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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK * BOSTON * CHICAGO * DALLAS ATLANTA * SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., LIMITED LONDON * BOMBAY * CALCUTTA MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD. TORONTO



THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT

The Function of the Mind in Determining, Teaching and Installing Methods of Least Waste

BY L.M. GILBRETH, PH.D.



New York THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1921



1914, BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

—————

Set up and electrotyped. Published March, 1914



TO MY FATHER AND MOTHER



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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I PAGE

DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT ............................................. 1

Definition of Psychology of Management—Importance of the Subject—Purpose of this Book—Definition of Management—The Three Types of Management—Possible Psychological Studies of Management—Plan of Psychological Study Here Used—Underlying Ideas or Divisions of Scientific Management—Outline of Method of Investigation—Conclusions to be Reached.

CHAPTER II

INDIVIDUALITY ............................................... 21

Definition of Individuality—Place of Individuality in Psychology—Individuality Under Traditional Management—Individuality Under Transitory Management—Individuality Under Scientific Management—Selection of Workers—Separating Output—Recording Output Separately—Individual Tasks—Individual Instruction Cards—Individual Teaching—Individual Incentives—Individual Welfare—Summary: (a) Effect of Individuality upon Work; (b) Effect of Individuality upon Worker.

CHAPTER III

FUNCTIONALIZATION ........................................... 52

Definition of Functionalization—Psychological Use of Functionalization—Functionalization in Traditional Management—Functionalization Under Transitory Management—Functionalization Under Scientific Management—Separating the Planning From the Performing—Functionalized Foremanship—The Function of Order of Work and Route Clerk—The Function of Instruction Card Clerk—The Function of Time and Cost Clerk—The Function of Disciplinarian—The Function of Gang Boss—The Function of Speed Boss—The Function of Repair Boss—The Function of Inspector—Functionalizing the Worker—Functionalizing the Work Itself—Summary: (a) Effect of Functionalization upon the Work; (b) Effect of Functionalization upon the Worker.

CHAPTER IV

MEASUREMENT ................................................. 90

Definition of Measurement—Importance of Measurement in Psychology—Relation of Measurement in Psychology to Measurement in Management—Importance of Measurement in Management—Measurement in Traditional Management—Measurement in Transitory Management—Measurement in Scientific Management—Qualifications of the Observer—Methods of Observation—Definitions of Motion Study and Time Study—Methods of Motion Study and Time Study—Summary: (a) Effect of Measurement on the Work; (b) Effect of Measurement on the Worker; (c) Future Results to be Expected; (d) First Step Toward Obtaining These Results.

CHAPTER V

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS ...................................... 123

Definition of Analysis—Definition of Synthesis—Use of Analysis and Synthesis by Psychology—Importance of Analysis and Synthesis in Management—Place in Traditional Management—Place in Transitory Management—Place in Scientific Management—The Work of the Analyst—Determining Factor in Amount of Analysis—Field of Psychology in Analysis—Qualifications of an Analyst—Worker's Interest in Analysis—The Work of the Synthesist—Results of Synthesist's Work—The Task—Discussion of the Name "Task"—Definition of "Task" in Scientific Management—Field of Application of the Task Idea—Qualifications of the Synthesist—Summary: (a) Effect of Analysis and Synthesis on the Work; (b) Effect of Analysis and Synthesis on the Worker.

CHAPTER VI

STANDARDIZATION ............................................. 139

Definition of Standardization—Relation of the Standard to the Task and the Incentive—Relation of the Standard to Psychology—Purpose of Standardization—Standardization Under Traditional Management—Standardization Under Transitory Management—Value of Systems—Standardization Under Scientific Management—Relation of Standard to Measurement—Scope of Standardization Under Scientific Management—Permanence of Results—Needs of Standardization Likened to Needs in Field of Spelling—Standard Nomenclature—Advantages of Mnemonic Symbols—Standard Phraseology—The Standard Man—Standard Means of Conveying Information—Definition of the Instruction Card—Detailed Description of the Instruction Card—Value of Standard Surroundings—Necessity for Proper Placing of the Worker—Standard Equipment—Standard Tools and Devices—Standard Clothing—Standard Methods—Rest from Fatigue—Standardization of Work with Animals—Standard Quality—Standard "Method of Attack"—Summary: (a) Effect of Standardization on the Work; (b) Effect of Standardization on the Worker; (c) Progress of Standardization Assured.

CHAPTER VII

RECORDS AND PROGRAMMES ...................................... 183

Definition of Record—Records Under Traditional Management—Records Under Transitory Management—Records Under Scientific Management—Criterion of Records—Records of Work and Workers—Records of Initiative—Records of Good Behavior—Records of Achievement—Records of "Exceptions"—Posting of Records—Summary of Results of Records to Work and Worker—Definition of Programme—Programmes Under Traditional Management—Programmes Under Transitory Management—Programmes Under Scientific Management—Programmes and Routing—Possibility of Prophecy Under Scientific Management—Summary of Results of Programmes to Work and Worker—Relation Between Records and Programmes—Types of Records and Programmes—Interrelation of Types—Illustrations of Complexity of Relations—Possibilities of Eliminating Waste—Derivation of the Programme—Summary: (a) Effect of Relations Between Records and Programmes on the Work; (b) Effect on the Worker.

CHAPTER VIII

TEACHING .................................................... 208

Definition of Teaching—Teaching Under Traditional Management—Faults Due to Lack of Standards—Teaching Under Transitory Management—Teaching Under Scientific Management—Importance of Teaching—Conforming of Teaching to Psychological Laws—Conservation of Valuable Elements of Traditional and Transitory Management—Scope of Teaching—Source of Teaching—Methods of Teaching—Instruction Cards as Teachers—Systems as Teachers—Drawings, Charts, Plans and Photographs—Functional Foremen as Teachers—Object Lessons as Teachers—Training the Senses—Forming Good Habits—Importance of Teaching Right Motions First—Stimulating Attention—Forming Associations—Educating the Memory—Cultivating the Imagination—Developing the Judgment—Utilizing Suggestion—Utilizing Native Reactions—Developing the Will—Adaptability of Teaching—Provision of Places for Teaching—Measurement of Teaching—Relation of Teaching to Academic Training and Vocational Guidance—Summary: (a) Result of Teaching in the Work; (b) Result of Teaching to the Worker; (c) Results to be Expected in the Future.

CHAPTER IX

INCENTIVES .................................................. 271

Definition of Incentive—Importance of Incentives—Direct and Indirect Incentives—Definition of Reward—Definition of Punishment—Nature of Direct Incentives—The Reward Under Traditional Management—The Punishment Under Traditional Management—The Direct Incentive Under Traditional Management—Incentives Under Transitory Management—Rewards Under Scientific Management—Promotion and Pay—Relation of Wages and Bonus—Day Work—Piece Work—Task Wage—Gain Sharing—Premium Plan—Profit Sharing—Differential Rate Piece—Task Work with a Bonus—Differential Bonus—Three Rate—Three Rate with Increased Rate—Other Rewards—Negative and Positive Punishments—Fines and Their Disposal—Assignment to Less Pleasant Work—Discharge and Its Elimination—Use of Direct Incentives—Summary: (a) Effect of Incentives upon the Work; (b) Effect of Incentives upon the Worker.

CHAPTER X

WELFARE ..................................................... 311

Definition of Welfare—"Welfare" and "Welfare Work"—Welfare Under Traditional Management—Welfare Work Under Traditional Management—Welfare Under Transitory Management—Welfare Work Under Transitory Management—Welfare Under Scientific Management—Physical Improvement—Mental Development—Moral Development—Interrelation of Physical, Mental and Moral Development—Welfare Work Under Scientific Management—Summary: (a) Result of Welfare to the Work; (b) Result of Welfare to the Worker.

INDEX ....................................................... 333



THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER I

DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL OUTLINE OF

DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT.—The Psychology of Management, as here used, means,—the effect of the mind that is directing work upon that work which is directed, and the effect of this undirected and directed work upon the mind of the worker.

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT.—Before defining the terms that will be used more in detail, and outlining the method of treatment to be followed, it is well to consider the importance of the subject matter of this book, for upon the reader's interest in the subject, and his desire, from the outset, to follow what is said, and to respond to it, rests a large part of the value of this book.

VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY.—First of all, then, what is there in the subject of psychology to demand the attention of the manager?

