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The School of Recreation (1696 edition)
by Robert Howlett
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THE

SCHOOL

OF

Recreation:

OR A

GUIDE

To the

Most Ingenious Exercises

OF

Hunting. Hawking. Riding. Tennis. Racing. Bowling. Fireworks. Ringing. Military Singing. Discipline. Cock-Fighting. The Science of Fowling. Defence. Angling.

By R. H.

London, Printed for H. Rhodes, at the Star, the Corner of Bride Lane, Fleet-street. 1696.



The School of Recreation.



Printed for Henry Rodes near Bride lane in Fleet streete.



The PREFACE TO THE READER.

Reader, in this small Book you will find such Variety of Recreations, that nothing of the nature ever appeared so like Accomplish'd in any one Volume, of what Largeness soever: For besides my own Experience in these acceptable and delightful Particulars, reduced under proper Heads, easy to be understood, and put in practice; I have taken the Opinions of those whose Ingenuity had led them to these Exercises in Particular or General, and are approved for the Performance of them in the exactest manner, whose judicious Approbations the more embolden'd me to a Publication of them: In which you will not only find Pleasure, and keep up a Healthful Constitution in moderately pursuing them, but in most or all of them find considerable Profit and Advantage, when you can spare leisure Hours from your Devotions, or to unbend your Cares after the tiresome Drudgery of weighty Temporal Matters; Not that I think it is proper so eagerly to pursue them, as if you made them rather a Business than a Recreation; for though in themselves they are harmless, yet a continual or insatiate Prosecution of any Thing, not only lessens the Pleasure, but may render it hurtful, if not to your self, yet in giving Offence to others, who will be apt to reflect upon such as seem to doat upon them, and wholly neglect their other Affairs.

We find the Taste of Honey is delicious and desirable, yet Nature over-burthened with too great a Quantity, Surfeits, and begets a loathing of it. Wherefore to Conclude, I commend them as they are, viz. Suitable Recreations for the Gentry of England, and others, wherein to please and delight themselves. And so not doubting this Work will be accepted, as it was well meant to serve my Country-Men, I take leave to subscribe myself, Kind Reader,

Your most humble and obliging Servant,

R. H.



OF HUNTING.

Hunting, being a Recreation that challenges the sublime Epithets of Royal, Artificial, Manly, and Warlike, for its Stateliness, Cunning, and Indurance, claims above all other Sports the Precedency; and therefore I was induced to place it at the Head to usher in the rest.

But to come to the Purpose: The young Hunter, as yet raw in the true Knowledge of this Royal Sport, with what is meerly necessary and useful, without amusing him with superfluous Observations for his Instruction: I shall therefore observe throughout this Treatise this Method: 1. The several Chases or Games which fall under the First Denomination, Hunting. 2. The genuine of Infallible Rules whereby we are to direct our selves, for the obtaining the true Pleasure in prosecuting the same, and the desired Effects of it.

Know than; the Beasts of Venery or Forest, are, viz. The Hart, Hinde, Hare.

As likewise the Wild Beasts, or Beasts of Chace are, viz. the Buck, Doe, Fox, Marten, Roe.

The Beasts of Warren, are, viz. Hares, Coneys, Roes.

Note, The Hart and Hind before spoken of, though they are of one kind, yet, because their Seasons are several, are esteemed distinct Beasts; and in the Hart is included the Stag, and all red Deer of Antlier.

And because I reckon it the most necessary part of the Hunter to understand the Names, Degrees, Ages, and Seasons of the aforesaid different Beasts of Forest or Venery, Chase, and Warren, I therefore, present him with these following

Beasts of Forest, &c.

The Hart, the first year is called a Hind-Calf, 2 A Knobber, 3 A Brock 4 A Staggard, 5 A Stag, 6 A Hart.

The Hind the first Year a Calf, 2 A Hearse, 3 A Hind.

The Hare, the first Year a Leveret, 2 A Hare, 3 A great Hare.

Beasts of Chase.

The Buck, The first Year is called a Fawn, 2 A Pricket, 3 A Sorrel, 4 A Sore, 5 A Buck of the first Head, 6 A Great Buck.

The Doe, the first Year a Fawn, 2 A Teg, 3 A Doe.

The Fox, the first Year a Cub, 2 a Fox.

The Marten, the first Year A Cub, 2 A Marten.

The Roe the first Year A Kid, 2 A Gyrl, 3 A Hemuse, 4 A Roe-Buck of the first Head, 5 A Fair Roe-Buck.

As for the Beasts of Warren, the Hare being spoken of before, little or nothing is to be said. The Coney is first A Rabbet, and then an Old Coney.

Thus much for their Names, Degrees, and Ages: Now let us next observe their proper Seasons for Hunting.

The Hart or Buck, beginneth fifteen days after Mid-Summer-Day, and lasteth till Holy-Rood-Day.

The Fox, from Christmass, and lasteth till the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The Hind or Doe, from Holy-Rood-Day, till Candlemas.

The Roe-Buck, from Easter, till Michaelmas.

The Roe, from Michaelmas, till Candlemas.

The Hare, from Michaelmas, to the end of February.

Thus much I thought fit to speak briefly of the proper Names, Degrees, Ages, and Seasons of the several Chases which we Hunt: But having almost forgot some, I shall insert here, as intending to speak somewhat of them, and they are the Badger, Otter, and Wild Goat.

As for the Terms of Art appropriated to Hunting. And now I bring you to the second thing I proposed, viz. the Rules and Measures we are to learn and observe in the aforementioned Sports or Chases; and in this we must begin with the Pursuers or Conquerors of these Chases, namely.

Of Hounds.

There are several kinds of Hounds, endued with Qualities suitable to the Country where they are bred; and therefore consult his Country, and you will soon understand his Nature and Use: As for instance, the Western Countries of England, and Wood-land, Mountainous Countries, as also Cheshire, and Lancashire, breed the slow-Hound; a large great Dog, tall and heavy. Worcestershire, Bedfordshire, and many other well mixt Soyls, where the Champaign and Covert are equally large, produce the Middle sized Dog, of a more nimble Composure than the fore-mentioned, and fitter for Chase. Yorkshire, Cumberland, Northumberland, and the North parts, breed the Light, Nimble, swift slender Dog. And our open Champaigns train up excellent Grey-Hounds, hugely admired for his Swiftness, Strength, and Sagacity. And lastly, the little Beagle bred in all Countries, is of exceeding Cunning, and curious Scent in Hunting.

For the Choice of Hounds we are to rely much on their Colours, and accordingly make our Election. The Best and most Beautiful of all for a general Kennel, is, the White Hound, with Black Ears, and a black spot at the setting on of the Tail, and is ever found to be both of good Scent, and good Condition, and will Hunt any Chase, but especially the Hare, Stag, Buck Roe, or Otter, not sticking at Woods or Waters. The next is the Black, the blacktann'd, or all Liver hew'd, or the milk White Hound, which is the true Talbot, is best for the string, or line, as delighting in Blood; the Largest is the comliest and best. The Grizled, usually shag-hair'd, are the best Verminers; and so fittest for the Fox, Badger, or other hot Scents; a couple of which let not your Kennel be without, as being exceeding good cunning Finders.

For the Shape of your Hound, you must consult the Climate of his Breed, and the natural Composition of his Body; but by these following Characters you may know a good Hound. If you like a large, heavy, true Talbot like Hound, see

His Head be round and thick. Nose short and uprising. Nostrils wide and large. Ears larger and down-hanging. Upper lip-Flews lower than his Nether Chaps. Back strong and rising. Fillets thick and great. Thighs and Huckle-bones round. Hams streight. Tail long and rush grown. The Hair of his Belly hard and stiff. Legs big and lean. Foot like a Fox's, well clawed and round. Sole dry and hard. All these shew an able Hound.

If you would choose a swift light Hound, the Yorkshire one in the generality will please you; for that (as these have) he ought to have a slenderer Head, longer Nose, shallower Ears and Flews, broad Back, gaunt Belly, small Tail, long Joynts, round Foot; and in fine of a Gray-Hound-like Make.

Thus much to direct the choice of Hounds; now something ought to be spoken of the Composition of Kennels, wherein I must appeal to the Affection of the Gentleman, the Lover of this Sport, and let him tell me the Reasons that induced him take pleasure in Hounds, whether it be he fancies Cunning in Hunting? Or Sweetness, Loudness, or Deepness of Cry? Or for the Training his Horses? Or for the Exercise of his Body only?

If for Cunning Hunting; breed your Dogs from the slowest and largest of the forementioned Northern Hounds, and the swiftest and slenderest of the West Country, of both Kinds, approved to be not given to lie off, or look for Advantages, but staunch, fair, even running, and of perfect fine Scent. These will make a Horse gallop fast, and not run; being middle-siz'd, not too swift as to out-run, or too slow as to lose the Scent; are the best for the true Art and Use of Hunting.

If for Sweetness of Cry; compound your Kennel of some large Dogs, of deep solemn Mouths, and swift in spending, as the Base in the Consort; then twice so many roaring, loud ringing Mouths, as the Counter-Tenor: And lastly, some hollow plain sweet Mouths, as the Mean: So shall your Cry be perfect. Observe that this Composition be of the swiftest and largest deep Mouth'd Dog, the slowest and middle-siz'd, and the shortest Legged slender Dog. For these run even together.

If for Loudness of Mouth, choose the Loud clanging (redoubling as it were) Mouth, and to this put the roaring, spending, and Whining Mouth, which will be loud, smart, and pleasant: Such are for the most part your Shropshire, and Worcestershire Dogs.

