The Survey of Cornwall
by Richard Carew
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This E-text was prepared by Steve Gilbert using an Armari PC, a Hewlett Packard Scanjet 5400c scanner, ABBYY FineReader Pro 6.0 OCR software, and Microsoft Notepad. August-October 2003.


Transcribers notes:

i) This transcript retains the original spelling, except for the obsolete "long ess" character which has been replaced by 's' throughout.

Spellings of proper names tend to be phonetic and haphazard. Eg Pensanz, Pensans, Pensants, Pensance, and Penzance are all the same place.

ii) The Latin is worse than the English. I am 99.9% certain that I have transcribed it correctly, the doubt being where the printer has randomly mixed the "long ess" and "f" characters & neither form is in my Collin's Little Gem Latin Dictionary.

iii) This transcript omits the original page numbering from the introduction and appendix, but retains it in the main text to support cross-referencing and the index.

Each double-page spread was given a single page number. I have given these in []s at the beginning of the left- hand page.

iv) Marginalia have been inserted into the text surrounded by []s

v) Footnotes have been placed beneath the sections to which they refer.

vi) Italics, which Carew uses heavily, have been mostly removed, but sometimes replaced with quotes.

vii) The original capitalisation & over-punctuation is retained.




C O R N W A L L.



——————————————————— By RICHARD CAREW, of Antonie, Esq; ——————————————————— WITH The LIFE of the AUTHOR, By H**** C***** Esq. ——————————————————— A NEW EDITION. ====================================== 'LONDON, Printed for E. LAW, in Ave-Mary-Lane; and J.HEWETT, at Penzance.



A. Copies.

SIR. John St. Aubyn, of Clowance, Baronet 20 Rev. Mr. Jerveys Allen, of Helston Thomas Saunders Allen of St. Just, Attorney at Law Alexander Allen, Purser of the Wolf Sloop of War John Antony, of St. Ives John Antony, junior, of St. Ives


Joseph Beard, of Penzance John Batten, jun. of ditto, Merchant Joseph Batten, of ditto John Blewett, Esq. of Marazion 4 George Borlase, Attorney at Law, of Penzance William Bastard, of Exon Joseph Batten John Beard, jun. of Penzance, Merchant Capt. Barkley, of the Wolf Sloop of War Rev. Mr. William Borlase, of Zennor William Borlase, LL.D. of Ludgvan, F.R.S. James Bennett Capt. Thomas Braithwaite, of Falmouth James Bonithon, of Penzance Rev. Mr. Jacob Bullock, of Wendron Francis Benallock James Bower, of Lostwithiel James Baron, of ditto Thomas Bennet Nicholas Bishop, of Bristol Jofeph Bunney, Esq. Leicester John Bawden, Exon


Nicholas Cloak, of Penzance Daniel Carthew, of ditto Robert Coleman, of Bristol George Cooney, of Penzance Mr. Carlyl, of Marazion Humphrey Cole, Attorney at Law, of ditto David Cloak, Surgeon, of Penzance William Cornish, of Marazion Capt. Thomas Cassett, of Plymouth Richard Carne, of Falmouth, Merchant Coleman, Harris, and Co. Merchants at Bristol 2 Henry Coleman, Esq. of Market Harborough, Leicestershire Henry Coleman, Esq. Leicester


David Dennis, Attorney at Law, of Penzance John Dennis, of ditto James Donithorne, of Marazion Thomas Daniel, of Truro, Esq. John Dyer, of Penryn William Dawkin, Esq. of Kilvough, near Swanzey, in Wales Robert Dunkin, of Penzance


William Ellis, Esq. of Penzance 5 Charles Streater Ellis, of ditto James Edwards, of ditto, Merchant Hugh Edwards, Attorney at Law, St. Ives Thomas Ennys, of Redruth


Miss C. Foley Rev. Mr. Fisher, of Marazion Edward Freeman, of Lostwithiel


Thomas Glynn, jun. of Helston, Esq. Charles Gwavas, of Penzance, Merchant 2 Pascoe Grenfell, of Marazion, Merchant John Grenfell, of Penzance, Merchant Richard Jerveys Gryles, Attorney at Law, of Helston, Andrew Gaylard, of Bristol Miss Jane Gilbert, of St. Ives Thomas Glanvile, of Lostwithiel Rev. Mr. Edward Giddy, of St. Earth Thomas Giddy, of Truro, Surgeon William Giddy, of ditto


Richard Hichens, of Penzance, Attorney at Law 2 Capt. John Halse, of Redruth Rev. Mr. Edward Hobbs, of Sancrete John Hawkins, Esq. of Helston Rev. Mr. John Hosken, of Menaccan Thomas Hacker, of Penzance Isaac Head, Esq. Collector of his Majesty's Customs in the Islands of Scilly William Holbeck, Gent. Com. of Trinity Col. Oxford, Esq. Captain Peter Hill, of Falmouth John Hall John Hewett, of Plymouth-dock John Hurd, of Birmingham Christopher Harris, Esq. Keneggy 6 Nathanial Hicks, of St. Ives Rev. Mr. Haydon, Liskeard Samuel Hick, of Lostwithiel Edward Harford, of Bristol John Hosking, of Madron John Howell, of Penzance John Hall, of Stofford, Devonshire


William John, of Penzance, Merchant John James, of Newlyn, ditto Capt. John James, of Marazion William James, of Redruth Thomas John, of Penzance, Merchant John James, of St. Agnes


John Knill, Esq. Collector of his Majesty's Customs at St. Ives John Keir, Surgeon, of Marazion 2 J. Kimber, Attorney at Law, of Fowey


Thomas Love, of Newlyn Stephen Luke, of Penzance Maddren Legoe, of St. Just John Ley, of St. Ives, Merchant Rev. Mr. Lane, of St. Ives John Luxmore, Esq. of Oakhampton, Devon. Samuel Luly, of Penzance Rev. Mr. Philip Lyne, Vicar of Leskard Tobias Lanyon, Esq. Penzance


Joseph Michell, of Penzance Henry Michell, of ditto James Michell, of Marazion John Michell, of Chyandower James Moore, of Penzance Thomas Mathews, of St. Ives Herbert Mackworth, Esq. Exon Henry Mudge, of Truro Robert Michell, of ditto Mathias Michell, of Penzance


Rev. Mr. Newton, of Sithney William Nicholls, Esq. of Trereife John Nancarrow, jun. of Marazion Charles Newman, of Falmouth Rev. Mr. Newton, of Bristol Thomas Nicholls, of Penzance B. Nankivell, of St. Agnes


John Price, Esq. 6 John Pender, of Penzance, Merchant Benjamin Pidwell, of Penzance Rev. Mr. James Parkin, Lecturer of ditto Thomas Pidwell, jun. of ditto John Pearse, Surgeon, of ditto William Penrose, ——— of ditto Thomas Pascoe, ———, of ditto Josias Perry, Surgeon, of Langdon, Devon James Pascoe, Attorney at Law, of Penzance Rev. H. Parker, D.D. Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford William Price, Surgeon, at Redruth Daniel Pryor, of Penzance Henry Philips, of St. Ives, Merchant Rev. Mr. Richard Pearce, of St. Buryan Thomas Penrose, Attorney at Law, of Penzance