Psychology, in the popular phrase, is "the study of the mind." It has for years been included in the training of all teachers, and has been one of the first steps for the student of philosophy; but it has not, usually, been included among the studies of the young scientific or engineering student, or of any students in other lines than Philosophy and Education. This, not because its value as a "culture subject" was not understood, but because the course of the average student is so crowded with technical preparation necessary to his life work, and because the practical value of psychology has not been recognized. It is well recognized that the teacher must understand the working of the mind in order best to impart his information in that way that will enable the student to grasp it most readily. It was not recognized that every man going out into the world needs all the knowledge that he can get as to the working of the human mind in order not only to give but to receive information with the least waste and expenditure of energy, nor was it recognized that in the industrial, as well as the academic world, almost every man is a teacher.

VALUE OF MANAGEMENT.—The second question demanding attention is;—Of what value is the study of management?

The study of management has been omitted from the student's training until comparatively recently, for a very different reason than was psychology. It was never doubted that a knowledge of management would be of great value to anyone and everyone, and many were the queer schemes for obtaining that knowledge after graduation. It was doubted that management could be studied otherwise than by observation and practice.[1] Few teachers, if any, believed in the existence, or possibility, of a teaching science of management. Management was assumed by many to be an art, by even more it was thought to be a divinely bestowed gift or talent, rather than an acquired accomplishment. It was common belief that one could learn to manage only by going out on the work and watching other managers, or by trying to manage, and not by studying about management in a class room or in a text book; that watching a good manager might help one, but no one could hope really to succeed who had not "the knack born in him."

With the advent of "Scientific Management," and its demonstration that the best management is founded on laws that have been determined, and can be taught, the study of management in the class room as well as on the work became possible and actual.[2]

VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT.—Third, we must consider the value of the study of the psychology of management.[3]

This question, like the one that precedes it, is answered by Scientific Management. It has demonstrated that the emphasis in successful management lies on the man, not on the work; that efficiency is best secured by placing the emphasis on the man, and modifying the equipment, materials and methods to make the most of the man. It has, further, recognized that the man's mind is a controlling factor in his efficiency, and has, by teaching, enabled the man to make the most of his powers.[4] In order to understand this teaching element that is such a large part of management, a knowledge of psychology is imperative; and this study of psychology, as it applies to the work of the manager or the managed, is exactly what the "psychology of management" is.

FIVE INDICATIONS OF THIS VALUE.—In order to realize the importance of the psychology of management it is necessary to consider the following five points:—

1. Management is a life study of every man who works with other men. He must either manage, or be managed, or both; in any case, he can never work to best advantage until he understands both the psychological and managerial laws by which he governs or is governed.

2. A knowledge of the underlying laws of management is the most important asset that one can carry with him into his life work, even though he will never manage any but himself. It is useful, practical, commercially valuable.

3. This knowledge is to be had now. The men who have it are ready and glad to impart it to all who are interested and who will pass it on.[5] The text books are at hand now. The opportunities for practical experience in Scientific Management will meet all demands as fast as they are made.

4. The psychology of, that is, the mind's place in management is only one part, element or variable of management; one of numerous, almost numberless, variables.

5. It is a division well fitted to occupy the attention of the beginner, as well as the more experienced, because it is a most excellent place to start the study of management. A careful study of the relations of psychology to management should develop in the student a method of attack in learning his selected life work that should help him to grasp quickly the orderly array of facts that the other variables, as treated by the great managers, bring to him.

PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK.—It is scarcely necessary to mention that this book can hope to do little more than arouse an interest in the subject and point the way to the detailed books where such an interest can be more deeply aroused and more fully satisfied.

WHAT THIS BOOK WILL NOT DO.—It is not the purpose of this book to give an exhaustive treatment of psychology. Neither is it possible in this book to attempt to give a detailed account of management in general, or of the Taylor plan of "Scientific Management" so-called, in particular. All of the literature on the subject has been carefully studied and reviewed for the purpose of writing this book,—not only what is in print, but considerable that is as yet in manuscript. No statement has been made that is not along the line of the accepted thought and standardized practice of the authorities. The foot notes have been prepared with great care. By reading the references there given one can verify statements in the text, and can also, if he desires, inform himself at length on any branch of the subject that especially interests him.

WHAT THIS BOOK WILL DO.—This book aims not so much to instruct as to arouse an interest in its subject, and to point the way whence instruction comes. If it can serve as an introduction to psychology and to management, can suggest the relation of these two fields of inquiries and can ultimately enroll its readers as investigators in a resultant great field of inquiry, it will have accomplished its aim.

DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT.—To discuss this subject more in detail—

First: What is "Management"?

"Management," as defined by the Century Dictionary, is "the art of managing by direction or regulation."

Successful management of the old type was an art based on no measurement. Scientific Management is an art based upon a science,—upon laws deducted from measurement. Management continues to be what it has always been,—the art of directing activity.

CHANGE IN THE ACCEPTED MEANING.—"Management," until recent years, and the emphasis placed on Scientific Management was undoubtedly associated, in the average mind, with the managing part of the organization only, neglecting that vital part—the best interests of the managed, almost entirely. Since we have come to realize that management signifies the relationship between the managing and the managed in doing work, a new realization of its importance has come about.[6]

INADEQUACY OF THE TERMS USED.—It is unfortunate that the English language is so poor in synonyms in this field that the same word must have two such different and conflicting meanings, for, though the new definition of management be accepted, the "Fringe" of associations that belong to the old are apt to remain.[7] The thoughts of "knack, aptitude, tact, adroitness,"—not to speak of the less desirable "Brute Force," "shrewdness, subtlety, cunning, artifice, deceit, duplicity," of the older idea of management remain in the background of the mind and make it difficult, even when one is convinced that management is a science, to think and act as if it were.

It must be noticed and constantly remembered that one of the greatest difficulties to overcome in studying management and its development is the meaning of the terms used. It is most unfortunate that the new ideas have been forced to content themselves with old forms as best they may.

PSYCHOLOGICAL INTEREST OF THE TERMS.—Psychology could ask no more interesting subject than a study of the mental processes that lie back of many of these terms. It is most unfortunate for the obtaining of clearness, that new terms were not invented for the new ideas. There is, however, an excellent reason for using the old terms. By their use it is emphasized that the new thought is a logical outgrowth of the old, and experience has proved that this close relationship to established ideas is a powerful argument for the new science; but such terms as "task," "foreman," "speed boss," "piece-rate" and "bonus," as used in the science of management, suffer from misunderstanding caused by old and now false associations. Furthermore, in order to compare old and new interpretations of the ideas of management, the older terms of management should have their traditional meanings only. The two sets of meanings are a source of endless confusion, unwarranted prejudice, and worse. This is well recognized by the authorities on Management.

THE THREE TYPES OF MANAGEMENT.—We note this inadequacy of terms again when we discuss the various types of Management.

We may divide all management into three types— (1) Traditional (2) Transitory (3) Scientific, or measured functional.[8]

Traditional Management, the first, has been variously called "Military," "Driver," the "Marquis of Queensberry type," "Initiative and Incentive Management," as well as "Traditional" management.

DEFINITION OF THE FIRST TYPE.—In the first type, the power of managing lies, theoretically at least, in the hands of one man, a capable "all-around" manager. The line of authority and of responsibility is clear, fixed and single. Each man comes in direct contact with but one man above him. A man may or may not manage more than one man beneath him, but, however this may be, he is managed by but one man above him.

PREFERABLE NAME FOR THE FIRST TYPE.—The names "Traditional," or "Initiative and Incentive," are the preferable titles for this form of management. It is true they lack in specificness, but the other names, while aiming to be descriptive, really emphasize one feature only, and in some cases with unfortunate results.

THE NAME "MILITARY" INADVISABLE.—The direct line of authority suggested the name "Military,"[9] and at the time of the adoption of that name it was probably appropriate as well as complimentary.[10] Appropriate in the respect referred to only, for the old type of management varied so widely in its manifestations that the comparison to the procedure of the Army was most inaccurate. "Military" has always been a synonym for "systematized", "orderly," "definite," while the old type of management was more often quite the opposite of the meaning of all these terms. The term "Military Management" though often used in an uncomplimentary sense would, today, if understood, be more complimentary than ever it was in the past. The introduction of various features of Scientific Management into the Army and Navy,—and such features are being incorporated steadily and constantly,—is raising the standard of management there to a high degree. This but renders the name "Military" Management for the old type more inaccurate and misleading.

It is plain that the stirring associations of the word "military" make its use for the old type, by advocates of the old type, a weapon against Scientific Management that only the careful thinker can turn aside.

