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The Skilful Cook - A Practical Manual of Modern Experience
by Mary Harrison
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[ Transcriber's Note: Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including inconsistencies in spelling and hyphenation; changes (corrections of spelling and punctuation) made to the original text are listed at the end of this file.

Although some of its entries are not in alphabetical order, no attempt has been made to reorder the index. ]



Crown 8vo, 2/6 net A GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY BY THE SAME AUTHOR Fourth Edition Crown 8vo, 2/6 net 366 MENUS and 1200 RECIPES Of the Baron Brisse In FRENCH and ENGLISH Translated by Mrs. Matthew Clark Ninth Edition Fcap. 8vo, 2/6 net LEAVES FROM OUR TUSCAN KITCHEN OR HOW TO COOK VEGETABLES By Janet Ross With Photogravure Frontispiece Third Edition



THE SKILFUL COOK

A PRACTICAL MANUAL OF MODERN EXPERIENCE

BY MARY HARRISON

FIRST CLASS DIPLME, SOUTH KENSINGTON LECTURER ON HYGIENE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND COOKERY

EIGHTH EDITION

1905 LONDON J.M. DENT & CO. 29 & 30, BEDFORD STREET, W.C.



All rights reserved



TO HER ROYAL HIGHNESS

THE PRINCESS CHRISTIAN

WHOSE INTEREST IN EVERY GOOD AND USEFUL WORK HAS SO JUSTLY ENDEARED HER TO ALL CLASSES OF THIS NATION

THIS WORK IS BY HER GRACIOUS PERMISSION

Most Respectfully Dedicated

BY HER HUMBLE AND OBEDIENT SERVANT

MARY HARRISON



CONTENTS.

PAGE

Introduction 1

Hints to Young Housekeepers 6

Food and Diet 8

The Table 13

How to Cook 15

How to Clean Stoves and Cooking Utensils 19

Rules for Boiling 22

Rules for Roasting 23

Rules for Frying 24

Rules for Baking 26

Rules for Grilling 27

Rules for Broiling 27

Joints 28

Poultry and Game 32

Savoury Meat Dishes 40

Sauces 53

Breakfast Dishes and Beverages 69

Cold Meat Cookery 84

Entres 92

Fish Cookery 111

Pastry 133

Puddings 151

Vegetables 190

Soups 203

Bread and Cakes 226

Jellies and Creams 243

Souffles and Omelets 263

Invalid Cookery 268

Supper Dishes and Salads 277

Miscellaneous Dishes 283

Odds and Ends 288

How to use up Fragments 291

Forcemeats 293

Preserves 295

Menus 297

Suppers 308

INDEX 313



THE SKILFUL COOK.



INTRODUCTION.

The importance of every woman having a thorough knowledge of domestic economy cannot be too strongly insisted on. The false refinement which, of late years, has considered an acquaintance with domestic matters to be only suitable for servants, has been fraught with the most disastrous consequences. This may seem strong language, but it is not too strong. All sanitary reformers know well enough that it is in the power of many women to prevent very many deaths, and an incalculable amount of misery and vice. Speaking of sanitary reform, the late Canon Kingsley says:—'Women can do in that work what men cannot. The private correspondence of women, private conversation, private example of ladies, above all of married women, of mothers of families, may do what no legislation can.' And again, in the same speech, delivered on behalf of the Ladies' Sanitary Association, he says:—'Ah! would to God that some man had the pictorial eloquence to put before the mothers of England the mass of preventable agony of mind and body which exists in England, year after year: and would that some man had the logical eloquence to make them understand that it is in their power, in the power of the mothers and wives of the higher classes—I will not say to stop it all, God only knows that—but to stop, as I believe, three-fourths of it.'

This may seem to some, perhaps, too serious an introduction to a cookery book; but it is my earnest wish that my book may not be simply a collection of recipes for cooks to refer to, but a real help to those women who, recognising the importance of good cookery in sanitary reform, are doing their utmost (as I know many are) to acquire that knowledge, and are thereby making the lives of those about them brighter and happier; and are also by their examples doing an amount of good that they themselves scarcely dream of. I have been told more than once by those benevolently interested in the working classes that with instruction to ladies on cookery they had no sympathy, and they seemed to think that it would be better if lessons on the subject were given exclusively to the poor. They forget that the wives of the working men are women who have most of them been domestic servants, and that what they learn in their situations, and what habits they there acquire, they take for good or evil into their own homes; and in this way an ignorant careless mistress may be doing an infinitude of harm to her sister women in a lower position than herself. On the other hand, a mistress who understands thoroughly the management of a house, by wisely training her servants in habits of order and industry, by teaching them what they do not know and have had no opportunity of learning about hygiene or the laws of health, may be—in fact cannot help being—a blessing indirectly to many homes.

I believe that the working classes must be taught in this way if they are to be taught at all. I have myself, over and over again, tried to benefit my poorer sisters by giving them free lessons on food and cookery; and although I invariably find a few who are very grateful for such instruction, the majority, I imagine, never trouble to put in practice what they have been taught. Their habits have been already formed, and it is not easy for them to alter them. But it is a significant fact that those who do value the lessons are generally respectable hardworking women, who have held good situations under good mistresses.

I have also heard it very ignorantly objected by some that by teaching ladies how to cook, you are taking the bread out of the servants' mouths. This is, indeed, the conclusion of a shallow mind; for with equal justice and good sense, it might be said that the owner of any large business was taking the bread out of his employs' mouths because he happened to be acquainted with all the details of his own business, and was able to see that those in his employment attended to their duties properly. But this, I suppose, everyone will admit, that the owner of any business ignorant of the management and details of it, would not unlikely one day find himself without any business to manage. And if this is true with regard to men's businesses, is it not equally so with regard to women's?

I have the greatest sympathy with servants, and would be the last to injure them in any way. A good servant is a treasure: and good work always deserves good wages. But the more a mistress knows of household work herself, the more is she likely to appreciate a servant who honestly and conscientiously performs her duties; and by understanding their difficulties, the more consideration is she likely to show to those in her employ.

But there are some ladies to whom a knowledge of domestic economy ought to be especially invaluable—namely, those whose means are so limited that they cannot afford to engage servants who have had any great experience, and, therefore, who keep only what is called a general servant, a term which often means a woman or girl who will undertake to do everything, but who has only the vaguest notions of how anything should be done. They, poor things, have had no opportunity of learning in the homes from which they came. But it will be well for the poor 'General' if her mistress can teach and train her; for she will then leave her situation with knowledge and habits that will make her a valuable and useful woman, and be of the greatest service to her all her life.

It is, however, quite surprising to see the rough way in which some people allow themselves to be served, and the muddle in which they prefer to live rather than do anything themselves that they consider menial; as if an untidy house, slovenly servants, badly cooked and coarsely served food, are not likely to do much more to lower their self-respect than any amount of so-called drudgery. 'A gentlewoman,' it has been said, 'never lowers herself by doing that which would make her feel less a gentlewoman if left undone.'

How much healthier and happier, too, many girls would be, if, instead of going out in all weathers, day after day, to earn a miserable pittance in any such employment as daily governesses, they would do some of the lighter housework, cooking, &c., at home. By being able to do with one servant instead of two, they would save probably more than they could earn in other ways, besides being much stronger from the exercise thus taken. But too many girls are, unfortunately, imbued with the vulgar notion that work is not genteel. What a Moloch this gentility has been and still is! What a number of human sacrifices are continually placed at its shrine, and what puppets its votaries become! Mr. Smiles says: 'There is a dreadful ambition abroad for being "genteel." We keep up appearances too often at the expense of honesty, and though we may not be rich, yet we must seem to be so. We must be "respectable," though only in the meanest sense—in mere vulgar outward show. We have not the courage to go patiently onward in the condition of life in which it has pleased God to call us, but must needs live in some fashionable state to which we ridiculously please to call ourselves; and all to gratify the vanity of that unsubstantial genteel world of which we form a part.'

It would effect a moral revolution if women would only look at matters in the true light. How much crime and misery may be traced to mismanaged unattractive homes! How many deaths to the ignorance of hygiene! How much intemperance to the physical depression caused by badly cooked food! Let us hope that the refinement, falsely so called, which is only another name for vanity, laziness, and selfishness, may soon give way to the true refinement of heart and mind which considers nothing too menial which will benefit others; nothing too common that will add to the happiness of our fellow-creatures.

If we women could earnestly and courageously endeavour to do the duty nearest to us, remembering that all honest work, of whatever kind, has been for ever ennobled by the great Founder of our Faith, so should we be, one in one way and one in another, 'helping to move (to quote Dean Goulburn) the wheels of the great world system whose revolutions are bringing on the kingdom of Christ.' 'To be good and to be useful,' as Canon Kingsley says, 'are the two objects for which we were sent into this world.'



HINTS TO YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS.

She looketh well to the ways of her household. Proverbs of Solomon.

Take care that you know definitely what sum you can afford to spend on your household expenses, and make it a point of conscience never to exceed it. Market with ready money, if possible; but, if it is more convenient to pay by the month, or quarter, never make that an excuse for letting your bills mount up to double what you can afford to pay. With accounts, carefully kept, it is quite possible to regulate the expenditure to the income.

Never order things at random, but inquire the price of everything before purchasing. Take every pains to know how to judge of the quality of meat, groceries, &c., so that you may not be imposed on. Never be ashamed to say you cannot afford to have this or that. To be poor may be a misfortune, but it is not a fault; and, indeed, to be rich is often a far greater misfortune. The discipline of poverty, and the self-denial it involves, will often strengthen a character which the luxury of riches would enervate.