If (lastly) for deepness of cry, the largest dogs having the greatest Mouths, and deepest flews, are the best; such are your West-Country, Cheshire, and Lancashire Dogs.

But if you have your Kennel for Training Horses only; then compound your Kennel of the lightest, nimblest, and swiftest Dogs, such as your Northern Hounds are. For the strong and violent Exercises of their Horses, through the Natural Velocity of their Hounds, in the North parts, have render'd them famous for Truth and Swiftness above all other parts of England.

Lastly, If for the Maintenance of your Health, by preventing Infirmities and Grossness of Humours, you compose your Kennel; consult first your own Ability for this Exercise; and if you think you are able to foot it away, then the Biggest and slowest Dogs you can get are best. But if you would pad it away through an Unability of footing it, than choose the slowest or middle-siz'd Hounds, of good Mouths and Noses, for loud Cry, and ready Scent.

Thus far for the Composing a Kennel: I come now to the Kennel it self, of which I need say little, as indeed unnecessary, leaving that to the Discretion of the Huntsman; only I would have him observe, that it be built some pretty way distant from the Dwelling-House, in a warm dry Place, free from Vermine, and near some Pond or River of fresh Water; and so placed, that the Morning Sun may shine upon it. Be sure to keep it clean, and let them not want fresh Straw every day. Feed them early in the Morning at Sun-rising, and at Sun-set in the Evening. As for the Meat, I leave to the ingenious Huntsman to get when they come from Hunting; after you have fed them well, let them to their Kennel, and wash their Feet with Beer and Butter, or some such thing, and pick and search their Cleys, for Thorns, Stubs, or the like: If it is in Winter, let a Fire be made, and let them beak and stretch themselves for an hour or so at the fire, and suffer them to lick, pick, and trim themselves; hereby to prevent the Diseases incident to them, upon sudden Cooling, as the Mange, Itch, Fevers, &c.

But before I treat of the keeping your Hounds in Health by curing their Diseases, I must speak a Word or two of the way to Breed good Whelps, viz. Having a Hound and a Bratch of that general Goodness in Size, Voice, Speed, Scent, and Proportion you like, put them together to ingender in January, February, or March, as the properest Months for Hounds, Bitches, and Bratches to be Limed in; because of not losing time to enter them. When you put them together, observe, as near as you can, if the Moon be in Aquarius or Gemini; because the Whelps will then never run Mad, and the Litter will be double as many Dogs, as Bitch-Whelps. When your Bitch is near her Whelping, separate her from the other Hounds, and make her a Kennel particularly by her self; and see her Kennell'd every Night, that she might be acquainted and delighted with it, and so not seek out unwholsom Places; for if you remove the Whelps after they are Whelp'd, the Bitch will carry them up and down till she come to their first Place of Littering; and that's very dangerous. Suffer not your Whelps to Suck above two Months, and then Wean them.

When your Whelps are brought up, enter them not into Hunting till they are at least a Year and half old: That is, if whelpt in March, enter them September come Twelve Month; if in April, in October come Twelve Months after, &c.

When you would enter them, bring them abroad, with the most Staunch and best Hunting hounds; (all babling and flying Curs being left at home:) and a Hare being the best entering Chase, get a Hare ready before, and putting her from her Form, view which way she takes, and then lay on your Hounds, giving them all the Advantages may be; if she is caught, do not suffer them to break her, but immediately taking her, strip off her Skin, and cutting her to pieces, give every part to your young Whelps; and that beget in them a Delight in Hunting.

Diseases incident to Dogs, and their Cures.

For Sick Dogs. Take Sheeps-heads, Wooll and all, hack, and bruise them into pieces, make Pottage of it with Oatmeal, and Penny-Royal, and give it warm.

Lice and Fleas. Boyl four or five handfuls of Rue, or Herb of Grace, in a Gallon of running Water, till a Pottle be consumed, strain it, and put two Ounces of Staves-acre poudered, and bathe them with it warm.

Itch. Take Oyl of Flower-de-Lys, Powder of Brimstone, and dry'd Elicampane-Roots, of each a like quantity, and Bay-Salt powdered; mix these Powders with the Oyl, and warm it, anoint, scratch, and make it bleed, it will do well.

Tetter. Take Black Ink, Juice of Mint and Vinegar, of each alike, mix them altogether with Powder of Brimstone to a Salve, and anoint it.

Worms. Give your Hound Brimstone and new Milk, it will kill them.

Gauling. May Butter, yellow Wax and unflackt Lime, made to a Salve, and Anoint therewith, is a present Remedy.

Mange. Take two Handfuls of Wild-Cresses, of Elicampane, of the Leaves and Roots of Roerb and Sorrel, the like quantity, and two Pound of the Roots of Frodels, Boyl them all well in Lye and Vinegar, strain it, and put therein two Pound of Grey Soap, and after 'tis melted, rub your Hound with it four or five days together.

For any Ear Disease. Mix Verjuice and Chervile Water together, and drop into his Ears a spoonful or two, Morning and Evening.

Sore Eyes. Chew a Leaf or two of Ground Ivy, and spit the Juice into his Eyes.

Surbaiting. Wash his feet with Beer and Butter, and bind young red Nettles beaten to a Salve to his Soles.

Biting by Snake, Adder, &c. Beat the Herb Calaminth with Turpentine, and yellow Wax to a Salve, and apply it. To expel the inward Poyson, give the said Herb in Milk.

Biting by a Mad Dog. Wash the place with Sea-Water; or strong Brine, will Cure him. The quantity of a Hazel-Nut of Mithridate, dissolved in Sweet Wine, will prevent inward Infection.

Madness. Lastly, If your Hound be Mad, which you will soon find by his separating himself from the rest, throwing his Head into the Wind, foaming and slavering at Mouth, snatching at every thing he meets, red fiery Eyes, stinking filthy Breath; then to Knock him in the Head, is a present Remedy, and you'l prevent infinite Dangers.

And now I proceed to give some brief Instructions for Hunting the several Chases, viz. the Time when? and the Manner how?

Having your Kennel of Hounds in good order and plight, lead them forth, and to your Game; only take this Caution; do not forget to have in your Pack a couple of Hounds, called Hunters in the High-wayes, that will Scent upon hard Ground, where we cannot perceive Pricks or Impressions; and let a couple of Old stench Hounds accompany you, by whose sure Scent, the too great Swiftness of the young and unexperienced Ones may be restrained and regulated.

Of Hart or Stag Hunting.

To understand the Age of this our Game, it is known by several Marks, amongst which this is the most authentick: That if you take his view in the ground, and perceive he has a large Foot, a thick Heel, a deep Print, open Cleft and long space, then be assured he is Old; as the Contrary concludes him Young.

To find him? Examine the following Annual, or Monethly.

November, in Heaths among Furs, Shrubs, and Whines.

December, in Forests among thick and strong Woods.

January, in Corners of the Forests, Corn-fields, Wheat, Rye, &c.

February and March, amongst Young and thick Bushes.

April and May, in Coppices and Springs.

June and July, in Out-Woods and Purlieus nearest the Corn-fields.

September and October, after the first showers of Rain, they leave their Thickets, and go to Rut, during which time there is no certain place to find them in.

When you have found him in any of these places, be careful to go up the Wind; and the best time to find him is before Sun-rising, when he goes to feed; then watch him to his Leir, and having lodged him, go and prepare; if he is not forced, he will not budge till Evening. Approaching his Lodging, cast off your Finders, who having Hunted him a Ring or two, cast in the rest; and being in full Cry and maine Chase, Comfort and Cheer them with Horn and Voice. Be sure to take notice of him by some Mark, and if your Dogs make Default, rate them off and bring them to the Default back, and make them cast about till they have undertaken the first Deer; then cheer them to the utmost, and so continue till they have either set up or slain him. It is the Nature of a Stag, to seek for one of his kind, when he is Imbost or weary, and beating him up, ly down in his place; therefore have a watchful eye unto Change. As likewise by taking Soil (i.e. Water) he will swim a River just in the middle down the Stream, covering himself all over, but his Nose, keeping the middle, least by touching any Boughs he leave a Scent for the Hounds; And by his Crossings and Doublings he will endeavour to baffle his Persuers: In these Cases have regard to your Old Hounds, as I said before. When he is Imbost or weary, may be known thus: By his Creeping into holes, and often lying down, or by his running stiff, high and lumpering, slavering and foaming at Mouth, shining and blackness of his Hair, and much Sweat; and thus much for Stag or Hart Hunting. As for the Buck I shall not speak any thing, for he that can Hunt a Stag well, cannot fail Hunting a Buck well. As likewise for the Roe Hunting, I refer you to what is spoken of the Hart or Stag.

Of Hare Hunting.

As for the Time, the most proper to begin this Game, note; That about the middle of September is best, and to end towards the latter end of February, when surcease, and destroy not the young early Brood of Leverets; and this Season is most agreeable likewise to the nature of Hounds; moist and cool. Now for the Place where to find her, you must examine and observe the Seasons of the Year; for in Summer or Spring time, you shall find them in Corn-fields and open places, not sitting in Bushes, for fear of Snakes, Adders, &c. In Winter they love Tuffs of Thorns and Brambles, near Houses: In these places you must regard the Oldness or Newness of her Form or Seat, to prevent Labour in Vain: If it be plain and smooth within, and the Pad before it flat and worn, and the Prickles so new and perceptible, that the Earth seems black, and fresh broken, then assure your self the Form is new, and from thence you may Hunt and recover the Hare; if the contrary, it is old, and if your Hounds call upon it, rate them off. When the Hare is started and on Foot, step in where you saw her pass, and hollow in your Hounds till they have undertaken it, then go on with full Cry. Above all, be sure to observe her first Doubling, which must be your direction for all that day; for all her other after Doublings, will be like that. When she is thus reduced to the slights and shifts she makes by Doublings and Windings, give your Dogs Time and Place enough to cast about your Rings, for unwinding the same; and observe her leaps and skips before she squat, and beat curiously all likely places of Harbour: She is soon your Prey now.