Thomas Robyns, Esq. at Penzance Thomas Rodda, of Marazion George Rippar, of ditto David Richard, of ditto Charles Rashleigh, of St. Austle, Attorney at Law Thomas Read, of Penzance Charles Rawlinson, of Marazion Stephen Robinson, jun. of Bridport Samuel Rodda, of Marazion


Walter Stone, of Penzance John Stone, of ditto George Scobell, Esq. Collector of his Majesty's Customs at Penzance John Stackhouse, Esq. of Pendarves William Stackhouse, Efq. of Trehane William Sincock, of Marazion Edward Stevens, of St. Ives William Stevens, of ditto Thomas Slade, of ditto Miss Sarah Stephens, of ditto William Skues, of Helston John Stott, of Ludgvan, Esq William Stevens, of Bristol Francis Spernon, Surgeon, in Lostwithiel Rev. Mr. Smith, of St. Just John Smith, Truro


Thomas Trenwith, Esq. of St. Ives John Trengrouse, Surgeon, of ditto Richard Treeve, of Penzance Uriah Tonkin, Esq. of ditto William Tregurtha, of ditto John Tonkin, Surgeon, of ditto Joseph Tovey, of ditto Rev. Mr. James Tonkin, of ditto John Treluddra, of Marazion Rev. Mr. Trevennen, of Cambron George Treweeke, Surgeon, of Penzance Joseph Taylor, of Bristol J. Trevethan, Attorney at Law, of Redruth


George Veale, Attorney at Law, of Penzance William Usticke, Esq. of Nansalverne


Rev. Mr. Williams, of Crowan Dionysius Williams, of Penzance, F.R.S. Samuel Woodis, of ditto John Williams, Officer of Excise Matthew Wills, Surgeon, of Helston Richard Williams, Marazion Rev. Mr. Anthony Williams, of St. Keverne Philip Webber, Attorney at Law, Falmouth George Woodis, of Penzance John Weston, Esq. of Illuggan Rev. Thomas Wharton, A. M. Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.

The Life of R I C H A R D C A R E W of Antonie Esq;

By HUGH C******* Esq;

RICHARD CAREW, the Celebrated Author of the Survey of Cornwall, was born of an antient Family at East-Antonie (a), the Seat of his Ancestors, in the Year 1555, if we may credit Mr. Wood (b). He was the Son of Thomas Carew by Elizabeth Edgecumb, Daughter to Sir Richard Edgecumb, a Gentleman says our Author (c), in whom Mildness and Stoutness, Diffidence and Wisdom, Deliberateness of Undertaking, and Sufficiency of Effecting, made a more commendable, than blazing mixture of Vertue. He adds, that Sir Richard, at his fine House, call'd to this day Mount-Edgecumb,

"during Queen Mary's Reign, entertain'd at one time for some good space, the Admirals of the English, Spanish, and Netherland Fleets, with many Noblemen besides.

But", pursues he, " not too much of this, lest a partial Affection steal, as unawares, into my Commendation, as one, by my Mother, descended from his Loins, and by my Birth a Member of the House (d)."

But Mr. Carew hath given us an account of his Ancestors, which I shall set down here, that the Reader may see they were no less distinguished by the great Estates in their possession, than by the Noble Families they were allyed to. Speaking of the Lyner, which, with the Tamer, discharges itself into the Sea above Plymouth;

"A little within this Mouth of Lyner", says he (e), " standeth East-Antonie, the poore home of mine Ancestours, with which in this manner they were invested:

Sir John Lerchedekne ———- of Ashton in Devon. Touching our Stock in general", pursues our Author (f), " and my Family in particular ——————- our Queen."

The Pregnancy of his Parts being much above his Age, he was sent to Oxford in the Year 1566, being then but eleven Years old, and

"(g) became a Gentleman Commoner of Christ Church ....... but had his Chamber in Broadgate's Hall:"

And three Years after he was call'd to dispute with the incomparable Sir Philip Sidney, who was a Year older than he (h).

Dr. Fuller and Mr. Wood have taken notice of this memorable Dispute, without mentioning from whence they had that Particular, which, as we have seen already, is related by Mr. Carew himself.

"He was bred", says Dr. Fuller (i), " a Gentleman- Commoner in Oxford; where, being but fourteen Years old, and yet three Years standing, he was call'd out to dispute ex tempore, before the Earls of Leicester and Warwick, with the matchless Sir Philip Sidney.

Si quaeritis hujus Fortunam pugnae, non est superatus ab illo.

Ask you the End of this Contest ? They neither had the better, both the best."

Mr. Wood expresses it thus:

"At fourteen Years of Age", says he (k), " he disputed ex tempore with the matchless Philip Sidney, (while he was a young (l) Man, I suppose) in the presence of the Earls of Leicester, Warwick, and other Nobility, at what time they were lodged in Christ-Church, to receive entertainment from the Muses."

Mr. Wood says afterwards, that

"After Mr. Carew had spent three Years in Oxon, he retired to the Middle Temple, where he spent 3 Years more" (m) ;

which may be true, tho' he brings in no Authority for it. But what he adds, that

"then he was sent with his Uncle (Sir George Carew as it seems) in his Embassage unto the King of Poland; whom when he came to Dantzick, he found that he had been newly gone from thence into Sweden, whither also he went after him :"

And that

"After his return, and a short stay made in England, he was sent by his Father into France with Sir Hen. Nevill, who was then Ambassador Leiger unto K. Hen. 4. that he might learn the French Tongue, which by reading and talking, he overcame in three quarters of a Year :"

All this, I say, cannot hold, if it be true that, tho' he understood Italian, French, High-Dutch, and Spanish, he had never been out of England ; as his Countryman Charles Fitzgeffry seems to assert in the following Compliment to him:

Quis Deus tibi tam bene invocatus (n), Disertissime millium trecentum Idemq; optime omnium CARAEE, (Seu quis multiplicem eruditionem, Seu quis, quo magis emicas elenchum Morum ponderet elegantiorum, Virtutumq; tot auream coronam) Quis (inquam) Deus (o Deus profecto!) Tantis te spoliis, tot & trophaeis Terrarum locupletat exterarum, Domi perpetuo interim morantem Et libris patriaeque servientem? Quo Graij tibi, quo tibi Latini Auri pondera tanta? quove Hetrusci, Galli, Teutones, invidiq; Iberi Tam assatim te opibus suis bearunt? O si tot Deus ora, totq; linguas Mihi idulserit, ut tuas referrem Laudes, quot dedit ora quotq; linguas Tibi uno Deus ore, lingua in una?

I may add, that Mr. Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, giving an account of the eminent Men born in that Dutchy, reckons among the Civilians Doctor Carew (o) :

"In the Civil Law", says he (p), " there lived of late Doctor Kennals, and now (q) doth Doctor Carew, one of the antientest Masters of the Chancery; in which Calling, after his younger Years spent abroad to his benefit, he hath reposed himself."

He mentions him again among the Persons employed in State Affairs, and therethrough stept to Preferment (r).