Cultivate sufficient independence of character to enable you to form your household, and regulate your expenses according to your own means, and not according to the income of your neighbours. What does it matter if some may sneer at your thread-bare carpets and frugal fare? The approval of your own conscience is of far more importance than the friendship of the vulgar-minded. Above all things keep your accounts most strictly. Without this you are like a mariner without a compass, or chart, you don't know where you are or what is your position, and you will find yourself, before long, on the rocks of debt and difficulty. Extravagant housekeeping has been the cause of the most serious evils; and, if persisted in, will be sure, in time, to wreck the peace and happiness of yourself and family.

Extravagance is, no doubt, often the result of mere thoughtlessness, but that does not mend matters. There is as much evil wrought by want of thought as by want of heart. If it is true that there is but one step between the sublime and the ridiculous, it is equally true that there is but one step between folly and wickedness. Therefore, all young housekeepers ought to give earnest attention to the management of their affairs, for certainly in these matters the 'wise woman buildeth her house, while the foolish plucketh it down with her hands.'



FOOD AND DIET.

The human body is constantly wearing out. With every movement, every breath drawn, there is some waste of its substance. To repair this waste, and, in the case of children, to provide material for their growth, a certain amount of food should be taken daily. The food taken should consist of such qualities as will make flesh and muscle; such as will also keep up the heat of the body, and give force, or the power of movement. These foods must contain a certain quantity of liquid, and the salts necessary to keep the blood pure.

TABLE OF FOODS.

Flesh-forming or Nitrogenous.

Examples—Meat Poultry Fish Game Eggs Cheese Flour Oatmeal Barley Rice Peas Beans Lentils

Heat-giving or Carbonaceous.

Examples—Butter Suet Dripping And fat of all kinds Sugar in whatever form Starch, which is contained in all vegetables

The foods under the head of flesh-formers, although classed as flesh-formers, are really compound foods. They contain some heat-giving as well as flesh-forming properties.

The heat-giving foods, on the contrary, are all simple foods. Life could not be sustained on any one of them alone, whatever quantity might be taken. These facts are sufficient to show the necessity of a mixed diet. Professor Church says in his lectures on this subject: 'Our food must be palatable, that we may eat it with relish, and get the greatest nourishment from it. The flavour and texture of food, its taste, in fact, stimulates the production of those secretions—such as the saliva and the gastric juice—by the action of which the food is digested or dissolved, and becomes finally a part of the body, or is assimilated. As food, then, must be relished it is desirable that it should be varied in character—it should neither be restricted to vegetable products on the one hand, nor to animal substances (including milk and eggs) on the other. By due admixture of these, and by varying, occasionally, the kind of vegetable or meat taken, or the modes of cooking adopted, the necessary constituents of a diet are furnished more cheaply, and at the same time do more efficiently their proper work. Now, if we were to confine ourselves to wheaten bread, we should be obliged to eat in order to obtain our daily supply of albuminoids, or 'flesh-formers,' nearly 4lb.—an amount that would give us nearly twice as much of the starchy matters which should accompany the albuminoids—or, in other words, it would supply not more than the necessary daily allowance of nitrogen, but almost twice the necessary daily allowance of carbon. Now animal food is generally richer in albuminoid, or nitrogenous constituents, than vegetable food; so, by mixing lean meat with our bread, we may get a food in which the constituents correspond better to our requirements; for 2lb. of bread may be substituted by 12oz. of meat, and yet all the necessary carbon as well as nitrogen be thereby supplied. As such a substitution is often too expensive, owing to the high price of meat—cheese, which is twice as rich in nitrogenous matters (that is flesh-formers) as butchers' meat, may be, and constantly is, employed as a complete diet, and for persons in health, doing hard bodily work, it affords suitable nourishment. Even some vegetable products, rich in nitrogen, as haricot beans, may be used in the same way as meat or cheese, and for the same purpose.'[1]

[1] Church On Food.

It is a pity that the value of haricot beans, peas, lentils, and oatmeal is not more generally known. One writer says that there is as much nourishment in 1lb. of either of these as in 3lb. of lean meat; and in a lecture on the same subject, another writer states that in three farthings' worth of oatmeal there is as much nourishment as in a mutton chop. These are certainly facts which should be known, especially by people of limited means. Macaroni and semolina are also valuable foods; they are prepared from the most nutritious part of the wheat grain. Rice and maize are deficient in flesh-forming properties, but useful as heat-giving foods; so are, also, tapioca, cornflour, and sago.

Potatoes and fresh vegetables contain but little nourishment. They must not, however, be despised on that account, as they are most valuable additions to our daily diet on account of the potash and other salts which they contain. These vegetables help to keep the blood pure. The anti-scorbutic properties of the potato are so great, that since its introduction into England leprosy is said to have entirely disappeared; neither is scurvy the scourge it was formerly.

The food taken daily should be in proportion to the work done. A labouring man, for example, working hard each day, would require such foods as liver and bacon, steak, bullock's heart, beans, peas, cheese, hard-boiled eggs, &c.; foods, in fact, that would not be too easily digested. Hard work causes the food to be assimilated more readily. A too easily digested fare would cause a constant feeling of hunger. For anyone, on the contrary, leading a sedentary life, the food taken could not be too digestible. In that case, mutton, plainly cooked chicken, soles, milk puddings, and lightly boiled eggs should be the kind of viands chosen.

Children should have plain wholesome fare. Oatmeal and bread are both excellent foods for them. The lime they contain hardens their bones. The bread should be made from seconds flour, which contains more flesh-forming and mineral matter than the whiter and more sifted kinds.

Children should also have plenty of good milk. This is of the greatest importance, especially for the first months of a child's life. Milk is the only perfect food, and contains all that is necessary to sustain healthy life. It is also the only food a child can properly digest, until it cuts its teeth. The improper feeding of children is the great cause of infant mortality. When it becomes advisable to add to milk other foods, they should be nutritious and well cooked. Fine oatmeal or baked flour are, perhaps, the two best. Dr. Fothergill says: 'Children fed on the food of their seniors, or rich cake, and crammed with sweeties, do not as a rule thrive well. They cannot compare favourably with children fed on oatmeal, maize, and milk. Oatmeal is recovering its position as a nursery food, after its temporary banishment. Oatmeal porridge is the food par excellence of the infants born north of the Trent, or was, at least, and stalwart people were the results.'

There is no doubt oatmeal is an excellent food, not for children only, but for everyone, especially for those who work hard. It is much to be regretted that it is not more universally used. The English, as a rule, eat too much animal food; and do not give sufficient attention to the proper preparation of vegetables.

Oatmeal water is considered a most strengthening beverage, and is used by men in foundries when beer and fermented liquors would be found too heating.

Of alcoholic drinks, Mr. Buckmaster says (echoing the opinion of eminent physiologists): 'BEER, WINE, and SPIRITS are never to be regarded as foods. Their popular use is entirely due to their stimulating properties. They contain no nitrogen, and are therefore not flesh-formers, nor can they add anything to the wasting tissues. All stimulants act by increasing, for a time, the vitality of the body; but this activity is always followed by depression in proportion to the previous excitement. TEA and COFFEE do, to some extent, prevent waste; but their value as foods depends mainly on the sugar and milk taken with them; and their use, instead of food, is almost as hurtful as intoxicating drinks. COCOA differs very much from either tea or coffee, since it is a nutritious liquid food.'

In a lecture on the action of alcohol upon health, Sir Andrew Clark says of health: 'That it is a state which cannot be benefited by alcohol in any degree.' He also states: 'It is capable of proof, beyond all possibility of question, that alcohol, in ordinary circumstances, not only does not help work, but is a serious hindrance of work.'

These facts are so important, and ought to be so universally known, that it is to be hoped before long the chemistry of food will occupy the place it should as one of the most necessary branches of everyone's education.



THE TABLE.

A properly cooked meal, and a neatly arranged dinner-table, are helps to the happiness and moral progress of the humblest of families.—Buckmaster.

A really capable housekeeper will not be satisfied with good cookery only. She will be careful to have each dish nicely served, however plain it may be. Culture, or the want of it, will be seen at once in the appointment of her table. This remark does not apply to a profusion of glass, silver, or flowers—these are questions of wealth—but to the neatness and order with which a table is laid, and the manner in which the meal is served.

Some people are particularly sensitive to external impressions; and to them a dinner, or any other meal, however costly, served in an untidy room, with table-cloth soiled, silver tarnished, glasses smeared, and above all a slovenly servant, would be enough to give a feeling of depression that would anything but aid digestion.

A great point to be attended to is to have everything perfectly clean and orderly, however old and plain. Clean table-cloths make a wonderful difference to the look of a table; a few flowers also will do much to give it a bright appearance. Servants should be neat in their dress, and quiet in their movements. If only one is kept, that is no reason why she should wait at table in a slovenly dress and with ruffled hair.

The dining-room should be, if possible, a bright room with a good aspect. Heavy, sombre furniture, however fashionable, should be avoided. It is unfortunate that so little attention is paid to the influence of colour; a warm colouring will do much to give a bright look to a room which would otherwise be dull.

The influence of the mental emotions on the digestion is so great that it is important that the conversation at meals should be as cheerful as possible, and no unpleasant subject should be discussed: anything that disturbs the appetite disturbs the digestion also.

With these points carefully attended to—a bright room, neatly-laid table, well-cooked food, and cheerful conversation—dinner, or any other meal, will become what it should be, a refreshment to both mind and body.



