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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Transcriber's Note:

This file is for readers who cannot use the "real" (unicode, utf-8) version of the text. The differences are primarily cosmetic, involving some fractions and the [oe] ligature common in French words.

The printed book had two kinds of headnote: keyword and mileage.

"Keyword" headers, noting the places and subjects mentioned on the page, have been placed before the most appropriate paragraph.

Each itinerary gives the "miles from" {starting point} and "miles to" {ending point}, with the numbers printed in the left and right corners of each paragraph. For this e-text the numbers are shown in {braces} before the beginning of each paragraph; the place names are given at the beginning of the itinerary, and repeated as needed. Paragraphs describing side excursions do not have mileage information.

The hotel rating symbols are explained at several random points in the text, though not in the introductory section: Those with the figure are first-class houses, with second-class. The asterisk signifies that they are especially good of their class.

Errors and inconsistencies are listed at the end of the text.]



[Map: Index and Railway Map of France]



SOUTH OF FRANCE

EAST HALF



GUIDES BY C. B. BLACK.

SPAS of CHELTENHAM and BATH, with Maps and Plan of BATH.1s.

TOURIST'S CAR GUIDE in the pleasant Islands of JERSEY, GUERNSEY, ALDERNEY and SARK. Illustrated with 6 Maps and Plan of the Town of SAINT HELIER. Second edition. 1s.

CORSICA, with large Map of the Island. 1s.

BELGIUM, including ROTTERDAM, FLUSHING, MIDDELBURG, SCHIEDAM and LUXEMBOURG. Illustrated by 10 Plans and 5 Maps. 2s.6d.

NORTH FRANCE, LORRAINE AND ALSACE, including the MINERAL WATERS OF CONTREXVILLE, VITTEL, MARTIGNY, PLOMBIRES, LUXEUIL, AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, etc. Illustrated with 5 Maps and 7 Plans. Third Edition. 2s.6d.

TOURAINE, NORMANDY and BRITTANY. Illustrated with 14 Maps and 15 Plans. Eighth edition. 5s.

The above two contain the NORTH HALF of France; or France from the Loire to the North Sea and from the Bay of Biscay to the Rhine.

THE RIVIERA, or the coast of the Mediterranean from MARSEILLES to LEGHORN, including LUCCA, PISA and FLORENCE. Illustrated with 8 Maps and 6 Plans. Second edition. 2s. 6d.

FRANCE—SOUTH-EAST HALF—including the whole of the VALLEY OF THE RHNE in France, with the adjacent Departments; the VALLEY OF THE UPPER LOIRE, with the adjacent Departments; the RIVIERA; the PASSES between France and Italy; and the Italian towns of TURIN, PIACENZA, MODENA, BOLOGNA, FLORENCE, LEGHORN and PISA. Illustrated with numerous Maps and Plans. Fourth edition. 5s.

From "Scotsman," June 2, 1884.

"C. B. Black's Guide-books have a character of their own; and that character is a good one. Their author has made himself personally acquainted with the localities with which he deals in a manner in which only a man of leisure, a lover of travel, and an intelligent observer of Continental life could afford to do. He does not 'get up' the places as a mere hack guide-book writer is often, by the necessity of the case, compelled to do. Hence he is able to correct common mistakes, and to supply information on minute points of much interest apt to be overlooked by the hurried observer."



The SOUTH OF FRANCE EAST HALF

Including the Valleys of THE RHNE, DRME AND DURANCE

The BATHS of VICHY, ROYAT, AIX, MONT-DORE AND BOURBOULE

The Whole of the RIVIERA FROM CETTE TO LEGHORN

With the Inland Towns of TURIN, BOLOGNA, PARMA, FLORENCE AND PISA

and THE PASSES BETWEEN FRANCE AND ITALY

Illustrated with Maps and Plans

FOURTH EDITION

C. B. BLACK

EDINBURGH: ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK 1885



Printed by R. & R. CLARK, Edinburgh.



PREFACE.

This Guide-book consists of Routes which follow the course of the main Railways. To adapt these Routes as far as possible to the requirements of every one the Branch Lines are also pointed out, together with the stations from which the Coaches run, in connection with the trains, to towns distant from the railway. The description of the places on these branch lines is printed either in a closer or in a smaller letter than that of the towns on the main lines.

Each Route has the Map indicated on which it is to be found. By aid of these maps the traveller can easily discover his exact situation, and either form new routes for himself, or follow those given.

The Arrangement of the Routes is such that they may be taken either from the commencement to the end, or from the end to the commencement. The Route from Paris to Marseilles, for example, does equally well for Marseilles to Paris.

The Distance of towns from the place of starting to the terminus is expressed by the figures which accompany them on each side of the margin; while the distance of any two towns on the same route from each other is found by subtracting their marginal figures on either side from each other.

In the Description of towns the places of interest have been taken in the order of their position, so that, if a cab be engaged, all that is necessary is to mention to the driver their names in succession. Cabs on such occasions should be hired by the hour. To guard against omission, the traveller should underline the names of the places to be visited before commencing the round. In France the Churches are open all the day. In Italy they close at 12; but most of them reopen at 2 P.M. All the Picture-Galleries are open on Sundays, and very many also on Thursdays. When not open to the public, admission is generally granted on payment of a franc.

In "Table of Contents" the Routes are classified and explained. For the Time-tables recommended, and for the mode of procedure on the Continental Railways, see "Preliminary Information."

Before commencing our description of the Winter Resorts on the Mediterranean, with the best routes towards them, let it be clearly understood that not even in the very mildest of these stations is it safe for the invalid to venture out either in the early morning or after sunset without being well protected with warm clothing; and that, even with this precaution, the risk run of counteracting the beneficial influences of a sojourn in these regions is so great as to render it prudent to determine from the first to spend those hours always within doors. On the other hand, it is most conducive to health, during the sunny hours of the day, to remain as much as possible in the open air, walking and driving along the many beautiful terraces and roads with which these places abound; and if the day be well employed in such exercise, it will be no great hardship to rest at home in the evening. Nor is it necessary to remain in the same town during the entire season; indeed a change of scene is generally most beneficial, for which the railway as well as the steamers affords every facility. "Iwould strongly advise every person who goes abroad for the recovery of his health, whatever may be his disease or to what climate soever he may go, to consider the change as placing him merely in a more favourable situation for the removal of his disease; in fact, to bear constantly in mind that the beneficial influence of travelling, of sailing, and of climate requires to be aided by such dietetic regimen and general mode of living, and by such remedial measures as would have been requisite in his case had he remained in his own country. All the circumstances requiring attention from the invalid at home should be equally attended to abroad. If in some things greater latitude may be permitted, others will demand even a more rigid attention. It is, in truth, only by a due regard to all these circumstances that the powers of the constitution can be enabled to throw off, or even materially mitigate, in the best climate, a disease of long standing.

"It may appear strange that I should think it requisite to insist so strongly on the necessity of attention to these directions; but I have witnessed the injurious effects of a neglect of them too often not to deem such remarks called for in this place. It was, indeed, matter of surprise to me, during my residence abroad, to observe the manner in which many invalids seemed to lose sight of the object for which they left their own country—the recovery of their health. This appeared to arise chiefly from too much being expected from climate.

"The more common and more injurious deviations from that system of living which an invalid ought to adopt, consist in errors of diet, exposure to cold, over-fatigue, and excitement in what is called 'sight-seeing,' frequenting crowded and over-heated rooms, and keeping late hours. Many cases fell under my observation in which climate promised the greatest advantage, but where its beneficial influence was counteracted by the operation of these causes." —Sir James Clark on the Sanative Influence of Climate.

SEE MAP PAGE 27, AND MAP ON FLY-LEAF.

Many after leaving the Riviera are the better of making a short stay at some of the baths, such as Vichy (p. 359), Vals (p.93), Mont-Dore (p.378), Bourboule (p. 383), Aix-les-Bains (p.283), Bourbon-l'Archambault (p. 357), or Bourbon-Lancy (p.358). If at the eastern end of the Riviera, the nearest way to them is by rail from Savona (pp. 209 and 183), or from Genoa (pp.212 and 279) to Turin (p. 292). From Turin a short branch line extends to Torre-Pllice (p. 305), situated in one of the most beautiful of the Waldensian valleys.

If the journey from Turin to Aix-les-Bains, 128 miles, be too long, a halt may be made for the night at Modane (p.290); where, however, on account of the elevation, 3445 ft., the air is generally rather sharp and bracing.

From the western end of the Riviera the best way north and to the baths is by the valley of the Rhne (map, p.27), in which there are many places of great interest, such as Arles (p.68), Avignon (p.58), Orange (p.51), and Lyons (p. 29). From Lyons take the western branch by Montbrison (p. 349) for Vichy, Mont-Dore, and Bourboule. For Aix-les-Bains take the eastern by Ambrieux (p.281) and Culoz (p.282). From Avignon, Carpentras (p. 54), Pont-St. Esprit (p.98), Montlimart (p.48), La Voulte (p. 82), Crest (p.46) and Grenoble (p. 324), interesting and picturesque excursions are made. From Carpentras Mont Ventoux (p. 56) is visited. From La Voulte, Ardech (p. 45) is entered. From Crest diligences run to the towns and villages between it and Aspres (pp. 47 and 345). From Grenoble the roads and railways diverge which lead to the lofty peaks of the western Alps and to the mountain passes between France and Italy.

None should go abroad without a passport. Even where several are travelling together in one party, each should have his own passport. They are easily procured and easily carried, and may be of great use.

The best hotels in the places frequented by the Americans and English cost per day from 12 to 22 frs., and the pensions from 9 to 15 frs., including wine (often sour) in both. The general charge in the hotels of the other towns throughout France is from 8 to 9frs. per day. Meat breakfast, 2 to 3frs.; dinner, 3 to 4frs.; service, fr.; "caf au lait," with bread and butter, 1 fr. The omnibus between the hotel and the station costs each from 6 to 10 sous. The driver in most cases loads and unloads the luggage himself at the station, when he expects a small gratuity from 2 to 10 sous, according to the quantity of bags and trunks. The omnibuses of the Riviera hotels cost from 1 to 2frs. each, and although the conductor does not unload the luggage he expects a gratuity.