THE NAMES "DRIVER" AND "MARQUIS OF QUEENSBERRY" UNFORTUNATE.—The name "Driver" suggests an opposition between the managers and the men, an opposition which the term "Marquis of Queensberry" emphasizes. This term "Marquis of Queensberry" has been given to that management which is thought of as a mental and physical contest, waged "according to the rules of the game." These two names are most valuable pictorially, or in furnishing oratorical material. They are constant reminders of the constant desire of the managers to get all the work that is possible out of the men, but they are scarcely descriptive in any satisfactory sense, and the visions they summon, while they are perhaps definite, are certainly, for the inexperienced in management, inaccurate. In other words, they usually lead to imagination rather than to perception.

THE NAME "INITIATIVE AND INCENTIVE" AUTHORITATIVE.—The term "Initiative and Incentive" is used by Dr. Taylor, and is fully described by him.[11] The words themselves suggest, truly, that he gives the old form of management its due. He does more than this. He points out in his definition of the terms the likenesses between the old and new forms.

THE NAME "TRADITIONAL" BRIEF AND DESCRIPTIVE.—The only excuses for the term "Traditional," since Dr. Taylor's term is available, are its brevity and its descriptiveness. The fact that it is indefinite is really no fault in it, as the subject it describes is equally indefinite. The "fringe"[12] of this word is especially good. It calls up ideas of information handed down from generation to generation orally, the only way of teaching under the old type of management. It recalls the idea of the inaccurate perpetuation of unthinking custom, and the "myth" element always present in tradition,—again undeniable accusations against the old type of management. The fundamental idea of the tradition, that it is oral, is the essence of the difference of the old type of management from science, or even system, which must be written.

It is not necessary to make more definite here the content of this oldest type of management, rather being satisfied with the extent, and accepting for working use the name "Traditional" with the generally accepted definition of that name.

DEFINITION OF THE SECOND TYPE OF MANAGEMENT.—The second type of management is called "Interim" or "Transitory" management. It includes all management that is consciously passing into Scientific Management and embraces all stages, from management that has incorporated one scientifically derived principle, to management that has adopted all but one such principle.

PREFERABLE NAME FOR SECOND TYPE OF MANAGEMENT.—Perhaps the name "Transitory" is slightly preferable in that, though the element of temporariness is present in both words, it is more strongly emphasized in the latter. The usual habit of associating with it the ideas of "fleeting, evanescent, ephemeral, momentary, short-lived," may have an influence on hastening the completion of the installing of Scientific Management.

DEFINITION OF THE THIRD TYPE OF MANAGEMENT.—The third form of management is called "Ultimate," "measured Functional," or "Scientific," management, and might also be called,—but for the objection of Dr. Taylor, the "Taylor Plan of Management." This differs from the first two types mentioned in that it is a definite plan of management synthesized from scientific analysis of the data of management. In other words, Scientific Management is that management which is a science, i.e., which operates according to known, formulated, and applied laws.[13]

PREFERABLE NAME OF THE THIRD TYPE OF MANAGEMENT.—The name "Ultimate" has, especially to the person operating under the transitory stage, all the charm and inspiration of a goal. It has all the incentives to accomplishment of a clearly circumscribed task. Its very definiteness makes it seem possible of attainment. It is a great satisfaction to one who, during a lifetime of managing effort, has tried one offered improvement after another to be convinced that he has found the right road at last. The name is, perhaps, of greatest value in attracting the attention of the uninformed and, as the possibilities of the subject can fulfill the most exacting demands, the attention once secured can be held.

The name "measured functional" is the most descriptive, but demands the most explanation. The principle of functionalization is one of the underlying, fundamental principles of Scientific Management. It is not as necessary to stop to define it here, as it is necessary to discuss the definition, the principle, and the underlying psychology, at length later.

The name "scientific" while in some respects not as appropriate as are any of the other names, has already received the stamp of popular approval. In derivation it is beyond criticism. It also describes exactly, as has been said, the difference between the older forms of management and the new. Even its "fringe" of association is, or at least was when first used, all that could be desired; but the name is, unfortunately, occasionally used indiscriminately for any sort of system and for schemes of operation that are not based on time study. It has gradually become identified more or less closely with

1. the Taylor Plan of Management 2. what we have defined as the "Transitory" plan of management 3. management which not only is not striving to be scientific, but which confounds "science" with "system." Both its advocates and opponents have been guilty of misuse of the word. Still, in spite of this, the very fact that the word has had a wide use, that it has become habitual to think of the new type of management as "Scientific," makes its choice advisable. We shall use it, but restrict its content. With us "Scientific Management" is used to mean the complete Taylor plan of management, with no modifications and no deviations.

We may summarize by saying that:

1. the popular name is Scientific Management, 2. the inspiring name is Ultimate management, 3. the descriptive name is measured Functional management, 4. the distinctive name is the Taylor Plan of Management.

For the purpose of this book, Scientific Management is, then, the most appropriate name. Through its use, the reader is enabled to utilize all his associations, and through his study he is able to restrict and order the content of the term.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE THREE TYPES OF MANAGEMENT.—From the foregoing definitions and descriptions it will be clear that the three types of management are closely related. Three of the names given bring out this relationship most clearly. These are Traditional (i.e., Primitive), Interim, and Ultimate. These show, also, that the relationship is genetic, i.e., that the second form grows out of the first, but passes through to the third. The growth is evolutional.

Under the first type, or in the first stage of management, the laws or principles underlying right management are usually unknown, hence disregarded.

In the second stage, the laws are known and installed as fast as functional foremen can be taught their new duties and the resistances of human nature can be overcome.[14]

In the third stage the managing is operated in accordance with the recognized laws of management.

PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS RELATIONSHIP.—The importance of the knowledge and of the desire for it can scarcely be overestimated. This again makes plain the value of the psychological study of management.

POSSIBLE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MANAGEMENT.—In making this psychological study of management, it would be possible to take up the three types as defined above, separately and in order, and to discuss the place of the mind in each, at length; but such a method would not only result in needless repetition, but also in most difficult comparisons when final results were to be deduced and formulated.

It would, again, be possible to take up the various elements or divisions of psychological study as determined by a consensus of psychologists, and to illustrate each in turn from the three types of management; but the results from any such method would be apt to seem unrelated and impractical, i.e., it would be a lengthy process to get results that would be of immediate, practical use in managing.

PLAN OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY USED HERE.—It has, therefore, seemed best to base the discussion that is to follow upon arbitrary divisions of scientific management, that is—

1. To enumerate the underlying principles on which scientific management rests. 2. To show in how far the other two types of management vary from Scientific Management. 3. To discuss the psychological aspect of each principle.

ADVANTAGES OF THIS PLAN OF STUDY.—In this way the reader can gain an idea of

1. The relation of Scientific Management to the other types of management. 2. The structure of Scientific Management. 3. The relation between the various elements of Scientific Management. 4. The psychology of management in general, and of the three types of management in particular.

UNDERLYING IDEAS AND DIVISIONS OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.—These underlying ideas are grouped under nine divisions, as follows:—

1. Individuality. 2. Functionalization. 3. Measurement. 4. Analysis and Synthesis. 5. Standardization. 6. Records and Programmes. 7. Teaching. 8. Incentives. 9. Welfare.

It is here only necessary to enumerate these divisions. Each will be made the subject of a chapter.

DERIVATION OF THESE DIVISIONS.—These divisions lay no claim to being anything but underlying ideas of Scientific Management, that embrace varying numbers of established elements that can easily be subjected to the scrutiny of psychological investigation.

The discussion will be as little technical as is possible, will take nothing for granted and will cite references at every step. This is a new field of investigation, and the utmost care is necessary to avoid generalizing from insufficient data.

DERIVATION OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.—There has been much speculation as to the age and origin of Scientific Management. The results of this are interesting, but are not of enough practical value to be repeated here. Many ideas of Scientific Management can be traced back, more or less clearly and directly, to thinkers of the past; but the Science of Management, as such, was discovered, and the deduction of its laws, or "principles," made possible when Dr. Frederick W. Taylor discovered and applied Time Study. Having discovered this, he constructed from it and the other fundamental principles a complete whole.

Mr. George Iles in that most interesting and instructive of books, "Inventors at Work,"[15] has pointed out the importance, to development in any line of progress or science, of measuring devices and methods. Contemporaneous with, or previous to, the discovery of the device or method, must come the discovery or determination of the most profitable unit of measurement which will, of itself, best show the variations in efficiency from class. When Dr. Taylor discovered units of measurement for determining, prior to performance, the amount of any kind of work that a worker could do and the amount of rest he must have during the performance of that work, then, and not until then, did management become a science. On this hangs the science of management.[16]

OUTLINE OF METHOD OF INVESTIGATION.—In the discussion of each of the nine divisions of Scientific Management, the following topics must be treated:

1. Definition of the division and its underlying idea. 2. Appearance and importance of the idea in Traditional and Transitory Management. 3. Appearance and importance of the idea in Scientific Management. 4. Elements of Scientific Management which show the effects of the idea. 5. Results of the idea upon work and workers.