HOW TO COOK.

Hints to Beginners.

A few hints to beginners on the proper way to set about their work may be, perhaps, of some use; as I know many people get disgusted with cookery at the very outset, and after one attempt, form a resolution never to enter the kitchen again. They have spent the whole morning trying to make a single dish, and that has proved a failure; they have become hot, tired, and irritable, and ill able to bear the laughter their failure has excited. There has been a waste of material to no purpose, and they conclude, therefore, that it is useless for them to make any further attempts. At any rate, they determine that they will not try again 'just yet;' and that often means that they do not try again at all. This disappointment and fatigue is generally the result of want of method and forethought. A recipe has been taken into the kitchen to be tried; very probably one half of the terms used in it have not been understood by the would-be cook. She at once begins to make the dish, going to the recipe to look for each article required as she wants to use it. If some of the supplies have run short, she has perhaps to wait in the middle of her operations while she sends to purchase them. Moreover, when the cake, pastry, or whatever it may be, is made, the fire has very likely been forgotten. In this way, even if the dish has been properly prepared, it is spoiled in the cooking.

Those, too, who have some knowledge of the art and perhaps, can cook fairly well, will often find the work a great fatigue and toil. They spend double or treble the time they need in the kitchen, just for the want of a little judicious management.

Before trying a recipe read it over, carefully notice how a dish is to be cooked, and make up the fire accordingly. If it is pastry, take means to get the oven hot; if a boiled pudding, make a good fire, and put a large saucepan of water on to cook it in before doing anything else. When this most important matter is attended to, put all the materials required on the table with the weights and scales; notice what cooking utensils will be required, see that they are all clean and ready for use, and put them near to hand. If, for example, you want to make a cake, proceed in this manner:—Attend first to the fire to get the oven lightly heated, then put out the weights and scales and all necessary materials; put a basin on the table for mixing, two or three cups for breaking eggs in, one or two plates to put the different ingredients on as they are measured, a grater, and anything else that may be required. Then carefully weigh the materials, taking the exact quantities named in the recipe. Prepare them all before mixing any of them. Wash and pick over the currants, and while they are drying, cut up all the candied peel; beat up the eggs, and grease and prepare the cake-tin. The butter should then be rubbed into the flour, and the other dry ingredients should be added. The cake should then be quickly mixed, put into its tin, and placed at once in a hot oven.

If several dishes are to be made, a little thought beforehand will often prevent a very great deal of fatigue and waste of time. Suppose, for example, that you wish to prepare two or three dishes for supper and to make some cakes for tea. You have, perhaps, decided to have a chicken coated with Bchamel sauce, a gteau of apples with whipped cream, a custard pudding, and some rock cakes. Make, the day before, if possible, a list of the articles required for the different dishes, and order what is necessary in good time, so that there may be no delay the next morning. Have the kitchen quite clear from all litters before you begin to work. No one can cook well in a muddle. Then commence operations by making up the fire and putting a saucepan of stock, or water, on to boil for the chicken. Next put the gelatine to soak for the gteau, not forgetting a little in the Bchamel sauce. The longer gelatine soaks, the more quickly it will dissolve. Then slice the apples and put them to stew with the sugar, so that they may be cooking while you are preparing something else. Afterwards truss the chicken; and probably, by the time it is ready, the water or stock in the saucepan will be boiling. Put the chicken into it to simmer gently, noticing the time, so that it may not be over-cooked. Then prepare the ingredients for the rock cakes; mixing them—as they require a quick oven—before the pudding. While they are cooking, prepare the custard; and by the time it is made, the cakes, if the oven is properly hot, will be sufficiently set to admit of the heat being moderated. Now make the Bchamel sauce; strain it and add the dissolved gelatine. Take up the chicken, remove the skewers, place it on a dish, and coat it nicely with the sauce. Then rub the apples through the sieve, and finish making the gteau. By this time the chicken, gteau, and rock cakes are made, and the custard will be cooking. While waiting for the custard, whip the cream for the gteau and put it on a sieve to drain; prepare any decorations you may intend to put on the fowl, and lay them on a plate near to it in the pantry, ready to put on just before serving. Everything will now be ready. With just a little management, even a slow worker would scarcely take a longer time to make these dishes than an hour and a half.

Whatever failures and disappointments you may meet with at first, do not be discouraged. Success is certain if you will only have a little patience and perseverance. Do not be disheartened because you feel very awkward, and because you not unfrequently forget the oven, and let your cakes and pastry burn. Try not to mind the banter of your relations and friends at any possible failure. Many well-meaning efforts to acquire this useful knowledge have been nipped in the bud by the thoughtless, silly way in which some people will laugh at any mistake or blunder. A cake which has caught in baking, or a pudding with the sugar left out, will probably afford them an inexhaustible subject of mirth. Make up your mind, however, not to be discouraged by any of these things. Practice will give nimbleness to your fingers and strength to your memory. As regards any laughter your mistakes may cause, only persevere, and it will not be long before the laugh will be on your side. But keep in mind in any of your attempts that you must be exact in all you do. If you try to cook without paying strict attention to weights of the materials to be used and to the other directions, you will deserve to fail. Be very particular in measuring quantities; bear in mind that carelessness in this respect is no mark of a superior cook as some people imagine, but rather of a careless or ignorant one.

As whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well, bring all your intelligence to bear upon what you take in hand.



HOW TO CLEAN STOVES AND COOKING UTENSILS.

Iron Saucepans.

Immerse them in a pan of hot water with soda in it, and wash them thoroughly inside and out, taking care that nothing is left sticking to the bottom of the saucepans. If anything has been burnt in them, boil some strong soda and water in them before washing them, and then rub the bottom of the saucepan with sand until it is quite clean. The sand must be used nearly dry; if too much wetted it loses its power.

The saucepan lids should be thoroughly rinsed and dried.

Enamel Saucepans.

Wash them thoroughly in hot water with soda in it, using soap if necessary. If anything has been burnt in the saucepan, boil strong soda and water in it before cleaning it, and rub it well with sand. Rinse and dry thoroughly.

Anglo-American Saucepans.

Clean like enamel saucepans. They should be kept perfectly clean inside and out.

Tin Saucepans.

Clean these like iron saucepans.

Dish Covers and Jelly Moulds.

Wash with soap and water and dry thoroughly. Powder some whiting, and mix with a little cold water; brush the mixture over the covers and moulds; when dry, rub off with a plate brush or soft cloth or leather.

To Clean a Roaster.

Wash the dripping-pan and inside of the roaster with hot water and soda to remove all grease, then rub them with sand until they are quite bright, rinse and dry thoroughly. Clean the outside of the roaster with whiting, used according to directions given for cleaning dish covers.

Hair and Wire Sieves.

Wash these thoroughly with hot water with soda in it, and scrub them quite clean with a sieve-brush. Dry them thoroughly, and keep them in a dry place. If this is not done a hair sieve will get mildewed, an iron one rusty, and a copper one will verdigris and become poisonous. Copper-wire sieves should always have especial care.

Paste Boards and Rolling Pins.

Scrub them well with hot water and sand. Do not use soda, as it will make the wood yellow.

Baking Tins.

Wash them in hot water with soda in it, and rub with sand until they are bright; rinse and dry well.

To Clean a Close Stove or Open Range.

Scrape out all the ashes and brush up all the dust. Then, with a brush, thoroughly clean the flues. Brush the stove over with liquid blacklead, and when it is dry polish with brushes. Then clean any steel about the stove and the fire-irons and fender with emery-paper; any brass with brick-dust well rubbed on with a leather.

Brush all the dust from the oven, and wipe it round with a cloth wrung out of hot water.

To Clean a Gas Stove.

Wash off any grease that may have been spilled on the stove with a cloth dipped in hot water, and wipe the inside of the stove, taking care to dry it thoroughly. Wash the dripping-pan in hot water with soda in it, and rub it with sand to brighten it. Then wipe it quite dry.

Brush the stove over with liquid blacklead, and polish it with brushes.

Copper Cooking Utensils.

Wash them well in hot water with soda in it; moisten some salt with vinegar, and rub them well with this to remove stains and tarnish. Then wash them quickly with soap and water, and dry them thoroughly; polish them with a little powdered whiting rubbed on with a soft leather.



RULES FOR BOILING.

All meat, with the exception of salt meat, should be put into boiling water, and should be well boiled for quite five minutes, in order that the albumen on the outside of the joint may be set. The hardened albumen forms a kind of casing. This casing serves to keep in, as far as possible, the flavour and juices of the meat. When the meat has been boiled sufficiently long to effect this hardening, the kettle should be drawn to one side of the fire. The water should be kept at simmering point until the joint is cooked. The general rule, as regards time required for boiling, is a quarter of an hour for each pound of meat and a quarter of an hour over. But only general rules can be given, as the time will vary according to the nature of the joint to be cooked. A thick piece of meat will necessarily take longer to cook than a thin piece with much bone, although both may be the same weight. Very fresh meat will also take longer to cook than that which has been hung.

As soon as the water boils, after the meat is in it, the scum should be carefully removed from time to time, while it is cooking. If the scum be allowed to boil down, it will settle on the joint and discolour it. It is best, however, as a precaution, to wrap the meat in a very clean cloth; this will effectually preserve its colour. Salt meat should be put into lukewarm water, for the purpose of drawing out some of the salt. It should be simmered gently, allowing always twenty minutes to the pound, and twenty minutes over. Salt hardens the fibre of the meat; it, therefore, requires to be cooked for a longer time to make it tender.



RULES FOR ROASTING.

