, raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30 deg. with the vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others, the piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left hand may be used.



Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE. It is executed in two counts.

At the command salute, carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers joined, forefinger touching end of cocking piece. Look toward the person saluted. At the command two, drop the hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to the front.



Being at order or trail arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.

At the command salute, carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against piece near the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. At the command two, drop the left hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to the front.



Being at order arms: 1. Fix, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: execute parade rest; grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward the body; draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing at the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: draw the bayonet with the left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner.

Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the most convenient manner.

If marching or laying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity but not in cadence.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.

At the command arms, take the position of port arms; at the command two, seize the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, turn the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber. Having found the chamber empty, or having emptied it, raise the head and eyes to the front. Keep your right hand on the bolt.



It is a very common error to change the position of the piece while drawing the bolt back. Guard against this.

Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (or right shoulder, or port), 2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command (i.e., at the command order), push the bolt forward, turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command arms, complete the movement ordered.



TO DISMISS THE SQUAD

Being at a halt: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.

Make a point of becoming sufficiently familiar with the different parts of the rifle to obey the following general rules governing the manual.

The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. the piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "safe." At all other times it is carried unlocked with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately inspected at the commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order (right shoulder, port), 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and placed in the belt.

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges are actually used.

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or for combat.

Fifth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. Fall out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On resuming attention the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is brought to the right shoulder at the command march, the three motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at trail; as, 1. At trail, forward, 2. MARCH; the trail is taken at the command march.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of the order begins when the halt is completed.

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms.

The following rules govern the execution of the manual of arms:

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the sling is included in the grasp of the hand.

Second. In all positions of the piece, "diagonally across the body" the position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same as in port arms.

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the manual, the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece about 3 inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand above and near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward, all fingers of the right hand grasping the piece. To complete the order, lower the piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by the side, and take the position of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground, or other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing the manual, is prohibited.

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the recruits are first required to give their whole attention to the details of the motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as they become accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor may require them to count aloud in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, for the purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed in detail; in this case the command of execution determines the prompt execution of the first motion, and the commands, two, three, four, that of the other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: By the numbers; all movements divided into motions are then executed as above explained until he cautions: Without the numbers; or commands movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of the manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard to the previous position of the piece.

Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may be carried in any manner directed.



CHAPTER IV

SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD

Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations



CLOSE ORDER DRILLS

For several days after reporting you will undergo many hours of close order drill. You will ask yourself, "Why is all this mental and physical strain necessary when these exercises are not used in battle?" The answer is: they are disciplinary exercises and are designed to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which is essential to proper military control and to teach you precise and soldierly movements; hence, they are executed at attention.



DEFINITIONS

Deploy. To extend the front. A squad deploys when it goes "As skirmishers." A company likewise deploys when it goes from column into line.

File. Two men, the front rank man and the corresponding man in the rear rank. The front rank man is the file leader. A file which has no rear rank man is a blank file.

Interval. Space between elements of the same line. The interval between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from elbow to elbow. It is to get this interval that each man is required to raise his arm when the company is formed.

Distance. Space between elements in the direction of depth. It is measured from the back of the man in front to the breast of the man in rear. The rear rank when in line or column is 40 inches from the front rank.

The guide of a squad in line is right unless otherwise announced.

The guide of a squad deployed, (i.e., skirmishers) is center unless otherwise announced.



TO FORM THE SQUAD

To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in front of where the center is to be and commands: Fall in.

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order of height from right to left, each man dropping his left hand as soon as the man on his left has his interval. The rear rank forms with distance of 40 inches.

The instructor then commands: Count off.

At this command all except the right file execute eyes right, and beginning on the right, the men in each rank count one, two, three, four—one, two, three, four; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as he counts.

Pieces are then inspected.



The purpose of putting the left hand on the hip is to get enough elbow room. A man should have sufficient space to operate his piece. These four-inch intervals give it to him.



Note the space between elbows (interval) is 4 inches. The space between the front and rear rank (distance) is 40 inches, and is measured from the back of the man in front to the breast of the man in the rear.



ALIGNMENTS

To align the squad, the base file or files having been established: 1. Right (left), 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT.

At the command dress, all men place the left hand upon the hip (whether dressing to the right or left); each man, except the base file, when on or near the new lines executes eyes right, and, taking steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his right arm rests lightly against the elbow of the man on his right (vice versa in left dressing), and so that his eyes and shoulders are in line with those of the men on his right, and also that each man can see the eyes of at least two men on his right.