Of Coney Catching.

Their Seasons are always, and the way of taking them thus: Set Pursenets on their Holes, and put in a Ferret close muzzled, and she will boult them out into the Nets: Or blow on a sudden the Drone of a Bag-Pipe into the Burrows, and they will boult out: Or for want of either of these two, take Powder of Orpiment and Brimstone, and boult them out with the Smother: But pray use this last seldom, unless you would destroy your Warren. But for this sport Hays are to be preferred above all.

Of Fox-Hunting.

January, February, and March, are the best Seasons for Hunting the Fox above Ground, the Scent being then strong, and the coldest Weather for the Hounds, and best finding his Earthing. Cast off your sure Finders first, and as the Drag mends, more; but not too many at once, because of the Variety of Chaces in Woods and Coverts. The Night before the Day of Hunting, when the Fox goes to prey at Midnight, find his Earths, and stop them with Black Thorns and Earth. To find him draw your Hounds about Groves, Thickets, and Bushes near Villages; Pigs and Poultry inviting him to such Places to Lurk in. They make their Earths in hard Clay, stony Grounds, and amongst Roots of Trees; and have but one Hole straight and long. He is usually taken with Hounds, Grey-Hounds, Terriers, Nets and Gins.

Of Badger Hunting.

This Creature has several Names, as Gray Brock, Boreson, or Bauson; and is hunted thus. First go seek the Earths and Burrows where he lieth, and in a clear Moon-shine Night, stop all the Holes but one or two, and in these fasten Sacks with drawing Strings; and being thus set, cast off your Hounds, and beat all the Groves, Hedges, and Tuffs within a mile or two about, and being alarm'd by the Dogs they will repair to their Burrows and Kennels, and running into the Bags, are taken.

Of the Martern or wild Cat.

These two Chases are usually hunted in England, and are as great Infesters of Warrens, as the two last mentioned Vermine, but are not purposely to be sought after; unless the Huntsman see their place of Prey, and can go to it; and if the Hound chance to cross them, sport may be had. But no Rule can be prescribed how to find or hunt them.

Of the Otter.

This Creature useth to lye near Rivers in his Lodging, which he cunningly and artificially builds with Boughs, Twigs and Sticks. A great Devourer of Fish. It is a very sagacious and exquisitely Smelling Creature, and much Cunning and Craft is required to hunt him. But to take him, observe this in short. Being provided with Otter-Spears to watch his Vents, and good Otter-Hounds, beat both sides of the River's Banks, and you'll soon find if there is any. If you find him, and perceive where he swims under Water, get to stand before him when he Vents, (i.e. takes breath) and endeavour to strike him with the Spear: If you miss him, follow him with your Hound, and if they are good for Otter, they will certainly beat every Tree root, Bul-rush Bed, or Osier-Bed, so that he cannot escape you.

Of the wild Goat.

The Wild-Goat is as big and as fleshy as a Hart, but not so long-legg'd. The best time for hunting them is, at All-hallontide; and having observed the Advantages of the Coasts, Rocks, and Places where the Goats lie, set Nets and Toils towards the Rivers and Bottoms; for 'tis not to be imagined, the Dogs can follow them down every place of the Mountains. Stand some on the tops of the Rocks, and as occasion offers throw down Stones; and place your Relays at the small Brooks or Waters, where the Goat comes down; but let them not tarry, till the Hounds come in, that were cast off.

Thus much for Hunting.



Of RIDING.

Here we must first examine the Ends and Design of our proposing this Art to our selves, and accordingly lay down as briefly as may be the necessary Rules and Lessons are to be observed and learnt; and I take these to be the usual Perfections we aim at. To ride well the great Horse, for the Wars or Service, and the Horse for Pleasure; of both which as concisely as I can, in their order.

We must begin with Taming a young Colt. After you have kept him at home some time, and made him so Familiar with you, as to suffer Combing, Currying, Handling, and Stroaking any part, 'tis high time then to offer him the Saddle, which you must lay in the Manger first, that by its smell, he may not be afraid of it, or the Styrrups Noise. Then gently saddling him (after his dressing) take a sweet Watering Trench, anointed with Honey and Salt, and place it in his Mouth so, that it may hang directly over his Tush; then lead him abroad in your hand, and Water him; and after he has stood an hour rein'd take off his Bridle and Saddle, and let him feed till Evening; then do as in the Morning; dress and Cloath him, having Cherisht, by the Voice delivered smoothly and gently; or by the Hand by gently stroaking and clapping him on the neck, or Buttock; or lastly by the Rod, by rubbing it on his Withers or Main.

On the next day as before; and after that, put him on a strong Musrole, or sharp Cavezan, and Martingale; which is the best guide to a Horse for setting his head in due place, forming the Rein, and appearing Graceful and Comely; it Corrects the yerking out his Head, or Nose, and prevents his running away with his Rider. Observe therefore to place it right, that it be not buckled straight, but loose, and so low, that it rest on the tender Grizsle of his Nose, to make him the more sensible of his fault, and Correction; and so as you see you win his Head, bring him straighter by degrees; let him but gently feel it, till his Head be brought to its true perfection.

Having observed this well, lead him forth into some soft or new Plowed Land, trot him about in your hand a good while: Then offer to Mount; if he refuse to suffer you, trot him again; then putting your foot into the Styrrop, mount half way; if he takes it impatient, correct him, and about again; if not, cherish him, and place your self a moment in the Saddle, dismount, cherish, and feed him with Grass, or Bread: All things being well, remount, even in the Saddle, keeping your Rod from his Eye; then let one lead him by the Chaff-Halter, and ever and a-non make him stand, and cherish him, till he will of his own accord go forward; then come home, alight gently, dress and feed him well. This Course in few dayes will bring him to Trot, by following some other Horse-man, stop him now and then gently, and forward; not forgetting seasonable Cherishings and Corrections, by Voice, Bridle, Rod, Spurs.

Being thus brought to some certainty of Rein, and Trotting forth-right, then to the treading forth of the large Rings. And here first examine your Horses Nature, before you choose your Ground, for, if his Nature be dull and sloathful, yet strong, then New-Plow'd-Field is best; if Active, Quick and Fiery, then Sandy-ground is to be preferred; in the most proper of which mark out a large Ring, of a Hundred paces circumference. Walk about it on the right seven or eight times, then by a little straightning your right Rein, and laying your left leg calf to his side, make a half Circle within the Ring upon your right down to its Center; then by straightning a little your left Rein, and laying your right Leg Calf to his side, make a half Circle to your left hand, from the Center to the outmost Verge, and these you see contrary turned make a Roman S. Now to your first large Compass, walk him about on your left hand, as oft as before on the right, and change to your right within your Ring; then Trot him first on the right-hand, then on the left, as long as you judge fit, and as often Mornings and Evenings, as the Nature of your Horse shall require. In the same manner you may make him to Gallop the same Rings, though you must not enter it all at once, but by degrees, first a Quarter, then a Half-quarter; and the Lightness and Cheerfulness of your Body, not the Spur, must induce him to it.

The next Lesson is to Stop Fair, Comely, and without Danger. First see that the Ground be hard and firm, then having cherisht your Horse, bring him to a swift Trot, about Fifty Paces, and then straightly & suddenly draw in your Bridle hand; then ease a little your hand to make him give backward, and in so doing, give him liberty and cherish him; then drawing in your Bridle hand, make him retire, and go back; if he strike, ease your hand: if he refuse, let some by-stander put him back, that he may learn your intention and thus he may learn these two Lessons at once.

To Advance before, when he stoppeth, is thus taught: When you stop your Horse, without easing your hand, lay close and hard to his sides both Calves of your Legs, and shaking your Rod cry, Up, Up; which he will understand by frequent Repetition, and Practice: This is a Gracefull, and Comely Motion, makes a Horse Agile, and Nimble, and ready to turn; and therefore be careful in it: That he take up his Legs Even together, and bending to his Body; not too high, for fear of his coming over; not sprawling, or pawing; or for his own pleasure; in these faults correct him with Spur and Rod.

To Yerk out behind is the next Lesson, thus learnt, Presently upon your making him stop give him a good brisk jerk near his Flank, which will make him soon understand you. When he does it, cherish him; and see he does it comely, for to yerk out his hinder Legs, till his Forelegs be above Ground, is not graceful; or one Leg yerk't farther out than the other; or one Leg out while the other is on the Ground; in this case a single Spur on the faulty side, is best. But to help him in Yerking, staying his Mouth on the Bridle, striking your Rod under his Belly, or Touching him on the Rump with it.

To Turn readily on both hands, thus: Bring his large Rings narrower, and therein gently walk him, till acquainted. Then carry your Bridle-hand steady and straight, the outmost rather straighter than the inmost Rein, to look from, rather than to the Ring; trot him thus about, on one side and the other successively, as aforesaid. After some time stop, and make him advance twice or more, and retire in an even Line; then stop and cherish him. To it again, after the same manner, making him lap his outmost Leg above a foot over his Inner. And thus the Terra a Terra, Incavalere & Chambletta, are all taught together. Perfect your Horse in the large Ring, and the straight Ring is easily learnt.

Your Horse being brought thus far to perfection, with the Musrole and Trench, now let a gentle Cavezan take their place; with a smooth Cannon-Bit in his Mouth, and a plain watering Chain, Cheek large, and the Kirble thick, round and big, loosely hanging on his nether Lip; and thus mount him, and perfect your Horse with the Bit in all the aforesaid Lessons, as you did with the Snaffle; which indeed is the easier to be done of the two.