These topics will be discussed in such order as the particular division investigated demands. The psychological significance of the appearance or non-appearance of the idea, and of the effect of the idea, will be noted. The results will be summarized at the close of each chapter, in order to furnish data for drawing conclusions at the close of the discussion.

CONCLUSIONS TO BE REACHED.—These conclusions will include the following:—

1. "Scientific Management" is a science. 2. It alone, of the Three Types of Management, is a science. 3. Contrary to a widespread belief that Scientific Management kills individuality, it is built on the basic principle of recognition of the individual, not only as an economic unit but also as a personality, with all the idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person. 4. Scientific Management fosters individuality by functionalizing work. 5. Measurement, in Scientific Management, is of ultimate units of subdivision. 6. These measured ultimate units are combined into methods of least waste. 7. Standardization under Scientific Management applies to all elements. 8. The accurate records of Scientific Management make accurate programmes possible of fulfillment. 9. Through the teaching of Scientific Management the management is unified and made self-perpetuating. 10. The method of teaching of Scientific Management is a distinct and valuable contribution to Education. 11. Incentives under Scientific Management not only stimulate but benefit the worker. 12. It is for the ultimate as well as immediate welfare of the worker to work under Scientific Management. 13. Scientific Management is applicable to all fields of activity, and to mental as well as physical work. 14. Scientific Management is applicable to self-management as well as to managing others. 15. It teaches men to cooeperate with the management as well as to manage. 16. It is a device capable of use by all. 17. The psychological element of Scientific Management is the most important element. 18. Because Scientific Management is psychologically right it is the ultimate form of management. 19. This psychological study of Scientific Management emphasizes especially the teaching features. 20. Scientific Management simultaneously

a. increases output and wages and lowers costs. b. eliminates waste. c. turns unskilled labor into skilled. d. provides a system of self-perpetuating welfare. e. reduces the cost of living. f. bridges the gap between the college trained and the apprenticeship trained worker. g. forces capital and labor to cooeperate and to promote industrial peace.

CHAPTER I FOOTNOTES: ===============================================

1. Charles Babbage, Economy of Manufacturers. Preface, p. v. 2. Halbert P. Gillette, Paper No. 1, American Society of Engineering Contractors. 3. Gillette and Dana, Cost Keeping and Management, p. 5. 4. F.B. Gilbreth, Motion Study, p. 98. 5. F.W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, p. 144. 6. F.W. Taylor, Shop Management, para. 16, Am. Soc. M.E., Paper No. 1003. 7. William James, Psychology, Vol. I, p. 258. 8. F.B. Gilbreth, Cost Reducing System, Chap. 1. 9. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, Bulletin No. 5 of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, p. 17. 10. F.W. Taylor, Shop Management, para. 234, Am. Soc. M.E., Paper No. 1003. 11. F.W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, pp. 33-38. 12. The idea called to mind by the use of a given word.—Ed. 13. Henry R. Towne, Introduction to Shop Management. (Harper & Bros.) 14. F.W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, p. 123. (Harper & Bros.) 15. Doubleday, Page & Co. 16. F.W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, p. 137. (Harper & Bros.)

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CHAPTER II

INDIVIDUALITY

DEFINITION OF INDIVIDUALITY.—"An individual is a single thing, a being that is, or is regarded as, a unit. An individual is opposed to a crowd. Individual action is opposed to associate action. Individual interests are opposed to common or community interests." These definitions give us some idea of the extent of individuality. Individuality is a particular or distinctive characteristic of an individual; "that quality or aggregate of qualities which distinguishes one person or thing from another, idiosyncrasy." This indicates the content.

For our purpose, we may define the study of individuality as a consideration of the individual as a unit with special characteristics. That it is a unit signifies that it is one of many and that it has likeness to the many. That it has special characteristics shows that it is one of many, but different from the many. This consideration of individuality emphasizes both the common element and the diverging characteristics.

INDIVIDUALITY AS TREATED IN THIS CHAPTER.—The recognition of individuality is the subject of this chapter. The utilization of this individuality in its deviation from class, is the subject of the chapter that follows, Functionalization.

INDIVIDUALITY AS CONSIDERED BY PSYCHOLOGY.—Psychology has not always emphasized the importance of the individual as a unit for study. Prof. Ladd's definition of psychology, quoted and endorsed by Prof. James, is "the description and explanation of states of consciousness, as such."[1] "By states of consciousness," says James, "are meant such things as sensation, desires, emotions, cognitions, reasonings, decisions, volitions, and the like." This puts the emphasis on such divisions of consciousness as, "attention," "interest," and "will."

With the day of experimental psychology has come the importance of the individual self as a subject of study,[2] and psychology has come to be defined, as Calkins defines it, as a "science of the self as conscious."[3]

We hear much in the talk of today of the "psychology of the crowd," the "psychology of the mob," and the "psychology of the type," etc., but the mind that is being measured, and from whose measurements the laws are being deduced and formulated is, at the present the individual mind.[4]

The psychology which interested itself particularly in studying such divisions of mental activity as attention, will, habit, etc., emphasizes more particularly the likenesses of minds. It is necessary to understand thoroughly all of these likenesses before one can be sure what the differences, or idiosyncrasies, are, and how important they are, because, while the likenesses furnish the background, it is the differences that are most often actually utilized by management. These must be determined in order to compute and set the proper individual task for the given man from standard data of the standard, or first-class man.

In any study of the individual, the following facts must be noted:—

1. The importance of the study of the individual, and the comparatively small amount of work that has as yet been done in that field. 2. The difficulty of the study, and the necessity for great care, not only in the study itself, but in deducing laws from it. 3. The necessity of considering any one individual trait as modified by all the other traits of the individual. 4. The importance of the individual as distinct from the type.

Many students are so interested in studying types and deducing laws which apply to types in general, that they lose sight of the fact that the individual is the basis of the study,—that individuality is that for which they must seek and for which they must constantly account. As Sully says, we must not emphasize "typical developments in a new individual," at the expense of "typical development in a new individual."[5] It is the fact that the development occurs in an individual, and not that the development is typical, that we should emphasize.

INDIVIDUALITY SELDOM RECOGNIZED UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—Under Traditional Management there was little or no systematized method for the recognition of individuality or individual fitness.[6] The worker usually was, in the mind of the manager, one of a crowd, his only distinguishing mark being the amount of work which he was capable of performing.

SELECTING WORKERS UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—In selecting men to do work, there was little or no attempt to study the individuals who applied for work. The matter of selection was more of a process of "guess work" than of exact measurement, and the highest form of test was considered to be that of having the man actually tried out by being given a chance at the work itself. There was not only a great waste of time on the work, because men unfitted to it could not turn it out so successfully, but there also was a waste of the worker, and many times a positive injury to the worker, by his being put at work which he was unfitted either to perform, to work at continuously, or both.

In the most progressive type of Traditional Management there was usually a feeling, however, that if the labor market offered even temporarily a greater supply than the work in hand demanded, it was wise to choose those men to do the work who were best fitted for it, or who were willing to work for less wages. It is surprising to find in the traditional type, even up to the present day, how often men were selected for their strength and physique, rather than for any special capabilities fitting them for working in, or at, the particular line of work to be done.

OUTPUT SELDOM SEPARATED UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—Under Traditional Management especially on day work the output of the men was not usually separated, nor was the output recorded separately, as can be done even with the work of gangs.

FEW INDIVIDUAL TASKS UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—Seldom, if ever, was an individual task set for a worker on day work, or piece work, and even if one were set, it was not scientifically determined. The men were simply set to work alone or in gangs, as the work demanded, and if the foreman was overworked or lazy, allowed to take practically their own time to do the work. If, on the other hand, the foreman was a "good driver," the men might be pushed to their utmost limit of their individual undirected speed, regardless of their welfare.

LITTLE INDIVIDUAL TEACHING UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—Not having a clear idea either of the present fitness and the future possibilities of the worker, or the requirements of the work, no intelligent attempt could be made at efficient individual teaching. What teaching was done was in the form of directions for all, concerning the work in general, the directions being given by an overworked foreman, the holding of whose position often depended more upon whether his employer made money than upon the way his men were taught, or worked.