The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right flank and orders up or back such men as may be in the rear, or in advance, of the line; only the men designated move.

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each man turns his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand by his side.

There are in dressing a number of common errors that we should try to avoid. Don't jab the man on your left with your elbow. If you are not on the line, move your feet. Don't lean forward or backward. Be sure to touch gently the man on your right with your right arm. Be certain to keep your left elbow forced well to the front. This is a little uncomfortable at first, but unless we do this our arms will not measure the 4 inches correctly. Don't hump up the left shoulder, and don't turn the shoulders to the right. Keep fingers of left hand extended and joined.

We want to place especial stress on the importance of three movements in the school of the squad. When you have thoroughly mastered these three, you will have a splendid basis for the remainder of the School of the Squad, the full value of which you will later appreciate. These are: Squad right, Squad right about, and Right turn.

The first line drawing in this chapter shows correct proportions of interval and distance. To save space and for convenience, the drawings hereafter are made without regard to proportions (intervals and distances).



First Movement

SQUAD RIGHT

Being in line, to turn and march: 1. Squad right (left), 2. MARCH.

In this movement many instructors have recruit squads step off on the 7th count. When the drill progresses the squad should step off on the 5th count.



At the command march, No. 1 in the front rank faces to the right in marching and marks time; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank turn 45 degrees to the right (right oblique), place themselves abreast (on the same line) of No. 1 and mark time.

Now it is difficult quickly to understand the movements of the rear rank. Give them a lot of study and don't go on until you are certain that you understand.



No. 3 moves straight to the front.

No. 2 follows No. 3.

No. 1 follows No. 2.

When they (Nos. 3, 2 and 1) arrive in rear of their file leaders, (Nos. 3, 2 and 1, front rank) they face to the right in marching and mark time.

No. 4 of the rear rank moves straight to the front four paces, and places himself abreast of No. 3, rear rank.

When No. 4, front rank, and No. 4, rear rank, are on the line, (and the remainder of the squad must glance toward them to see when that is true), the whole squad moves forward without further command.

Note that we have said that No. 1 front rank marks time. We see that he becomes, temporarily, an immovable pivot for his squad. We, therefore, call him a fixed pivot.

Had the command been squad left, instead of squad right, No. 4 would have been the fixed pivot instead of No. 1.

Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. Squad right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding case except that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the command halt is given, when all halt.

Whenever the third command (i.e., squad) is given means that the command halt is to follow. This is caution to the squad to prepare to halt. The command halt should be given as No. 4 arrives on the line.



Second Movement

SQUAD RIGHT ABOUT

Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. Squad right (left) about, 2. MARCH.



At the command march, the front rank twice executes Squad right, initiating (starting) the second Squad right when No. 4 has arrived on the line. That much is very simple.

The rear rank has a harder task. Let us have the front and rear rank execute the movement separately:



The rear rank is to take its place on the dotted line a b.

No. 3 rear rank moves straight to the front until in prolongation of the line to be occupied by the rear rank.

No. 2 follows No. 3.

No. 1 follows No. 2.

When No. 3 arrives on the line to be occupied by the rear rank he changes direction to the right; he moves in the new direction until in rear of No. 3, front rank, when Nos. 3, 2, and 1, rear rank, are in rear of Nos. 3, 2, and 1, front rank, (i.e., when they are in rear of their front rank men), they face to the right in marching and mark time. No. 4 marches on the left of No. 3 to his new position. As he arrives on the line, both ranks execute forward march without command, For the remainder of the squad to know when No. 4 front and rear rank have arrived on the line, they glance to see. The squad should step off on the 9th count.



Third Movement

RIGHT TURN

Being in line: 1. Right (left) turn, 2. MARCH.



At the command march, No. 1 front rank faces to the right in marching and takes the half step. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 front rank right oblique (turn 45 degrees to the right) until opposite their places in line, then execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving abreast of the pivot man. When No. 4 arrives on the line Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 take the full step without further command. (To know when No. 4 arrives on the line it is necessary to glance in his direction.) Full step on the 7th count.

The rear rank executes the movement in the same way and turns on the same ground as the front rank. The rear rank, therefore, moves forward at the command march, or continues to move forward, if already marching, until it arrives at the place where the front turned, when it turns.

Note that the squad turns on No. 1 front rank but that he does not remain in his position even temporarily, as in squad right; he is, therefore, called the moving pivot. No. 4 is called the marching flank.