To teach your Horse To go a side, as a necessary Motion for shunning a blow from an Enemy, is thus: Draw up your Bridle hand somewhat straight, and if you would have him go on the Right, lay your left Rein close to his Neck, and your left Calf likewise close to his side (as in the Incavalere before) making him lap his left Leg over his Right; then turning your Rod backward jerking him on the left hinder Thigh gently, make him to bring to the right side his Hinder parts, and stand as at first in an even direct Line: Then make him remove his Fore parts more, that he may stand as it were Cross over the even Line, and then bring his hinder parts after, and stand in an even Line, again. And thus you must do, if you would have him go on the Left hand, using your Corrections and Cherishings on the right. Use it, and you may be sure of Perfection.

For the Carreere, only take this: Let it not extend in length above six score yards, give your Horse warning before you start him by the Bridle hand, and running full speed, stop him suddenly, firm and close on his Buttock.

For the Horse of Pleasure, these following Lessons are to be learnt. As first to Bound aloft, to do which: Trot him some sixteen yards, then stop, and make him twice advance; then straighten your Bridle-hand; then clap briskly both your Spurs even together to him, and he will rise, tho' it may at first amaze him; if he does it, cherish him, and repeat it often every day, till perfect.

Next to Corvet and Capriole are Motions of the same nature, and in short are thus taught. Hollow the ground between two joyning Walls a Horses length, by the side of which put a strong smooth Post of the same length from the Wall, and fasten at the Wall an Iron Ring over against the Post: Thus done, ride into the hollow place, and fasten one of the Cavezan Reins to the Post, and the other to the Ring; then cherish him, and by the help of the Calves of your Legs, make him advance two or three times; then pause, and Cherish him; make him advance again a dozen times more, and then rest; double your Advancings, and repeat them till it becomes habitual to him, to keep his Ground certain, advance of an equal hight before and behind, and observe a due Time with the motions of your Legs. The Inequality of his advancing his hinder Legs, is helpt by a Jerk on the Fillets by some body behind him with a Rod.



Of RACING.

A Racer must have the Finest Cleanest Shape possible, and above all, Nimble, Quick, and Fiery, apt to Fly with the least Motion; nor is a long Bodied contemptible, it assuring Speed, tho' it signifies Weakness too. The Arabian, Barbary, or his Bastard, are esteemed the best for this Use, these excelling Fennets, tho' they are good too.

Having furnished your self with a Horse thus qualified, you are to observe his right and due Ordering, before your designed Racing. Bartholomew-tide is the most proper time to take him from Grass; the day before being Dry, Fair, and Pleasant: That Night let him stand conveniently, to empty his Body; the next day Stable him, and feed him with Wheat-straw that day, and no longer; lest you exceeding that time, it straighten his Guts, heat his Liver, and hurt his Blood; for want of Straw, Riding him Morning and Evening to Water, Airing, or other moderate Exercises will serve. Then feed him with good old sweet Hay, and according to the Season, and Temperature of his Body clothe him; for a Smooth Coat shews Cloth enough, and a Rough Coat want of it. Observe likewise where you Water, your Race-Horse, that it be a Running Water, or clear Spring, far distant (a Mile or more) from the Stable, adjoyning to some Level; where after he has once well drank Gallop him, and so Water and Scope him till that he refuse to drink more, for that time; then Walk him gently Home (being an Hour on your way, or more) clothe, and stop him round with soft Whisps, and let him stand an Hour upon his Bridle, and after feed him with sweet sound Oats, throughly dryed either with Age, Kilne, or Sun; if he be low of flesh, or bad Stomacht, add a third part of clean Old Beans, or two parts of Oats, or Wash his Oats in strong Beer or Ale.

For Dressing take these Rules. Dress your Horse twice a day, before you Water him, both Morning, and Evening, thus: Curry him after he is uncloath'd, from his Ear-tips to his Tayle, and his whole Body intirely (save his Legs under the Knees, and Cambrels) with an Iron-Comb; then Dust him, and Rub him with a Brush of Bristles over again; Dust him again, and wetting your hand in clean Water, rub off all the loose Hairs, and so rub him dry as at first; then with a fine Hair Cloth rub him all over; and lastly, with a fine Linnen Cloth; and then pick his Eyes, Nostrils, Sheath, Cods, Tuel, and Feet clean.

The best Food for your Racer, is good, sweet, well dryed, sunned, and beaten Oats: Or else Bread made of one part Beans, and two parts Wheat (i.e.) two Bushels Wheat, to one of Beans, ground together: Boult through a fine Range half a Bushel of fine Meal, and bake that into two or three Loaves by it self, and with water and good store of Barm, knead up, and bake the rest in great Loaves, having sifted it through a Meal-sieve: (But to your finer, you would do well to put the whites of Twenty or thirty Eggs, and with the Barm a little Ale, 'tis no matter how little water:) With the Courser feed him on his Resting days, on his Labouring days with the finer.

The best time for feeding your Runner on his Resting days is, after his Watering in the Morning, at One a Clock at Noon, after his watering in the Evening, and at nine or ten a Clock at nights: On his Days of Labour, two Hours after he is throughly Cold outwardly and inwardly, as before.

As for the Proportion of Meat, I shall not confine your Love to a Quantity, only give him a little at once, as long as his Appetite is Good: When he begins to fumble and play with his Meat, hold your hand, shut up your Sack.

As for his Exercise it ought to be thrice a Week, as his bodily Condition requires; if he be foul, moderate Exercise will break his Grease; if clean, then as you judge best, taking heed of breaking his Mettle, or discouraging him, or laming his Limbs. Before you air him, to add to his Wind, it is requisite to give him a raw Egg broken in his Mouth: if your Horse be very fat, air him before Sun rising and after Sun-set; if lean, deprive him not of the least strength and Comfort of the Sun you can devise. To make him Sweat sometimes by coursing him in his Cloaths is necessary, if moderate; but without his Cloaths, let it be sharp and swift. See that he be empty before you course him; and it is wholesome to wash his Tongue and Nostrils with Vinegar; or piss in his Mouth, before you back him. And after his Exercise, cool him before you come home, house, litter and rub him well and dry; then cloath him, and give him after every Course a Scouring thus prepared.

For scouring a Race-Horse.

Take 20 Raisins of the Sun stoned, 10 Figs slit in the midst, boyl them till they be thick in a Pottle of fair Water, mix it with Powder of Annis-seeds, Lycoras, and Sugar-candy, till it come to a stiff Paste, make them into round Balls, roul them in Butter, and give him three or four of them the next morning after his Course, and ride him an hour after, and then set him up Warm. Or this may be preferred, being both a Purge and a Restorative, a Cleanser and a Comforter, thus prepared.

Take three Ounces of Annis-seeds, six Drams of Cummin-seeds, one Dram and half of Carthamus, one Ounce and two Drams of Fennugreek-seed, one Ounce and half of Brimstone; Beat all these to a fine Powder, and searse them; then take a Pint and two Ounces of Sallet-Oyl, a Pint and half of Honey, and a Pottle of White-Wine; then with a sufficient Quantity of fine white Meal, knead and work all well into a stiff Paste; keep it in a clean Cloath, for use. When occasion requires, dissolve a Ball of it in a Pail of Water, and after Exercise give it him to drink in the Dark, that he may not see the Colour, and refuse it: If he does refuse, let Fasting force him to be of another mind.

To conclude, these Instructions, I will give you 'em in short before you run, and then away as fast as you can.

Course not your Horse hard four or five days before your Match, lest you make his Limbs sore, and abate his Speed.

Muzzle him not (except a foul Feeder) above two or three Nights before the Race, and the Night before his bloody Courses.

Give him sharp, as well at gentle, Courses on the Race he is to run.

Shoe him a day before you run him.

Let him be empty on the Match Day.

Saddle him in the Stable, and fix to him the Girths and Pannel with Shoe-makers Wax.

Lead him with all Gentleness to his Course, and let him smell other Horses Dung to provoke him to stale, &c.

And Lastly, being come to the starting place, rub him well, uncloath him; then take his Back, and the Word given, with all Gentleness and Quietness possible, start and away; And God speed you well.



School of Recreation. How to make Artificial Fire-works of all sorts, for Pleasure, &c.

Of Artificial Fire-works for Recreation, there are three general sorts, viz. Those that ascend or mount in the Air. Those that consume on the Earth: And such as burn on the Water. And these are again divided into three Particulars, viz. For the Air, the Sky-Rocket, the flying Saucisson, and Balloon: For the Earth, the Ground-Rocket, the fiery Lances, and the Saucissons descendent. For the Water-Globes or Balls, double Rockets, and single Rockets; and of these in their particular Orders, to make them, and such other Matters as may occur relating to Fire-works.

But before I enter particularly on them, it will not be amiss to give the Unlearned Instructions for making his Moulds for Rockets, &c.

This Mould must be of a substantial piece of Wood, well season'd, and not subject to split or warp; and first the Caliber or Bore of it, being an Inch in Diameter; the Mould must be six Inches long, and Breech an Inch and half; the Broach that enters into the Choaking part, three Inches and a half long, and in Thickness a quarter of an Inch. The Rowler on which you wrap the Paper or Paste board, being three quarters of an Inch Diameter, and the Rammer somewhat less, that it may easily pass and re-pass, made hollow to receive the Broach; for the Cartoush Coffin must be filled with the Materials, the Broach being in.