SELDOM AN INDIVIDUAL REWARD UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—As a typical example of disregard of individuality, the worker in the household may be cited, and especially the "general housework girl." Selected with no knowledge of her capabilities, and with little or no scientific or even systematized knowledge of the work that she is expected to do, there is little or no thought of a prescribed and definite task, no teaching specially adapted to the individual needs of the taught, and no reward in proportion to efficiency.

CAUSE OF THESE LACKS UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT.—The fault lies not in any desire of the managers to do poor or wasteful work, or to treat their workers unfairly,—but in a lack of knowledge and of accurate methods for obtaining, conserving and transmitting knowledge. Under Traditional Management no one individual knows precisely what is to be done. Such management seldom knows how work could best be done;—never knows how much work each individual can do.[7] Understanding neither work nor workers, it can not adjust the one to the other so as to obtain least waste. Having no conception of the importance of accurate measurement, it has no thought of the individual as a unit.

INDIVIDUALITY RECOGNIZED UNDER TRANSITORY MANAGEMENT.— Recognition of individuality is one of the principles first apparent under Transitory Management.

This is apt to demonstrate itself first of all in causing the outputs of the workers to "show up" separately, rewarding these separated outputs, and rewarding each worker for his individual output.

BENEFITS OF THIS RECOGNITION.—The benefits of introducing these features first are that the worker, (1) seeing his individual output, is stimulated to measure it, and (2) receiving compensation in accordance with his output, is satisfied; and (3) observing that records are necessary to determine the amount of output and pay, is glad to have accurate measurement and the other features of Scientific Management introduced.

INDIVIDUALITY A FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.—Under Scientific Management the individual is the unit to be measured. Functionalization is based upon utilizing the particular powers and special abilities of each man. Measurement is of the individual man and his work. Analysis and synthesis build up methods by which the individual can best do his work. Standards are of the work of an individual, a standard man, and the task is always for an individual, being that percentage of the standard man's task that the particular individual can do. Records are of individuals, and are made in order to show and reward individual effort. Specific individuals are taught those things that they, individually, require. Incentives are individual both in the cases of rewards and punishments, and, finally, it is the welfare of the individual worker that is considered, without the sacrifice of any for the good of the whole.

INDIVIDUALITY CONSIDERED IN SELECTING WORKERS.—Under Scientific Management individuality is considered in selecting workers as it could not be under either of the other two forms of management. This for several reasons:

1. The work is more specialized, hence requires more carefully selected men. 2. With standardized methods comes a knowledge to the managers of the qualifications of the "standard men" who can best do the work and continuously thrive. 3. Motion study, in its investigation of the worker, supplies a list of variations in workers that can be utilized in selecting men.[8]

VARIABLES OF THE WORKER.—This list now includes at least 50 or 60 variables, and shows the possible elements which may demand consideration. When it is remembered that the individual selected may need a large or small proportion of most of the variables in order to do his particular work most successfully, and that every single one of these variables, as related to the others, may, in some way affect his output and his welfare in doing his assigned work, the importance of taking account of individuality in selection is apparent.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT NEEDS SUPPORT IN STUDYING WORKERS.—The best of management is by no means at its ultimate stage in practice in this field. This, not because of a lack in the laws of management, but because, so far, Scientific Management has not received proper support from other lines of activity.

PRESENT LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF APPLICANTS.—At present, the men who apply to the Industries for positions have no scientifically determined idea of their own capabilities, neither has there been any effort in the training or experience of most of those who apply for work for the first time to show them how fit they really are to do the work which they wish to do.

SUPPLEMENTS DEMANDED BY SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.—Before the worker can be scientifically selected so that his individuality can be appreciated, Scientific Management must be supplemented in two ways:—

1. By psychological and physiological study of workers under it. By such study of the effect of various kinds of standardized work upon the mind and body, standard requirements for men who desire to do the work can be made. 2. By scientific study of the worker made before he comes into the Industries, the results of which shall show his capabilities and possibilities.[9]

WHENCE THIS HELP MUST COME.—This study must be made

a. In the Vocational Guidance Work. b. In the Academic Work,

and in both fields psychological and physiological investigations are called for.

WORK OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE BUREAUS.—Vocational Guidance Bureaus are, at present, doing a wonderful work in their line. This work divides itself into two parts:

1. Determining the capabilities of the boy, that is, seeing what he is, by nature and training, best fitted to do. 2. Determining the possibilities of his securing work in the line where he is best fitted to work, that is, studying the industrial opportunities that offer, and the "welfare" of the worker under each, using the word welfare in the broadest sense, of general wellbeing, mental, physical, moral and financial.

WORK OF ACADEMIC WORLD.—The Academic World is also, wherever it is progressive, attempting to study the student, and to develop him so that he can be the most efficient individual. Progressive educators realize that schools and colleges must stand or fall, as efficient, as the men they train become successful or unsuccessful in their vocations, as well as in their personal culture.

NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY IN ALL FIELDS.—In both these complementary lines of activity, as in Scientific Management itself, the need for psychological study is evident.[10] Through it, only, can scientific progress come. Here is emphasized again the importance of measurement. Through accurate measurement of the mind and the body only can individuality be recognized, conserved and developed as it should be.

PREPAREDNESS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY.—Experimental psychology has instruments of precision with which to measure and test the minds and bodies brought to it, and its leading exponents are so broadening the scope of its activities that it is ready and glad to plan for investigations.

METHOD OF SELECTION UNDER ULTIMATE MANAGEMENT.—Under Ultimate Management, the minds of the workers,—and of the managers too,—will have been studied, and the results recorded from earliest childhood. This record, made by trained investigators, will enable vocational guidance directors to tell the child what he is fitted to be, and thus to help the schools and colleges to know how best to train him, that is to say, to provide what he will need to know to do his life work, and also those cultural studies that his vocational work may lack, and that may be required to build out his best development as an individual.

It is not always recognized that even the student who can afford to postpone his technical training until he has completed a general culture course, requires that his culture course be carefully planned. Not only must he choose those general courses that will serve as a foundation for his special study, and that will broaden and enrich his study, but also he must be provided with a counter-balance,—with interests that his special work might never arouse in him. Thus the field of Scientific Management can be narrowed to determining and preparing standard plans for standard specialized men, and selecting men to fill these places from competent applicants.

What part of the specialized training needed by the special work shall be given in schools and what in the industries themselves can be determined later. The "twin apprentice" plan offers one solution of the problem that has proved satisfactory in many places. The psychological study should determine through which agency knowledge can best come at any particular stage of mental growth.

EFFECT ON WORKERS OF SUCH SELECTION.—As will be shown at greater length under "Incentives," Scientific Management aims in every way to encourage initiative. The outline here given as to how men must, ultimately, under Scientific Management, be selected serves to show that, far from being "made machines of," men are selected to reach that special place where their individuality can be recognized and rewarded to the greatest extent.

SELECTION UNDER SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT TO-DAY.—At the present day, the most that Scientific Management can do, in the average case, is to determine the type of men needed for any particular kind of work, and then to select that man who seems, from such observations as can be made, best to conform to the type. The accurate knowledge of the requirements of the work, and the knowledge of variables of the worker make even a cursory observation more rich in results than it would otherwise be. Even such an apparently obvious observation, as that the very fact that a man claims that he can do the work implies desire and will on his part to do it that may overcome many natural lacks,—even this is an advance in recognizing individuality.

EFFECT OF THIS SELECTION.—The result of this scientific selection of the workman is not only better work, but also, and more important from the psychological side, the development of his individuality. It is not always recognized that the work itself is a great educator, and that acute cleverness in the line of work to which he is fitted comes to the worker.

INDIVIDUALITY DEVELOPED BY SEPARATING OUTPUTS.—Under Scientific Management the work of each man is arranged either so that his output shows up separately and on the individual records, or, if the Work is such that it seems best to do it in gangs, the output can often be so recorded that the individual's output can be computed from the records.

PURPOSE OF SEPARATING OUTPUTS.—The primary purpose of separating the output is to see what the man can do, to record this, and to reward the man according to his work, but this separating of output has also an individual result, which is even more important than the result aimed at, and that is the development of individuality.

Under Traditional Management and the usual "day work," much of the work is done by gangs and is observed or recorded as of gangs. Only now and then, when the work of some particular individual shows up decidedly better or worse than that of his fellows, and when the foreman or superintendent, or other onlooker, happens to observe this is the individual appreciated, and then only in the most inexact, unsystematic manner.

Under Scientific Management, making individual output show up separately allows of individual recording, tasks, teaching and rewards.