"Master George Carew", says he, " in his younger Years gathered such Fruit as the University, the Inns of Court, and Foreign Travel could yield him. Upon his Return, he was first call'd to the Bar, then supply'd the Place of Secretary to the Lord Chancellor Hatton; and after his Decease, performed the like Office to his two Successors, by special Recommendation from her Majesty, who also gave him the Prothonotaryship of the Chancery; and in anno 1598 sent him Ambassador to the King of Poland, and other Northern Potentates, where through unexpected Accidents, he underwent extraordinary Perils; but God freed him from them, and he performed his Duty in acceptable manner : And at this present the Commonwealth useth his Service, as a Master of the Chancery."

Had our Author attended this worthy Person in his Embassies, it is hardly possible he should not have taken some notice of it here; being elsewhere so ready to honour himself with the Friendship or Acquaintance of the Great Men of his Time.

As to what Mr. Wood adds, viz. that Mr. Carew was sent by his Father into France with Sir Henry Nevill.... that he might learn the French Tongue, &c. I am afraid he hath mistaken our Author for his Son, who, in effect, went into France with a Nevill, in order to learn the French Tongue ; as it appears by the following Verses of the aforesaid Fitzgeffry, upon his Return.

Ad (s) RICHARDUM CARAEUM, Ri. Filium, e Gallijs reducem.

Melligo juvenum Caraee, quotquot Damnoni occiduis alunt in oris : Ecquid Fama sinistimae (t) auricellae Veris se insinuat meae susurris, Te longae peregrinitates omnes Exanclasse (v) molestias, marisq; Emensum omnia taedia, ad parentes Patremq; unanimum, piamq; matrem, Membrorum incolumi statu redisse, Onustum omnigenae eruditionis Gazis & Spoliis, quot aut Camoenae Dant vaenum emporio Lutetiano Aut culto Aureliae urbis in Lycaeo. Qua tibi Aonii latus NEVILLI Phoeboeumq; TRELAVNIVM sequuto Aulam invisere curiamq; magni Regis contigit, aemulam tonantis. At o Liligeri potentis Aula AEtatem bene sit tibi, quod almum CAREUM modo patriae patriq; Post desiderium utriusq; longum, Salvumq; incolumenq; reddidisti. At tu non modo stemmatum opumq; Verum & laudis & eruditionis Patritae genuinus artis haeres Cresce in spem patriae, hostium timores, Patris delicias, Elisae amores, Donec concilijs senex, at ore Et membris juvenis sat intigellus (x) Totum Nestora vixeris, tuisq; Album feceris Albiona factis : Melligo juvenum CARAEE quotquot Damnoni occiduis alunt in oris.

Learning is not only useful, but necessary in all Conditions and States of Life; but I will presume to say, that it is more particularly so to all Gentlemen, who are allotted to live in the Country. And if they cannot pass their leisure Hours in reading, or cultivating Arts and Sciences, they will spend that time in such things as must be detrimental to their Families, and, at the end, fatal to their own Persons. Our Author could never fall into those Inconveniences : He loved Letters, and not only made them subservient to his own Entertainment, but sometimes useful to the Publick.

As he was a great Master of Languages, he delivered his Opinion upon the true and ready way to learn the Latin Tongue, in answer to a Quaere, Whether the ordinary way by teaching Latin by the Rules of Grammar, be the best way for Youths to learn it (y)? He wrote likewise a Dissertation, shewing the Excellency of the English Tongue (z) : and published a Translation of the Examen de Ingenios para las Sciencias, written by Juan Huerte, that ingenious and learned Spanish Physician. It was printed at London in 1594, with this Title: The Examination of Mens Wits. In which, by discovering the Variety of Natures, is shewed for what Profession each one is apt, and how far he shall profit therein (A).

His Proficiency in natural Philosophy, enabled him to improve Agriculture and Husbandry to such a degree, that he was accounted among his Neighbours the greatest Husband, and most excellent Manager of Bees in Cornwall (B).

The Enquiries he had made into the History and Antiquities of Nations, and chiefly of Great Britain, engaged him to attempt a Description of Cornwall; as it is natural to every Man to have a particular Fondness for his native Country:

Nescio qua natale solum dulcedine cunctos Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui.

This he only undertook for his private Satisfaction and Entertainment; but was afterwards prevail'd upon by his Friends to publish it, as we shall see anon. Mr. Camden, who had seen it, and was an excellent Judge in those Matters, thought himself obliged to do justice both to the Author and his Performance, in the first Edition of his Britannia, printed in the Year 1586:

"But these Matters" (says he, at the end of his Account of Cornwall) " will be laid open more distinctly and fully, by Richard Carew of Antonie, a Person no less eminent for his honourable Ancestors, than his own Virtue and Learning, who is writing a Description of this Country, not in little, but at large."

Sed haec planius & plenius docebit Richardus Carew de Antonie, non minus generis splendore, quam virtute & doctrina nobilis; qui hujus regionis descriptionem latiore specie, & non ad tenue elimat (D).

Our Author's Knowledge in the Laws, his Love for Justice and Equity, and his Affection to the Government, rais'd him to all the Posts of Honour, that are consistent with a Country Life. Mr. Wood assures us (E), that he was made Justice of the Peace in 1581, High-Sheriff of Cornwall in 1586, and about that time was the Queens Deputy for the Militia. And indeed we find in his Survey of Cornwall, that he was Justice of the Peace, and one of the Quorum (F) : and that in the Year 1599, (Sir Walter Raleigh being then Lieutenant General of Cornwall) Mr. Carew was one of the Deputy Lieutenants, Treasurer of the Lieutenancy, and Colonel of a Regiment, consisting of five Companies, or 500 Men, armed with 170 Pikes, 300 Musquets, and 30 Calivers, appointed for Causam Bay (G).

There was at that time a Society of several Gentlemen, eminent for their Learning and Merit, such as Sir Robert Cotton, Mr. Dodderidge, (afterwards Sir John Dodderidge, who died one of the Judges of the King's-Bench) Mr. Camden, Mr. Stow, &c. who had regular Meetings, or Conferences, for the Improvement and Illustration of the History and Antiquities of England. That Society had a particular Claim to our Author; and in 1589 he was elected a Member of the College of the Antiquaries (H). The Oration he made at his Introduction, contained, (as I am informed by a Gentleman who saw it)

"an elegant Display of the Devastations Time so swiftly makes upon all things; thence it subsides to the Advantages and Commendations of that kind of Study, they had chosen to be the Subject of their Conferences : and concludes with a pathetical Exhortation to his Auditory, That they would persevere in establishing what they had so nobly begun, and continue to employ their Labours upon those things, which were worthy of them; that so they might not be drawn into Oblivion themselves, by that which they would rescue from it, and that Time might not rob them of aught more considerable than that which they should restore."