If the Bore be two Inches Diameter, the Rocket must be twelve Inches in Length: If an inch and a half in Bore, then nine Inches Long, and so proportionably to any other Diameter. The Cartoush or Case must be either strong Paper or fine Paste-board, choaked within an Inch and a quarter of the Top, rowled on the Rowler with a thin Paste, to keep the Doublings the higher together, that it may have the greater force and higher flight. Having thus far considered your Mould and Cartoush or Case, I proceed to the Composition and filling part, &c.

A Sky-Rocket, how to make it, &c.

In the Composition of your filling Materials be very cautious that you exceed not the just Proportion, for which I shall give Directions to be a Standard in this case, viz. Having beat a Pound of Powder very fine, and sifted it through a Lawn Sieve that no whole Corns remain in it; do the like by two Ounces of Charcole; then sift them together, so that they may mix well, which done, fill a small Rocket with this Mixture, and if it break in Mounting before it come to the supposed height, or burns out too fierce, then is there too much Powder, and more fine sifted Charcole must be added; but if there be too much Charcole in the Composition, then upon tryal it will not ascend, or very little.

Observe in charging your Rocket, at every quarter of an ounce of Ingredients or thereabouts, you ram it down very hard, forcing your Rammer with a wooden Mallet, or some weighty piece of Wood, but no Iron or Stone, for fear any Sparkles of Fire fly out and take your Combustible Matter; so fill it by degrees: If you design neither to place Stars, Quills, or small Rockets on its Head, you may put in about an Inch and a half of dry Powder for the Bounce, but if you are to place the fore-mention'd things on the Head of a great Rocket, you must close down the Paper or Paste-board very hard, and prick two or three holes with a Bodkin, that it may give fire to them when it Expires, placing a large Cartoush or Paste-board on the head of the Rocket, into which you must put the Stars or small Rockets, Paper-Serpents, or Quill-Serpents; of which I shall speak more hereafter.

Note further, That if you would have your Rocket sparkle much, you must put some grosly bruised Salt peter into the Composition; but then it must not lie long before it be let off, for fear it give and damp the Powder. If you would have it leave a blue Stream, as it ascends, put fine beaten and sifted Sulphur into it, but of neither of these more than a third part of Charcole; and in this manner greater and lesser Rockets are made, but the lesser must have more Powder and less Charcole than the greater, by a fifth part in six.

Golden Rain, and Golden Hair.

For Golden Rain, or streams of fire, that will, when at height, descend in the Air like Rain: Take large Goose-Quills, take only the hollow Quill as long as may be, fill it with beaten Powder and Charcole; as for the Air Rocket only add a little Powder of Sulphur. Being hard filled to a quarter of an Inch, stop that with wet Powder, called Wild-fire; place as many as you think convenient on the Head of a great Rocket, pasted on in a Rowl of Paper, so that it may not fall off till the Rocket bursts, there being a little dry Powder in it to force the end when the stream of fire ceases, at which time they taking, will appear like a shower of Fire of a golden Colour, spreading themselves in the Air, and then tending directly downwards. This is to be considered when you stand directly, or something near under them; but if you are at some distance, then they will appear to you like the Blazing Tail of a Comet or Golden Hair.

Silver Stars, How to make them.

To make Stars that will expand in Flame, and appear like natural Stars in the Firmament for a time: Take half a Pound of Salt-peter, the like quantity of Brimstone, finely beaten together, sifted and mingled with a quarter of a Pound of Gunpowder so ordered: Then wrap up the Composition in Linnen Rags or fine Paper, to the quantity of a Walnut, bind them with small Thread, and prick holes in the Rag or Paper with a Bodkin, and place six or ten of them on the Head of a great Rocket, as you did the Quills, and when the Rocket expires, they take fire and spread into a Flame, hovering in the Air like Stars, and descend leisurely till the matter is spent that gives them light.

Red fiery Colour'd Stars, How to make them.

Take in this Case half a Pound of Powder, and double the quantity of Salt-peter; as much fine flower of Brimstone as Powder, wet them with fair Water and Oyl of Petrolum till they will stick together like Pellets; then make them up somewhat less than the former, and rowl them in sifted dry Powder, then let them harden, by drying in the Sun or Air, and place them on a great Rocket, as you did the other Stars, and you will perceive them when the Rocket is at the height, fall, like Bodies or Globes of Fire, in the manner as if real Stars were shooting or falling from the Sky, for by reason of their wetness or density they cannot expand into Flame, which occasions them by the pressure of their weight to descend with greater Impetuosity till they waste and vanish into Air, &c.

Another sort of Stars that give great Reports in the Air, as if Armies were fighting.

Here you must observe to place six, seven, or eight small Rockets on the Head of a great one, filled only with dry Powder, but indifferently rammed, and on the ends of them holes being prick'd through, place any of the sorts of Stars, or a mixture, as your fancy leads you; and when the small Rockets go off like Thunder in the Air, the Stars will take fire, so that the Noise will seem to the Spectators as if it proceeded from them, because they will be seen on fire before the Sound of the Reports can be heard.

To make Paste-board Mortars for Balloons.

These stately Prospects of Fire are to be carried into the Air by the force of Powder, by the help of Mortars; and therefore the making of the Mortars are in the first place to be considered.

Take a Rowler of Wood, about 12 Inches Diameter, and three Foot and a half in Length, wet strong Paste-board, and rowl upon it as close as may be, glewing the Paste-board between each Rowling; then being about five Inches thick, bind over it strong pitch'd Rope, though indifferent small: Then choak the Breech of it, which must be beyond the length of the Rowler, with a strong Cord; pitch or glue it over that the Powder may not force its vent that way, and so when the Mortar is well dry'd, draw out the Rowler, and make it as even as can be; bore a Touch-hole two Inches from the Breech, that it may enter into the hollow of the Mortar, and set it by for use.

To make Balloons, the rarity of Fire-works.

Take strong Paper, or Paste-board, rowl it on a 12 Inch Rowler, near as thick as 'tis long, then with a strong small Cord choke it at one end only, leaving a Port-fire, which is a place to put in a Quill of Wild-fire, that will last till being shot out of the Mortar it comes to its height; then next to that put on an Ounce and a half of loose Powder, and place in it as many small Rockets and Stars as it will hold; so choak up the other end quite. You may also put into it little quills of Wild-fire, then being closed up, only a Port-fire remaining, which made of a Quill of Wild-fire, as is said, or Stopple, to make which in the close of this Head I shall Instruct you, Charge the Mortar, being set Sloaping upwards with half a Pound of corn Powder, and it will by giving fire at the priming holes, send the Balloon up into the Air a prodigeous height, and when it comes to the dry Powder, that will break the Balloon; and then the Stars and Rockets in it taking fire, will scatter abroad in various curious Figures delightful to the Spectators; and as they are Cunningly placed, they will represent Crowns, Cyphers, Characters, Dates of the Year, &c.

The Airy or flying Saucisson, How to make it.

This curious Fire-work must be made in the Composition matter for filling mostly of corned Powder, putting before it when you fill the Cartoush or Case as much fine sifted Powder and Charcole as composed for the Rocket, will carry it to its height; leave a hole for the Port-fire in the choaking as big as a Goose-Quill will enter filling it with Dust-Powder and Charcole, and so close up the open end, by turning in the Paper or Paste-board corner-wise, either glewing or waxing it down.

Paste-board Guns to cast the Saucissons into the Air, How to make them.

To make these kind of Guns, Take a Rowler, some what less than for the Balloon, Rowel on it your Paste-board, and cord it over with strong Packthread, making their Touch-holes at the bottom, because they must be placed upright on a Plank or Board in a Row fixed into the Plank or Board in holes cut proportionable to them, and lashed fast to Staples above and beneath with strong Cords, and being charged with a quarter of a Pound of Powder, fire by Match or otherways, given to the Touch-hole underneath the Plank, when the Saucisson is lightly put in with the Neck or Port-fire downward, so that it may touch the Powder; and this will serve for Use a considerable time.

Saucissons for the Earth or Water, To make them.

Make your Cartoushes or Cases about 9 Inches long, and an Inch in the Diameter of the Calliber, by Rowling Paper or thin Paste-board on a woodden Rowler; choak the ends only, leaving at one end a passage to thrust in a Goose-Quill filled with Dust-Powder and Charcole well mixed, at a Port-fire, Glue them over, or use small Cord glued or pitched to strengthen the Case that it burst not unseasonably by the force of the Composition, with which you must fill them when you have choaked; only at the Port-fire end, the Composition being about 2 Inches, the same as the former, the rest corned Powder, having primed and fixed them on a Plank in a Row about a foot distance, lay a train of Stouple, and they will fire gradually, flying about on the Earth or the Water, according as you place them, giving reports like a Volley of Muskets.

This Stouple is useful for Trains; and Port-fire is no more than Cotton-wool well dressed in water and Gun-powder dryed in the Sun, or in a clean Swept warm Oven, that it may come somewhat near Tinder, but more swift and fiercer in its fire when it has Taken.

Fire-Boxes, To make them.

Take a great Cartoush or Case made, as for the Balloon, croud it full of small Rockets or Serpents, with the choaked part downward, prime them with Stouple or Wild-fire; fix it firm on a Pole, make a priming Hole in the side towards the lower end, and run in a Quill of fine beaten Powder, and they will fly out (the upper end being left open) one by one as swift as may, or if you scatter loose Powder they will fly out several together with a prodigeous Noise, and breaking, imitating a deal of Thunder.

Firey Lances, How to make them.