EFFECT ON ATHLETIC CONTESTS.—Also, with this separation of the work of the individual under Scientific Management comes the possibility of a real, scientific, "athletic contest." This athletic contest, which proves itself so successful in Traditional Management, even when the men are grouped as gangs and their work is not recorded or thought of separately, proves itself quite as efficient or more efficient under Scientific Management, when the work of the man shows up separately. It might be objected that the old gang spirit, or it might be called "team" spirit, would disappear with the separation of the work. This is not so, as will be noted by a comparison to a baseball team, where each man has his separate place and his separate work and where his work shows up separately with separate records, such as "batting average" and "fielding average." Team spirit is the result of being grouped together against a common opponent, and it will be the same in any sort of work when the men are so grouped, or given to understand that they belong on the same side.

The following twelve rules for an Athletic Contest under Transitory System are quoted as exemplifying the benefits which accrue to Individuality.

1. Men must have square deal. 2. Conditions must be similar. 3. Men must be properly spaced and placed. 4. Output must show up separately. 5. Men must be properly started. 6. Causes for delay must be eliminated. 7. Pace maker must be provided. 8. Time for rest must be provided. 9. Individual scores must be kept and posted. 10. "Audience" must be provided. 11. Rewards must be prompt and provided for all good scores—not for winners only. 12. Appreciation must be shown.[11]

This list shows the effects of many fundamental principles of Scientific Management,—but we note particularly here that over half the rules demand that outputs be separated as a prerequisite.

None of the benefits of the Athletic Contest are lost under Scientific Management. The only restrictions placed are that the men shall not be grouped according to any distinction that would cause hatred or ill feeling, that the results shall be ultimately beneficial to the workers themselves, and that all high scores shall win high prizes.

As will be brought out later under "Incentives," no competition is approved under Scientific Management which speeds up the men uselessly, or which brings any ill feeling between the men or any feeling that the weaker ones have not a fair chance. All of these things are contrary to Scientific Management, as well as contrary to common sense, for it goes without saying that no man is capable of doing his best work permanently if he is worried by the idea that he will not receive the square deal, that someone stronger than he will be allowed to cheat or to domineer over him, or that he will be speeded up to such an extent that while his work will increase for one day, the next day his work will fall down because of the effect of the fatigue of the day before.

The field of the contests is widened, as separating of the work of the individual not only allows for competition between individuals, but for the competition of the individual with his own records. This competition is not only a great, constant and helpful incentive to every worker, but it is also an excellent means of developing individuality.

ADVANTAGES TO MANAGERS OF SEPARATING OUTPUT.—The advantages to the managers of separating the work are that there is a chance to know exactly who is making the high output, and that the spirit of competition which prevails when men compare their outputs to their own former records or others, leads to increased effort.

ADVANTAGES TO WORKERS OF SEPARATING OUTPUT.—As for advantages to the men:

By separation of the individual work, not only is the man's work itself shown, but at the same time the work of all other people is separated, cut away and put aside, and he can locate the man who is delaying him by, for example, not keeping him supplied with materials. The man has not only an opportunity to concentrate, but every possible incentive to exercise his will and his desire to do things. His attention is concentrated on the fact that he as an individual is expected to do his very best. He has the moral stimulus of responsibility. He has the emotional stimulus of competition. He has the mental stimulus of definiteness. He has, most valuable of all, a chance to be an entity rather than one of an undiscriminated gang. This chance to be an individual, or personality, is in great contradistinction to the popular opinion of Scientific Management, which thinks it turns men into machines. A very simple example of the effect of the worker's seeing his output show up separately in response to and in proportion to his effort and skill is that of boys in the lumber producing districts chopping edgings for fire wood. Here the chopping is so comparatively light that the output increased very rapidly, and the boy delights to "see his pile of fire wood grow."

With the separation of the work comes not only the opportunity for the men to see their own work, but also to see that of others, and there comes with this the spirit of imitation, or the spirit of friendly opposition, either of which, while valuable in itself is even more valuable as the by-product of being a life-giving thought, and of putting life into the work such as there never could be when the men were working together, more or less objectless, because they could not see plainly either what they were doing themselves, or what others were doing.

Separation of the output of the men gives them the greatest opportunity to develop. It gives them a chance to concentrate their attention at the work on which they are, because it is not necessary for them to waste any time to find out what that work is. Their work stands out by itself; they can put their whole minds to that work; they can become interested in that work and its outcome, and they can be positive that what they have done will be appreciated and recognized, and that it will have a good effect, with no possibility of evil effect, upon their chance for work and their chance for pay and promotion in the future. Definiteness of the boundaries, then, is not only good management in that it shows up the work and that it allows each man to see, and each man over him, or observing him to see exactly what has been done,—it has also an excellent effect upon the worker's mind.

INDIVIDUALITY DEVELOPED BY RECORDING OUTPUT SEPARATELY.—The spirit of individuality is brought out still more clearly by the fact that under Scientific Management, output is recorded separately. This recording of the outputs separately is, usually, and very successfully, one of the first features installed in Transitory Management, and a feature very seldom introduced, even unconscious of its worth, in day work under Traditional Management. It is one of the great disadvantages of many kinds of work, especially in this day, that the worker does only a small part of the finished article and that he has a feeling that what he does is not identified permanently with the success of the completed whole. We may note that one of the great unsatisfying features to such arts as acting and music, is that no matter how wonderful the performer's efforts, there was no permanent record of them; that the work of the day dies with the day. He can expect to live only in the minds and hearts of the hearers, in the accounts of spectators, or in histories of the stage.

It is, therefore, not strange that the world's best actors and singers are now grasping the opportunity to make their best efforts permanent through the instrumentality of the motion picture films and the talking machine records. This same feeling, minus the glow of enthusiasm that at least attends the actor during the work, is present in more or less degree in the mind of the worker.

RECORDS MAKE WORK SEEM WORTH WHILE.—With the feeling that his work is recorded comes the feeling that the work is really worth while, for even if the work itself does not last, the records of it are such as can go on.

RECORDS GIVE INDIVIDUALS A FEELING OF PERMANENCE.—With recorded individual output comes also the feeling of permanence, of credit for good performance. This desire for permanence shows itself all through the work of men in Traditional Management, for example—in the stone cutter's art where the man who had successfully dressed the stone from the rough block was delighted to put his own individual mark on it, even though he knew that that mark probably would seldom, if ever, be noticed again by anyone after the stone was set in the wall. It is an underlying trait of the human mind to desire this permanence of record of successful effort, and fulfilling and utilizing this desire is a great gain of Scientific Management.

MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF WORKER THROUGH RECORDS.—It is not only for his satisfaction that the worker should see his records and realize that his work has permanence, but also for comparison of his work not only with his own record, but with the work of others. The value of these comparisons, not only to the management but to the worker himself, must not be underestimated. The worker gains mental development and physical skill by studying these comparisons.

ADVANTAGES TO WORKER OF MAKING HIS OWN RECORDS.—These possibilities of mental development are still further increased when the man makes his own records. This leads to closer attention, to more interest in the work, and to a realization of the man as to what the record really means, and what value it represents. Though even a record that is made for him and is posted where he can see it will probably result in a difference in his pay envelope, no such progress is likely to occur as when the man makes his own record, and must be conscious every moment of the time exactly where he stands.

POSSIBILITIES OF MAKING INDIVIDUAL RECORDS.—Records of individual efficiency are comparatively easy to make when output is separated. But even when work must be done by gangs or teams of men, there is provision made in Scientific Management for recording this gang work in such a way that either the output or the efficiency, or both, of each man shows up separately. This may be done in several ways, such as, for example, by recording the total time of delays avoidable and unavoidable, caused by each man, and from this computing individual records. This method of recording is psychologically right, because the recording of the delay will serve as a warning to the man, and as a spur to him not to cause delay to others again.

The forcefulness of the "don't" and the "never" have been investigated by education. Undoubtedly the "do" is far stronger, but in this particular case the command deduced from the records of delay to others is, necessarily, in the negative form, and a study of the psychological results proves most instructive.

BENEFITS TO MANAGERS OF INDIVIDUAL RECORDS.—The value of the training to the foremen, to the superintendents and to the managers higher up, who study these records, as well as to the timekeepers, recorders and clerks in the Time and Cost Department who make the records, is obvious. There is not only the possibility of appreciating and rewarding the worker, and thus stimulating him to further activity, there is also, especially in the Transitory stage, when men are to be chosen on whom to make Time Study observations, an excellent chance to compare various methods of doing work and their results.

INCENTIVES WITH INDIVIDUAL RECORDS.—The greatest value of recorded outputs is in the appreciation of the work of the individual that becomes possible. First of all, appreciation by the management, which to the worker must be the most important of all, as it means to him a greater chance for promotion and for more pay. This promotion and additional pay are amply provided for by Scientific Management, as will be shown later in discussing Incentives and Welfare.