Thus flourished that Illustrious College of Antiquaries, whose Meetings were chiefly held at Sir Robert Cotton's House (I). For they had no publick Place for it. And therefore these Gentlemen considering that they were but a private Society, which several Accidents might either interrupt, or even dissolve, and did besides want some Accommodations, in order to fix and perpetuate an Institution so beneficial to the Publick, they resolved to apply to the Queen for a Royal Charter, and for some publick Building, where they would perform their Exercises; and intended to erect a Library suitable to it. And they had the more reason to believe they could obtain such a Grant, that the Queen, not contented with a superficial Smattering of Learning, back'd with Conceit and Talkativeness, (which is the highest pitch Persons of the first Rank do commonly arrive to) was truly and solidly learned, and a real Encourager of Letters : wherein she had the ready Concurrence of her Ministers, who were no less conspicuous for their Learning, than for their Integrity and consummate Wisdom. But as fair as the Hopes of this famous College appeared in its Bloom, they were soon blighted by the Death of that ever-memorable Princess, like those Fruits, which for want of the Sun's genial Rays, cannot arrive at due Maturity. For all the Applications they made for the same purpose to her Successor, proved vain and unsuccessful. But what else could be expected from a Man who never had a relish for polite Literature, or any kind of useful Learning, and only delighted in pedantick scholastical Divinity; and fancy'd himself the Wisest and most glorious Prince in the World, (a second Solomon forsooth) if he could but scrible a Pamphlet against Witches, or against tobacco: a Man, in short, whose Genius and Taste were as low and mean, as his Soul and Inclinations! As for our learned Antiquaries, they were obliged to dissolve themselves, and break their Society, lest (such was the Wisdom of those Times) they should be prosecuted as a Cabal against the Government : Ne quicquam mali contra Rempublicam illos moliri Rex, Conciliariive suspicarentur (K).

Mr. Carew published his Survey of Cornwall, in the Year 1602 (L) and did dedicate it to his Friend Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord Warden of the Stannaries, Lieutenant-General of Cornwall, &c.

"This mine ill-husbanded Survey", says he to that great Man, " long since begun, a great while discontinued, lately reviewed, and now hastily finished, appealeth to your Lordship's Direction, whether it should pass; to your Corection if it do pass; and to your Protection when it is passed. Neither unduly : for the same intreateth of the Province and Persons, over whose Bodies and Estates, you carry a large, both Martial and Civil Command, by your Authority ; but in whose Hearts and Loves you possess a far greater Interest, by your Kindness. Your Ears and Mouth have ever been open to hear and deliver our Grievances, and your Feet and Hands ready to go, and work their Redress; and that, not only always as a Magistrate of yourself, but also very often, as a Suiter and Solicitor to others, of the highest Place. Wherefore, I, as one of the common beholden, present this Token of my private Gratitude. It is Duty and not Presumption, that hath drawn me to the Offering; and it must be Favour, and not Desert, that shall move your Lordship to the acceptance. And so I take humble leave, resting no less willing to serve you, than under you."

The Reader will, I hope, excuse my transcribing here the whole Epistle. These Addresses are a true Test of an Author's Wit and Genius. And who can be displeased with so just a Character of one of the greatest Men of our Nation? Mr. Carew subscribes himself, His Lordships poor Kinsman, Richard Carew of Antonie; but how he was related to him, I could not yet find. Sir Walter Raleigh had a Son, whose Christen-name was Carew; and probably our Author was his Godfather.

In his Preface, Mr. Carew observes, that when he first composed this Treatise, not minding that it should be published in Print, he caused only certain written Copies to be given to some of his Friends ...... But since that time, Master Camden's often mentioning this Work, and his Friends Persuasions, had caused his Determination to alter, and to embrace a pleasing Hope, that Charity and good Construction would rest now generally in all Readers.

"Besides", says he, " the State of our Country hath undergone so many Alterations, since I first began these Scriblings, that, in the reviewing, I was driven either likewise to vary my Report, or else to speak against my Knowledge....

Reckon therefore (I pray you) that this Treatise plotteth down Cornwall, as it now standeth, for the particulars, and will continue, for the general."

Mr. Carew's Survey of Cornwall was receiv'd, when it came out, (as it hath been ever since) with a general Applause; as it appears by the Encomiums pass'd upon it, which it would be too long to enumerate. Mr. Camden, in the sixth Edition of his Britannia, printed in 1607, acknowledges, at the end of his Account of Cornwall, that our Author had been his chief Guide through it (M). But as 'tis usual to Authors of an inferior rank to be the best pleased with their Works, so the best Authors are the least satisfy'd with their Performances, and the most severe Censors to themselves.

The Approbation of the Publick only excites them to mend their Writings, and give them all the Perfection they are capable. Mr. Carew was uneasy at the Errors of the Printers, and some Oversights of his, that had crept into his Book; and desired to improve it by the Observations of others, who had writ on the same Subject. Being told in the Year 1606, that Mr. Dodderidge, who was then Sollicitor-General, had published some Account of the Dutchy of Cornwall, (which was not true, for that Tract did not come out till 1630) he desired Mr. Camden to send him a Copy of it.

"I make bold", says he (N), " to use my thanks for your kind remembring me by Sir Anthony Rouse, as a Shoeing- horn to draw on a Request; and this it is : I learn that Master Sollicitor hath compiled a Treatise of our Cornish Dutchy, and dedicated it to the Prince : this I much long to see, and heartily pray by your means to obtain a Copy thereof. The first publishing of my Survey was voluntary; the second, which I now purpose, is of necessity, not so much for the enlarging it, as the correcting mine and the Printers Oversights: and amongst these, the Arms not the least, touching which mine Order, suitable to your Direction, was not observed, and so myself made an Instrument, but not the Author of Wrong and Error. I imagine that I may cull out of Master Sollicitor's Garden many Flowers to adorn this other Edition; and if I wist where to find Mr. Norden, I would also fain have his Map of our Shire; for perfecting of which, he took a Journey into these Parts."

Mr. Carew never published a second Edition of his Book, tho' he lived fourteen Years after the writing of that Letter. And whether he left behind him a Copy of it revised and corrected for a new Impression, does not appear. It hath indeed been reported, that there was a Copy extant with large Additions (O); but they don't tell us whose Additions they are. They can hardly be the Author's own Additions, since they are said to be large ones; and we have seen that Mr. Carew's Design in the intended second Edition of his Survey, was not so much for the enlarging it, as the correcting his and the Printers Oversights. However it be, we may reasonably wonder that a Work so valuable, and the only compleat one we have on that Subject, should not have been reprinted since the Year 1602; whereby it is become so scarce, and bears such an excessive Price. Perhaps this is owing to the false Rumours which have been spread from time to time, that it was going to be reprinted with large Additions. For these idle common Reports have often prevented new Editions of useful and necessary Books. But it is to be hoped, that some publick-spirited Persons will reprint it, as it was first published. If any body hath any Additions or Supplements to it, they may print them separately.

Mr. Carew (P)

"was intimate with the most noted Scholars of his Time, particularly with Sir Henry Spelman, who in an Epistle (*) to him concerning Tythes, doth not a little extol him for his Ingenuity, Vertue, and Learning. 'Palmam igitur cedo' (saith he) '& quod Graeci olim in Caria fua gente, admirati sunt, nos in Caria nostra gente agnoscimus, ingenium splendidum, bellarumque intentionum saecundissimum, &c.'"

And a famous Scotch Poet (+)

"stiles him another Livy, another Maro, another Papinian, and highly extols him for his great Skill in History, and Knowledge in the Laws (Q)."