Neither jewellery nor money should be carried in portmanteaus. When a stay of merely a day or two is intended, the bulky and heavy luggage should be left in dept at the station. Some companies charge 1, others 2 sous for each article (colis) per day. See "Railways" in "Preliminary Information."

C. B. B.



PRELIMINARY INFORMATION.

THE LANDING-PLACES ON THE FRENCH SIDE OF THE CHANNEL.

The six principal ports on the French side of the English Channel connected by railroad with Paris are:—

Dieppe—distant from Paris 125 miles; passing Clres Junction, 100 m.; Rouen, 85m.; Gaillon, 58 m.; Mantes Junction, 36m.; and Poissy, 17 m. from Paris. Arrives at the station of the Chemins de Fer de l'Ouest, Saint Lazare. Time, 4 hours. Fares—1st class, 25 frs.; 2d cl. 19 frs.; 3d cl. 14 frs.

London to Paris via Newhaven and Dieppe (240 miles):—tidal; daily, except Sunday, from Victoria Station and London Bridge Station. Fare—1st class, 31s.; 2d cl. 23s.; 3d cl. 16s. 6d. Sea journey, 60 miles; time, 8 hours. Time for entire journey, 16 hours. For tickets, etc., in Paris apply to Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest, Gare St. Lazare, Rue St. Lazare 110, ancien 124. Bureau spcial, agent, M.Marcillet, Rue de la Paix, 7. A. Collin et Cie., 20 Boulevard Saint Denis.

From Dieppe another line goes to Paris by Arques, Neufchtel, Serqueux, Forges-les-Eaux, Gournay, Gisors, and Pontoise. Distance, 105 miles. Time by ordinary trains, 5 hours 10 minutes. Fares—1st class, 21 frs.; 2d, 15 frs.; 3d, 11 frs. Arrives at the St. Lazare station of the Chemins de Fer de l'Ouest.

From Trport a railway extends to Paris by Eu, Gamaches, Aumale, Abancourt, Beauvais, and Creil. Distance, 119 miles. Time, 8 hours 40 minutes. Fares, 1st class, 24 frs.; 2d, 18 frs.; 3d, 13 frs. Arrives at the station of the Chemin de Fer du Nord. There are few through trains by this line.

BOULOGNE—distant 158 miles from Paris; passing Montreuil, 134 m.; Abbeville, 109m.; Amiens, 82 m.; Clermont, 41m.; and Creil, 32 m. from Paris. Arrives at the station of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, No. 18 Place Roubaix. Time by express, 4 hours. Fares—1st class, 31 frs. 25 c.; 2d cl. 23 frs. 45 c.; 3d cl. 17 frs. 20 c.

London to Paris, via, Folkestone and Boulogne (255 miles):—tidal route; from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. Express trains daily to Folkestone, and from Boulogne, first and second class. Sea journey, 27 miles; time of crossing, 1 hour 40 minutes. Fares from London to Paris by Boulogne—1st class, 56s.; 2d cl. 42s. Time for the entire journey, 10 hours. For tickets, etc., in Paris apply to the railway station of the Chemin de Fer du Nord.

CALAIS—185 miles from Paris; by Boulogne, 158m.; Montreuil, 134 m.; Abbeville, 109m.; Amiens, 82 m.; Clermont, 41m.; and Creil, 32m. from Paris. Arrives at the station of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, No. 18 Place Roubaix. Time by express, 5 hours. Fares—1st class, 36 frs. 55 c.; 2d cl. 27 frs. 40 c.

London to Paris, via Dover and Calais (mail route, distance 283 miles);—departing from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. Sea journey, 21 miles; time about 80 minutes. First and second class, express. Fares—60s.; 2d cl. 45s. Total time, London to Paris, 10 hours. Luggage is registered throughout from London, and examined in Paris. Only 60 lbs. free. For tickets, etc., in Paris apply at the railway station of the Chemins de Fer du Nord.

CALAIS—204 miles from Paris; by Saint Omer, 177m.; Hazebrouck, 165m.; Arras, 119m.; Amiens, 82 m.; Clermont, 41m.; and Creil, 32 m. Arrives at the station, No. 18 Place Roubaix. Time, 7 hours 40 minutes. Fares—1st class, 36 frs. 55 c.; 2d cl. 27 frs. 40 c.; 3d cl. 20 frs. 10 c.

DUNKERQUE—190 miles from Paris; by Bergues, 185 miles; Hazebrouck, 165 m., where it joins the line from Calais; Arras, 119m.; Amiens, 81m.; Clermont, 41m.; and Creil, 32 m. Arrives at the station, No. 18 Place Roubaix. Time, 10 hours. Fares—1st class, 37 frs. 55 c.; 2d cl. 28 frs. 15 c.

England and Channel, via Thames and Dunkirk (screw):—tidal; three times a week from Fenning's Wharf. Also from Leith, in 48 to 54 hours.

LE HAVRE—142 miles from Paris; by Harfleur, 138m.; Beuzeville Junction, 126 miles; Bolbec-Nointot, 123 m.; Yvetot, 111m.; Rouen, 87m.; Gaillon, 58 m.; Mantes Junction, 36m.; and Poissy, 17m. from Paris. Arrives, as from Dieppe and Cherbourg, at the station of the Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest, No. 124 Rue St. Lazare. Fares—1st class, 28 frs. 10 c.; 2d cl. 21 frs. 5 c.; 3d cl. 15 frs. 45 c. Time by express, 4 hours 50 minutes, and nearly 3 hours longer by the ordinary trains.

London and Channel, via Southampton and Le Havre:—Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 9 P.M. from Waterloo Station, leaving Southampton 11.45 P.M. Sea journey, 80 m.; time, 8 hours.

CHERBOURG—231 miles from Paris; by Lison, 184m.; Bayeux, 167 m.; Caen, 149m.; Mezidon Junction, 134 m.; Lisieux, 119m.; Serquigny Junction, 93m.; Evreux, 67 m.; Mantes Junction, 36m.; and Poissy, 17 m. from Paris. Time by express, 8 hours; slow trains, nearly 13 hours.

FRENCH, BELGIAN, AND GERMAN RAILWAYS.

On these railways the rate of travelling is slower than in England, but the time is more accurately kept.

To each passenger is allowed 30 kilogrammes, or 66 lbs. weight of luggage free.

Railway Time-Tables.

Time-tables or Indicateurs. For France the most useful and only official time-tables are those published by Chaix and Cie., and sold at all the railway stations. Of these excellent publications there are various kinds. The most complete and most expensive is the "Livret-Chaix Continental," which, besides the time-tables of the French railways, gives those also of the whole Continent, and is furnished with a complete index; size 18mo, with about 800 pages. The "Livret-Chaix Continental" is sold at the station bookstalls. Price 2 frs.

Next in importance is the "Indicateur des Chemins de Fer," sold at every station; size 128 small folio pages, price 60 c. It contains the time-tables of the French railways alone, and an index and railway map.

The great French lines of the "Chemins de Fer de l'Ouest," of the "Chemins de Fer d'Orleans," of the "Chemins de Fer de Paris Lyon et la Mditerrane," of the "Chemins de Fer du Nord," and of the "Chemins de Fer de l'Est," have each time-tables of their own, sold at all their stations. Price 40 c. Size 18me. With good index.

For Belgium, the best time-tables are in the "Guide Officiel sur tous les Chemins de Fer de Belgique." Sold at the Belgian railway stations. Size 18me. Price 30 c. It contains a good railway map of Belgium.

For Italy, use "L'Indicatore Ufficiale delle Strade Ferrate d'Italia." Containing excellent maps illustrating their circular tours. Price 1 fr.

In Spain use the "Indicador de los Ferro-Carriles," sold at the stations. The distances are, as in the French tables, in kilometres, of which 8 make 5 miles. Lleg. or Llegada means "arrival"; Salida, "departure."

In England consult the "Continental Time-tables of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway," sold at the Victoria Station, Pimlico, price 2d.; or those of the London and South-Eastern, 1d.

In the Railway Station.

Before going to the station, it is a good plan to turn up in the index of the "Livret-Chaix Continental" the place required, to ascertain the fare and the time of starting, which stations are supplied with refreshment rooms (marked B), and the time the train halts at each on its way.

On arriving at the station join the single file (queue) of people before the small window (guichet), where the tickets (billets) are sold. Your turn having arrived, and having procured your ticket, proceed to the luggage department, where deposit your baggage and deliver your ticket to be stamped. The luggage tickets are called also "bulletins."

After your articles have been weighed, your ticket, along with a luggage receipt, is handed you from the "guichet" of the luggage office, where, if your baggage is not overweight, you pay 10c. or 2 sous. Before pocketing the luggage ticket, just run your eye down the column headed "Nombre de Colis," and see that the exact number of your articles has been given. The French have a strange way of making the figures 3,5, and 7. Whatever is overweight is paid for at this office; but remember, when two or more are travelling together, to present the tickets of the whole party at the luggage department, otherwise the luggage will be treated as belonging to one person, and thus it will probably be overweight. Another advantage of having the entire number of the party on the "Billet de Bagage" is that, in case of one or other losing their carriage tickets, this will prove the accident to the stationmaster (chef-de-Gare) and satisfy him. If, after having purchased a ticket, the train is missed, that ticket, to be available for the next train, must be presented again to the ticket office, to be re-stamped (tre vis).

The traveller, on arriving at his destination, will frequently find it more convenient not to take his luggage away with him; in which case, having seen it brought from the train to the station, he should tell the porter that he wishes it left there. He retains, however, his luggage ticket, which he only presents when he desires his luggage again.

On the Railway.

In the carriage cast the eye over the line as given in our railway map, and note the junctions; for at many of these—such as Amiens, Rouen, Culoz, Macon, etc. etc.—the passengers are frequently discharged from the carriages and sent into the waiting-rooms to await other trains. On such occasions great attention must be paid to the names the porter calls out when he opens the door of the waiting-room, otherwise the wrong train may be taken. To avoid this, observe on our railway map what are the principal towns along the line in the direction required to go; so that when, for example, he calls out, "Voyageurs du Ct de Lyon!" and we be going to Marseilles from Macon, we may, with confidence, enter the train, because, by reference to the map, we see we must pass Lyon to reach Marseilles. The little railway map will be found very useful, and ought always to be kept in readiness for reference.