Had the command been left turn, No. 4 would have been the moving pivot, and No. 1 the marching flank.

Knowing the three above movements, we are prepared for the following:

Being in line at a halt: 1. Take interval, 2. To the right (left), 3. MARCH, 4. Squad, 5. HALT.



At the command to the right (left), the rear rank men march backward four steps (15 inches each step) and halt.



At the command march, all face to the right and No. 1 front and rear rank step off. No. 2, front and rear rank, follow No. 1, front and rear rank, at a distance of four paces. Likewise with the other numbers.



At the command halt, given when No. 3 is three paces distant from No. 4, all halt and face to the front.



Being at intervals: 1. Assemble, to the right, (left), 2. MARCH.

At the command march, No. 1 front rank stands fast. No. 1 rear rank closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right, close by the shortest line, and face to the front.



Being in line at a halt: 1. Take distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

At the command march, No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the rear rank, in the order named, move straight to the front, each stepping off so as to follow the preceding man at four paces. The command halt is given when all have their distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right.



The front rank men should walk straight to the front and their rear rank men should cover them accurately.

Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward to their proper places in line.



THE OBLIQUE MARCH

For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face half right (or half left), points out to the men their relative positions, and explains that these are to be maintained in the oblique march.

1. Right (left) oblique, 2. MARCH.

Each man steps off in a direction 45 degrees to the right of his original front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his shoulders parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of the line or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks remain parallel to their original front.

At the command halt, the men halt faced to the front.

To resume the original direction: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.



The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight to the front.

If at half step or mark time while obliquing, the oblique march is resumed by the commands: 1. Oblique, 2. MARCH.

TO FOLLOW THE CORPORAL

Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of it and commands: FOLLOW ME.

If in line or skirmish line, No. 2 of the front rank follows in the track of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men conform to the movements of No. 2, guiding on him and maintaining their relative positions.

If in column, the head of the column follows the corporal.



Note that No. 4 rear rank takes the place of the corporal when the corporal is in front of the squad. This a general rule. When any front rank man is absent his rear rank man steps up in the front rank. When the squad is following the corporal No. 4 rear rank remains blank (i.e., No. 3 does not step to the left and cover No. 4).



TO DEPLOY AS SKIRMISHERS

Being in any formation, assembled: 1. As skirmishers, 2. MARCH.

The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not already there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the corporal at half-pace intervals. Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos. 3 and 4 on his left, rear-rank men on the right of their file leaders, extra men on the left of No. 4; all then conform to the corporal's gait.

There is a rule of thumb that must be remembered. The rear-rank man is always on the right of his file leader.

A common error is for beginners to execute the movement at a slow trot which a run is required.

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed on No. 2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the march, as the case may be; the corporal places himself in front of the squad when advancing and in rear when halted.

When deployed as skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at the trail unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front rank is the guide. The guide is center.

The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace, resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The front of a squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces.



The common error is to keep an interval of a very few inches when 15 inches are required.



TO INCREASE OR DIMINISH INTERVALS

If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or decrease the interval: 1. As skirmishers, (so many) paces, 2. MARCH.

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already deployed, the men move by the flank or away from the guide.

The above command is used but very little.



THE ASSEMBLY

Being deployed: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time, form, and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed.

Note. It will be better for the beginner to let the remainder of this chapter go for awhile. Your instructor will explain all of the following points in a way that will be easier for you than for you to try to work them out alone. They will come up in the first month's work and will be explained and shown as you go along. As you become more proficient we advise you, then, to take up the remainder of the chapter.

If standing: KNEEL.

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the left rear of the left heel; kneel on the right knee, sitting as nearly as possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh; piece remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping it above the lower hand.

If standing or kneeling: LIE DOWN.

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the left foot and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35 degrees to the right; piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground and pointed to the front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the balance, right hand grasping the small of the stock opposite the neck. This is the position of order arms, lying down.

If kneeling or lying down: RISE.

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the knees.

If lying down: KNEEL.

Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel.

In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down are ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position may be taken in lieu of the kneeling position.



LOADINGS AND FIRINGS

The commands for loading and firing are the same whether standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed at a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does not load, aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only.

Pieces, having been ordered loaded, are kept loaded without command until the command unload, or inspection arms, fresh clips being inserted when the magazine is exhausted.

The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This may be done before or after announcing the sight setting. Both are indicated before giving the command for firing, but may be omitted when the target appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in such case battle sight is used if no sight setting is announced.