These are usually for running on the Water making there a very pleasant Pass-time: Their cartoush or Cases are made like the small Rocket, with thin Paste-board glued and rowled up on a wooden Rowler about 9 Inches long: If you would have it carry a long fiery Tail on the Water, the Composition must be 2 Ounces of Charcole, half a Pound of Brimstone, half a Pound of Powder, and half a Pound of Salt-peter, or proportionable for so many as you make, bruised finely and Sifted; but if you would have it burn bright like a Torch, put only four Ounces of Powder to the fore-named quantity of Brimstone and Salt-peter, without any Charcole-dust, tying to each Line a Rod in the same nature as to the Sky-Rocket; but not of that largeness; and they will float about a long time, making a strange shew in a dark Night, their ends being so placed on a frame when you give fire, that they may leap out of them selves one, two, or three, at a time, or as you design them, by putting more or less Stouple for Port-fires; scatter a very small quantity of loose Powder underneath.

To make the appearance of Trees and Fountains of Fire.

This is done by placing many little Rockets on the Head of a great one, by passing their slender Rods through its large Cartoush; and if they take fire whilst the Rocket is vigorously Ascending, they will spring up like Branches or fiery Trees; but if they go off just as the Rocket is spent, and Descending, they will appear like a Fountain of Fire.

Girondels or Fire-wheels, How to make them.

Take a Wheel of light Wood, like the circle of a Spinning-wheel, on which the Band is placed; tie small Rockets round it in the nature of a Band, so fast that they cannot fly off, and so Head to Tail, that the first fired when it bursts may give fire to the next, whose force will carry the Wheel (which must be placed on a strong Pin in the Axeltree) round so fast that although but one Rocket go off at a time, it will seem all on fire, and so continue whilst all are gradually Spent; and this especially at the Angles of great Fire-works are very Ornamental.

Ground-Rockets, and the best way of Making Serpents.

The Mould of the Ground-Rocket may be made in all particulars like that for the Sky-Rocket, but less in Length and Circumference, six, seven, or eight Inches being a warrantable Length; rowl on the Cartoush or Case to a moderate thickness; choak it at one end, fill it, the Broach being in as the Sky-rocket; with this composition.

Put but an ounce of Charcole to a Pound of Powder, and about half an Ounce of Salt-peter; beat, mingle and sift them finely; put in about a quarter of an ounce between every Raming till it is full with in an Inch with corned Powder, Lightly Raming it, leaving only so much room as may choak it at that end, cutting then off what hangs over, and leaving it with a picked end; being thus finished, prime it with a little wet Powder, and lay it a drying till you dispose of it for your pass-time.

The Serpent is a kind of a small Rocket; To make them therefore well, make a Case of strong white Paper, about six Inches and a half, the Rowler being about the thickness of a small Arrow, it must have a Head and a Broach proportionable, being Rowled up hard, past the Edg that turns over; choak it with a strong Pack-thread, and fill it with a Composition of six ounces of Powder to one of Charcole, both beaten finely, sifted and well mingled; put in a little and little at time in, and every time you put any in, Ram it down hard till within an Inch full; then put in corned Powder, press it down gently, and with the end of your Rammer force down the end that stands a little above; so that it may cover the Powder, and then Seal it down with Wax; prime with Dust-Powder, and a little Flower of Brimstone, and with your Match having a good Coal on it, give fire as you see occasion.

Fiery Globes or Comets, to make them.

Take half a Pound of Powder, two onces of Brimstone, an ounce of Salt-peter, bruise these Grosly, and wet them; Aqua-Vitae and Oyl of Petrolum, that they may be moulded like a Paste, that so they may be made up into Balls, as big as ordinary Wash-Balls; then dry them very hard, and wrap them up in Cerecloaths made of Brimstone, Rosin, and Turpentine, in which make a little whole, and prime with Wild-fire: Put the Ball then into a Sling, and the Wild-fire being Touched, throw it up as high as you can into the Air, and when the body of the Ball fires, it will appear to the Beholders like a fiery Globe, with a Stream or Blaze, like as if a Comet or Blazing Star were Ascending or Descending, according to its height or Declination,

To try the goodness of Powder, that you may know its strength.

Observe whether it be well dryed and corned, which you have taken notice of, and approved; lay a few Corns scattered on a sheet of white Paper, and fire them; when if they leave a black and sooty mark behind them, with a noisom smell, and sindg the Paper, then is that Powder gross and earthy, and will fail your Expectation, if you use it in your Fire-works: But if in the sprinkling and firing there appear few or no marks, or those of a clear bluish Colour, then it is airy and light, well made, full of fire, and fit for Service; half a Pound of it having more strength than a Pound of the other.

And thus Reader, have I given you an Insight into the making Fire-works, &c. Such as are very pleasing, and now used on occasions in all Christian Countries, in making which, by a little you may soon be perfect.

St. George and the Dragon fighting &c. Also Mermaids, Whales, &c.

Form your Figures of Paste-board, Strengthen'd with Wicker, small Sticks within pasted to the Board to keep it hollow, tight, and bearing out; and place a hollow Trunk in the Body for a large Line to pass through, and likewise for a smaller to draw them too, and from each other, that they may the better seem in Combats, which must be fattened at the Dragons Breast, and let one end of the Cord be tied, which must pass through the Body of St. George, turning about a Pully at the other end, and fastning it to his Back, and tye another at his Breast, which must pass through the Body of the Dragon, or a Trunk at his Back; and so returning about a Pully at that end, it must be drawn streight, and fastened to the Dragons Tail; so that as you turn that Wheel, they will run furiously at each other, and as you please you may make them retreat and meet again, Soaping the Line to make them slip the easier; at the Dragons Tail, in his Mouth and Eyes you must fix Serpents, or small Rockets, which being fired at their setting out, will cause a dreadful sight in a dark Night.

Thus a Mermaid, or a Whale, may be made to float on the Water, but then the Figure must be fixed on a convenient piece of Board, with two fire Wheels fixed on an Axle, run through the poised part of the Body, by the force of which it moves in a swift Line in the Water; the Wheels must have little Rockets or Serpents tyed round them, as the Girondel before mentioned.

A Fire-Drake on a Line.

Having made the Figure of Paste-board to the proper Form of a Dragon with Paste-board and Wicker, as has been taught before, make a hollow Trunk through the Body of it for a great Line to pass through, and fasten small Lines to draw it too and from you at the breast and Tail of the Drake; put into the Eyes, Mouth and Tail of it Rockets so fixed, that they cannot fly out, as you may put Wild-fire Rowled up hard and long in Paper: Then fire that in the Eyes and Mouth first, and draw it with Pullies from one end of the Line to the other; then that in the Tail, and draw it back, and it will seem as retreating from danger, with fire coming out of the Belly of it.

A Burning Castle and Dragon on the Water.

Make the Dragon of Paste-board and Wicker, as before; The bottom of the Castle of Light Wood, and the work of Paste-board with Paper, Turrets and Battlements of a foot height, in the Portal of the Castle fasten a Line that it may come level with the Water and therefore some part of the Castle must be under Water; this Line must be fastened to the other side of the Water, or in the Water, if it be broad, and admit not the former on a Pole or Stake knocked down, and pass in a hollow Trunk through the Belly of a Dragon, that being in the Castle, may upon firing the Rockets, placed advantageously in the Tail, Eyes and Mouth, come out of the Castle and move on the Line; to meet which, you may at the other end of the Line, in the same manner, prepare a Neptune in a Chariot, or riding on a Sea-horse, with a burning Trident, or a Whale with a Rocket or Wild-fire in his Mouth; which if it ly low, by spouting out, will make the Water fly about, as if it spouted Fire and Water out of its Mouth; then by a Train fire, some little Paste-board Guns in the Castle, which if the Composition of the Train be made of Wild-fire, or Stouple, will go off by degrees, and coming to a Train of Brimstone, Rosin and Powder, make the whole frame expire in a terrible blaze.

A Wheel of Fire-works to run backwards and forwards on the Ground.

Procure a pair of Wheels, being of Light Wood, like that of a Spinning Wheel, fasten them on an Axel-tree, and place Rockets round them, as bands are fastened round a Wheel, and so primed at Tail and Head, that when one Expires the other may take fire, half of them placed with their Heads and Tails the contrary way to the first: So that when the first are spent, and the Wheels have run on plain Ground a great way, the other firing will turn them again, and bring them to the place where they first set out.

A Fire that will burn in the Water, or Water-ball.

Sow up a Case of Canvas, like that of a Foot-ball, but lesser, pitch or glue it over: Then take one Pound of Powder, eight ounces of Roch-alom, four ounces of live Sulphur, two ounces of Camphire, Linseed-oyl, and that of Petrolum, each an Ounce and half, an ounce of Oyl of Spike, with two ounces of Colophonium bruis'd and well mixed together, and stuff the Ball hard with it, with a Stick pitch or glue it over again, binding it with Marline on Pitch, on that leave two Vents or Port-fires, set it on fire, trundle it on the Water, and it will burn under it.



The exactest Military Discipline for the Exercise of Foot and Horse, as in Use at this day, at Home and Abroad, in all the Words of Command, &c.

To be well disciplin'd and train'd up in Military Affairs, has been the study and pride of all Warlike Nations, whereby they have acquired to themselves Fame and Riches, by being able to defend themselves against Invaders, and gain Conquests Abroad; but above all other, for many hundred Years past the English have excelled in this, being much helped by their natural Courage. But since I only at this time intended to write to the Learner, to train him up in his Exercise, by which means his own Industry and Experience may lead him forth to greater matters. I shall not enumerate the many brave Men, who from mean Conditions have rais'd themselves by Arms, to the highest pitch of Honour and Preferment; but shew our Youth what they are to do and observe in their first Training, as to the Words of Command, to order their Arms in their various Postures with Dexterity. And first of Foot Exercise, I shall speak of the Pike, because it is the most Ancient, to Train which, many, who are now great Commanders, have taken it as an Honour.