Buffet means "refreshment-room"; and Salle d'Attente, "waiting-room."

There are separate first, second, and third class carriages for ladies.

Express trains have third class carriages for long distances.

Railway Omnibuses.

At the stations of the largest and wealthiest towns three kinds of omnibuses await the arrival of passengers. They may be distinguished by the names of the General Omnibus, the Hotel Omnibus, and the Private Omnibus. The general omnibus takes passengers to all parts of the town for a fixed sum, rarely above half a franc; so that, should the omnibus be full, it is some time till the last passenger gets put down at his destination. The hotel omnibus takes passengers only to the hotel or hotels whose name or names it bears.



CONTENTS.

RAILWAYS, ROADS, and BYE-WAYS in the SOUTH-EAST of FRANCE, and the MOUNTAIN PASSES between FRANCE and ITALY.

For the whole of the south-east of France use the time-tables of the "Chemins de Fer de Paris Lyon et la Mditerrane." Sold at all their stations, price 8 sous. In Italy use the "Indicatore Ufficiale," 1fr. or 1 lira, which gives, besides the time-tables of the railway trains, those also of the steam-trams, which traverse the country in all directions.

In England consult the time-tables of the London and South Eastern Railway, 1d.; or the Continental time-tables of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway,3d.

PAGE

PARIS to MENTON by Fontainebleau, Joigny, Dijon, Macon, Lyons, Valence, Avignon, Arles, Rognac, Marseilles, Toulon, Hyres, Cannes, Nice and Monaco (see map on fly-leaf) 1

For practical purposes it is more convenient to divide this long journey into two parts—Paris to Marseilles (p.1), and Marseilles to Menton (p. 122).

PARIS to MARSEILLES 1

The train, after leaving the station, passes some of the most interesting towns and villages in the neighbourhood of Paris, of which the most important is Fontainebleau. Dijon and Macon are good resting-places. Lyons is the largest city on the line. Avignon and Arles should, if possible, be visited. Among the branch lines which ramify from this great central railway are

La Roche to Les Laumes by Auxerre, Cravant, Sermizelles, Avallon and Semur. At Sermizelles a coach awaits passengers for Vezelay, containing a grand and vast church 14

From Auxerre a coach runs to Chablis (p. 14), with its famous wines, passing through Pontigny (p.16), where Thomas Becket resided.

Verrey (p. 19) is a good station to alight at, to visit the source of the Seine.

From Dijon (p. 20) southwards to Chagny (p. 24) are the famous Burgundy vineyards.

Chagny to Nevers by Autun, Montchanin and Creusot. Autun (p. 24) is one of the most ancient cities in France. At Creusot (p. 25) are very large ironworks.

Macon to Paray-le-Monial by Cluny. At Paray-le-Monial (p.27) a nun called Alacoque is said to have had several interviews with J. C.

Lyons (p. 29), though a splendid city, ought to be avoided by invalids in winter. Lyons is an important railway junction. 78 miles E. by Amberieux and Culoz is Aix-les-Bains (p. 283). 76 miles S.E. by Rives, Voiron and Voreppe is Grenoble (p. 324). Voiron is the station for the Grande Chartreuse (p. 323). From the station of St. Paul, 113 miles W. by Montbrison (p. 349), is Clermont-Ferrand (p. 369). 89 miles S.W. by St. Etienne (p.346) is Le Puy (p. 86). The rail from Lyons along the E. side of the Rhne leads to Avignon (p.58) and Arles (p. 68); and on the W. side to Nmes (p.101). See map, p. 27.

VALENCE TO GRENOBLE, 62 miles N.E. 44

VALENCE TO ARDCHE 45

CREST TO MONTELIMART 46

Crest to Dieulefit by Saou and Bourdeaux 46

Saou is an ancient village curiously situated. Bourdeaux is separated from Dieulefit by a high mountain.

Crest to Aspres, 57 miles E. by Die. This route traverses the whole of the valley of the river Drme (map, p. 27) 47

MONTELIMART TO GRIGNAN, where Madame Svign died 49

La Croisire to Nyons, 29 miles E. (p.50). The climate of Nyons is mild and well suited for those who leave the Riviera early. From Nyons another coach goes on to Serres, 41 miles E. (p. 51) on the railway between Marseilles and Grenoble (map, p. 27).

Sorgues to Carpentras, 10 m. east 54

Carpentras makes excellent headquarters for visiting a great variety of places in the neighbourhood, among others Mont Ventoux (p. 56) and Vaison (p.53).

Avignon to Nmes by the famous Roman aqueduct called the Pont-du-Gard 64

AVIGNON TO THE FONTAINE OF VAUCLUSE, where Petrarch lived for some time 64

AVIGNON TO MANOSQUE by Apt (map, p. 27) 66

AVIGNON TO MIRAMAS by Cavaillon 66

TARASCON TO ST. REMY AND LES BAUX 67

ARLES TO FONTVIEILLE by Mont-Majour. Arles has magnificent Roman remains 71

ARLES TO PORT ST. LOUIS at the mouth of the Rhne 72

ARLES TO PORT-BOUC, across the Camargue, by the canal steamboat 76 and 72

ARLES TO AIGUES-MORTES by St. Gilles and Lunel 72

LUNEL TO MONTPELLIER 73

Rognac to the aqueduct of Roquefavour, which brings water to Marseilles from the Durance 77

Rognac to the baths of Aix-en-Provence. Aix has communication by rail and by coach with very many of the neighbouring towns 78

LYONS to NMES by the west side of the Rhne (map, p. 27) 81

PEYRAUD by rail to Annonay, and thence by coach to St. Etienne 81

La Voulte to Le Cheilard, the chief diligence centre in the department of Ardche (map, p. 46) 83

The road to the source of the Loire (map, p.85) 83

LACHAMP-RAPHAL TO LE BAGE (map, p. 85) 84

LE BAGE TO LE PUY by Le Monastier (map, p.46) 85

LE PUY TO LANGOGNE by Pradelles (map, p. 46) 88

LE PUY TO LANGEAC by St. Georges (map, p.46) 89

DARSAC TO CHAISE-DIEU (map, p. 46) 89

CHAISE-DIEU TO THIERS by Arlanc and Ambert (map, p.27) 90

LANGEAC TO MONISTROL AND TO SAUGUES. Coach from Monistrol station to Le Puy (map, p. 46) 91

LE POUZIN TO PRIVAS (map, p. 27) 92

Teil to Alais, 62 miles S.W. (map, p. 27) 93

This is the branch line to take for the baths of Vals and the interesting volcanic mountains in the neighbourhood.

PRADES TO LANGOGNE by Mayres and Pradelles (map, p.27) 94

PRADES TO MONTPEZAT. From Montpezat the source of the Loire (p. 84) is visited 95

MONTPEZAT TO LE PUY 96

RUOMS TO VALLON and the fine natural bridge called the Pont d'Arc (map, p. 27), approached also from Pont-St. Esprit (p. 98) 96

PONT D'AVIGNON, station on W. bank of the Rhne, for Avignon 99

REMOULINS TO THE PONT-DU-GARD 99

NMES TO MILLAU by Vigan (map, p. 27) 105

THE RIVIERA.

The Riviera. Hotels, productions, climate 107

Marseilles. Hotels, trams, sights, excursions 111

MARSEILLES to MENTON. The French Riviera 122

Marseilles to Toulon, passing several pretty little towns, of which the most important is La Seyne (p.123). From Toulon omnibuses and diligences run to the neighbouring villages and to the more distant towns in the interior. The most start from the Place d'Italie (pp. 124 and 129).

Toulon to Dardenne from the "Place" to the W. of the Place Puget (p. 128), to Hyres from the Place Puget (pp. 124, 133), Cap Brun and Ste. Marguerite from the Place d'Italie (p. 128), to Le Pradet from the Place d'Italie (p. 128).

Toulon to Meounes and Brignoles by Belgentier, by diligence. As far as Meounes the road traverses a picturesque country (p. 129), to Collobrires by La Crau and Pierrefeu (p. 130).

Steamer to La Seyne (pp. 124, 127), to St. Mandrier (p. 127), to the Iles d'Hyres or d'Or (pp.124, 131).

The Iles d'Or. Porquerolles, Port-Cros, Ile du Levant 131

Toulon to Hyres 132

Hyres. Hotels, cabs, drives, stage-coaches, excursions, productions, climate 133

Hyres to Les Salins, La Plage and the peninsula of Giens (p. 140); to Carqueyranne by Pomponiana (p.141); to Bormes and Lavandou (p. 142); by coach to St. Tropez (p. 134); whence steamer to St. Raphael (p.147); or coach to Le Luc (p. 144).

La Pauline. Diligence and train to Hyres 142

Carnoules. Carnoules to Gardanne by rail, passing Brignoles and Ste. Maximin 142

Le Luc. Le Luc to St. Tropez by coach, across the Maure mountains 144

Les Arcs to Draguignan by rail. From Draguignan diligences start to Aups, Barjols, Fayence, Lorgues and Salernes, and correspond at these towns with other diligences 145

Cannes to Auribeau, (p. 156), to Cannet, (p.154), to Cap d'Antibes (p. 154), to Castelaras (p.156), to Croisette (p. 154), to Croix des Gardes (p.155), to Estrel (p.155), to Grasse (p. 160), to the Iles de Lerins (p.156), to Mougins (p. 156), to Napoule and Theoule (p.155), to Pgomas (p. 156), to St. Cassien (p. 155), to Vallauris by the Golfe de Jouan and Californie (p. 152).

Grasse to Cagnes by Le Bar, the Pont-du-Loup and Vence (p. 163), to Digne by St. Vallier and Castellane (p.165), Digne to Riez, Groulx, Volx and Manosque (p.166).