To roast successfully, make up a nice clear fire. When once made up, it should be replenished, if necessary, by putting on coal or coke at the back. The live coals should be drawn to the front to prevent smoke. Fasten the joint to the jack. Place the roaster close to the fire for the first ten minutes, so that the heat of the fire may at once harden the albumen, and form a case to keep in the flavour and juices. Afterwards, draw the roaster farther back and cook gradually, basting every ten minutes. The basting keeps the meat from drying up, and gives it a better flavour. The length of time allowed for roasting is the same as for boiling, the rule being a quarter of an hour for each pound, and a quarter of an hour over. For white meat, veal and pork, or solid joints without bone, allow twenty minutes to the pound, and twenty minutes over. These rules, however, cannot always be strictly adhered to, as the size and shape of the joint must be taken into consideration, as well as the weight. Meat that has been frozen will take longer to cook than fresh meat. Meat which has been well hung will take a shorter time than fresh meat. If a jack is not used, the joint should be fastened to a rope of worsted, which should be kept constantly turning.

Gravy, for a joint, may be made according to two methods. The first method is to take the dripping-pan away half an hour before the joint is cooked, then to put a hot dish in its place, and to pour the contents of the pan into a basin. Put the basin into a refrigerator; or, place it on ice. As soon as it is cold, the fat will cake on the top of the gravy, and should be removed very carefully. Make the gravy hot, diluting it with warm water, if necessary, and pour it round the joint.

The other and more usual method of making gravy, is to pour away all the fat from the pan as soon as the joint is cooked; and then pour into the pan a sufficient quantity of hot water, scraping well the brown glaze from the bottom; colour carefully with caramel, or burnt sugar, and pour it round the joint, not over it. Pouring the gravy over the meat destroys its crispness.

On no account make gravy from stock; stock is quite unsuitable, as the vegetable flavour is, to many persons, disagreeable.



RULES FOR FRYING.

French or Wet Frying.

This is cooking in a large quantity of fat sufficient to cover the articles fried in it. Oil, lard, dripping, or fat rendered down, may be used for this purpose. Oil is considered the best, as it will rise to 600 without burning; other fats get over-heated after 400, and therefore require greater care in using. Success depends, almost entirely, on getting the fat to the right degree of heat. For ordinary frying, the heat required is 345. Unless this point is carefully attended to, total failure will be the result. There are signs, however, by which anyone may easily tell when the fat is ready for use. It must be quite still, making no noise; noise, or bubbling, will be caused by the evaporation of moisture, or water in it. The expression, 'boiling lard,' or 'boiling fat,' has been misleading to many inexperienced cooks, who, not unnaturally, imagine that when the fat is bubbling, like boiling water, it is boiling, and, therefore, at the right heat. But boiling fat does not bubble. When it has the appearance of boiling water, it is simply due, as already explained, to the presence of water in it, which must pass away by evaporation, before the fat can reach the required heat. When it ceases to make any noise, and is quite still, it should be carefully watched; for very soon a pale blue vapour is seen rising, and then the fat is sufficiently hot. If, from the position of the stove, it is not easy to see this vapour, a piece of bread may be held in the fat as a test; if it begins to turn brown, in about a minute, the fat is ready. It should then be used without delay; since, when once hot enough, it rapidly gets overheated or burnt. Fat is burning when the blue vapour becomes like smoke. Burnt fat has an unpleasant smell, and is apt to give a disagreeable taste to the articles fried in it. With ordinary care fat need not get overheated. Next to oil, fat rendered down (see Rendering down Fat), is best for the purpose. If strained after each time of using, and not allowed to burn, it will keep good for months, and may be used for fish, sweets, or savouries, and no taste of anything previously fried in it will be given to the articles cooked. For this kind of frying, a kitchener, or gas stove, is preferable to an open range.

All kinds of rissoles, croquettes, fillets and cutlets of fish, fritters, &c., should be fried in this manner, and should not be darker than a golden brown. It is an advantage to use a frying-basket for all such things as are covered with egg and bread-crumbs; but fritters, or whatever is dipped in batter, should be dropped into the fat, as they become so light that they rise to the top of it. When they are a pale fawn colour on the one side, they should be turned over to the other. Care must be taken to drain everything, after frying, on kitchen paper in order to remove any grease.

Dry Frying.

This is frying in a cutlet or frying pan, with a small quantity of fat, and is only suitable for such things as require slow cooking, such as steaks, mutton or veal cutlets, fillets of beef, liver and bacon. Pancakes also are fried in this manner. Success depends, as in French frying, in having the fat rightly heated, taking care that the outside of the meat cooked be sealed up. In this way the juices and flavour will be retained in it. Make, therefore, the frying-pan hot, then put in the fat; and when that is also perfectly hot, put in the meat to be cooked. When each side has been well sealed up, the heat applied must be moderated, so that the cooking may be gradual. The common mistake in this kind of frying is to put the meat into the fat when it is but barely melted; the juices of the meat are thus allowed to escape, and the meat is toughened.



RULES FOR BAKING.

To bake meat successfully, the oven must be well ventilated, otherwise, the joint cooked in this manner will have an unpleasant flavour. The meat should be put on a trivet, which should be placed on a baking-tin. The oven must be very hot when the meat is put into it, and the heat should be kept up for the first quarter of an hour. This is to form the casing already alluded to in the directions for roasting and boiling; the heat of the oven must then be very much moderated, and the joint cooked very gradually, allowing twenty minutes for every pound, and twenty minutes over. The meat should be basted; and the gravy may be made in the same manner as in roasting.



RULES FOR GRILLING.

For this method of cookery, a clear fire is essential. The griller is warmed, and the meat fastened in it. It is then hung on the bars of the fireplace, and a dish passed underneath to catch any gravy. An ordinary sized chop, cooked in this way, will take about five minutes on the one side, and three on the other.



RULES FOR BROILING.

This is cooking over the fire on a gridiron. The flavour of broiled meat is usually preferred to that of grilled. Put the gridiron over the fire to heat, and then put the chop, or steak, on it; place the gridiron close to the fire at first, that the heat may rapidly seal up the outside of the meat. When this has been accomplished, lift the gridiron further from the fire, and cook gradually, turning occasionally. A clear fire is essential. Coke is better than coal for broiling, because there is less smoke from it.



JOINTS.

Sirloin of Beef.

This is the primest joint, and must be either roasted or baked (see directions). Horse-radish should be served with it. Yorkshire pudding is also liked with roast beef.

Ribs of Beef.

These should be cooked like sirloin, and served with the same accompaniments. A neater looking joint is made by boning and rolling them. The bones can be used for soup.

Aitch Bone, Round, Thick and Thin Flank of Beef.

Those are usually salted and boiled (see directions for boiling salt meat). Serve with carrots and turnips, and yeast, Norfolk, or suet dumplings.

Brisket of Beef.

This should be stewed (see directions for stewed brisket).

Leg of Mutton.

This may be roasted, baked, or boiled. If roasted, it should be served with red-currant jelly; if boiled, with caper sauce. Carrots and turnips are liked with boiled mutton.

Shoulder of Mutton.

This may be either roasted or baked. Serve with onion sauce.

Saddle of Mutton.

This may be either roasted or baked. Serve with red-currant jelly.

Neck of Mutton.

This is boiled, and requires long and gentle cooking. Serve with caper sauce.

Fore Quarter of Lamb.

This joint should be roasted or baked. Serve with mint sauce.

Leg of Lamb.

This may be either roasted, baked, or boiled. Serve, if roast, with mint sauce; and if boiled, with matre d'htel sauce.

Shoulder of Lamb, Saddle of Lamb, Loin of Lamb

All these are either roasted or boiled, and served with mint sauce.

Fillet of Veal.

Stuff it with veal stuffing and make into nice round shape; fasten it securely with string and skewers, and roast or bake it. Serve with cut lemon, and send some boiled ham, pork, or bacon to table with it. Use a pint of thin melted butter, instead of water, for making the gravy.

Breast, Shoulder, and Loin of Veal.

These are all roasted. Thin melted butter is used to make the gravy for them, and cut lemon is served with them.

Knuckle of Veal.

This is boiled, and served with one dessertspoonful of chopped parsley added to one pint of melted butter.

Leg of Pork.

This must be roasted or baked, the skin having been previously scored with a knife. Serve it with apple sauce.

Chine of Pork.

Stuff it with pork stuffing (see Forcemeats) and roast it. Serve with apple sauce.

Spare Rib of Pork.

This is roasted, the skin having previously been scored. Serve it with apple sauce.

Hand of Pork.

Soak it for two or three hours before cooking, and boil it. Serve with pease pudding.

Leg of Pork.

This joint is also salted and boiled. It is served with pease pudding.

To Cook a Ham.

Put into lukewarm water, to which has been added one pint of old ale. Simmer it very gently until quite tender. For a ham always allow twenty-five minutes to each pound, and twenty-five minutes over. Let it get cold in the liquor in which it boiled, then remove the rind and carefully cover with raspings.

Bacon.

Cook like ham, taking care that it is simmered until perfectly tender. Remove the skin and cover with raspings.

Pickled Pork.

Put it into lukewarm water and simmer gently until tender.



POULTRY AND GAME.

Roast Goose.

Ingredients—1 Goose. Sage and onion stuffing. 1oz. of flour. 1 onion. 1 apple. 3 sage leaves. lb. of gravy beef. 1 quart of water.

Method.—Stuff the goose by placing the sage and onion forcemeat inside it.

Then truss it nicely and roast it from one and a half to two hours.