Mr. Carew

"died on the sixth day of November, in fifteen hundred and twenty, and was buried in the Church of East-Antonie among his Ancestors. Shortly after, he had a splendid Monument set over his Grave, with an Inscription thereon, written in the Latin Tongue (R)"

As I have not seen that Inscription, I cannot tell whether it be the same with the following Epitaph, written by Mr. Camden (S), probably at the Request of Mr. Carew's Family.

M.S. Richardo Carew de Antonie Armigero, Filio Thomae Carew ex Anna Edgcombia, Nepoti Wimundi Carew Militis ex Martha Dennia, Pronepoti Joannis Carew ex Thomasina Hollandia: Viro Moribus modestis, mente generosa, Eruditione varia, Animo erga Deum devato; Qui inter medias de caelesti vita meditationes Placide in Chrifto obdormivit, Anno aetatis Lxiij. E. Arundelia uxor marito charissimo, Conjugalis fidei ergo, Et .... Filius Patri optimo, Officiosi obsequii ergo, Posuerunt. Obiit .............

(a) In the Eastern Parts of Cornwall, within some Miles of Plymouth. (b) Anth. Wood Athen. Oxon. vol. 1. c. 452. 2d Edit. (c) The Survey of Cornwall, fol. 100. (d) The Survey of Cornwall, fol. 100. (e) Ibid. fol. 102. (f) Ibid. fol. 103, 104. (g) Wood, ubi supra. (h) Sir Philip Sidney was born in 1554. Wood ibid. c. 226. (i) The History of the Worthies of England, p. 205. (k) Ubi supr. (l) What Mr. Wood means by this Parenthesis, I leave to the reader to determine. (m) Ibid. (n) Caroli Fitzgeofridi Assaniae: sive Epigrammatum Libri tres &c. Oxon. 1601, in 8vo. Lib. 3. Ep. 33. (o) Afterwards Sir George Carew. (p) Survey, fol. 59. ver. (q) The Survey of Cornwall was published in the Year 1602. (r) Ibid. fol. 61. (s) Ubi supr. Epi. 40. (t) Lege, sinitimae (v) Leg. exantlasse. (x) Leg. integellus. (y) It was printed in 1654. See Wood, ubi supr. c. 453. (A) Wood, ibid. (B) Ibid. (D) Britannia, &c. Londini 1586, in 8vo. (E) Ubi supr. c. 452. (F) Survey, &c. fol. 88. (G) Ibid. fol. 83. (H) Wood, ubi supr. (I) See Dr. Smith's Life of Sir Robert Cotton. (K) Dr. Smith, ubi supr. (L) In 4to. (M) Quemque mihi preluxiss non possum non agnoscere. (N) Gul. Camdeni Epistolae, &c. Epist. LVIII. pag. 72. That letter is dated 13th of May 1606. (O) W. Nicolson, The English Historical Library, chap. II. p 11, 12 of the 2d Edition. (P) Wood, ubi supr. c. 453. (*) In his Apol. of the Treatise de non temerandis Ecclesiis, &c. Lond. 1646, 4to. (+) Joh. Dunbar Megalo-Britannus in Epigrammat. suis, cent. 6. numb. 53. (Q) Wood, ibid. (R) Wood, ibid. (S) Camdeni Epistolae, &c. pag. 106.





Written by Richard Carew, of Antonie, Esquire.

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To the Honorable, Sir Walter Ra- leigh Knight, Lord Warden of the Stannaries, Lieutenant Generall of Cornwall, &c.

This mine ill-husbanded Survey, long since begun, a great while discontinued, lately reviewed, and now hastily finished, appealeth to your L. direction, whether it should passe; to your correction, if it doe passe; and to your protection, when it is passed. Neither unduely: for the same intreateth of the Province, and Persons,ouer whose bodies, and estates,you carrie a large, both Martiall, and ciuiil commaund, by your authoritie, but in whose hearts, and loues, you possesse a farre greater interest, by your kindnesse. Your eares, and mouth, haue euer beene open, to heare, and deliuer our grieuances, and your feete and hands, readie to goe, and worke their redresse, and that, not onely, alwayes, as a Magistrate, of your selfe, but also verie often,as a suiter, and solliciter to others, of the highest place. Wherefore, I, as one of the common beholden, present this token of my priuate gratitude. It is dutie, and not pre- sumption, that hath drawne me to the offering; and it must be fauour,and not desert, that shall moue your Lordship to the acceptance: and so I take humble leaue, rest- ing no lesse willing to serue you, then vnder you.

Your Lordships poore kinsman,

Richard Carew of Antonie.

To the Reader.

When I first composed this Treatise, not minding that it should be published in Print, I caused onely certaine written copies to bee giuen to some of my friends, and put Prosopopeia into the bookes mouth. But since that time, master Camdens often-mencioning this worke, and my friends perswasions, haue caused my determination to alter, & to imbrace a pleasing hope, that charitie, & good construction resteth now generally in all Readers. Albeit, I well know, how Opere in vario, no lesse then in longo, fas est obrepere somnum. And I acknowledge, this playing work to come so farr short, of satisfying, euen myselfe (though Suus cuiq; placet partus) as I haue little reason, to expect the applause of any other.

Besides the state of our Countrie hath vndergone so manie Alterations, since I first began these scriblings, that,in the reuiewing, I was driuen, either likewise to varie my report, or else to speake against my knowledge. And no maruaile, for each succeeding time, addeth, or raueth, goods, & euils, according to the occasions, which it selfe produceth : rather a wonder it were, that in the ceaselesse reuolution of the Vniuerse, any parcell should retaine a stedfast constitution. Reckon therefore (I pray you) that this treatise plotteth downe Cornwall, as it now standeth, for the particulars, and will continue, for the generall. Mine Eulogies proceede no lesse, from the sinceritie of a witnesse, then the affection of a friend: and therefore I hope, that where my tongue hath beene good, no mans eye will bee euill: and that each wel-minded Reader will wish a merrie passage, to this my rather fancie-sporting, then gaine-fseeking voyage. Farewell.


The Prosopopeia to the Booke.

I Crave not courteous ayd of friends, To blaze my praise in verse, Nor, prowd of vaunt, mine authors names, In catalogue rehearse:

I of no willing wrong complaine, Which force or stealth hath wrought, No fruit I promise from the tree, Which forth this blooth hath brought.

I curry not with smoothing termes, Ne yet rude threats I blaste: I seeke no patrone for my faults, I pleade no needlesse haste.

But as a child of feeble force, I keep my fathers home, And, bashfull at eche strangers sight, Dare not abroad to rome,

Saue to his kinne of neerest bloud, Or friends of dearest price, Who, for his sake, not my desert, With welcome me entice.





The first Booke.

Cornwall, the farthest Shire of England Westwards, hath her name by diuers Authors diuersly deriued. Some (as our owne Chroniclers) draw it from Corineus, cousin to Brute, the first Conqueror of this Iland: who wrastling at Plymmouth (as they say) with a mightie Giant, called Gogmagog, threw him ouer Cliffe, brake his necke, and receiued the gift of that Countrie, in reward for his prowesse: Some, as Cerealis, (no lesse mistaken perhaps in that, then in his measures) from Cornu Galliae, a home or corner of Fraunce, whereagainst nature hath placed it: and some, from Cornu Walliae, which (in my conjecture) carrieth greatest likelyhood of truth.