Nice to St. Martin Lantosque by coach, and thence to Cuneo by the Col di Finestra 180

Nice to Puget-Theniers and Saint Sauveur by coach. From St. Sauveur an excellent road by the side of the Tine ascends to St. Etienne; whence bridle-road E. to Vinadio (map, p. 165). 182

Nice to Cuneo by the tunnel of the Col di Tenda 182

Savona to Turin by Carru, Bra, Cavallermaggiore and Moncalieri, 90 miles N. 183

Beaulieu to Port St. Jean and the Lighthouse—a pleasant walk 185

Monte Carlo to Nice by the coast-road 189

Monaco to La Turbie and the Tte de Chien 191

MENTON to GENOA—the western part of the Italian Riviera, called also the Riviera di Ponente 200

BORDIGHERA, up the valley of the Nervia, TO PIGNA 201

SAN REMO TO MONTE BIGNONE 205

GENOA to PISA and LEGHORN—the eastern Italian Riviera, or the Riviera di Levante 219

Avenza to Carrara by rail—a very easy and interesting excursion 222

PISA TO FLORENCE by Pontedera and Empoli (map, p.199) 227

PISA TO FLORENCE by Lucca, Pistoja and Prato 227

LUCCA TO THE BATHS OF LUCCA 230

FLORENCE TO VALLOMBROSA 277

GENOA TO TURIN by Alessandria—a very interesting railway journey 279

END OF THE RIVIERA.

PARIS to TURIN 281

PARIS to MODANE 281

AIX-LES-BAINS TO GENEVA by Annecy 286

Modane to Turin 291

BUSSOLENO TO SUSA 291

Turin to Torre-Pellice by Pinerolo 305

TORRE-PELLICE TO MONT-DAUPHIN by the Col de la Croix 306

PEROSA TO MONT-DAUPHIN by the Col d'Abris 307

PEROSA TO CESANNE by the Col de Sestrires 307

SALUZZO TO MONT DAUPHIN by the Col de la Traversette 308

CUNEO TO BARCELONNETTE (see BARCELONNETTE TO CUNEO) 341

TURIN to FLORENCE by Piacenza, Parma, Modena and Bologna 309

ST. PIERRE D'ALBIGNY TO COURMAYEUR by the Little Saint Bernard 320

PARIS to MODANE by Lyons, Voiron and Grenoble. This is the route to take to visit the Grande Chartreuse and the picturesque valleys about the formidable group of the Ecrin mountains 322

GRENOBLE TO SASSENAGE 327

Grenoble to Brianon by Bourg d'Oisans and the Col de Lautaret. A grand mountain road 328

BOURG D'OISANS TO LA BERARDE, at the base of the Ecrin group, by Vosc and St. Christophe 329

BRIANON TO MT. PELVOUX by La Besse and the Val Louise 333, 345

BRIANON TO OULX by Mt. Genvre and Cesanne 333

Grenoble to Corps by La Mure (map, p. 27). From Corps another diligence proceeds to Gap (p. 340). From Corps the pilgrimage is made to N. D. de la Salette 333

GONCELIN TO ALLEVARD-LES-BAINS 336

MARSEILLES to GRENOBLE by Gardanne, Aix, St. Auban, Sisteron, Serres, Veynes, Aspres, Clelles and Claix (map, p. 27) 338

ST. AUBAN TO DIGNE 339

DIGNE TO BARCELONNETTE by La Javie and Seyne (map, p.304) 339

DIGNE TO BARCELONNETTE by Draix, Colmars and Allos 339

VEYNES to MONT DAUPHIN-GUILLESTRE station, 51 miles N.E. by rail. Both of these towns are at the French end of several of the important passes between France and Italy 340

GAP TO BARCELONNETTE 341

BARCELONNETTE TO CUNEO (map, p. 27) 341

GAP TO GRENOBLE by Corps (map, p. 304) 342

MONT-DAUPHIN TO SALUZZO (map, p. 304) 344

PARIS TO LYONS by Saint Etienne (map, p. 27) 346

PARIS TO LYONS by Tarare (map, p. 27) 348

LYONS TO CLERMONT-FERRAND by Montbrison (map, p.27) 349

PARIS TO MARSEILLES by Clermont-Ferrand and Nmes (see map on fly-leaf) 351

MOULINS TO THE BATHS OF BOURBON-L'ARCHAMBAULT by Souvigny and Saint Menoux (map, p. 1) 356

MOULINS TO THE BATHS OF BOURBON-LANCY by Dompierre and Gilly. Beyond Gilly is Paray-le-Monial (p.27, map p.1) 357

ST. GERMAIN-DES-FOSSS TO VICHY 359

CLERMONT-FERRAND TO BRIVE by Laqueuille 376

LAQUEUILLE TO THE BATHS OF MONT-DORE AND BOURBOULE 377

MONT-DORE TO ISSOIRE by the Baths of St. Nectaire 385

A diligence runs between St. Nectaire and the Coude railway station.



MAPS AND PLANS.

PAGE

Ardche, general map of, including the northern part of the department of Drme and the southern of the Haute-Loire 46

This map contains a large part of the valleys of the Rhne and the Allier, the towns of Le Puy, Vals, Beage, Langogne, Cheilard, Tournon, Valence, La Voulte, etc., the source of the Loire and Mount Mezenc.

Arles, a town of great interest 68

Avignon, Plan of 59

Bologna, Plan of 316

Cannes, Environs of 155

Showing the drives around Cannes and Antibes.

Cannes, Plan of 149

Corniche Road 185

Showing the course of the upper Corniche Road from Nice to Menton, as well as that of the lower and perhaps more beautiful road between Nice and Monte-Carlo, extending along the coast, nearly parallel to the railway.

This map contains also the Environs of Nice, Monaco, and Menton.

Dijon, Plan of 20

Estrel Mountains, or Frejus and St. Raphael to Cannes 146

Florence, Plan of 234

The most beautiful walk or drive is by the Porta Romana up to the Piazza Michelangiolo.

Galleria degli Uffizi 237

The Florence Picture Gallery. Contained in two vast edifices on both sides of the Arno; united by long corridors, which from the Uffizi straggle down to the river, cross the bridge, and reach the Pitti Palace by the upper story of the houses bordering the Via Guicciardini.

Genoa, Plan of 214

Hyres, Environs of 129

As the excursions from Hyres and Toulon are nearly the same, the environs of both towns are given on the same map.

Italian Riviera, or the Riviera from Ventimiglia to Leghorn 199

Called also the Riviera di Ponente and the Riviera di Levante. The French Riviera is given on the map of the "Rhne and Savoy," and parts on a larger scale on the maps of the "Corniche Road" "Marseilles to Cannes," and the "Durance to the Var and San Remo."

Leghorn, Plan of 226

Lyons, General plan of 30

Lyons, Partial plan of 33

Marseilles, Plan of 113

Marseilles to Cannes 123

This map shows the position of the towns and villages on the coast and in the interior, the roads between them and the Marseilles canal; which, from the Durance, enters the sea at Cape Croisette. At the southern side are given the "Iles d'Or," called also the "Islands of Hyres," of which the largest is Porquerolles.

Mont Cenis railway, Plan of 291

This plan shows the railway from St. Pierre-d'Albigny to Turin by Modane and Susa. Rail from St. Pierre to Albertville; whence coach-road to Courmayeur by Moutiers, Bourg-St. Maurice, Seez and the Little St. Bernard. Coach road from Albertville to Annecy on Lake Annecy.

Mont-Dore and Bourboule, Map of environs 378

Nice, Plan of 171

Nmes, interesting Roman ruins 101

Paris to Vichy, Macon, Bourg and Geneva, situated towards the S. and S.E. Carlsruhe, Baden, Strasburg, Freiburg, Basel, Schaffhausen, Lucerne and Interlaken to the E., and Epernay, Verdun and Metz to the N. 1

Pisa, Plan of 224

The object of this plan is to enable tourists to find their way unaided to the Leaning Tower, the Cathedral, the Baptistery, and the Campo Santo or Cemetery. The frescoes on the walls of the Cemetery require the cultivated talent of an artist to appreciate. Those who have to remain over the night should take one of the hotels close to the station.

Railway Map Fly-leaf

This map shows all the railway routes in France and their correspondence with the railways in Belgium, Prussia, Baden, Switzerland, Italy and Spain. Also the railways on both sides of the Rhine and of the Rhne.

Rhne and Savoy 107

This map gives the entire course of the Rhne in France, with the railways on both sides from Lyons to Avignon. The Railroads and Passes between France and Savoy. The French Riviera.

Savona to Rapallo 211

Illustrating the position of the pleasant winter stations of Arenzano, Pegli, Sestri-Ponente, Nervi, Santa-Margherita-Ligure and Rapallo.

The Durance to the Var and San Remo 163

This map shows principally the position of the towns in the interior, approached by diligence from Grasse (near Cannes), Draguignan, and Nice. From Nice start the diligences which run between France and Italy.

The French and Italian Waldensian valleys, with the mountain-passes between them 304

The high volcanic peaks in the department of Ardche; among which are Mezenc and the Gerbier-de-Joncs, with the source of the Loire 84

The Italian Riviera or north-west Italy, including the railways between Turin, Savona, Genoa and Florence 200

The Mouths of the Rhne 66

Showing the position of the canals and of the great lakes in this neighbourhood. The principal towns are Marseilles, Aix-en-Provence, Arles, Avignon, Aigues-Mortes and Montpellier. The Marseilles canal from the Durance commences opposite Pertuis directly N. from Marseilles (see pp.77, 115, and 338). A little farther down the Durance is the commencement of the Craponne canal (p. 66).

The plains between the Ardche, Rhne and Durance, in which are situated Aubenas, Alais, Montlimart, Pont-St. Esprit, Orange, Carpentras, Vaison and other places of interest 56

Thermometer, on the Centigrade and Fahrenheit scale 107

Toulon, Environs of 129

This map will be found very useful in the excursions by the small steamers sailing from the port.

Troyes, Plan of 12

Turin, Plan of 293

Vichy, Plan of 359



CARTE DU JOUR.

The following List contains the explanation of the technical terms of some of the most useful dishes mentioned in the "Cartes du Jour" of the restaurants. Fancy names cannot be translated.