The Exercise of the Pike, by word of Command, &c.

1. Pikes take: Advance your Pikes.

To do this, as the first thing required, move in a direct Line with your Pike upward, with your Left-hand near your Side, your Right-hand almost as high as you can reach, keeping your Left by a Depression, as low as you can, your Fingers being strait out; and so raise the Pike till the Butt-end come to your Hand, then place it between your Breast and Shoulder, keeping the Butt-end close, that it may be the more steady and upright.

2. To the Front.

To do this, put your Left-hand on your Pike, even with the Top of your Shoulder, keeping your Fingers strait, and bring your Pike right before you with a swift Motion; drawing your Right-heel into your Left-instep, and so keep the Pike strait.

3. Charge.

Here you must fall back with your Right-leg, placing the Heel of your Left foot against the middle of your Right, and bring down your Pike with a quick Motion, support it with your Left-Elbow, and charge Breast high; and upon yielding your Body forward, bend your Left-knee to fix your self firmer, holding the Butt end of your Pike in the Palm of your Right-hand, your Left-Toe pointing in a Line with the Spear of the Pike, your Feet set at a moderate distance: Then bring it down somewhat beneath your Breast, be cautious of clattering, and when it is charged, close it to your Breast.

4. To the Right four times.

Here turn your Left-toe to the Right, then make your Left-heel come up to your Right-instep with a sudden Motion, Recovering your Pike strait before you, and having turn'd, fall back with your Right-leg, and Charge as before.

5. To the Right about.

Now by turning your Left-toe, bring it to the Right about, bringing up your Right-heel; your Pike being recovered, Charge with much swiftness.

6. As you were.

To do this, by turning to the Left about, bring up your Left toe; so bringing your Pike recovered, observe that your Left hand be never higher than your Mouth, your Feet placed in order, and when turn'd, you must fall back with your Right-leg and Charge, bringing your Pike strait up without any clattering.

7. To the Left four times.

8. To the Left about.

9. As you were.

10. Advance your Pike.

These must be done, as has been shewed in the Right, only making your Observation of Eight Left Motions, &c. And the better to do this, bring your Right-heel to your Left-instep; your Pike being before you, fall out with your Right-foot, and so bring your Pike to your Right-Thigh.

11. Shoulder your Pike.

Here extend your Fingers on the Left-hand, and lay it on the Pike level with your Shoulder; make your Right-heel come up even with your Left-instep, your Pike right before you, fall back with your Right-leg, and as far as may be put back your Right-arm, keeping your Pike about half a Foot from your Side, your Eye fixed on the Spear directly to the Rear, your Pike sloped: Then forsake it with your Left-hand, and bring in your Right-leg, laying your Pike on your Right-Shoulder, closing your Elbow to your Body, the Butt of your Pike being about half a Foot from the Ground, in the middle of the distance.

12. Charge to the Front.

In doing this, fall back with your Right-leg, keeping as much as may be your Arm back, and the Spear exactly to the Rear, sloaping the Pike to the same height as Shouldering; then bring with your Left-hand the Butt-end backwards, turning the Head with your Right; so quit it with that Hand, then taking hold on the Butt-end, Charge Breast high, keeping the Palm of your Hand open against the Butt-end, your Left-Elbow under the Pike, and your Left-toe in Line with the Spear; and when you Charge it must be directly forward, your Left-heel being just against the middle of your Right.

13. Shoulder as you were.

Here raise your Pike with both Hands, so quit it with the Right, and with the Left turn the Head backwards, the Spear even with the Rear; so with your Right-hand seize it again as high as you can reach with little straining, and stand with it from your Body aslope; bring up your Right-leg, and then forsake your Pike with your Left-hand, and lay it on your Shoulder, ever keeping the Spear in a direct Point to the Rear, not crossing your Fellows.

14. Charge to the Right.

In this Case fall back with your Right-Arm and Leg, the Spear being kept in the Rear sloping at the height of Shouldering; then turn your Left-Toe to the Right, suffering the Right to fall behind the Left-foot; so that the middle of your Right-foot may be over against your Left-heel; then bring up your Pike in this Action, and turn backwards the Butt-end by your Right-side; then pressing it in your Right palm, Charge.

15. Shoulder as you were.

Make your Left-toe come to the Left, and the middle of your Right-foot come also against your Left-heel, with your Pike up; and then turn the Head to the Right, (that is) directly to the Rear, doing it at one Motion: So take hold of your Pike with your Right-hand, and keep it sloped with both Hands a little distance from your Body; as in Shouldering, at what time bring up your Right-leg, and lay your Pike on your Shoulder.

16. Charge to the Right about.

In this Case give back with your Hand and Leg, then stand with your Pike a little distant from your Side, and turning your Left-toe to the Right about, bring the Butt end of your Pike to the Right-side, falling back with your Right-leg and Charge, keeping the Spear all the while to the Rear a Shouldering height; and when you are to Face to the Right about, level your Pike and Charge.

17. As you were.

In this, turn your Left-toe to the Left about, advancing your Right-foot a moderate Step, that the middle of it may stand against your Left-heel; then with your Left-hand bring the Butt-end by your Left-side, taking notice the Spear be exactly with the Rear a Shouldering height; then lay on your Right-hand as high as you can easily reach, and stand with it in Form; after which, bring up your Right-leg, and Shoulder.

18. Charge to the Left.

Here fall back with your Left-arm and Leg, as in the former Chargings: Turn the Left-toe and the Butt-end of your Pike with your Left-hand to the Right, after which, bring up your Left-leg, and Charge.

19. As you were.

Raise the Spear with both your Hands, turn the Left-toe to the Right, and so fall back with your Left-leg and Arm, keeping your Pike from your Side, the Spear to the Rear; then bring up your Left-leg, and Shoulder.

20. Charge to the Left about.

Here fall with your Arm and Leg back, bringing the Pike over your Head with both your Hands, the Spear directly to the Rear at a Shouldering height: Turn your Left-toe to the Left about, then bring up your Right-toe, that the middle may come with your Left-heel, and Charge.

21. Port.

Observe here, as in Charging in the Front; being wary that you sink not the Spear of your Pike, rest it between the Thumb and Fore-finger, keeping your Elbow close to your side.

22. Comport.

As far as may be bring your Left-hand backward, at the same time stretching out the Right, make thereupon a step forward with the Right-foot, grasping fast the Pike as high as you can reach with the Right-hand, not tossing the Spear too high; then forsake it with your Left-hand, and bring back your Right-leg even with your Left; then close it to your Side, keeping the Spear the height of your Head.

23. Charge to the front.

Here extend your Right-arm, advancing at the same time your Right-leg, drawing back your Left-hand as far as may be; and bringing your Pike forward, give a step back with your Right-leg, and take hold of the Butt with your Right-hand; then Charge; and in all Chargings observe it be done Breast high.

24. Fire.

Herein face to the Right about, suffering the Spear of your Pike to fall behind, you; after which, quit your Right-hand from the Butt-end, without any motion of the Left, and be cautious not to strike upon the Spear.

25. Charge as you were.

Here turn to the Left about, place the Butt-end in the Palm of your Right-hand, and Charge, the Spear being kept an even height.

26. Advance your Pike.

In this Exercise bring your Right-heel to your Left-Instep, your Pike directly before you to the Recovery; and so fall out with your Right-foot that it may come even with your Left, and so bring the Pike to your Right thigh.

27. Order your Pikes.

Raise your Left-hand, so that it may come even with the upper part of your Shoulder, place it on your Pike, stretching out your Fingers; then sinking your Left-hand, raise your Right; and then raise the Pike, that when the Butt-end your Right-hand may be against your Eye; keep the Pike near your Head by clapping the Butt-end to the Latchet of your Shoe; and here all the Butt-ends of as many as are exercised must fall to the Ground at one and the same time.

28. Pikes to you Inside Order.

Place the Butt-end on the Inside your Right-foot to the middle, not moving your foot, but only your Pike.

29. Lay down your Pikes.

As many as exercise in this case, must step altogether with their Right-legs; stoop together with a very Quick Motion, and Lay their Pikes down very strait with their Right-hands.

30. Quit your Pikes.

Fall back with your Left-leg, bringing it even with your Right: Then quit your Pike absolutely, and rise up with a quick Motion.

31. Handle your Pikes.

Here you must step forward in a quick Motion with your Left-leg, and then as many as exercise must stoop together, and extend their Right-hands as far as they can reach, and then grasp the Pike.

32. Order you Pikes.

With your Right-hand raise the Pike, and step back with your Left Leg, with a swift Motion, clapping the Butt-end of the Pike to facilitate the raising of it on the Inside of your Right-foot about the middle.

33. Pikes to your outside Order.

In this Exercise place the Butt-end of your Pike on the out-side of your foot, not moving your Foot, but the Pike.

34. Advance your Pike.

This must be done, as the fore-going; and thus much for the Exercise of the Pike in particular by it self, till I come to speak of its Exercise conjunctly with the Musquet, in the general Exercising a Company or Battalion.

The words of Command in the Exercise of the Musquet, and how they are to be Observed and Performed.

When you enter on this Exercise, be sure to keep your Footing firm, your Feet at a moderate distance; that at all Times, and on all Occasions, you may retain your full Strength. Observe moreover to keep the Right heel firm, and set the Right foot steady, and then attend to the Words of Command, which you are summoned to do by this Expression of the Commander, viz. Musketiers, have a Care of the Exercise, and carry your Arms well. After which, the proper Words of Command follow in their Order.