The target or aiming point having been designated and the sight setting announced, such designation or announcement need not be repeated until a change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point or target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until a change is ordered.

If the men are not already in the position of load, that position is taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if the announcement is omitted, the position is taken at the first command for firing.

When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate firing is discretionary with each man.



TO LOAD

Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height of the breast, and turns the cut-off up. With the right hand, he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in the clip slots, places the thumb on the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "safe" and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as neatly as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the elbows are supported by the knees; if lying down, the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.



STACK AND TAKE ARMS

The subject of stack and take arms is less important than the rest of this chapter. It is difficult to be learned from a book. Your company commander will explain it to you. It is given here to serve as a reference.

Being in line at a halt: STACK ARMS.

Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the left hand at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet, barrel to the front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front and opposite the center of the interval on his right, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel; each even number of the rear rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, to his file leader, who grasps it between the bands with his right hand and throws the butt about two feet in advance of that of his own piece and opposite the right of the interval, the right hand slipping to the upper band, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel, which he engages with that of his own piece; each odd number of the front rank raises his piece with the right hand, carries it well forward, barrel to the front; the left hand, guiding the stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the swivel of his own piece with the free hook of that of the even number of the rear rank; he then turns the barrel outward into the angle formed by the other two pieces and lowers the butt to the ground, to the right of and against the toe of his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the even numbers of the front rank.

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the position of the soldier.

Being in line behind the stacks: TAKE ARMS.

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the front rank; each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece with the left hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with his right hand, grasping both between the bands; each odd number of the front rank grasps his piece in the same way with the right hand, disengages it by raising the butt from the ground and then, turning the piece to the right, detaches it from the stack; each even number of the front rank disengages and detaches his piece by turning it to the left, and then passes the piece of his rear-rank man to him, and all resume the order.

Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear rank takes the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking the stack; the stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed loose pieces.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed.



CHAPTER V

SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY

Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations

The company in line is formed in double rank with the men arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from right to left, the tallest on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command: Count off. The squads, successively from the right, count off as in the School of the Squad, corporals placing themselves as No. 4 of the front rank.

At the formation of the company the platoons or squads are numbered consecutively from right to left, and these designations do not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the designations, right, center, left, when in line, and leading, center, rear, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads. These designations, right, center, left, when in line, and leading, center, rear, when in column, are applied to the actual right, left, center, head, or rear, in whatever direction the company may be facing. The center squad is the middle or right middle squad of the company. If there are an even number of squads in the company, for instance eight, the center squad would be the fourth.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.



During battle, these assignments are not changed; vacancies are filled by non-commissioned officers of the platoon, or by the nearest available officers or non-commissioned officers arriving with reinforcing troops.



CLOSE ORDER

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side of the guide.

Men in the line of file closers do not execute loadings and firings.



TO FORM THE COMPANY

At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company is to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands: Fall in.

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front, where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their posts.

The first sergeant commands: Report. Remaining in position at the order, the squad leaders, in succession from the right, salute and report: All present; or Private(s)—— absent. The first sergeant does not return the salutes of the squad leaders; he then commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order, 4. ARMS, faces about, salutes the captain, reports: Sir, all present or accounted for, or the names of the unauthorized absentees, and without command, takes his post.

If the company cannot be formed by squads, the first sergeant commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Right shoulder, 4. ARMS, and calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called, answers here and executes order arms. The sergeant then effects the division into squads and reports the company as prescribed above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of, and facing, the company in time to receive the report of the first sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has reported, and draw saber with the captain.

Generally in camp the saber is not worn. The officers and first sergeants carry pistols. The hand salute is rendered when so armed.

In the School of the Squad we gave three movements that formed the basis of the squad drill. There are six movements in the School of the Company that should be thoroughly understood. When the beginner knows these he will have no difficulty with the remainder of the close order.



1ST MOVEMENT ON THE FIXED PIVOT

Being in line, to turn the company: 1. Company right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.



Notice that the part of the company which has not completed the movement is perpendicular to the part that has. The common error is for the rear rank to oblique before marching four paces to the front.

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rank faces to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank men, oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time; in the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching and mark time; the remaining men of the rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces, oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover their file leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes post on the flank and marks time.

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear of the new line.

The command Halt may be given at any time after the movement begins; only those halt who are in the new position. Each of the others halts upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the right, and executes front without command.

The difference between this movement and squad right is slight. The rear rank acts a little differently, and the company waits for the command to move forward. The idea is exactly the same.