[Transcriber's Note: The following section is given exactly as printed. Some items may require added salt.]

SOUPS.

Consomm, beef-tea. Bouillon, broth. Potage, soup. Julienne, vegetable soups. Pure, pease-soup. Pure, when qualifying a noun, means "mashed,"as— Pure de pommes, mashed potatoes. " " marron, mashed chestnuts.

BEEF.

Boeuf au naturel, or simply "nature," plain boiled beef. Naturel in cookery means "plain." Boeuf la mode, beef stewed with carrots. Nearly the same as the next. Boeuf la jardinire, beef with vegetables. Aloyau, a sirloin of beef. Aloyau a la jardinire, sirloin with vegetables. Aloyau saut, sirloin in slices. Saut in cookery means "sliced." Rosbif aux pommes, roast beef with potatoes. In these lists the words de terre are rarely affixed to pommes. Bifteck au naturel, plain beefsteak. " aux pommes, with potatoes. " aux pommes sautes, with sliced potatoes. " aux haricots, with kidney beans. " bien cuit, well done. " saignant, under done. Palais de Boeuf au gratin, broiled ox palate. Au gratin in cookery means "baked" or "broiled"; when applied to potatoes it means "browned."

MUTTON.

Ctelettes de mouton au naturel, plain mutton chops. " " " panes, mutton chops fried with crumbs. " " " aux pointes d'asperge, mutton chops with asparagus tops. " " " la pure de pommes, mutton chops with mashed potatoes. Gigot roti, a roast leg of mutton. Pieds de mouton, sheep's trotters. Gigot d'agneau, a leg of lamb. Blanquette d'agneau, hashed stewed lamb. Rognons la brochette, broiled kidneys. " sauts, sliced kidneys. Etuv, stewed.

VEAL.

Ctelette de veau, veal cutlet. Tte de veau en vinaigrette, calf's head with oil and vinegar. Oreille de veau en marinade, pickled calf's ear. Ris de veau, sweetbread. Foie de veau, calf's liver. Blanquette de veau, hashed stewed veal. Fricandeau au jus, Scotch collops with gravy. Jus, gravy.

VEGETABLES.

Pommes de terre, potatoes. Legumes et fruits primeurs, early vegetables and fruits. Asperges la sauce, asparagus with sauce. Chou, cabbage. Champignons, mushrooms. Epinards, spinage. Fves de marais, garden beans. Haricots verts, green kidney beans. Oseille, sorrel. Petits pois, green peas. Jardinire means "dressed with vegetables."

POULTRY AND GAME.

Poularde, fowl. Poulet, chicken. Chapon, capon. Cuisse de poulet, leg of a chicken. Des oeufs la coque, boiled eggs. Dindonneau, young turkey. Canard, duck. Perdreau, partridge. Mauviettes, field-larks. Alouettes, larks. Grives, thrushes. Becasse, woodcock. Becassine, snipe. Chevreuil, venison. Caille, quail.

FISH.

Anguille, eel. Eperlans, smelts; or, as the Scotch call them, sperlings. Homard, lobster. Huitres, oysters. Merlans, whitings. Morue, cod. Raie, skate. Saumon, salmon. Sole, sole. Turbot, turbot. Frit, fried. Grill, done on the gridiron.

DESSERT.

Compote, applied to fruits, means "stewed." " de pommes, stewed apples. " de pruneaux, stewed prunes. Beignets de pommes, apple fritters. " " " souffls, puffed apple fritters. Mendiants, raisins, nuts and almonds.

DRINK.

Vin de Bordeaux, claret. A bottle of soda-water is called a siphon. The cheap wines ought always to be drunk with it, or with common water. At even the cheap restaurants palatable wine may be had by paying a little extra. Frapp, applied to liquids, means "iced." Caraffe frapp, iced water. Vin frapp, iced wine. The litre of beer is called a canette, and the half-litre a choppe. The fifth part of a litre of wine is called a carafon, aword often used in the cheap restaurants.



[Map: Paris to Vichy, Macon, Bourg, Geneva &c.]

THE DIRECT ROAD TO THE RIVIERA.

Paris to Lyons, Marseilles, Hyres, Cannes, Nice, Monaco and Menton, 692 miles.

PART I.—PARIS TO MARSEILLES.

BY SENS, DIJON, LYONS, AND AVIGNON, 537 miles.

Best resting-places, Sens, Dijon, Macon, Lyons, and Avignon. For "London to Marseilles," see under that head in the "Continental Time-tables of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway." Through tickets sold at their London office.

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{ }{537} PARIS. Start from the station of the Chemin de Fer de Paris Lyon, No. 20 Boulevard Mazas, where purchase one of the Time-tables, 8 sous or 40 cents, the only absolutely trustworthy tables respecting the prices, distances, and movements of the trains. Good restaurant at station. Opposite the station is the H. de l'Univers, and a little farther off the H.Jules Csar.

Maps.—For the general route, consult map on fly-leaf; for the details as far as Macon, map page 1; and for the remainder of the journey, map page 26. The fare, third class, from London to Paris by Dieppe, by the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, is 17s. From Paris to Marseilles, by the Paris and Lyons Railway, it is 2:7s., time 23 hours; starting from the station of the Chemin de Fer de Lyon at 6.30 A.M., and arriving next day at 5.33 A.M. From Marseilles a train starts at 6.35 A.M. for Toulon, where it arrives at 9 A.M. From Toulon a train starts for Hyres at 9.32 A.M., and arrives at 10.13 A.M. The third-class carriages between Paris and Marseilles are provided with separate compartments for ladies, and with warming-pans. For those going to Hyres, the nearest of the winter-stations, it is better, if possible, not to break the journey, but to take a through ticket from Paris to Hyres (2:12s.), as every break adds considerably to the expense; moreover, the train passes the most suitable resting-places at a most inconvenient hour in the night. By the first class the whole journey from Paris to Hyres can be done in 18 hours for 4:13:6.

The train, after leaving the station, skirts the S.W. corner of the Bois de Vincennes at Charenton and St. Maurice, both upon the Marne, which here joins the Seine. Charenton, 4m. from Paris, pop. 9000, has a large lunatic asylum founded in 1644. Boarders pay 60 the year. St. Maurice, pop. 4300, has in the Chteau d'Alfort a veterinary college with an hospital for animals, which takes horses for 2s. per day. It contains a library, museum, and laboratory; and possesses a nursery for the cultivation of grasses. Immediately beyond Fort Charenton are the Maisons-Alfort, pop. 8000, on the Seine. Diana of Poitiers and Robespierre resided here some time.

[Headnote: VILLENEUVE ST. GEORGE.]

9 m. S. from Paris is the pretty town of Villeneuve St. George, pop. 1500, on the Seine, where it unites with the Yres, adeep river flowing through a verdant valley. 3m. farther is Montgeron on the Yres, pop. 1300, with the castle which belonged to Sillery, chancellor of Henri IV.

On the other side of the river is the village of Crosne; where on the 1st November 1636 was born, in the house No. 3 Rue Simon, Nicolas Boileau Despraux, died 13th March 1711. He was a great critic, and the first to introduce French versification to rule. Through Pope and his contemporaries he had also a strong influence on English literature.

[Headnote: MELUN.]

13 m. from Paris is Brunoy, pop. 1550, an ancient town, which was inhabited by the earliest kings of France. Louis XVIII. created the Duke of Wellington Marquis of Brunoy. The train now traverses the Yres viaduct, 1235 ft. long, on 28 arches 104 ft. high. 28m. S. from Paris is the prettily situated town of MELUN, pop. 12,000. Inns: Grand Monarque; Commerce; both near each other, and near St. Aspais. Between them is the omnibus office. glise Protestante. Melun, the Melodunum of Julius Csar, occupies both banks of the Seine, and the island in the centre, as well as both sides of the Almont, which here enters the Seine. One long, nearly straight road, under the names of the Avenue de Thiers, Rue St. Ambroise, Rue St. Etienne, Rue St. Aspais, and the Rue du Palais de Justice, extends from the railway station to the northmost limit of the town. In the part of Melun on the left or south bank are large cavalry barracks. On the island is the church of Notre Dame, 11th cent., restored; with a neat 2 storied tower over each transept, 10th cent. The large building behind the church is the principal prison. Very near the church, in the Rue Notre Dame, is the Eglise Protestante, a small chapel. Off the main street, in the part of the town on the right or north bank, is St. Aspais, an elegant church of the 14th cent. surrounded by crocketed gabled chapels. By the side of the main entrance rises a buttressed square tower, terminating in a high peaked roof prolonged into a short spire. In the interior are some delicately sculptured canopy work and 8 windows with valuable old glass. A few yards off the main street is the Hotel de Ville with a round attached turret in each corner; and in the centre of the court a marble statue to Jacques Amyot, born in 1514, "Un des Grandes Reformateurs de la langue franaise au 16me sicle." Behind are the public gardens containing some capitals of ancient columns. Near it is the Place St. Jean, with a handsome fountain. North-west from St. Aspais are the Prefecture and the belfry St. Barthlemy, restored in 1858. The Palais de Justice, the theatre, the Gendarmerie, and another of the prisons, are all together at the north end of the town. The gardens of Melun produce excellent pears—some are very large. Hardly 4 m. N.E. from Melun is the Chateau of Vaux-Praslin, containing paintings by Lebrun and Mignard. From Melun the line continues by the side of the Seine till Bois-le-Roi, where it enters the forest of Fontainebleau.

[Headnote: FONTAINEBLEAU.]