If it is a large one, two hours; if a small one, one and a half hours.

To make the gravy, simmer the giblets in water for three hours with half a pound of gravy beef cut in pieces, a sliced onion, apple, and three sage leaves, pepper and salt.

Then stir in a thickening made of the flour, and colour the gravy with a little burnt sugar. If liked, a glass of port wine may be added.

Pour a little gravy round the goose, and serve the rest in a tureen.

Apple or tomato sauce should be served with roast goose.

Roast Turkey.

Ingredients—1 turkey. Some veal forcemeat (omitting the suet). 1lb. of gravy beef. 3 pints of water. 1 onion. 2oz. of flour.

Method.—Place the forcemeat inside the turkey, and truss it nicely.

Roast it from one and a half to two and a half hours.

Make the gravy by simmering the giblets and beef in the water with the onion for three hours.

Thicken the gravy with the flour, and pour a little round the turkey.

Serve the rest in a tureen.

Place some fried or baked sausages round the turkey, and serve with bread sauce.

Boiled Turkey.

A small turkey is sometimes boiled like a fowl, and served with oyster, celery, or Bchamel sauce.

Roast Duck.

Ingredients—1 duck. Some sage and onion stuffing. Rather more than 1 pint water. 1oz. of flour. 1 onion. 1 apple. lb. of gravy beef, or 2 or 3 bones.

Method.—Stuff the duck by placing the forcemeat inside it.

Truss it nicely, and roast it from three-quarters of an hour to an hour, according to its size.

Make the gravy by simmering the giblets in the water with the beef or bones, onion, apple, pepper and salt, for two hours.

Thicken it with the flour, and colour carefully with burnt sugar.

Pour a little gravy round the duck, and serve the rest in a tureen.

A glass of port wine may be added to the gravy if liked.

Apple or tomato sauce should be served with roast duck.

Ducklings.

These are cooked and served like ducks, and take from twenty to forty minutes to roast, according to their size.

Roast Hare.

Ingredients—1 hare. Some veal forcemeat. lb. of gravy beef. 1 pint of water. 1 onion. 1oz. of flour. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Stuff the belly of the hare with the forcemeat, and sew it in.

Truss it nicely, and roast it from one and a quarter to two hours, according to its size, basting it constantly.

To make gravy, cut the beef into small pieces, and simmer in the water, with the onion sliced, for three hours. Thicken it with the flour, and add, if liked, a glass of port wine.

Pour a little gravy round the hare, and serve the remainder in a tureen.

Jugged Hare.

Ingredients—1 hare. Some veal forcemeat. 2oz. of butter. 1 onion, stuck with 6 cloves. 2 glasses of port wine. 1 pint of gravy or stock. 1 lemon.

Method.—Dry the hare well and cut it in pieces.

Fry them in the butter.

Then remove them and fry the flour a nice brown.

Pour in the gravy or stock, and stir until it boils.

Then put the stock into an earthenware jar with the hare, onion, thin rind and juice of the lemon, and pepper and salt to taste.

Cover the jar close, and put it into a moderate oven, where it must simmer gently from three to four hours until the hare is quite tender.

Make some balls of veal forcemeat, to which the chopped liver of the hare has been added, and either fry or bake them.

Add them to the jugged hare, and, last of all, pour in the wine.

Serve with red-currant jelly.

Roast Rabbit.

Ingredients—1 rabbit. Some veal forcemeat. Some nice gravy (see Gravy).

Method.—Fill the belly of the rabbit with the forcemeat, and sew it in.

Truss it nicely, and roast it from three-quarters to one hour, basting constantly.

Pour a little gravy round it, and send some to table in a tureen.

Serve with red-currant jelly.

Boiled Rabbit.

Ingredients—1 rabbit. Some onion or matre d'htel sauce.

Method.—Boil the rabbit gently from half an hour to an hour, according to its size and age.

Serve it with onion or matre d'htel sauce.

Stewed Rabbits.

Ingredients—2 rabbits. 4 large onions. 3 pints of water. 2oz. of flour. Pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Cut the rabbits into joints, and slice the onions.

Put them with the water into a large stewpan, and simmer for one hour or more until the rabbits are tender.

Then make a thickening of the flour and stir it in, letting it boil well.

Put the rabbit on a hot dish, and pour the gravy over.

Ragout of Rabbit.

Ingredients—1 rabbit. 1 onion stuck with 6 cloves. 2oz. of butter or dripping. 1oz. of flour. 1 pint of water or stock. Pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Cut the rabbit into neat joints, and fry them in a stewpan in the butter or dripping.

When brown remove them and fry the flour.

Then pour in the water or stock, and stir until it boils.

Put in the pieces of rabbit with the onion, and pepper and salt to taste.

Simmer gently for about one hour or more until quite tender.

Serve the rabbit on a hot dish, and strain the gravy over it.

Roast Pheasant.

Ingredients—1 pheasant. Half a pint of gravy. Butter.

Method.—Roast the pheasant nicely for three-quarters of an hour or an hour, according to its size, basting it constantly with butter.

Make a nice gravy for it (see Gravy), and serve it with bread sauce and browned crumbs.

Wild Duck.

Ingredients—Wild duck. Half a pint of gravy (see Gravy). Lemon juice. Butter.

Method.—Roast the wild duck nicely before a clear fire for thirty or forty-five minutes, basting it constantly with butter.

Sprinkle over it a little cayenne and salt, and a few drops of lemon juice.

Serve the gravy in a tureen.

If liked, a glass of port wine may be poured over the duck.

Partridges.

Partridges should be nicely roasted before a clear fire from twenty-five to thirty minutes.

Serve with a little gravy and bread sauce.

Browned crumbs are also handed with them.

Grouse.

Roast these birds before a nice clear fire, basting constantly with butter.

Serve with gravy, bread sauce, and browned crumbs.

Woodcocks and Snipes.

These birds should be nicely trussed but not drawn.

Roast them carefully from twenty to thirty minutes, basting constantly.

Place under them rounds of toasted bread, buttered on each side, to catch the trail as it drops, as this is considered a delicacy.

When cooked, lay the toast on a hot dish, place the birds on it, and pour a little good gravy over.

Boiled Fowl.

Truss nicely and flour the breast slightly.

Fold it in buttered paper, and tie securely with string.

Boil in stock or water, according to the directions given for boiling meat for three-quarters of an hour to one hour and a half, according to its age and size.

Serve with white, egg, or matre d'htel sauce poured over it.

Roast Fowl.

Truss nicely and roast, according to directions given for roasting meat, for three-quarters of an hour to one hour and a half according to its age and size.

Serve with bread sauce and some gravy (see Gravy).

Braised Partridges.

Ingredients—A brace of partridges. A small piece of carrot, turnip, and onion. 2 tomatoes. 1 pint of good second stock. 1 wineglass of sherry. Pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Truss two partridges as for boiling.

Put at the bottom of a stewpan the vegetables cut in small pieces.

Lay the partridges on the top and pour in the stock and sherry; these should be sufficient to come half way up the partridges.

Cover with buttered paper.

Put the lid on the stewpan and simmer very gently until the partridges are tender.

Then put them on a baking tin in the oven to brown them.

Strain the stock and boil it rapidly down to a glaze.

Serve the partridges with the glaze poured over them.



SAVOURY MEAT DISHES.

Stewed Steak.

Ingredients—1lb. of steak. 1 piece of carrot, turnip, onion, and celery. 1 pint of water. 1oz. of dripping. 1oz. of flour. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Cut all the fat from the steak.

Make the dripping hot in a stewpan and fry the steak in it.

Then put in the vegetables, and pour in the water, adding pepper and salt.

Simmer the steak gently from three to four hours, until quite tender.

When quite cooked, remove it from the gravy.

Put it on a hot dish.

Make a thickening of the flour; stir it into the gravy; boil for two minutes, and strain over the steak.

A little mushroom catsup, Harvey, or Worcester sauce may be added if liked.

The fat should previously have been cut into dice, placed on a baking tin, and cooked in the oven.

For serving, put them in the middle of the steak.

Stewed Brisket of Beef.

Ingredients—5lb. of beef. 2 carrots. 2 onions. 2 turnips. 1 head of celery. 1 sprig of parsley. Marjoram and thyme. 2 bay leaves. 6 cloves. 1 dozen peppercorns. 3 quarts of water.

Method.—Put the meat into a saucepan with the vegetables and other ingredients, and simmer gently for three hours.

Serve on a hot dish, with some of the liquor for gravy.

The remainder can be made into soup.

If to be eaten cold, remove the bones, and press the beef.

Strain the meat liquor, remove the fat, and boil it down to a glaze.

Brush the meat over with it, giving it as many coats of glaze as necessary.

Stewed Ox-cheek.

Ingredients—1 ox-cheek. 1 cowheel. 3 or 4 carrots. 2 or 3 turnips. 3 or 4 onions. 1 sprig of parsley, thyme, and marjoram. 2 bay leaves. 2 quarts of water. 4oz. of flour.

Method.—Wash the ox-cheek and cowheel, and cut them into neat pieces.

Put them into the water with the carrots, turnips, and onions, and celery cut in pieces, and the herbs, pepper and salt.

Stew very gently from four to five hours, until the stew is quite tender.

Make a thickening of the flour.

Stir and cook it well in the gravy.

Put the cheek and cowheel on a hot dish, and strain the gravy over them.

The bones can be used for soup.

Mock Hare.