For what time the Saxons, after many bloudie inuasions [Anno Dom. 586.] as Pirates, began at last to plant their dwellings [2a] and take roote in this Iland, as Conquerors, the Britons, by them supplanted, were driuen to seeke their safegard in the waste Moores, craggie Mountaines, and wild Forrests of Wales and Cornwall, where the Countries barrennesse barred their pursuers from victuals, and the dangerousnesse of the passages laid them open to priuie inuasions. Such as had in this sort withdrawne themselves, the Saxons termed Welshmen, by interpretation strangers, for so they were to them, as they to the Countrie: and their place of abode they called Welshland, sithence turned to Wales, euen as by the same reason, they giue still the same name to Italy. Now, Cornwall being cast out into the Sea, with the shape of a horne, borrowed the one part of her name from her fashion, as Matthew of Westminster testifieth, and the other from her Inhabitants; both which conjoyned, make Cornwalliae, and contriued, Cornwall: in which sence, the Cornish people call it Kernow, deriued likewise from Kerne a home. Neither needeth this composition to be accompted any way vncouth, seeing the same is made familiar vnto vs by the like in other Countries, as of Herbipolis in Germanie, Lombardie in Italy, Paleocastrum in Crete, and Neoportus in Carniola: all which, with many other, are likewise compacted of double languages.

This ill-halfening hornie name, hath (as Corneto in Italy) opened a gap to the scoffes of many, who not knowing their owne present condition, or at least their future destinie, can be contented to draw an odious mirth from a publike infamie. But seeing the wisest Enditer, hath directed the penne of his holiest writers to vse this terme, not only in a good meaning, but also in a significant sense, and to sanctifie the thing itselfe in sundrie parts of his seruice: such iesters dishonest indiscretion is rather charitably to bee pittied, then their exception either angerly to be grieued at, or seriously to bee confuted.

I am not ignorant, how sorely the whole storie of Brute, is shaken by some of our late writers, and how stiffely supported by other some: as also that this wrastling pull betweene Corineus and Gogmagog, is reported to have befallen at Douer. For mine owne part, though I reuerence antiquitie, and reckon it a kind of wrong, to exact an ouer-strict reason for all that which vpon credite shee deliuereth; yet I rather incline to their side, who would warrant her authoritie by apparant veritie. Notwithstanding, in this question, I will not take on me the person of either Iudge, or stickler: and therefore if there bee any so plunged in the common floud, as they will still gripe fast, what they haue once caught hold on, let them sport themselves with these coniectures, vpon which mine auerment in behalf of Plymmouth is grounded. The place where Brute is said to haue first landed, was Totnes in Cornwall, and therefore this wrastling likely to haue chaunced there, sooner then elsewhere. The Prouince bestowed on Corineus for this exployt, was Cornwall. It may then be presumed, that he receiued in reward the place where hee made proofe of his worth, and whose prince (for so with others I take Gogmagog to have beene) hee had conquered, euen as Cyrus recompenced Zopirus with the Citie Babylon [Herodotus], which his policie had recouered. Againe, the actiuitie of Deuon and Cornishmen, in this facultie of wrastling, beyond those of other Shires, dooth seeme to deriue them a speciall pedigree, from that graund wrastler [3] Corineus. Moreouer, vpon the Hawe at Plymmouth, there is cut out in the ground, the pourtrayture of two men, the one bigger, the other lesser, with Clubbes in their hands, (whom they terme Gog-Magog) and (as I haue learned) it is renewed by order of the Townesmen, when cause requireth, which should inferre the same to bee a monument of some moment. And lastly the place, hauing a steepe cliffe adioyning, affordeth an oportunitie to the fact. But of this too much.

Cornwall is seated (as most men accompt) in the Latitude of fiftie degrees, and thirtie minutes; and in the Longitude of sixe.

The Shire extendeth in length to about seuentie miles: the breadth, as almost no where equall, so in the largest place, it passeth not thirtie, in the middle twentie, and in the narrowest of the West part, three. The whole compasse may hereby be coniectured.

It bordereth on the East with Deuon, divided therefrom, in most places, by the ryuer Tamer, which springing neere the North Sea, at Hartland in Deuon, runneth thorow Plymmouth Hauen, into the South. For the rest, the maine Ocean sundreth the same, on the North from Ireland, on the West from the Ilands of Scilley, and on the South from little Britaine. These borders now thus straightned, did once extend so wide, as that they enabled their inclosed territorie, with the title of a kingdome. Polidore Virgil allotteth it the fourth part of the whole Iland, and the ancient Chronicles report, that Brute landed at Totnes in Cornwall, a Towne now seated in the midst of Deuon. Moreover, vntill Athelstanes time, the Cornish-men bare equal sway in Excester with the English: for hee it was who hemmed them within their present limits. Lastly, the encroaching Sea hath rauined from it, the whole Countrie of Lionnesse, together with diuers other parcels of no little circuite: and that such a Lionnesse there was, these proofes are yet remaining. The space between the lands end, and the Iles of Scilley, being about thirtie miles, to this day retaineth that name, in Cornish Lethowsow, and carrieth continually an equall depth of fortie or sixtie fathom (a thing not vsuall in the Seas proper Dominion) saue that about the midway, there lieth a Rocke, which at low water discouereth his head. They terme it the Gulfe, suiting thereby the other name of Scilla. Fishermen also casting their hookes thereabouts, haue drawn vp peeces of doores and windowes. Moreouer, the ancient name of Saint Michaels Mount, was Caraclowse in Cowse, in English, The hoare Rocke in the Wood: which now is at euerie floud incompassed by the Sea, and yet at some low ebbes, rootes of mightie trees are discryed in the sands about it. The like ouer- flowing hath happened in Plymmouth Hauen, and diuers other places.

In this situation, though nature hath shouldred out Cornwall into the farthest part of the Realme, and so besieged it with the Ocean, that, as a demie Iland in an Iland, the Inhabitants find but one way of issue by land: yet hath shee in some good measure, counteruailed such disaduantage, through placing it, both neere vnto, and in the trade way betweene Wales, Ireland, Spaine, France, & Netherland. The neerenesse helpeth them, with a shorter cut, lesse peril, and meaner charge, to vent forth and make returne of those commodities, which their [4] owne, or either of those Countries doe afford: the lying in the way, bringeth forraine shipping to claime succour at their harbours, when, either outward, or homeward bound, they are checked by an East, South, or South-east wind: and where the Horse walloweth, some haires will still remaine. Neither is it to bee passed ouer without regard, that these remote quarters, lie not so open to the inuasions of forraine enemies, or spoyles of ciuil tumults, as other more inward parts of the Realme, which being seated neerer the heart, are sooner sought, and earlyer ransacked in such troublesome times: or if the Countries long naked sides, offer occasion of landing to any aduerse shipping, her forementioned inward naturall strength, increased by so many Lanes and Inclosures, straightneth the same to a preying onely vpon the outward Skirts by some pettie fleetes: For the danger of farder piercing, will require the protection of a greater force for execution, then can there be counteruailed with the benefit of any bootie, or conquest, were they sure to preuaile. And if to bee free from a dammage, may passe for a commoditie, I can adde, that the far distance of this Countie from the Court, hath heretofore afforded it a Supersedeas from takers & Purueyours: for if they should fetch any prouision from thence, well it might be marked with the visard of her Highnes prerogatiue, but the same would verie slenderly turne to the benefit of her Majesties house keeping: for the foulenesse and vneasinesse of the waies, the little mould of Cornish cattel, and the great expence of driuing them, would defaulke as much from the iuft price to the Queene, at the deliuering, as it did from the owners at the taking. Besides that, her Highnesse shipping should heerethrough bee defrauded of often supplies, which these parts afford vnto them.