{37}{500} FONTAINEBLEAU pop. 9200, about 2 miles from the Seine, and one from the station; but omnibuses await passengers for the hotels. Fare, 30 c. For the Cour du Cheval Blanc of the Chateau, 50 c. The most expensive hotels front the Chateau. The Londres; Europe; France et Angleterre; Ville de Lyon; Aigle Noir; Lion d'Or. At the end of the main street, No. 9 Rue Grande, is the Cadran Bleu. In the Rue de la Chancellerie, near the Cour des Offices or east end of the Chateau, is the H. de la Chancellerie. In the Rue de France, the H. de la Sirne. The last 4 hotels are the most moderate in their charges. Situated among the large hotels facing the Cour du Cheval Blanc is the Pension Launoy; 1st storey, 13 frs., 2d, 11 frs. per day. For those who come for one day, the best plan is to enter at the station any of the Chateau omnibuses. Alight at the end of the Rue Grande, where there is a square with a garden surrounded with good shops—a bookseller's with maps, plans, and photographs—souvenirs made from wood of the forest; a good confectioner's shop and some restaurants, where refreshments can be had either before or after visiting the chateau. Those afraid of losing the train, should, however, rather take their refreshments at some of the restaurants opposite the station. From the end of the Rue Grande, the Cour du Cheval Blanc is about 5 minutes' walk.

Temple Protestant, in which an English service is also held.

Coach Tariff.—The principal cab-stand is at the end of the Rue Grande at the square. Before starting procure a plan, 1 fr., of the forest in the shop opposite.

A four-wheeled carriage for 5 persons, with 2 horses, 20 frs. for the day, with a gratuity to the coachman. For 4 persons, with 1 horse, 10 frs. for the day.

Carriages may also be engaged by the hour at the following prices:—

A four-wheeled carriage for 5 persons, with 2 horses, 4frs. for the first hour, and 3 frs. for each succeeding hour.

A four-wheeled carriage for 4 persons, with 1 horse, for the first hour 3frs., and each succeeding hour 2 frs. 25 c.

A two-wheeled carriage for 4 persons, with 1 horse, 2frs. an hour.

Donkeys and mules may be hired at 3 frs. aday.

Fontainebleau deserves a visit, not only to see the Chateau, but to enjoy the delightful air and walks in the gardens and woods, which cover an area of 18,740 acres, intersected by 12,000m. of roads and footpaths. The palace consists of square towers linked together by congeries of low brick buildings, enclosing spacious courts, each bearing some suggestive name. The roofing is said to occupy 14 acres. The palace is open from 11 to 4. The men who show it attend in one of the rooms on the left side of the "Cour des Adieux," or "du Cheval Blanc," which court forms the main entrance. Asmall fee is expected; but as the Palace belongs to the State, it is not obligatory.

To see the "appartements reservs" an especial order is requisite, procured by letter addressed to "M. Le Commandant des Chateaux." The "appartements reservs" comprehend sometimes a greater, and sometimes a smaller number of rooms, according to the requirements of the household, but never any of the splendid halls. The order observed in showing the Palace is constantly changed, yet the itinerary we give will be found in the main correct. It is sometimes reversed.

The Chateau of Fontainebleau, as it now stands, was founded by Francis I., who commenced by demolishing the whole of the former edifice, excepting the pavilion of St. Louis, which still exists. Henri IV., who spent 100,000 upon it, doubled the area of the buildings and gardens, and added, among other portions, the gallery of Diana and the gallery des Cerfs. NapoleonI. expended 250,000 upon it, and Louis XVIII. and Louis Philippe contributed also large sums.

[Headnote: ENTRANCE.]

The principal entrance is at the west end by the Cour du CHEVAL BLANC, the largest of all the courts, measuring 498 ft. by 368. It is also called the Cour des Adieux, because here NapoleonI., forsaken by nearly all his generals, took leave, on the 20th of April 1814, of the ever-faithful soldiers of his Old Guard, from whom he tore himself away amidst sobs and tears, and threw himself into his carriage. On the 19th of March 1815 he was back again in this palace from the island of Elba, wandering with almost infantine joy through the splendid apartments which had witnessed his glory and his wretchedness.

As very little time is given to inspect the different articles, the following abridged list should be read before entering.

[Headnote: CHAPELLE DE LA TRINIT.]

The visitor enters by the door under the Horseshoe staircase, which has 46 steps on each side. To the right, the longer of the 2 iron bars in the wall represents the height of FrancisI. The first place entered is the Chapelle de la Trinit, built by FrancisI. in 1529, and largely decorated by Henri IV. in consequence of the Spanish ambassador having remarked that "the palace would be more beautiful if the Almighty were as well housed as his majesty." Louis XI. was married in this chapel. The divorce between Napoleon and Josephine was pronounced in it; and here, in 1810, NapoleonIII. was baptized. The paintings are by Frminet, made during the reigns of Henri IV. and Marie de Mdicis and Louis XIII. The high altar was finished in the reign of Louis XIII. by Bordogni. The reredos is by Jean Dubois. The statues on each side of the altar, representing Charlemagne and St. Louis, are by G. Pilon. The magnificent angels, which support the escutcheons of France and Navarre, are by Jean Goujon. The 4 bronze angels are by G. Pilon.

[Headnote: APARTMENTS OF NAPOLEON.]

Ascend staircase to the APARTMENTS OF NAPOLEON. The first room is the Antichambre des Huissiers (ushers), painting by Brenet, 1785. Cabinet des Secretaires, paintings by Vanloo, Doyen, and Hall. Pass now through a small passage, painted with flowers by Spraendonck, to the most charming Salle des Bains. The walls are of plate glass, on which are painted, in graceful forms and lovely colours, cupids, birds, and flowers. The bath-room opens into the Abdication Room, containing the famous mahogany table, about a yard in diameter, on which Napoleon signed his abdication, 5th April 1814. Walls hung with rich embroidered satin from Lyons. Cabinet de Travail (study) of the Emperor. Beautiful writing desk by Jakob. Painting on ceiling represents law and justice. Bedroom of Napoleon I. and III. Bed restored under Louis Philippe, and hung with silk velvet from Lyons. Round the wall grisaille paintings of cupids, admirable imitations of relief, by Sauvage. Clock, present from Pio VII. to Napoleon. Salon de Famille or Salle du Conseil; dates from FranoisI. and Henri IV., and made by Louis XV. his study. In centre of room mahogany table, 6 yards in circumference, one piece. The 20 red and blue symbolical paintings round wall are by the two Vanloos. On ceiling arms of France on gold ground. Furniture covered with Beauvais tapestry of time of Louis XV. Clock of Louis XIV. Throne-room. Built by Charles IX., ornamented by Louis XIII. and XIV., to which Napoleon I. added the throne. In this room the marshals of France used to take their oath of allegiance. The ceiling magnificently gilt and painted, and chimney-piece in same style. Over it portrait of Louis XIII. The lustre of rock crystal is valued at 2000.

[Headnote: APARTMENTS OF MARIE ANTOINETTE.]

APARTMENTS OF MARIE ANTOINETTE and of the Empress Eugenie. Aurora on ceiling by Barthlemy. Arabesques of the panels on green ground. On console tables by Coindrel, 2 ivory vases presented to NapoleonI by the Emp. of Austria. This room was fitted up for Marie Antoinette by Louis XVI., who forged, but did not finish, the window bolts (espagnolettes). The Bedroom. Occupied successively by Marie de Medicis, Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette, Marie-Amlie, wife of Louis Philippe, and the Empress Eugenie. The gorgeous drapery and curtains of the bed were presented to Marie Antoinette by the city of Lyons on the occasion of her marriage. Wall hung with the richest satin, hand embroidered. Two wardrobes by Risener. Clock of Louis XVI. Salon de Musique. Ceiling, Minerva and the Muses by Barthlemy, 1786. Over door the Muses painted in grisaille by Sauvage. Porcelain table by Georget, 1806. Petit Salon, from which a door opens into the

GALERIE DE DIANE or Bibliothque, built in 1600. The ceiling, divided into compartments, is painted by Pujol and Blondel, representing mythological scenes. In front of one of the windows are suspended the sword and coat of mail worn by Monaldeschi, when he was assassinated on the 15th of October 1657 by order of Christina of Sweden, second daughter of Gustavus Adolphus. The atrocious deed took place in the room immediately below, in the Galerie des Cerfs. The unfortunate man, in parrying the first thrust, had 3 of his fingers cut off. He then fell on his knees before his confessor Father Le Bel, sent him by Christina, and, while praying God for pardon of his sins, one of the murderers thrust his sword into his face; while the other first cut off the crown of his skull, and then pierced his throat, which made him fall to the ground, where he lay breathing for quarter of an hour. Throughout all this terrible scene the kind priest kept bawling aloud with all his might consolation to the dying man. That same evening he was buried, near the holy water basin, in the church of Avon, 1m. E. from the chateau, at the extremity of the park. Monaldeschi was Queen Christina's chamberlain, and is supposed to have betrayed some of her secrets. The Marquis begged most piteously Father Le Bel to implore the Queen to spare his life; but when the confessor went to her and beseeched her, in the name of Our Blessed Lord, to have mercy on the unhappy man, she replied with petulance, "that she could not, and that many had been condemned to the wheel who did not deserve it so much as this coward."

At the extremity of the gallery of Diana is the Salon de Diane, with indifferent modern paintings by Blondel, representing the story of the goddess Diana.

[Headnote: SALONS DE FRANCOIS I. AND LOUIS XIII. SALLES ST. LOUIS AND DES GARDES.]