Ingredients—4lb. shin of beef. 2 quarts of water. 2 carrots. 2 turnips. 1 onion. 6 cloves. 1 sprig of parsley, thyme, and marjoram. 1 glass of port wine. 3oz. of flour. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Put the beef into the water with the vegetables cut in pieces, herbs, cloves, pepper and salt, and stew gently from four to five hours, until quite tender.

Then make a thickening of the flour, stir it in, and boil well for two or three minutes.

For serving, place the beef on a hot dish.

Add the wine to the gravy, and strain it over the meat.

Haricot Mutton.

Ingredients—7 or 8 mutton cutlets. 1 pint of second stock. 1 carrot. 1 turnip. 1 onion. 1 stick of celery. 1oz. of flour. Pepper and salt. 2oz. of dripping.

Method.—Fry the cutlets a nice brown in the dripping.

Mix the flour smoothly with the stock; boil it in a stewpan for two minutes.

Then put in the cutlets and the vegetables cut in fancy shapes.

Stew gently for about three-quarters of an hour, until the meat and vegetables are tender.

Dish the cutlets in a circle; place the vegetables round them and pour the gravy over.

Sheep's Head.

Ingredients—1 sheep's head. 1oz. of butter or dripping. Pepper and salt. 1oz. of flour. A few drops of lemon juice.

Method.—See that the head has been properly prepared by the butcher, and the nostrils removed.

Soak it well in salt and water, and wash it carefully.

Cut out the tongue, remove the brains, and tie the head into shape with a piece of string.

Put it and the tongue into a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer it from three to four hours.

A quarter of an hour before it is cooked, put in the brains tied in muslin.

To make a sauce for it, melt the butter or dripping in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Pour in one pint of the broth from the sheep's head.

Stir and cook well, adding pepper and salt to taste a few drops of lemon juice, or one teaspoonful of vinegar.

Lastly, add the brains, chopped small.

For serving, put the head on a hot dish.

Remove the string, and pour the sauce over.

Sheep's Head au gratin.

Ingredients—1 sheep's head. 2 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs. oz. of butter. 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 1 teaspoonful of dried and powdered herbs. Lemon juice. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Boil the sheep's head according to the directions in preceding recipe.

When cooked, lay it on a greased baking-sheet.

Sprinkle over it the crumbs, parsley, and herbs, adding a few drops of lemon juice; pepper and salt.

Put the butter in little pieces about the head, and brown it in a quick oven or before the fire.

Serve with the brain sauce given in the foregoing recipe.

Liver and Bacon.

Ingredients—1 sheep's liver. 1lb. of fat bacon. 1 pint of hot water. Some flour. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Cut the bacon into slices, and remove the rind.

Cut the liver into slices, and dip them in flour.

Fry the bacon in a frying-pan, then remove it, and fry the liver in the bacon fat, adding a little dripping, if necessary.

When the liver is cooked, place it on a hot dish; dredge the pan with about half an ounce of flour.

Fry the flour brown.

Then pour in one pint of boiling water, stir and boil for one or two minutes; adding pepper and salt to taste.

Place the liver in a circle in the middle of a hot dish.

Put the bacon round it, and strain the gravy over it.

Pigs' Fry, or Mock Goose.

Ingredients—1lb. of pigs' fry. 3lb. of potatoes. 1 onion. 1 apple. A little sage. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Boil the potatoes until half-cooked.

Then cut them in slices.

Cut the fry in small pieces.

Chop the onion and apple small.

Dry and powder the sage leaves.

Grease a pie-dish, and put a layer of sliced potatoes at the bottom.

Place on them a layer of pigs' fry.

Sprinkle it with some of the onion, apple, and powdered sage, pepper, and salt.

Cover with another layer of potatoes; and put on that some more of the fry.

Sprinkle again with the onion, apple, pepper, and salt.

Proceed in this way until the dish is full, letting the last layer be potatoes.

Pour in half a pint of water; and cover the dish with a piece of pig's caul, or paper spread with dripping.

Bake in a moderate oven for one hour and a half.

It may be served in the pie-dish, or on a hot dish.

Mock Goose another way.

Ingredients—1lb. of pigs' fry. Some dried and powdered sage. Chopped apple and onion. pint of cider. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Cut the fry in slices.

Thread the pieces on a long skewer.

Lay it on a greased baking-tin, and sprinkle with the onion, apple, sage, pepper, and salt, and cover with the caul.

Bake in a moderate oven until tender.

Then place the fry on a hot dish, and remove the skewer.

Make the cider boiling, and pour over the fry.

Tripe and Onions.

Ingredients—2lb. of tripe. 3 good-sized onions. 2 pints of milk. 2oz. of flour. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Put the tripe into cold water, and bring it to the boil; this is to blanch it.

Blanch the onions likewise, then throw the water away, and cut the tripe into neat pieces.

Put them in the milk, with the onions cut in halves, and pepper and salt.

Stew gently for an hour.

Then take out the onions and chop them.

Remove the tripe, and put it on a hot dish.

Make a thickening of flour, and boil it well in the milk, and add the chopped onions.

Dish the tripe in a circle, and pour the milk and onions over.

Tripe may be cooked more economically by substituting water for milk.

Stewed Tripe.

Ingredients—2lb. of tripe. 1 quart of brown sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Blanch the tripe, as in the preceding recipe.

Simmer gently in brown sauce for two hours.

Dish in a circle, with the brown sauce poured over.

Broiled Steak.

Make the gridiron hot, and rub it with fat.

Lay the steak on it.

Place the gridiron close to a clear fire for about two minutes until the heat has scaled up that side of the steak.

Then turn it on to the other side, and let that remain close to the fire for the same length of time.

Then remove it further from the fire and cook more gradually, turning occasionally. It takes from ten to fifteen minutes to cook, according to the thickness of the steak.

Broiled Chop.

Cook like a steak. It will take from seven to ten minutes to cook. Serve very hot.

Fried Steak.

Make the frying-pan quite hot.

Put a little butter or fat in it, and make that quite hot also.

Put in the steak, and fry it over a quick fire for two minutes on one side, then turn it on to the other.

Moderate the heat applied, and cook gently for about twenty minutes, turning occasionally.

Savoury Roast.

Ingredients—1lb. of rump or beefsteak, cut thin. Some veal, or sage-and-onion, stuffing. oz. of flour. 1 cup of boiling water.

Method.—Lay the stuffing on the steak, roll it round it, and tie it with twine.

Place it in a pie-dish.

Pour the boiling water over it, and place another pie-dish, inverted, at the top of it.

Put it in a moderate oven for two or three hours, until the steak is tender.

Then put the steak on a hot dish.

Thicken the gravy with the flour and pour it over.

Breast of veal may be boned, and stuffed with veal stuffing and cooked in the same way.

Shoulder of Mutton Boned, Stuffed, and Rolled.

Ingredients—1 shoulder of mutton. Some veal stuffing, or sausage meat.

Method.—Remove the bone carefully, and place some stuffing in the place of it.

Roll up the mutton, and tie it firmly with twine.

It may be roasted, baked, or braised.

If braised, prepare it according to the directions given for braised breast of veal, using a large kettle, if a braising pan is not obtainable.

Braised Breast of Veal.

Ingredients—3 or 4lb. of breast of veal. Some veal stuffing. Some good second stock. Carrot, turnip, onion. Sprig of parsley, thyme, marjoram. 1 bay leaf.

Method.—Remove the bones from the veal, and put the stuffing in it.

Roll the veal round it, and sew it or tie it securely with twine.

Put the vegetables, cut in small pieces, in the bottom of a stewpan.

Place the veal on them, and pour in sufficient stock to come half-way up it.

Put the lid on the stewpan, simmer gently until the veal is quite tender, allowing half an hour to each pound and half an hour over.

Then put the veal on a baking-sheet, and put in a quick oven to brown.

Strain the stock into a large stewpan, and boil it rapidly down to a glaze.

Put the veal on a hot dish, remove the string, and pour the glaze over it.

Place round the veal some carrot and turnip, cut in fancy shapes and cooked separately.

Toad-in-the-Hole.

Ingredients—8oz. of flour. 2 eggs. 1 pint of milk. 1lb. of ox kidney. A little salt.

Method.—Put the flour into a basin.

Make a well in the middle.

Put in the eggs; mix gradually.

Add the milk by degrees.

Beat well, and add the salt.

Cut the kidney in pieces, lay them in a well-greased Yorkshire-pudding tin; and pour the batter over.

Bake from one and a quarter to one and a half hours.

Irish Stew.

Ingredients—2lb. of potatoes. 1lb. of scrag end of mutton. lb. of onions. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Peel and slice the potatoes and onions, and cut the meat into small pieces.

Put a layer of meat in the bottom of a saucepan, then a layer of potatoes, then one of onions.

Season with pepper and salt, and continue placing the ingredients in the saucepan in alternate layers.

Pour in half a pint of water and stew gently, stirring occasionally, for about one hour and a half.

Sea Pie.

Ingredients—2lb. of steak. 2 onions. 1 carrot. 1 small turnip. lb. of flour. lb. of suet. 1 teaspoonful of baking powder. Pepper and salt to taste. Cold water.

Method.—Cut the vegetables and meat small, season them with pepper and salt, and put them into a large saucepan.

Put it by the side of the fire for the contents to simmer gently.

Chop the suet finely, add it to the flour and baking powder, and mix with cold water to a stiff paste. Roll it to the size of the saucepan.

Place it over the meat, and simmer gently for two hours.

For serving, remove the crust with a fish slice, put the meat and vegetables on to a hot dish, and place the crust on them.

Roast Bullock's Heart.