Not only is the work appreciated by the management and by the man himself, but also the work becomes possible of appreciation by others. The form of the record as used in Scientific Management, and as introduced early in the transitory stage, makes it possible for many beside those working on the job, if they take the pains to consult the records, which are best posted in a conspicuous place on the work, to know and appreciate what the worker is doing. This can be best illustrated, perhaps, by various methods of recording output on contracting work,—out-of-door work.

The flag flown by the successful contestants in the athletic contests, showing which gang or which individual has made the largest output during the day previous, allows everyone who passes to appreciate the attainment of that particular worker, or that group of workers. The photographs of the "high priced men," copies of which may be given to the workers themselves, allow the worker to carry home a record and thus impress his family with what he has done. Too often the family is unable by themselves to understand the value of the worker's work, or to appreciate the effect of his home life, food, and rest conditions upon his life work, and this entire strong element of interest of the worker's family in his work is often lost.

RELATION OF INDIVIDUAL RECORDS TO SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN GENERAL.—Any study of Records of an individual's work again makes clear that no one topic of Scientific Management can be properly noted without a consideration of all other elements. The fact that under Scientific Management the record with which the man most surely and constantly competes is his own, as provided for by the individual instruction card and the individual task; the fact that under Scientific Management the man need be in no fear of losing his job if he does his best; the fact that Scientific Management is founded on the "square deal";—all of these facts must be kept constantly in mind when considering the advantages of recording individual output, for they all have a strong psychological effect on the man's mind. It is important to remember that not only does Scientific Management provide for certain directions and thoughts entering the man's mind, but that it also eliminates other thoughts which would surely have a tendency to retard his work. The result is output far exceeding what is usually possible under Traditional Management, because drawbacks are removed and impetuses added.

The outcome of the records, and their related elements in other branches of Scientific Management, is to arouse interest. Interest arouses abnormally concentrated attention, and this in turn is the cause of genius. This again answers the argument of those who claim that Scientific Management kills individuality and turns the worker into a machine.

INDIVIDUAL TASK UNDER SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.—Individuality is also taken into consideration when preparing the task. This task would always be for an individual, even in the case of the gang instruction card. It usually recognizes individuality, in that,—

1. It is prepared for one individual only, when possible. 2. It is prepared for the particular individual who is to do it.

The working time, as will be shown later, is based upon time study observations on a standard man, but when a task is assigned for a certain individual, that proportion of the work of the standard or first class man is assigned to that particular given man who is actually to do it, which he is able to do. It is fundamental that the task must be such that the man who is actually put at it, when he obeys orders and works steadily, can do it; that is, the task must be achievable, and achievable without such effort as would do mental or physical injury to the worker. This not only gives the individual the proper amount of work to do, recognizes his particular capabilities and is particularly adapted to him, but it also eliminates all dread on the score of his not being appreciated, in that the worker knows that if he achieves or exceeds his task he will not only receive the wage for it, but will continue to receive that wage, or more, for like achievement. The rate is not cut. Under the "three-rate with increased rate system," which experience has shown to be a most advanced plan for compensating workmen, the worker receives one bonus for exactness as to methods, that is, he receives one bonus if he does the task exactly as he is instructed to do it as to methods; and a second bonus, or extra bonus, if he completes his task in the allotted time. This not only assures adequate pay to the man who is slow, but a good imitator, but also to the man who, perhaps, is not such a good imitator, and must put attention on the quality rather than the quantity of his performance.

INDIVIDUALITY EMPHASIZED BY INSTRUCTION CARD.—This individual task is embodied in an individual instruction card.

In all work where it is possible to do so, the worker is given an individual instruction card, even though his operations and rest periods are also determined by a gang instruction card. This card not only tells the man what he is to do, how he can best do it, and the time that it is supposed to take him to do it,—but it bears also the signature of the man who made it. This in order that if the worker cannot fulfill the requirements of the card he may lose no time in determining who is to give him the necessary instructions or help that will result in his earning his large wages. More than this, he must call for help from his assigned teachers, as is stated in large type on a typical Instruction Card as follows: "When instructions cannot be carried out, foreman must at once report to man who signed this card."

The signature of the man who made the card not only develops his sense of individuality and responsibility, but helps create a feeling of inter-responsibility between the workers in various parts of the organization.

THE GANG INSTRUCTION CARD.—A gang instruction card is used for such work only as must be done by a group of men all engaged at the work at once, or who are working at a dependent sequence of operations, or both. This card contains but those portions of the instructions for each man which refer to those elements which must be completed before a following element, to be done by the next man in the sequence, can be completed. Because of the nature of the work, the gang instruction card must be put in the hands of a leader, or foreman, whether or not it is also in the hands of each of the individuals. The amount of work which can be required as a set task for each individual member of the gang, the allowance for rest for overcoming fatigue, the time that the rest periods must occur, and the proper pay, are fully stated on the Individual Instruction Cards.

METHODS OF TEACHING FOSTER INDIVIDUALITY.—As will be shown at length in the Chapter on Teaching, under Scientific Management teaching is not only general, by "Systems," "Standing Orders," or "Standard Practice," but also specific. Specialized teachers, called, unfortunately for the emphasis desired to be put on teaching, "functional foremen," help the individual worker to overcome his peculiar difficulties.

This teaching not only allows every worker to supplement his deficiencies of disposition or experience, but the teachers' places give opportunities for those who have a talent for imparting knowledge to utilize and develop it.

INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE AND WELFARE.—Finally, individual incentive and individual welfare are not only both present, but interdependent. Desire for individual success, which might lead a worker to respond to the incentive till he held back perhaps the work of others, is held in balance by interdependence of bonuses. This will be explained in full in the Chapters on Incentives and Welfare.

SUMMARY

RESULT OF IDEA OF INDIVIDUALITY UPON WORK.—To recapitulate;— Under Traditional Management, because of its frequent neglect of the idea of individuality, work is often unsystematized, and high output is usually the result of "speeding up" only, with constant danger of a falling off in quality overbalancing men and injury to men and machinery.

Under Transitory Management, as outputs are separated, separately recorded, and as the idea of Individuality is embodied in selecting men, setting tasks, the instruction cards, periods of rest, teaching, incentives and welfare, output increases without undue pressure on the worker.

Under Scientific Management—with various elements which embody individuality fully developed, output increases, to the welfare of worker, manager, employer and consumer and with no falling off in quality.

EFFECT UPON THE WORKER.—The question of the effect upon the worker of emphasis laid upon individuality, can perhaps best be answered by asking and answering the following questions:—

1. When, where, how, and how much is individuality considered? 2. What consideration is given to the relation of the mind to the body of the individual? 3. What is the relative emphasis on consideration of individual and class? 4. In how far is the individual the unit? 5. What consideration is given to idiosyncrasies? 6. What is the effect toward causing or bringing about development, that is, broadening, deepening and making the individual more progressive?

EXTENT OF CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUALITY.—1. Under Traditional Management consideration of individuality is seldom present, but those best forms of Traditional Management that are successful are so because it is present. This is not usually recognized, but investigation shows that the successful manager, or foreman, or boss, or superintendent succeeds either because of his own individuality or because he brings out to good advantage the individual possibilities of his men. The most successful workers under Traditional Management are those who are allowed to be individuals and to follow out their individual bents of greatest efficiency, instead of being crowded down to become mere members of gangs, with no chance to think, to do, or to be anything but parts of the gang.

Under Transitory Management, and most fully under Scientific Management, the spirit of individuality, far from being crowded out, is a basic principle, and everything possible is done to encourage the desire to be a personality.

RELATION OF MIND TO BODY.—Under Traditional Management, where men worked in the same employ for a long time, much consideration was given to the relation of the mind to the body. It was realized that men must not be speeded up beyond what they could do healthfully; they must have good sleeping quarters and good, savory and appetizing food to eat and not be fatigued unnecessarily, if they were to become successful workers. More than this, philanthropic employers often attempted to supply many kinds of comfort and amusement.

Under Transitory Management the physical and mental welfare are provided for more systematically.

Under Scientific Management consideration of the mind and body of the workman, and his health, and all that that includes, is a subject for scientific study and for scientific administration. As shown later, it eliminates all discussion and troubles of so-called "welfare work," because the interests of the employer and the worker become identical and everything that is done becomes the concern of both.

Scientific Management realizes that the condition of the body effects every possible mental process. It is one of the great advantages of a study of the psychology of management that the subject absolutely demands from the start, and insists in every stage of the work, on this relationship of the body to the mind, and of the surroundings, equipment, etc., of the worker to his work.