1. Lay your Right-hand on your Musket.

Here the Lock being uppermost, turn the Barrel towards you, and extending your Fingers, lay your Right-hand directly behind the Lock; so close the Butt end to your Shoulder, suffering the Musket to be in all parts of an equal height.

2. Poise your Musket.

In doing this, you must hold it with a hard Grasp, facing to the Right, and turning with a quick Motion on your Left-heel, your Musket kept directly before you the height of it, between your Shoulders; your Right elbow on your Side, keeping your feet at a moderate distance, that when you turn about, your Left-toe may stand to the Front, and your Right-toe as you Face to the Left; let your Left-heel be against the middle of your Right-foot; and by such means you will be in a resting posture.

3. Rest your Musket.

Here slide your Musket down to your Left-hand bearing your Arm as low as possible without stooping, and so receive your Musket where the Scowrer enters into the Stock, touching with your hand no part of the Barrel, keeping it about half a Foot from your side sloping, your Right-hand, with your Fingers, extended being behind the Lock.

4. Cock your Musket.

Place the Right-Thumb and your Finger behind the Trigger, so clap your Musket against your Thigh, and Cock; keeping it that it slip not your Thumb, now removed steady on the Head of the Cock.

5. Guard your Musket.

Bring it with a very swift Motion strait before you, to recover your Left-hand even with your mouth, about half a foot distance from it, not suffering your Musket to sink, nor stooping your Body, observing in bringing up the Musket before, which is a recovering, that the Right-heel be brought to the Left-Instep, your Musket being perpendicular.

6. Present.

Here fall back with your Right-leg, that the middle of the Right foot may be against the Left-heel; cause the Butt-end to rise to your Shoulder, fixing it firm, and keep your Right elbow even with the height of the Piece, being in a readiness with the fourth Finger of your Right-hand to pull the Trigger, bowing the Left-knee keeping the Right firm and steady, and so level your Musket Breast high.

7. Fire.

Keep here an exact Motion in drawing the Trigger, every one drawing at once, so that the whole Fire of a Company or Battalion may be as of one report: Keep your Body steady, and your Musket hard against your Shoulder after you have fired, till the next Word of Command is given, viz.

8. Recover your Arms.

Here let the Butt-end sink in both your Hands, and bringing it strait before you, keep your right Hand under the Cock and the Left even with your Mouth.

9. Half bend your Musket.

Fall back with your Right-leg, and let the Musket at once rest, placing the Right-thumb upon the Cock, and the Fingers of that hand behind the Trigger; then closing it to your Thigh, half bend the Cock, and keep it rested with your Fingers extended.

10. Clean the Pan.

Do this with the ball of your Thumb, pressed into the Pan, keeping your Fingers of the Right-hand behind the Lock.

11. Handle your Primer.

Take the little end between your Finger and Thumb, turning the other end to the back of your Hand, your Arm bearing backwards.

12. Prime.

Level your Piece, and strike your bruised Powder into the Pan half full, or some what more, keeping your Left-toe to the Front.

13. Shut your Pan.

This do by using your two first Fingers, casting back your Primer and bringing up your Right-heel to your Left-instep, your Musket strait up before you, as in the recovery, with the Barrel towards you; do it with a quick Motion with the Thumb of your Right-hand on the top of the Steel, Levelling your Left with your Mouth.

14. Blow off the loose Corns.

Bring your Mouth within four Inches of the Pan, give a strong Blast without declining your Head, casting out your Arm, and suffering the Musket to sink from its former Posture.

15. Cast about and Charge.

Advance your right Leg, turn the Barrel of your Musket downwards, bring it to your Left-side a little backward, with your Left-hand, not touching the Barrel with your Fingers; place the Toes of your Right foot to the Front and the Right-heel against the middle of the Left-foot, ballancing your Musket in the Left hand, the Muzzle to the proper Front, in an equal height, half a Foot from you, joining your Right-hand to the Muzzle, your Thumb extended to the side of the Barrel.

16. Handle your Charger.

Gripe fast your Bandilier or Charger, hold it even with the Muzzle of the Musket underneath, about an Inch distant.

17. Open your Charger with your Teeth.

In this Case, bring it up to your Mouth without declining your Head, then bring your Charger within an Inch of your Muzzle, about an Inch from it, covering your Chargers Mouth with the ball of your Thumb.

18. Charge with Powder.

Pat the Powder into the Barrel with a quick Motion, and put the Charger underneath as before.

19. Draw forth your Scowrer.

In this let fall your Charger, and upon turning your Hand, draw forth your Scowrer at three Motions, holding it Level the height of your Forehead, with an extended Arm, as if you designed to dart it.

20. Shorten it to an Inch.

Turn the great end of your Scowrer towards you, sinking it till within an Inch of your Hand, rest it some what below your Right-breast, bearing forward a little.

21. Charge with Bullet.

Take the Bullet out of your Mouth with your Right-hand, put it into the Barrel with a swift Motion, holding the big end of your Scowrer near the Muzzle of your Musket.

22. Ram down Powder and Ball.

Grasp full with your Thumb and Fore-finger from the Muzzle, your Thumb on the Top of the Scowrer reserving a handful in your Hand.

23. Withdraw your Scowrer.

Your Hand, Thumb and Fore-finger turned towards the Muzzle, clear your Scowrer at three Motions, and hold it up even with your Forehead, extending your Arm as if you were about to dart it.

24. Shorten it to an Handful.

Turn the Butt-end of your Scowrer towards you; sink it till within an Inch of the End, letting it rest against your Body a little below your Right-breast, the Scowrer sloping.

25. Return your Scowrer.

Put it up in its proper place; grasp the Muzzle of your Musket with your Right-hand, extending your Thumb upon the Scowrer, keep it half a foot distant from your Side.

26. Poise your Musket.

Here before you bring up your Musket with your Left-hand, Grasp it under the Cock with your Right, falling with your Right-leg to your Left: Keep it Poised against your Nose, and when faced to the Front, let your Right-elbow rest upon your Body.

27. Shoulder your Musket.

In this do as has been taught in the like case before.

28. Order your Musket.

Sink a little your Right-hand, and take hold on the Stock on the top of the Scowrer with your Left-hand, then suffer that Hand to sink, and take hold on the Muzzle with the Right-hand, letting the Butt-end easily sink near the Ground; then let it after a little Pause come down: As many as Exercise grounding them together, then close to the Right-foot, and place the Butt-end about the middle of it, your Right-hand an Inch below the Muzzle, the Lock being outward.

29. Lay down your Musket.

Turning it with the Back upwards, step forwards with your Left-leg, so with your Right-hand place it on the Ground, that it may lye with the rest in a strait Line; This some call grounding a Musket.

30. Quit your Musket.

Here stand upright with a quick Motion, rising with a falling back of your Left-leg to your Right.

31. Handle your Musket.

With your Left-leg step forward, and lay your Right hand on the Muzzle.

32. Order your Musket.

Raise the Muzzle, and fall back with your Left-leg to your Right, turning the Lock outwards by the middle of your Foot.

And thus much for the Exercise of the Musket by it self, which may be much advantageous to young Trainers, who have occasion to be called or sent out upon Duty in the City or Country and Country Militia of the Trained Bands, or for any other who is desirous to be knowing in, and entering upon Military Affairs, from whence I shall proceed to the brief Exercise of the Pike and Musket, jointly, as they are Exercised in Companies, Battalions, &c.

The Exercise of Pike and Musket jointly.

We now supposing the Muskets shouldered, and the Pikes advanced; the Word next is,

1. Musketiers, make ready.

Hereupon you must perform all the Postures and Motions together, till you stand Cock'd and guarded with your Musket before you; and for the better Security your Thumb on the Cock; whereupon the Pikes are to be recovered before the Pike-men: The Butt-ends in the Palms of their Hands, and the Spear upright on their Left hands to the height of their Mouths, when the Commander gives the Word

Charge.

Then the Muskets and Pikes must be brought at once, by turning the Left-toe that way the Charge is made, and the Left-heel against the middle of the Right-foot in every Charge, charging directly forward; not at the first Charging, closing the Pikes to your Breasts; but in bringing down the Pike, charge a little way distant, and when they are brought down, then close them.

The Charge is, To the Right four times; then to the Right about, and so, As you were.

Then to the Left Charge four times; then to the Left about, and so, As you were.

Furthermore the Pike-men must turn as the Musketiers, bearing up their Right-heels to their Left-insteps, their Arms being extended as they turn; so that they bring their Muskets straight before them, carrying their Left-hands as high as their Mouths, bearing back their Arms; and when they Face, fall back with their Right-legs, not bringing down their Arms till the word Charge is given; and then it must be done with a decent quick Motion, not suffering the Pikes to clatter.

After this, the Words of Command are, viz.

Recover your Arms. Half bend your Muskets. Poise your Muskets. Shoulder your Muskets.

This Exercise is to be observ'd, as is before laid down in the Exercise of the Musket. The Musketiers upon this, being at Shoulder; and the Pikes that stood recovered falling out with their Right-legs, whereupon the Pikes are brought to their Thighs in their Advance. Then the next is.

Poise your Muskets.

Upon this, the Pike-men with their Left hands must grasp their Pikes over against their Shoulders, after which the Words are,

Order your Arms. Pikes, to your inside Order. Lay down your Arms. Quit your Arms. To the Right about. March.

You must observe these, as directed in the Exercise, only over and above, when you are clear of your Arms; you must disperse, and upon the beat of Drum, close hastily together with a Huzza, your Swords unsheathed, with their Points upwards. Then further observe the Words of Command, viz.

Return your Swords. Handle your Arms. Order your Arms. Pikes, to your out-side Order. Advance.

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