Ingredients—1 bullock's heart. Some veal stuffing (double the quantity given in the recipe).

Method.—Wash the heart in salt and water, and cleanse it thoroughly.

Wipe it quite dry.

Cut off the flaps and fill the cavities with the stuffing.

Grease a piece of paper with dripping, and tie it firmly over the top of the heart to keep in the forcemeat.

Roast it according to the directions for roasting meat; it will take about two hours.

Gravy for the Heart.

Ingredients—1 pint of stock. The trimmings from the heart. 1 onion. 1oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. A little Harvey's sauce or catsup. A little burnt sugar, if necessary, for colouring.

Method.—Put the trimmings into a saucepan with the onion and water, and simmer gently while the heart is cooking.

Then melt the butter in a stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly; add the liquor strained.

Stir and boil three minutes; add the sauce, pepper and salt, and colouring.

Put the heart on a hot dish, remove the paper, and pour the gravy round it.

If preferred, the heart may be baked.



SAUCES.

Sauces are often failures, chiefly because they are not made of a proper consistency; and because the flour in them is not sufficiently cooked. It should be remembered that the starch in flour wants to be well boiled, otherwise it will be indigestible, and the sauce will have a raw, pasty taste. A sauce is not ready when it thickens, but should be boiled for quite three minutes. Its consistency should depend on what it is to be used for. Ordinary sauces, served in a sauce tureen, should be fairly thick; the proportions taken should be 1oz. of butter; oz. of flour; pint of milk. If the sauce is to be used to coat anything very thinly (new potatoes, for example), oz. of flour, instead of oz., would be sufficient. If a sauce is required to entirely mask a small piece of fish, or chicken, &c., 1oz. of flour should be used, with the proportions of milk and butter already given. Every ingredient should be properly weighed or measured. Carelessness in this respect is a mark of ignorance, and must occasion failures.

For making most of the ordinary sauces, the butter is melted first in a small stewpan, care being taken that it does not discolour; the flour is then mixed with it. If the mixing is not perfect, the sauce will be lumpy. The milk, stock, or water, is then poured in, and the sauce is stirred one way, until it has boiled three minutes. If cream is used, it is then added, and allowed just to boil in the sauce.

In making economical sauces, when less butter and flour are used (see Economical Family Sauce), the method employed is different. The flour is then mixed very smoothly with a little of the milk, water, or whatever is used, and then added to the remainder, which may be cold or boiling; but greater care is required to keep it smooth when the liquid is poured in boiling.

English Melted Butter.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. oz. of flour. pint of water. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the water; stir and cook well.

Then add pepper and salt, and it is ready to serve.

Plain White Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. oz. of flour. pint of milk. A few drops of lemon juice. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the milk.

Stir and cook well.

Then add the lemon juice and seasoning.

A little cream may also be added if desired.

Matre d'Htel Sauce.

Ingredients—oz. of butter. oz. of flour. pint of milk. A few drops of lemon juice. Pepper and salt. A teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the milk; stir and cook well.

Then add the lemon juice, seasoning, and chopped parsley.

Mayonnaise Sauce.

Ingredients—2 yolks of eggs. 1 gill of salad oil. 2 tablespoonfuls of taragon vinegar. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Put the yolks, which must be perfectly free from the whites, into a basin, which in summer time should be placed on ice.

Work them well with a whisk or wooden spoon, adding the oil drop by drop.

When the sauce is so thick that the whisk, or spoon, is moved with difficulty, the oil may be added more quickly, but still very gradually.

Lastly, add the taragon vinegar and seasoning.

Note.—Success in making this sauce depends on first dividing the yolks completely from the whites. Secondly, in keeping them and the oil quite cold. Thirdly, on adding the oil, drop by drop, until the sauce is perfectly thick. If the sauce is made in a warm place, or the oil mixed in too quickly, it is apt to curdle. Should this occur, put a yolk in another basin and very slowly add the sauce to it, stirring briskly; this will generally make it smooth again. Two yolks will be sufficient for any quantity of sauce, taragon vinegar being added in proportion to the oil used.

Tartare Sauce.

Ingredients—2 yolks. pint of salad oil. 2 tablespoonfuls of taragon vinegar. 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley. A few capers, or a chopped gherkin. Pepper and salt. If liked, a teaspoonful of ready-made mustard.

Method.—Proceed as in making Mayonnaise Sauce; adding when the sauce is ready the parsley, capers, mustard, and seasoning.

Egg Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. oz. of flour. pint of milk. Lemon juice. Pepper and salt. 1 or 2 hard-boiled eggs.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the milk, and stir and cook well.

Then add the lemon juice, seasoning, and the chopped whites of the eggs.

If a very thick sauce is required, take 1oz. of flour. Cream may be added if desired.

Brown Sauce.

Ingredients—2oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. A small piece of carrot, turnip, and onion. A few button mushrooms. 1 pint of good stock. A few drops of lemon juice. Seasoning to taste.

Method.—Put the butter into a stewpan and fry the vegetables in it.

Then mix in the flour and fry that.

Add the stock; stir and cook well.

Squeeze in the lemon juice, and add the seasoning.

Strain through a tammy-cloth or fine strainer.

Genoise Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. oz. of flour. 1 gills of stock. wineglass of port. A tiny piece of carrot, turnip, and onion. teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. teaspoonful of Harvey's sauce. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan, and fry the vegetables in it.

Then add the flour, and fry that.

Pour in the stock; stir and cook well.

Then add the wine and other ingredients,

Stir until it boils again, and then strain it.

Bchamel Sauce.

Ingredients—2oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. 1 pint of good white stock. pint of cream. A few drops of lemon juice. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Melt the butter in a stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the stock.

Stir and cook well.

Then stir in the cream; let it boil in the sauce; and add lemon juice, pepper, and salt.

Strain through a tammy-cloth.

Milk may be substituted for the white stock, if more convenient. To flavour it, a small piece of carrot, turnip, and onion, and 6 button mushrooms should be boiled in it.

Sauce Hollandaise.

Ingredients— pint of plain white sauce. The yolks of 4 eggs. A little cayenne pepper and salt. A few drops of lemon juice, or taragon vinegar.

Method.—Put the white sauce and eggs into a jug, which must be placed in a saucepan of boiling water.

Stir until the mixture thickens, being careful it does not curdle.

When quite ready, add the lemon juice or vinegar.

Lobster Sauce.

Ingredients—1 small lobster. Some spawn. 1oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. pint of milk. gill of cream. A few drops of lemon juice. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Remove the flesh from the body and claws of the lobster, and cut it in small pieces.

Then boil the shell, broken small, in the milk.

Rub the spawn with oz. butter through a hair sieve.

Melt the remaining butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly, and then add the milk, strained.

Stir until it thickens.

Put in the spawn and butter, and continue stirring until the flour is well cooked.

Then add the cream—let it boil in the sauce—and lastly, the lemon juice, pepper and salt, and lobster.

Lobster Sauce (a plainer Receipt).

Ingredients—Part of a tin of lobster. 1oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. pint of milk. A few drops of lemon juice, or a teaspoonful of vinegar. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Cut up the lobster.

Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the milk; stir and cook well.

Then add the lemon juice, seasoning, and pieces of lobster.

Shrimp Sauce.

Remove the heads, tails, and skin from half a pint of shrimps; prepare some sauce as directed in the first or second recipe for lobster sauce, substituting the shrimps for the lobster.

Oyster Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. pint of milk. 1 dozen of oysters. gill of cream. A few drops of lemon juice. Salt, pepper, and a little cayenne.

Method.—Remove the beard and white part of the oysters, and cut each one in two.

Strain the liquor through muslin, and scald the oysters in it (i.e. put the liquor, with the oysters in it, in a saucepan, and just bring it to the boil).

Put the beards and hard white parts in the milk and simmer them to extract the flavour.

Then melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Strain in the milk and oyster liquor, and stir and cook well.

Then add cream, and stir until the sauce again boils.

Lastly, add the oysters, pepper, salt, and lemon juice.

French Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. oz. of flour. 1 gill of milk. 1 gill of cream. The yolk of one egg. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix the flour smoothly.

Add the milk, stir and cook well.

Pour in the cream and let it boil in the sauce. Then take it off the fire, and mix in the yolk of the egg.

Add pepper and salt to taste.

Celery Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of butter. 1oz. of flour. 2 tablespoonfuls of cream. pint of white stock or milk. 1 head of celery.

Method.—Boil one head of celery in of a pint of white stock or milk.

When tender, strain it from the liquor and rub it through a hair sieve.

Melt the butter in a small stewpan.

Mix in the flour smoothly.

Add the stock or milk; stir and cook well.

Pour in the cream, and stir until the sauce boils again.

Add pepper and salt to taste.

Tomato Sauce.

Ingredients—6 ripe tomatoes. lb. of bacon. 1oz. of flour. A piece of carrot, turnip, and onion. A sprig of parsley. Thyme, marjoram, and a bay leaf. A teaspoonful of vinegar. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Cut the bacon in slices and fry it.

Then put in the vegetables and fry them, dredge in the flour, and then add the tomatoes and fry them lightly.

Empty the contents of the frying-pan on a hair sieve, and rub the tomatoes through. The hair sieve will keep back the other vegetable, the flavour of which only is wanted.

Add the vinegar and seasoning, and make the sauce hot.

Onion Sauce.

Ingredients—4 or 5 fair-sized onions. pint of plain white sauce or melted butter (1st recipe).

Method.—First, blanch the onions by putting them in cold water and bringing it to the boil.

Throw the water away.

Put the onions in fresh water and boil for an hour, or an hour and a half, until tender.