Vpon which reasons, some of the Purueyours attempts, heretofore through the suite of the Countrie, the sollicitation of Sir Richard Gremuile, the credite of the Lord Warden, and the graciousnesse of our Soueraigae, were reuoked and suppressed, and the same vnder her Highnesse priuie Seale confirmed. Notwithstanding, when her Majestie made her pleasure afterwards knowne, that shee would have a generall contribution from euerie Shire, for redeeming this exemption, Cornwall opposing dutie against reason, or rather accompting dutie a reason sufficient, yeelded to vndergoe a proportionable rate of the burthen. So they compounded to furnish ten Oxen after Michaelmas for thirtie pound price; to which, by another agreement with the Officers, they should adde fortie markes of their owne. Vpon half a yeeres warning either partie might repent the bargaine. This held for a while; but within a short space, either the carelesnesse of the Iustices in imposing this rate, or the negligence of the Constables in collecting it, or the backwardnesse of the Inhabitants in paying the same, or all these together ouerslipped the time, and withheld the satisfaction. Hereon downe comes a Messenger with sharpe letters from the Officers of the Greene cloth. The conclusion ensued, that his charges must bee borne, and an higher price disbursed for the supplie. Thus it fareth too and fro, and the Cornishmen seeme to hold a Wolfe by the eares: for to make payment the people are unwilling, as in a charge heretofore vnusuall, to undergoe the [5] managing hereof, the Iustices strayne courtesie, as in a matter nothing plausible, and appertaining to ouer-many partners, for the well effecting, and yet to breake they are both afraid, suspecting that a heauier load will follow, if this composition be once set at large.

These commodities goe not vnaccompanied with their inconueniences: for to Cornwall also hath Pandora's Boxe beene opened. One is, that the farre distance from the higher seates of Iustice, rippeth a wider gap to intruding iniuries, and increaseth the charge and time of procuring their redresse. Which due occasion of discouragement, the worst conditioned, and least cliented Petiuoguers, doe yet (vnder the sweet baite of revenge) convert to a more plentiful prosecution of actions. The ordinarie trade of these men is, where they perceiue a sparke of displeasure kindling, to increase the flame with their bellowes of perswasion. Hath such a one abused you, saith he? Anger him a little, that breaking out into some outragious words, you may take advantage thereof; and you shall see how we will hamper him: warrant you he shall fetch an errand to London, & beare part of your charges too. After the game hath beene brought in by this Winlesse, the poore foule is bound not to release his aduersarie, without his Attournies consent, who plieth the matter with so good a stomack, as hee eateth the kernell, whilest they fight about the shell. At last, when the fountain of his Clients purse is drawne drie, by his extravagant fees of Pro consilio, pro expeditione, pro amicitia Vicecomitis, &c. besides the packing betweene the Vndersheriffe and him, of docketing out Writs neuer sued foorth, the mediation of friends must shut up the matter in a comprimise. Another discommoditie groweth, that whereas London furnisheth all prouisions (euen Tynne, and such other arising in the same Countrie) of best stuffe, fashion, store, and cheapnesse: the hard procuring, and farre carriage, addeth an extraordinarie increase of price to the Cornish buyers: and for matters of benefit, or preferment, by suits at Court, either the opportunitie is past, before notice can arriue so far: or the following there, and losse the whiles at home, will require a great and assured gaine in the principall, to warrant the hope of a sauing bargaine in the appurtenance.

Touching the temperature of Cornwall, the ayre thereof is cleansed, as with bellowes, by the billowes, and flowing and ebbing of the Sea, and therethrough becommeth pure, and subtill, and, by consequence, healthfull. So as the Inhabitants doe seldome take a ruthful and reauing experience of those harmes, which infectious diseases vse to carrie with them. But yet I haue noted, that this so piercing an ayre, is apter to preserue then recouer health, especially in any languishing sicknesse which hath possessed strangers: neither know I, whether I may impute to this goodnesse of the ayre, that vpon the returne of our fleete from the Portugall action, 1589. the diseases which the Souldiers brought home with them, did grow more grieuous, as they carried the same farther into the land, then it fell out at Plymmouth, where they landed: for there the same was, though infectious, yet not so contagious, and though pestilentiall, yet not the verie pestilence, as afterwards it proued in other places.

The Spring visiteth not these quarters so timely, as the Easterne parts. Summer imparteth a verie [6] temperate heat, recompencing his slow-fostering of the fruits, with their kindly ripening. Autumne bringeth a somewhat late Haruest, specially to the middle of the Shire, where they seldome inne their Corne before Michaelmas. Winter, by reason of the Southes neere neighbourhead, and Seas warme breath, fauoureth it with a milder cold then elsewhere, so as, vpon both coastes, the Frost and Snow come verie seldome, and make a speedie departure. This notwithstanding, the Countrie is much subiect to stormes, which fetching a large course, in the open Sea, doe from thence violently assault the dwellers at land, and leaue them vncouered houses, pared hedges, and dwarfe-growne trees, as witnesses of their force and furie : yea, euen the hard stones, and yron barres of the windowes, doe fret to be so continually grated. One kind of these stormes, they call a flaw, or flaugh, which is a mightie gale of wind, passing suddainely to the shore, and working strong effects, vpon whatsoeuer it incountreth in his way.

The Cornish soyle, for the most part, is lifted vp into many hils, some great, some little of quantitie, some steepe, some easie for ascent, and parted in sunder by short and narrow vallies. A shallow earth dooth couer their outside, the substance of the rest consisteth ordinarily in Rockes and Shelse, which maketh them hard for manurance, & subiect to a drie Summers parching. The middle part of the Shire (sauing the inclosures about some few Townes and Villages) lieth waste and open, sheweth a blackish colour, beareth Heath and spirie Grasse, and serveth in a maner, onely to Summer Cattel. That which bordereth vpon either side of the Sea, through the Inhabitants good husbandrie, of inclosing, sanding, and other dressing, carrieth a better hue, and more profitable qualitie. Meadow ground it affoordeth little, pasture for Cattel and Sheepe, store enough, Corne ground plentie.

Hils of greatest name and height are, Hinxten, Rowtor, Brownwelly, S. Agnes, Haynborough, the foure Boroughs, Roche, Carnbray, and the two Castellan Danis.

In the rest of this earthy description, I will begin with such mynerals as her bowels yeeld forth, and then passe on to those things, of growing, and feeling life, which vpon her face doe relieue themselues.