It is almost impossible, in management, to separate the subject of the worker from that of his work, or to think of the worker as not working except in such a sense as "ceasing-from-work," "about-to-work," "resting to overcome fatigue of work," or "resting during periods of unavoidable delays." The relation of the worker to his work is constantly in the mind of the manager. It is for this reason that not only does management owe much to psychology, but that psychology, as applied to any line of study, will, ultimately, be recognized as owing much to the science of management.

RELATIVE EMPHASIS ON INDIVIDUAL AND CLASS.—Under Traditional Management the gang, or the class, usually receives the chief emphasis. If the individual developed, as he undoubtedly did, in many kinds of mechanical work, especially in small organizations, it was more or less because it was not possible for the managers to organize the various individuals into classes or gangs. In the transitory stage the emphasis is shifting. Under Scientific Management the emphasis is most decidedly and emphatically upon the individual as the unit to be managed, as has been shown.

INDIVIDUAL AS THE UNIT.—Under Traditional Management the individual was seldom the unit. Under Transitory Management the individual is the unit, but there is not much emphasis in the early stages placed upon his peculiarities and personalities. Under Scientific Management the unit is always the individual, and the utilizing and strengthening of his personal traits, special ability and skill is a dominating feature.

EMPHASIS ON IDIOSYNCRASIES.—Under Traditional Management there is either no consideration given to idiosyncrasies, or too wide a latitude is allowed. In cases where no consideration is given, there is often either a pride in the managers in "treating all men alike," though they might respond better to different handling, or else the individual is undirected and his personality manifests itself in all sorts of unguided directions, many of which must necessarily be wasteful, unproductive, or incomplete in development. Under Scientific Management, functionalization, as will be shown, provides for the utilization of all idiosyncrasies and efficient deviations from class, and promotion is so planned that a man may develop along the line of his chief ability. Thus initiative is encouraged and developed constantly.

DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALITY.—The development of individuality is more sure under Scientific Management than it is under either of the other two forms of management, (a) because this development is recognized to be a benefit to the worker and to the employer and (b) because this development as a part of a definite plan is provided for and perfected scientifically.

CHAPTER II FOOTNOTES: ==============================================

1. William James, Psychology, Briefer Course, p. 1. 2. Hugo Muensterberg, American Problems, p. 34. 3. Mary Whiton Calkins, A First Book in Psychology, p. 1. 4. James Sully, Teacher's Handbook of Psychology, p. 14. 5. James Sully, Teacher's Handbook of Psychology, p. 577. 6. H.L. Gantt, Work, Wages and Profits, p. 52. 7. F.W. Taylor, Shop Management, p. 25. (Harper & Bros.) 8. F.B. Gilbreth, Motion Study, p. 7. 9. L.B. Blan, A Special Study of the Incidence of Retardation, p. 89. 10. Hugo Muensterberg, American Problems, pp. 38-39. 11. F.B. Gilbreth, Cost Reducing System, Chap. III.

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CHAPTER III

FUNCTIONALIZATION

DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION.—A function, says the Century Dictionary, is—"The fulfilment or discharge of a set duty or requirement, exercise of a faculty or office, or power of acting, faculty,—that power of acting in a specific way which appertains to a thing by virtue of its special constitution; that mode of action or operation which is proper to any organ, faculty, office structure, etc. (This is the most usual signification of the term)."

"Functionalization" is not given in the Century Dictionary. The nearest to it to be found there is "Functionality," which is defined as—"The state of having or being a function." Functionalization as here used means—the state of being divided into functions, or being functionalized. "Functionalize" is given in the Century Dictionary, defined as "to assign some office or function to"—the note being made that it is rare. "Functionalize" may not be the best word that could be used in this connection, but there seems to be no other word in the English language which contains its full meaning, therefore we will use the word here in the sense of assigning work according to capacity or faculty. A faculty means—"A specific power, mental or physical; a special capacity for any particular kind of action or affection; natural capability."

PSYCHOLOGICAL USE OF FUNCTIONALIZATION.—The word "Function" is in constant use by modern psychologists, especially by those who believe that—"Psychology is the science of the self in relation to environment,"[1] or that "Psychology is a scientific account of our mental processes."[2] Sully defines a function as "a psychologically simple process,"[3] and compares its elementariness to a muscular contraction as an element of a step in walking.

In investigating the principle of Functionalization as embodied in various forms of Management, we must note that, while Management can, and does under Scientific Management, attempt to functionalize work as far as possible, it will be impossible to come to ultimate results until a psychological study of the requirement of the work from the worker, and results of the work on the worker is made.[4]

FUNCTIONALIZATION IN MANAGEMENT.—"Functional Management" consists, to quote Dr. Taylor, "in so directing the work of management that each man from the assistant superintendent down shall have as few functions as possible to perform. If practicable, the work of each man in the management should be confined to the performance of a single leading function."[5]

A study of functionalization as applied to management must answer the following questions:

1. How is the work divided? 2. How are the workers assigned to the work? 3. What are the results to the work? 4. What are the results to the worker?

TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT SELDOM FUNCTIONALIZES.—Under Traditional Management the principle of Functionalization was seldom applied or understood. Even when the manager tried to separate planning from performing, or so to divide the work that each worker could utilize his special ability, there were no permanently beneficial results, because there was no standard method of division.

THE WORK OF THE FOREMAN NOT PROPERLY DIVIDED.—The work of a foreman was not divided, but the well rounded man, as Dr. Taylor says,[6] was supposed to have

1. Brain 2. Education 3. Special or technical knowledge, manual dexterity or strength 4. Tact 5. Energy 6. Grit 7. Honesty 8. Judgment, or common sense 9. Good health.

Dr. Taylor says—"Plenty of men who possess only three of the above qualities can be hired at any time for laborer's wages. Add four of these qualities together, and you get a higher priced man. The man combining five of these qualities begins to be hard to find, and those with 6, 7 and 8 are almost impossible to get."

Yet, under Traditional Management these general qualities and many points of specific training were demanded of the foreman. Dr. Taylor has enumerated the qualifications or the duties of a gang boss in charge of lathes or planers.[7] Careful reading of this enumeration will show most plainly that the demands made were almost impossible of fulfillment.[8]

Another list which is interesting is found in "Cost Reducing System," a long list of the duties of the Ideal Superintendent or foreman in construction work.[9]

QUALIFICATIONS AND DUTIES OF FIRST CLASS FOREMAN

A first class foreman must have: bodily strength brains common sense education energy good health good judgment grit manual dexterity special knowledge tact technical knowledge.

He must be: able to concentrate his mind upon small things able to read drawings readily able to visualize the work at every stage of its progress, and even before it begins a master of detail honest master of at least one trade.

His duties consist of: considering broad policies. considering new applicants for important positions. considering the character and fitness of the men. determining a proper day's work. determining costs. determining the method of compensation. determining the sequence of events for the best results. disciplining the men. dividing the men into gangs for speed contests. fixing piece and day rates. getting rid of inferior men. handling relations with the unions. hiring good men. installing such methods and devices as will detect dishonesty. instructing the workman. keeping the time and disciplining those who are late or absent. laying out work. looking ahead to see that there are men enough for future work. looking ahead to see that there is enough future work for the men. making profits. measuring each man's effort fairly. obtaining good results in quality. paying the men on days when they are discharged. paying the men on pay day. preventing soldiering. readjusting wages. retaining good men. seeing that all men are honest. seeing that men are shifted promptly when breakdowns occur. seeing that repairs are made promptly before breakdowns occur, seeing that repairs are made promptly after breakdowns occur. seeing that the most suitable man is allotted to each part of the work. seeing that the work is not slighted. setting piece work prices. setting rates. setting tasks. supervising timekeeping. teaching the apprentices. teaching the improvers. teaching the learners.

In studying these lists we note—

1. That the position will be best filled by a very high and rare type of man. 2. That the man is forced to use every atom of all of his powers and at the same time to waste his energies in doing much unimportant pay reducing routine work, some of which could be done by clerks. 3. That in many cases the work assigned for him to do calls for qualifications which are diametrically opposed to each other. 4. That psychology tells us that a man fitted to perform some of these duties would probably be mentally ill fitted for performing others in the best possible way that they could be performed.

WORK NOT WELL DONE.—Not only does the foreman under Traditional Management do a great deal of work which can be done by cheaper men, but he also wastes his time on clerical work in which he is not a specialist, and, therefore, which he does not do as well as the work can be done by a cheaper man, and this takes more of his time than he ought to devote to it. The result is that the work is not done as well as it can and should be done.

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