2D MOVEMENT ON THE MOVING PIVOT

Being in line, to change direction: 1. Right (left) turn, 2. MARCH, 3: Forward, 4. MARCH.

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that the men do not glance toward the marching flank and that all take the full step at the fourth command. The right guide is the pivot of the front rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on the same ground as his file leader.



Being in line, to form column of squads and move forward: 1. Right (left) by squads, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the right squad marches forward; the remainder of the company executes squads right, column left, and follows the right squad. The right guide, when he has posted himself in front of the right squad, takes four short steps, then resumes the full steps; the right squad conforms.

A common error is for the guide to forget to take the four short steps.



Keep dressed accurately on the side of the guide. (He is always on the side opposite from the file closers This is a rule of thumb that should be memorized at once.) The guide in every squad should keep 40 inches from the man in front. So many new men forget about the 40 inches. They usually take a little over 30. When the company is moved into line there is of course a jam. Hold your head up. Don't look down to the ground. You will be in the formation more than any other. Try to keep the following cautions in mind: The leading men of the company should have four inches interval. Better to have too much than too little if mistakes are to be insisted upon. Keep the pieces in the correct positions at right shoulder and then have heads and rifles in a bee line. When the movement is completed the company will be in the formation shown in the drawing.



FOURTH MOVEMENT COLUMN RIGHT

Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH.

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns to the right on moving pivot as in the School of the Squad; the other ranks, without command, turn successively on the same ground and in similar manner.



It is a very common error for the pivot man to take too short a step and thereby cause a jam. Bear this in mind. Another very common error is for the flank man (or men) to take a very long step. This is caused by the pivot man's forgetting to glance and see when the flank man arrives on the line, before he takes the full step. Another common error is to get out of column while making this movement. Bear this in mind and walk straight to the turning point.



Now we come to the last two movements. They cause more trouble than any others.



FIFTH MOVEMENT ON RIGHT (LEFT) INTO LINE

Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right or left: 1. On right (left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

(On right [left] into line, means turn in the direction that is on your right and get into line. You have to be in column before the movement is begun.)

Let us first consider the company in column of squads.



At the captain's command on right into line, the corporal of the leading squad commands right turn. The corporals of all the remaining squads, if halted, command forward, if marching they caution their squads to continue the march. At the captain's command march, the leading squad turns to the right on a moving pivot. The remaining squads march straight to the front.

Each corporal commands right turn before arriving opposite the right of his squads place in line. When the front rank of his squad has arrived opposite that place he gives the command march.

The command halt is given when the leading squad has advanced the desired distance in the new direction. Only the leading squad halts. The corporal then commands right dress.

The remaining corporals before arrival on the line, command, squad, and add the command halt just before the right front rank reaches the line. Then, they, command right dress.

The captain then dresses the company and commands front.

If executed in double time the leading squad marches in double time until halted.

Now let us consider the company in columns of platoons. See illustration on next page.

At the captain's command on right into line, the leader of the first platoon commands right turn, the leaders of the rear platoons, if halted, command forward; if marching, they caution their platoons to continue the march. The first platoon executes the right turn at the captain's command march. Having completed the turn the platoon commander gives the command, forward, MARCH.



The remaining platoon commanders give right turn, MARCH, when opposite their places, and the command, forward, MARCH, when the turn has been completed.

When the leading platoon has advanced the desired distance the captain gives the command, company, HALT. At the command company, the leading platoon leader gives the command, platoon. His platoon only halts at the captain's command, halt. The platoon leader then gives the command, right dress, and takes his post in the file closers. The remaining platoons are successively halted and dressed by their leader. The captain gives the command FRONT.



SIXTH MOVEMENT RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE

Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to the front: 1. Right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

(Right [left] front into line means move to the right of the front and get into line. It is necessary to be in column to begin this movement.)

Let us first consider the company in column of squads. At the captain's command, right front into line, the corporal of the leading squad, if halted, commands forward; if marching, he cautions his squad, continue the march. The corporals of the remaining squads command right oblique. At the command march, the leading squad moves forward. The remaining squads oblique as indicated. The command halt is given when the leading squad has advanced the desired distance; its corporal then commands left dress.

The remaining corporals command forward, MARCH, when opposite their places in the line. They halt and dress their squads on the line established by the leading squad.

When the company is in column of platoons the movement is executed in the same manner and by the same commands except the word platoon is substituted for squad. The Captain gives the command FRONT.



Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1. Platoons right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.



Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank toward which the movement is to be executed are covering. This is effected by previously announcing the guide to that flank.

The two common errors are: 1. First, the pivot man takes a short step instead of marking time. Second, (being in line), the pivot men of the platoons forget that they are the pivots and therefore do not execute the command when ordered.



The following illustration shows the side view of a platoon. Note the common errors: No. 1 rear rank is closed up to about twenty inches. He is looking down at the heels of his front rank file (man). Rifles are improperly held. Some men in the rear rank have more than forty inches distance from their front rank men.

Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse; or, being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.



If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of the file closers they dart through the column and take posts in rear of the company at the second command. If the column of squads be formed from line, the file closers take posts on the pivot flank, abreast of and 4 inches from the nearest flank.

Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH.

At the first command the leader of the leading platoon commands: Right turn. At the command march the leading platoon turns to the right on moving pivot; its leader commands: Forward, 2. MARCH, on completion of the turn. Rear platoons march squarely up to the turning point of the leading platoon and turn at the command of their leaders. When each platoon has completed its turn, the leader commands forward, MARCH.



Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the reverse: 1. Platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Being in line, to form column of squads and then change direction. 1. Squads left (right), column right (left), 2. MARCH.



The left squad initiates (begins) The column right as soon as it has completed the squad left.]

Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. Squads left (right), platoons, column left (right), 2.



MARCH; or, 1. Platoons, right (left) by squads, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the preceding paragraph.



FACING OR MARCHING TO THE REAR

Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company is in line of platoons, or in column of squads, the file closers turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line, each darts through the nearest interval between squads.

To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. About, 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now in front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their relative positions. No other movement is executed until the line is faced to the original front.

Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or being in line of platoons, to form the company in line: 1. Platoons, right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders verify the alignment before taking their posts; the captain commands front when the alignments have been verified.

When front into line is executed in double time the commands for halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the side of the first unit in line.



ROUTE STEP AND AT EASE

The column of squads is the habitual column of route, but route step and at ease are applicable to any marching formation.

To march at route step: 1. Route step, 2. MARCH. Sabers are carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry their pieces at will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not required to preserve silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks cover and preserve their distance. If halted from route step, the men stand at rest.

To march at ease: 1. At ease, 2. MARCH.

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is preserved when hated, the men remain at ease.

Marching at route step or at ease: 1. Company, 2. ATTENTION.

At the command attention the pieces are brought to the right shoulder and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed.



RULES FOR GUIDES

A guide is a noncommissioned officer or a private upon whom the company regulates its march.

It is not difficult for an inexperienced man learn, with a little practice, the duties and the correct positions of a guide. Remember the rule of thumb, The guide and the file closers are on the opposite flanks when the company is in column of squads. In squads right about it would be ridiculous for the file closers to move from one flank to another. Guides are permitted and supposed look around to see if they are in their proper places; most new men are timid about this.

The following general rules and examples will help you:

The guide of a company or platoon in line is right, unless otherwise announced.

The guide of a company or platoon in column of squads is toward the side of the guide, who places himself on the side of the company away from the file closers.

The guide of a deployed line (a skirmish line) is always center unless otherwise announced.

EXAMPLES

Suppose the company to be in line.

In executing:

1. Squads right. The guides go to the left flank.

2. Right by squads. The guides go to the left flank.

3. Squads left. The guides go to the right flank.

4. Left by squads. The guides go to the right flank.

If the company is in column of squads and the command is either squads right or left about, the guides simply remember to remain on the flank opposite from the file closers. It is very easy to see that a world of confusion would be caused by the file closers attempting to move to the opposite flank during squads right or left about. If the guides are in doubt look to see where the file closers are and then apply the rule of thumb: File closers and guides are always on opposite flanks.

TO DIMINISH THE FRONT OF A COLUMN OF SQUADS

Being in column of squads: 1. Right (left) by twos, 2. MARCH.

At the command march all files except the two right files on the leading squad execute "in Place Halt"; the two left files of the leading squads oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads follow successively in like manner.

Being in column of squads or twos:

1. Right (left) by file, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, all files execute "In Place Halt," except the right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or files of the leading two or squad oblique successively to the right when disengaged and each follows the file on its right at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining twos or squads follow successively in like manner.



Being in column of files or twos, to form column of squads; or, being in column of files, to form column of twos: 1. Squads (twos), right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the leading file or files halt and come to order arms. The remainder of the squad, or twos, obliques to the right and halts on line with the leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up and successively form in rear of the first in like manner.

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