We now enter the Escalier de la Reine, ornamented with hunting scenes by C. Parocel, 1688-1782; Oudry, 1686-1755; and F.Desportes, 1661-1743. The door to the left opens into the Galerie des Chasses, not shown (see page 8). The other leads into

LES GRANDS APPARTEMENTS. The Antechamber. Ceiling of pinewood in gilt compartments. Walls hung with ancient Gobelins tapestry. Salon des Tapisseries hung with beautiful tapestry, representing the loves of Psyche. Sevres porcelain vase worth 600, gift to the Empress Eugenie. Salon de FranoisI. Napoleon I. and Charles X. used it as their dining-room. Louis Philippe restored the ceiling. The Flemish tapestry represents royal hunting scenes. In the centre of chimney-piece fresco by Primaticcio, Mars and Venus. The ebony cabinets are of the 15 and 16 cents. Furniture covered with very remarkable Beauvais tapestry. Salon de Louis XIII. The small Venetian looking-glass, one of the earliest manufactured, and the first that came to France, indicates the place where the bed of Marie de Mdicis stood when Louis XIII. was born. The paintings on the ceiling and on the walls represent the story of Theagenes and Charicles, which had been translated from the Greek by Jacques Amyot, and dedicated to FrancisI. Beautiful marble chimney-piece. Salle de Saint Louis. Over chimney-piece equestrian statue in relief of Henri IV. by Jacquet. Salon des Aides-de-Camp. Portraits in Gobelins tapestry of Henri IV. and Louis XV., 1773-1777. Salle des Gardes, principally by Charles IX., but restored by Louis Philippe. In the medallions above the five real and mock doors are portraits of Francis I., with the allegorical figures of Might and the Fine Arts; Henri II., with figures of Diana and Liberality; Antoine Bourbon (father of Henri IV.), with figures of Hope and Abundance; Henri IV., with figures of Peace and Glory; and Louis XIII., with figures of Religion and Justice. Beautiful chimney-piece by Jacquet, 1590, 17 ft. high and 13 wide. In centre bust of Henri IV., and at each side statues of Might and Peace by Francarville. Avery pretty little room, with floor of inlaid wood, corresponding in design with the ceiling, leads to the

ESCALIER DU ROI. The top part of this staircase, built by Louis XV., was originally the Chambre de la Duchesse d'Etampes. The frescoes, representing scenes in the life of Alexander, are chiefly by Niccolo dell' Abate, indifferently restored in 1836 by Abel Pujol.

GALERIE DE HENRI II., or Salle des Ftes. The most magnificent hall in the palace, shining with gold, 90 ft. long by 30 wide, lighted on one side by 5 windows looking into the Cour Ovale, and on the other by the same number looking to the gardens. It was built by FranoisI., and decorated by Henri II. for his favourite Diane de Poitiers. The walls are covered with frescoes between gilt coupled columns by Primaticcio, Rosso, and Abate, restored in 1864 by Alaux. The ceiling, of walnut, is divided into 27 compartments, elaborately ornamented with scrolls, mouldings, and friezes, all richly gilt, and enclosing the ciphers of Henri II. and of Diana. The chimney-piece, of rare marbles, covered with fleurs-de-lis, is by Rondelet. At the end of this gallery is one of the entrances into the chapel of St. Saturnin, generally closed (see page 8). We return now to the Escalier du Roi, where we enter the

GALERIE DE FRANOIS I., parallel to the apartments of Napoleon, 210 ft. long by 20 wide. It was built by Francis to serve as a communication between the Courts of the Cheval Blanc and of St. Louis. Ceiling in variously shaped gilt panels, producing a curious effect. The frescoes, representing mythological scenes, are chiefly by Rosso, but a few are by Primaticcio, restored by Condere. Bust of FranoisI. From the vestibule of the Horseshoe staircase we enter the

APPARTEMENTS DES REINES MERES et du Pape Pie VII. They were inhabited by Catherine de Mdicis and Anne of Austria (mother of Louis XIV.), whose portraits hang opposite each other in the bedroom; and also by Pope Pius VII., more, however, as a prisoner than a guest of Napoleon I. The magnificent bedstead was put up by NapoleonIII. for Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, when they were expected to have visited Fontainebleau. The tapestry is of the finest quality from the Gobelins manufactory, and the paintings are by Coypel, Mignard, and other French masters. Antechamber. Portrait of Diana de Poitiers as the goddess of the chase, one of Primaticcio's best works. Cabinet (Bahut) of time of Louis XIII. Walls hung with embossed leather. Furniture covered with Cordova leather. Salles des Officers. Hung with Gobelins tapestry, representing the story of Esther. Salon. Walls hung with beautiful coloured Gobelins. Furniture covered with Beauvais tapestry. Elegant ceiling, divided into compartments bearing the initials of Anne of Austria and of Louis XIII. The Old Bedroom (see above). Modern furniture in style of Louis XIII. Table in mosaic given by Pio IX., bearing his signature. Very beautiful ceiling by Cotelle de Meaux. Study of Pio VII.—portrait of him by David. Dressing-room—wardrobe of inlaid wood by Risener, one of the finest in France. Bust of Louis XV. by Lemoyne, 1751. New Bedroom—bedstead of time of Louis XIV., enlarged in reign of Louis Philippe. Salon de Reception—Gobelins tapestry—furniture of time of Louis XV. Bust of Napoleon by Canova. Waiting-room or Salle d'Attente. Gobelins dating from the time of Louis XV. Beautiful clock of Louis XVI. Antechamber. 4 pictures by Breughel, of which one is on wood. Vestibule of the Galerie des Fresques.

GALERIE DES FRESQUES or Des Assiettes. All the pictures in this gallery were painted in fresco in the reign of Henri IV. by Ambroise Dubois on the gallery of Diana, whence they were removed in 1805, and some of them put on canvas. In addition Louis Philippe placed on the walls 128 plates, with views of the royal residences in France, and incidents connected with Fontainebleau. We now enter the gallery leading to the

SALLE DE SPECTACLE or theatre, built by NapoleonIII., and seated for 400. Visitors now leave the palace by the staircase of Charles VIII., adorned with a statue of him in stucco.

[Headnote: CHAPELLE DE ST. SATURNIN.]

LES APPARTEMENTS RESERVES.

Chapelle Basse de St. Saturnin, built by Louis VII. after his return from Palestine, and consecrated by Thomas Becket in 1169. The painted glass of the windows was manufactured at Sevres from designs by the Princess Marie, 1836, daughter of Louis Philippe; and the altar is the same at which Pope Pius VII. performed mass during his stay at Fontainebleau from 1812 to 1814. The lower chapel was reconstructed in 1545 by Francis I., upon which he built the Upper Chapel. It was ornamented with charming frescoes, in the reign of Henri IV., about the year 1608. Napoleon III. commenced the restoration.

Adjoining the lower chapel a corridor leads to the Ancienne Salle Manger de Louis Philippe, or the Galerie des Colonnes, of the same dimensions as the Galerie de Henri II. immediately over it. To the right is the old spiral staircase of FrancisI.

Galerie des Cerfs, built by Henri IV., under the Galerie de Diane, ornamented with views of the royal residences, indifferently executed. It was here Monaldeschi was murdered (see p.6).

Appartements des Chasses, consisting of two rooms, hung round with pictures representing dogs, game, and hunting scenes. The best by J. B. Oudry.

Appartements de Madame de Maintenon, consisting of an antechamber, saloon, boudoir, and toilet-room. They are of no interest further than that it was in one of them, it is said, that Louis XIV. signed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, which led to such cruelties. The embroidery on the furniture and screen is by the noble pupils of St. Cyr. Adjoining is the Galerie de HenriII. (see p. 7).

The Muse Chinois, consisting of a valuable and interesting collection of articles from China, cannot be seen without especial permission.

THE COURTS.

From the Cour du Cheval Blanc an arched way, near the Horseshoe staircase, leads through to the Cour de la Fontaine. In the side facing the lake is the Galerie de FranoisI. Having passed through the porch in the N.E. corner of the Cour de la Fontaine, we have before us the gardens and forests of Fontainebleau, and immediately to the left the Porte Dore, one of the gates that opens into the Cour Ovale. It is generally closed. On the soffit and sides are frescoes on a gold ground by Primaticcio, restored in 1835 by Picot. The subjects are mythological. Charles V. entered by this gateway in 1539. And by this portal the Duchesse d'Etampes fled from Fontainebleau, driven from it by the haughty and jealous Diana. Eastward to the left we pass the apsidal portion of St. Saturnin, supported by narrow buttresses, faced with pillars and pilasters. Both here and on the Porte Dore is the device of Francis I., asalamander. The principal entrance to the Cour Ovale faces the Cour des Offices.

At the east end of the palace, fronting the Place d'Armes, connected with the Rue Grande by the Rue de la Chancellerie, is the Cour de Henri IV. or Des Offices, 285 ft. long by 255 wide, occupied by the artillery college, formerly at Metz. The course lasts 2 years. The gateway is grand, but heavy; the buildings contain nothing particular.

[Headnote: DRIVES IN THE FOREST.]

Excursions into the forest. Those wishing to walk should provide themselves with a pocket compass and a copy of the plan of the Fort de Fontainebleau, 1 fr. In the forest the posts painted red indicate the way back to the town; the black posts lead in the other direction. The coachmen are acquainted with all the roads. The artistic part of the forest comprises only 3719 acres. The following are the three principal drives, each requiring 6 hours:—

1. Croix du Grand Veneur par la Tillaie—Point de vue du camp de Chailly par la Table du Grand Maitre et le carrefour de Belle Vue—Barbison par le Bas Brau—Gorges d'Apremont et Franchard.

2. Valle du Nid de l'Aigle—Mont Ussy—Caverne d'Augas—Vue sur le champ de Courses et Mont Chauvet—Gorges et Rochers de la Solle—Rocher St. Germain—Bocages des Ecouettes—Fort l'Empereur—Calvaire—Roche Eponge et Point de vue de Nemorosa.

3. Rocher Bouligny—Rocher des Demoiselles—Gorge aux Loups et Mare aux Fes—Long Rocher et Arcades de la Vanne par la Croix du Gd. Maitre.

The most picturesque parts of the first drive, or perhaps in the whole forest, are the ravines of Apremont, about 3m. N.W. from Fontainebleau; and Franchard, about 2 m. W.The second contains the best places for obtaining good general views of the forest, such as from the Croix du Calvaire, near the railway station, but especially from the Fort de l'Empereur, about 2 m. N.The Gorge aux Loups in the 3d drive, 3 m. S., leads to a very picturesque part called the Long Rocher. If only one drive can be taken, take the first, 3m. by rail from Fontainebleau.

After Fontainebleau is Thomery. Inn: Popardin, where the famous grape, the Chasselas de Fontainebleau, is grown extensively on walls and trellis-work.

[Headnote: MORET. JEAN SANS PEUR.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{42}{495} MORET, pop. 2000. Inn: cu de France. An ancient town on the Loing, with remains of fortifications, 15th cent., and the two old city gates Paris and Bourgogne. The church, containing some curious woodwork, is principally of the 12th cent. The portal and organ are of the 15th. 7m. farther S.E. is Moutereau junction, where the Chemins de Fer of the Paris and Lyons system unite with those of the Eastern system.