Chop them finely and add them to the sauce or melted butter.

Soubise Sauce.

Ingredients— pint of plain white sauce. 2 tablespoonfuls of cream. 4 or 5 onions.

Method.—Blanch the onions (as in preceding recipe) and boil until tender.

Then rub through a hair sieve.

Make some plain white sauce (see recipe), and add to it the cream and pulped onion.

Bread Sauce.

Ingredients—2oz. of bread crumbs. pint of milk. 6 peppercorns. 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, or oz. of butter. A small piece of onion.

Method.—Steep the onion and peppercorns in the milk, and put the milk on to boil.

Then remove the onions and peppercorns, and sprinkle in the crumbs.

Set the sauce by the side of the fire for six minutes, and then heat to boiling point, adding either the cream or butter.

Salt must be added to taste; also a little cayenne.

Economical Family Sauce.

Ingredients—lb. of flour. 1 pint of milk. 1 pint of water. 1oz. butter.

Method.—Mix the flour very smoothly with a little water.

Put the rest of the water, with the milk and butter, in a saucepan on the fire to boil.

When it boils, put in the flour, stirring until the sauce is cooked.

Add pepper and salt to taste. If liked, a few drops of lemon juice or vinegar may be added.

This sauce will form the basis of many other plain sauces: To use with fish, put in a tablespoonful of anchovy. Onion sauce is made by adding cooked and chopped onions when the sauce is ready. Caper sauce, by adding capers; or, as a substitute, chopped gherkin.

This sauce may be made still more economically by using water only instead of milk.

Wine Sauce.

Ingredients—1oz. of lump sugar. pint of water. A wineglass of sherry. A few drops of cochineal. A dessertspoonful of jam.

Method.—Boil the sugar and water together until reduced to one half.

Add the jam; let it melt.

Then add the sherry and cochineal, and strain.

Piquant Sauce.

Ingredients— pint of brown sauce. 1 tablespoonful of capers. 1 tablespoonful of chopped gherkin. 1 tablespoonful of very finely chopped shalot. pint of vinegar. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Simmer the shalot, capers, and gherkin, in the vinegar until the shalot is quite soft.

Pour in the sauce, and let it boil up.

Season to taste.

Sauce Rforme.

Ingredients—1 pint of brown sauce. 1 wineglass of port wine. 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. 1 teaspoonful of Harvey's sauce. 2 tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly.

Method.—Boil all the ingredients together, and the sauce is ready.

Port-wine Sauce for Wild Duck.

Ingredients—2 wineglasses of port. Juice of half a lemon. 1 finely chopped shalot.

Method.—Boil altogether and strain.

Sweet Sauce.

Ingredients—1 teaspoonful of arrowroot. Juice of half a lemon and a little rind. 2 tablespoonfuls of castor sugar. pint of water.

Method.—Put the water with the lemon-rind and sugar into a saucepan to boil.

Mix the arrowroot smoothly with a little cold water.

When the water in the saucepan boils, pour it in and stir it until it thickens; then strain it and add the lemon juice.

A glass of sherry may be added to this sauce if desired.

German Sauce.

Ingredients—The yolks of 2 eggs. 1 wineglass of sherry. 1 dessertspoonful of castor sugar.

Method.—Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, and mill over the fire with a whisk until the sauce froths.

For a Christmas Pudding make the sauce with three yolks, and a wineglass of brandy.

A Nice Sweet Sauce.

Ingredients— pint of plain white sauce or melted butter (omitting the seasoning). 1 wineglass of sherry or brandy. 2 dessertspoonfuls of castor sugar.

Method.—Add the wine and sugar to the sauce, and it is ready for use.

Jam Sauce.

Ingredients—3 tablespoonfuls of red jam. pint of water. 1oz. of lump sugar. Juice of half a lemon.

Method.—Boil the jam, sugar, and water together for three minutes.

Add the lemon juice, and strain.

The lemon may be omitted if the flavour is not liked.

Apple Sauce, No. 1.

Ingredients—6 good-sized apples. 1oz. of butter. 1 tablespoonful of moist sugar, or more, according to taste. gill of water.

Method.—Wash the apples and slice them, but do not peel or core them.

Put them in a stewpan with the water, butter, and sugar.

Stew gently for about thirty minutes, stirring occasionally.

Rub them quickly through a hair sieve, and put the sauce in a hot tureen.

The hair sieve keeps back the rind and pips.

Apple Sauce, No. 2.

Ingredients—6 large apples. 1oz. of butter. 1 tablespoonful or more of moist sugar. gill of water.

Method.—Peel, core, and slice the apples.

Stew them with the water, sugar, and butter until tender.

Then beat to a pulp with a fork.

Mint Sauce.

Ingredients—3 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped fresh mint. 1 tablespoonful of sugar. pint of vinegar.

Method.—Mix all together, and let the sauce stand for an hour before serving.

Horse-radish Sauce.

Ingredients—1 stick of horse-radish. gill of cream. 1 tablespoonful of vinegar. gill of milk. 1 teaspoonful of ready-made mustard. 1 teaspoonful of castor sugar. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Scrape the horse-radish finely, and mix with all the other ingredients.

If cream is not to be had, use milk thickened with a little cornflour. But it is not so good.

Gravy for Made Dishes.

Ingredients—1lb. of gravy beef. 1 quart of water. A piece of onion, carrot, and turnip. 1 sprig of parsley. Thyme and marjoram. Pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Cut the beef into small pieces.

Put it with the vegetables into a stewpan with the water, and simmer very gently for four hours; then strain.

If a thick gravy is required, thicken with one and a half ounces of flour; add pepper and salt to taste.

To this gravy may be added a little sauce, catsup, port or sherry wine, &c., according to the purpose for which it is required.

Scraps of cooked meat and bones may be substituted for the fresh meat where economy must be studied.

Glaze.

Boil down one or two quarts of second stock (which will jelly when cold) until it is quite thick, and coats a spoon. One quart may be boiled down to a quarter of a pint.

Pour it into a jar.

When wanted for use, put the jar to stand in a saucepan of boiling water until it is dissolved.

Glaze is used for enriching gravies and soups, and for glazing meat.

Cheap Glaze for Meat.

Ingredients—3 teaspoonfuls of Liebig's Extract of Meat. oz. of Nelson's or Swinborne's Gelatine, or isinglass. Pepper and salt. pint of cold water.

Method.—Soak the gelatine in the water for three-quarters of an hour.

Add the meat extract, and pepper and salt.

Stir and boil until reduced to about a quarter of a pint.

This glaze can only be used for glazing meat.

Barnaise Sauce.

Ingredients—1 finely-chopped shalot. gill of white sauce. 1 tablespoonful of taragon vinegar. The yolks of 4 eggs. 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley. Pepper and salt.

Method.—Put the shalot and vinegar into a saucepan; boil until the vinegar has evaporated, but do not let the shalot burn.

Add the eggs and sauce, and mill with a whisk until the eggs are thick.

Add the parsley and pepper and salt.



BREAKFAST DISHES AND BEVERAGES.

Oatmeal Porridge.

Ingredients—lb. of coarse oatmeal. 1 quart of water.

Method.—Put the water on to boil.

When boiling, sprinkle in the oatmeal, stirring all the time.

When it thickens, put it by the side of the fire, and stir occasionally.

Cook it for quite three-quarters of an hour, longer if possible.

When the time can be allowed, three hours will not be too long a time, especially if the porridge is for anyone with a weak digestion.

A better plan is to put the saucepan containing it, after the contents have boiled for ten minutes, to stand in a saucepan of briskly boiling water; it will then cook without danger of burning, and may be left for any length of time; care only being taken that the water in the under saucepan does not boil away.

Whole-meal Porridge.

This may be made in the same way as oatmeal, but it requires even longer cooking.

Dry Toast.

Cut the bread into rather thin slices, and remove the crust.

Toast it slowly, holding it at a little distance from a bright clear fire.

When ready, put it at once into the rack; because, if the toast is placed flat on a table, it loses its crispness.

The crusts may be soaked for plain puddings, or dried and powdered for bread crumbs.

Buttered Toast.

Cut the bread about half an inch in thickness.

Toast quickly in front of a clear fire.

Put the butter on directly the toast is taken off the fork, and spread it quickly.

Put the toast on a hot plate, and take care that it is served hot.

Toasted Bacon.

Cut the bacon in thin slices, and toast it in a small Dutch oven or on a toasting fork until the fat is transparent.

Fried Bacon.

Cut the bacon in thin slices, and fry it in its own fat. It will be cooked when the fat is transparent. It must not be cooked too quickly, or the fat will burn up and be wasted.

Eggs and Bacon.

Toast or fry the bacon, and lay a nicely poached egg on each slice.

Boiled Eggs.

Put the eggs into boiling water, and boil an ordinary sized egg for three minutes; new-laid eggs will take one minute longer. Eggs boiled five minutes will be nearly hard. To make them quite firm, boil them steadily for ten minutes. To make them mealy, boil them for an hour.

Poached Eggs.

Eggs for poaching should be perfectly fresh, or they will not keep a nice shape.

Let the water be quite boiling; add to it a little salt.

Break the eggs into cups, and slip them gently into the boiling water.

As soon as the white is nicely set, remove them with a fish slice.

Trim the eggs neatly, and serve them on hot buttered toast.

An egg-poacher will be found very convenient for cooking eggs this way.

Fried Kidneys.

Ingredients—A few kidneys. A little butter or dripping. A little flour. Some gravy. Pepper and salt.

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