Montereau-faut-Yonne, pop. 7000; station about a mile from the town. Inn: Grand Monarque, where the omnibus stops, near the post office. Those who may require to wait for a train at this junction, should, if time permit, drive up in the omnibus to the town and visit the parish church, with its handsome columns gracefully ramifying into the groining of the roof of the aisles. Suspended to the right of the high altar is the sword of Jean Sans Peur. Beyond this church a fine stone bridge, or rather two continuous bridges, cross the Seine and the Yonne, which here unite. On the tongue of land between them is an equestrian statue of NapoleonI.; and on the bridge over the Yonne a marble slab indicates the spot where Jean Sans Peur was murdered in 1419. On the steep hill overlooking the town is the handsome modern castle of Surville. Montereau has important potteries.

[Headnote: SENS.]

{71}{466} SENS on the Yonne, pop. 12,400. Inns: Paris; cu. The best street, the Rue Royale, extends from north to south. At the north end is the promenade, and going southwards up the street, we have first the statue of the chemist Thnard, and then the cathedral. At the end of the street is the arch erected in honour of the Duchess of Angoulme, when she visited this city in 1828. Behind are spacious boulevards, which, together with the promenade, form agreeable walks.

[Headnote: THOMAS BECKET.]

The Cathedral of St. Etienne was commenced in 972, but nearly rebuilt two centuries afterwards. The faade, though not without beauty, is heavy and massive. The south tower, 240 feet high, has a belfry attached to it. In the interior, coupled columns, alternating with massive piers, run down each side of the nave, supporting pointed arches, over which runs a triforium of round arches on clustered colonnettes. Against the 5th pier left is a reredos, with sculptured canopies. In the chapel immediately behind the high altar is a beautiful relief in marble, representing the death of St. Savinien, first bishop of Sens, who suffered martyrdom in 240. In the adjoining chapel is the mausoleum of the Dauphin, brother of Louis XVI., by G. Coustou, and statues of Archbishop Duperron and his nephew. In the next or 3d chapel, Becket used to officiate. The picture on the wall by Bouchet, 1846, represents his assassination. He stayed, 1166, in the abbey of St. Columba, 1 m. from the cathedral. It is now occupied by the Soeurs de l'Enfance de Jesus. The transepts are lighted by superb glass; but the best window is the second to the right on entering from the faade, painted in 1530 by Jean Cousin. In a glass case in the treasury are the mitre, albe, chasuble, stole, and maniple worn by Thomas Becket; discovered in 1523 in an old house adjoining the cathedral; yet there does not exist sufficient evidence to prove that they are genuine. In the same case is an ivory crucifix by Girardon. In the case behind are enamels from Limoges, 15th century, and two small paintings on marble by A. del Sarto. Next them is valuable old tapestry. Near two shrines is a deed signed by St. Vincent de Paul. In one of the shrines is a bone of the arm of Simeon. Adjoining the cathedral is the hall, called the Officialit, restored by Violet le Duc. The convent of St. Colombes is about 1m. from the church, and to the left of the high road. The only portion of the present buildings that existed in Becket's time is the piece parallel to the Abbey Church. When in France, he lived chiefly in the Cistercian Abbey of Pontigny, 7 m. S. from St. Florentin, page 16, and 13 m. N.E. from Auxerre, page 14. Becket was assassinated at the foot of the altar of St. Benedict in Canterbury cathedral in 1170, and canonised two years afterwards. Down to the Reformation pilgrimages were made to his shrine by devotees from every corner of Christendom. Every 50th year a jubilee was celebrated in his honour.

[Headnote: TROYES.]

41 m. E. from Sens by the Chemin de Fer de l'Etat is TROYES, pop. 39,000. Hotels: At the station, the Grand Mulet. In the principal street, the Rue Notre Dame, the hotels Saint Laurent, Commerce. In the Rue Htel de Ville, the Htel des Couriers.

[Headnote: CATHEDRAL. HENRY V.]

Troyes, the former capital of Champagne, is situate on the Seine, canalised in the 12th century by Theobald IV. These canals move the machinery of numerous manufactories of hosiery, paper, and linen, which produce an annual average value of about two million pounds sterling. Troyes is famous for the number and beauty of its churches, of which the most important is the Cathedral of St. Pierre et St. Paul, situated at the eastern side of the town, the railway station being on the western or opposite side. This edifice, among the most beautiful in France, was commenced in 1208, but as it was not finished till the end of the 16th century, represents the different styles of these intermediate epochs. The fine western faade belongs to the 16th century, while the portal of the N. transept belongs to the 13th. Three hundred and seventy-eight steps lead to the top of the tower rising above the western faade. The building is 352 feet long, and the transept 154 feet. Two spacious aisles run up each side of the nave, separated by clustered columns supporting pointed arches, the front row being surmounted by a narrow mullioned triforium and a lofty clerestory, both lighted by beautifully-painted glass windows. The height of the roof of the nave is 92 feet, and of the cupola 192. The glass of the windows of the choir, of the roses in the transepts, and over the western entrance behind the organ, is of the 13th cent. The marble statues of Jesus and Mary in the first chapel, N. side of choir, are of the 16th cent., and the altar piece, with reliefs in wood, of the 17th cent. Before the high altar in this church HenryV. of England was affianced to the Princess Catherine, daughter of Charles VI. of France, on the 20th May 1420. Next day the famous treaty was signed, which secured the crown of France to Henry by the exclusion of the dauphin Charles, whenever the poor mad CharlesVI. should cease to live. Behind the high altar in the Lady chapel is a Madonna by Simard, and the window containing the oldest glass in the church. A stair to the right of the high altar leads to the treasury, of no great interest. It contains croziers of the 13th century, reliquaries of St. Loup and St. Bernard, with enamels of the 12th century, a tooth of St. Peter in a small gold box, etc. In the reliquary of St. Bernard is a bit of the skull of an Irish primate, St. Malachie, who lived between the 11th and 12th centuries. Afew yards to the N. of the cathedral is the building containing the Library, open from 10 to 3, with 125,000 volumes and 3600 MSS., in a large hall, with windows composed of curiously-painted panelled panes. Among the illuminated books are a Bible of St. Bernard and St. Paul's Epistles, 12th century. In the same building are the Museum, or picture gallery, with paintings by Watteau, Coypel, Mignard, etc.; [Headnote: SALLE SIMARD.] and the Salle Simard, containing a valuable collection of the Models made by Simard for his statues and works in relief. Also some statuary by Girardon, and other French sculptors. The museum is open to the public on Sundays and feast-days from 1 to 4. On other occasions a small fee is expected. Ashort distance eastward from the cathedral is the Hospice, and a little beyond St. Nizier, with painted panel panes in the window of the sacristy. The glass in the windows of the church is of the 16th century. Westward, in Rue Urbain IV., is a gem of Gothic architecture, the church of St. Urbain, built by that Pope towards the end of the 13th century. The high altar occupies the place where his father used to sit in the exercise of his calling, which was that of a cobbler. A short way N. is St. Remi, 14th century, with a bronze crucifix over the altar by Girardon. Directly W. from St. Urbain, by the Rue de l'Hotel de Ville, is the Hotel de Ville, built according to the plans of Mansard, commenced in 1624, and finished in 1670. Beyond is St. Jean, 14th century. The high altar was sculptured by Girardon, while the painting of the Baptism of our Lord, forming the reredos of the altar, is by Mignard. Behind, in the chapel "O Sacrum Convivium," are some good relief sculptures. From St. Jean, pass up northwards by the Rue de Montabert. At the N. corner of the first division is the Post Office; and at the end of the next division is La Madeleine, commenced in the 12th century, and remarkable for its magnificent jub, or rood-loft, constructed by Jean de Gualde in 1508. The beautiful windows behind the altar belong to the same period. The nearly flat roof might have been called an achievement in Gothic architecture, if the vaulting did not show signs of weakness. West from St. Jean is St. Nicolas, 16th century, near the Htel Mulet. To the right of the entrance a broad staircase leads up to a Calvary containing a colossal statue of Christ. In the chapel below is a statue of our Saviour by Gentil, representing him as rising from the dead.

[Map: Troyes]

Near St. Nicolas is St. Pantaleon, 16th century. To the right on entering is a Calvary by Gentil. On the panels of the pulpit are beautiful reliefs in bronze by Simard. Behind the pulpit is the chapel of St. Crispin, the patron of shoemakers, containing curious groups. The glass of the windows is rich, while the numerous statues on consoles give the church the appearance of a statue gallery.

South from the church St. Pantaleon by the Rue de Croncels, and its continuation the Faubourg de Croncels, is the small chapel of St. Gilles. In this neighbourhood, 1 mile northwards from the barracks of the Oratoire, by a road through gardens and fields, are the village and church of St. Andr, of which the principal feature is the west portal, constructed at the expense of the inhabitants in 1549, and ornamented by Gentil.

Those who prefer to drive through the town should follow the order we have adopted. Acab for four costs 3 frs. per hour; and for two, 2 frs. However, before entering request to see the tariff.

[Headnote: TROY WEIGHT.]

The weight known by the name of the Troy weight was brought from Cairo during the time of the crusades, and first adopted in this city. Troyes was the headquarters of Napoleon I. during his struggles in 1814.

[Headnote: VILLENEUVE-SUR-YONNE.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{79}{458} VILLENEUVE-SUR-YONNE, pop. 5100. Hotel: Dauphin. In the old castle here of Pulteau the man "au masque de Fer" spent some days while on his way to the Bastile (p.158). Villeneuve is joined to its suburb, Saint Laurent, by a bridge 700ft. long. 5m. beyond, or 84m. from Paris, is St.Julien du Sault, pop. 1500. Hotel: Des Bons Enfants. Apoor town, nearly a mile from the station, but possessing a fine church, of which the greater part of the choir, as well as the S. and N. porches, belong to the 13th cent., and the remainder of the edifice to the 14th-16th cents. Overlooking the town, and distinctly seen from the station, is a ruined chapel belonging to the 13th cent.

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