These mynerals are not so deepe buried by nature in the entrailes of the Earth, nor so closely couched amongst the Rockes, but that desire of gaine with the instrument of Art can digge them vp: they may bee diuided into stones and mettals.

Quarrie stones are of sundrie sorts, and serue to diuers purposes. For walling, there are rough, and Slate: the rough maketh speedier building, the Slate surer. For Windowes, Dornes, and Chimnies, Moore stone carrieth chiefest reckoning. That name is bestowed on it, by the Moores or waste ground, where the same is found in great quantitie, either lying vpon the ground, or verie little vnder. This stone answereth the charge of fetching, with the fairenes of his whitish colour, containing certaine glimmering sparkles, and counteruaileth his great hardnesse in working, with the profit of long endurance, nature hauing ordained the same, as of purpose, to withstand the fretting weather. There are also three other sorts of stones, seruing to the same vse, and hewed with lesse, though differing labour: Pentuan digged out of the Sea Cliffes,and in colour [7] somewhat resembleth gray Marble, Caraclouse blacke, not vnlike the Ieat; the third taken out of inland Quarries, and not much differing from the Easterne free stone.

The Sea strond also in many places, affordeth Peeble-stones, which washed out of the earth, or falling from the Rockes, and there lying loose, are, by often rolling of the waues, wrought to a kind of roundnesse, and serue verie handsomely for pauing of streetes and Courts.

For couering of Houses there are three sorts of Slate, which from that vse take the name of Healing-stones. The first and best Blew: the second, Sage-leafe coloured, the third and meanest Gray. The Blew, and so the rest, are commonly found vnder the walling Slate, when the depth hath brought the workmenn to the Water. This Slate is in substance thinne, in colour faire, in waight light, in lasting strong, and generally carrieth so good regard, as (besides the supplie for home prouision) great store is yeerely conueied by shipping both to other parts of the Realme, and also beyond the Seas, into Britaine and Netherland.

They make Lyme, moreouer, of another kind of Marle-stone, either by burning a great quantitie thereof together, with a seruent fire of Furze, or by maintaining a continuall, though lesser heate, with stone Cole in smaller Kils: this is accompted the better cheape, but that yeeldeth the whiter Lyme.

Touching mettals: Copper is found in sundrie places, but with what gaine to the searchers, I haue not beene curious to enquire, nor they hastie to reueale. For at one Mine (of which I tooke view) the Owre was shipped to bee refined in Wales, either to saue cost in the fewell or to conceale the profit.

Neither hath nature denyed Siluer to Cornwall, though Cicero excluded the same out of all Britaine: and if wee may beleeve our Chroniclers reports, who ground themselues vpon authenticall Records, king Edward the first, and king Edward the third, reaped some good benefit thereof. But for our present experience, what she proffereth with the one hand, shee seemeth to pull backe with the other, whereof some Gentlemen not long sithence, made triall to their losse: howbeit, neither are they discouraged by this successe, nor others from the like attempt.

Tynners doe also find little hoppes of Gold amongst their Owre, which they keepe in quils, and sell to the Goldsmithes oftentimes with little better gaine, then Glaucus exchange.

Yea it is not altogether barren of precious stones, and Pearle: for Dyamonds are in many places found cleauing to those Rockes, out of which the Tynne is digged: they are polished, squared, and pointed by nature: their quantitie from a Pease, to a Walnut: in blacknesse and hardnesse they come behind the right ones, and yet I haue knowne some of them set on so good a foile, as at first sight, they might appose a not vnskilfull Lapidarie.

The Pearle (though here not aptly raunged) breed in bigge Oysters, and Muscles, greater in quantitie, then acceptable for goodnesse, as neither round nor Orient. Perhaps Caesar spoyled the best beds, when he made that gay Coate of them, to present his graundame Venus.

Cornwall is also not altogether destitute of Agates [8] and white Corall, as by credible relation I haue learned.

But why seeke wee in corners for pettie commodities, when as the onely mynerall of Cornish Tynne, openeth so large a field to the Countries benefit? this is in working so pliant, for sight so faire, and in vse so necessarie, as thereby the Inhabitants gaine wealth, the Merchants trafficke, and the whole Realme a reputation: and with such plentie thereof hath God stuffed the bowels of this little Angle, that (as Astiages dreamed of his daughter) it ouerfloweth England, watereth Christendome, and is deriued to a great part of the world besides. In trauailing abroad, in tarrying at home, in eating and drinking, in doing ought of pleasure or necessitie, Tynne, either in his owne shape, or transformed into other fashions, is alwayes requisite, alwayes readie for our seruice: but I shall rather disgrace, then endeere it by mine ouer-weake commendation, and sooner tire myselfe, then draw the fountaine of his praises drie. Let this therefore suffice, that it cannot bee of meane price, which hath found, with it, Dyamonds, amongst it Gold, and in it Siluer.

The Cornish Tynners hold a strong imagination, that in the withdrawing of Noahs floud to the Sea, the same tooke his course from East to West, violently breaking vp, and forcibly carrying with it, the earth, trees, and Rocks, which lay any thing loosely, neere the vpper face of the ground. To confirme the likelihood of which supposed truth, they doe many times digge vp whole and huge Timber trees, which they conceiue at that deluge to haue beene ouerturned and whelmed: but whether then, or sithence, probable it is, that some such cause produced this effect. Hence it commeth, that albeit the Tynne lay couched at first in certaine strakes amongst the Rockes, like a tree, or the veines in a mans bodie, from the depth whereof the maine Load spreadeth out his branches, vntill they approach the open ayre: yet they haue now two kinds of Tynne workes, Stream, and Load: for (say they) the foremencioned floud, carried together with the moued Rockes and earth, so much of the Load as was inclosed therein, and at the asswaging, left the same scattered here and there in the vallies and ryuers, where it passed; which being sought and digged, is called Streamworke: under this title, they comprise also the Moore workes, growing from the like occasion. They maintaine these workes, to haue beene verie auncient, and first wrought by the Iewes with Pickaxes of Holme, Boxe, and Harts horne: they prooue this by the name of those places yet enduring, to wit, Attall Sarazin, in English, the Iewes offcast, and by those tooles daily found amongst the rubble of such workes. And it may well be, that as Akornes made good bread, before Ceres taught the vse of Corne; and sharpe Stones serued the Indians for Kniues, vntill the Spaniards brought them Iron: so in the infancie of knowledge, these poore instruments for want of better did supplie a turne. There are also taken vp in such works, certaine little tooles heads of Brasse, which some terme Thunder-axes, but they make small shew of any profitable vse. Neither were the Romanes ignorant of this trade, as may appeare by a brasse Coyne of Domitian's, found in one of these workes, and fallen into my hands: and perhaps vnder one of those Flauians, the Iewish workmen made here their first arriuall.

[9] They discouer these workes, by certaine Tynne-stones,lying on the face of the ground, which they terme Shoad, as shed from the maine Load, and made somwhat smooth and round, by the waters washing & wearing. Where the finding of these affordeth a tempting likelihood, the Tynners goe to worke, casting vp trenches before them, in depth 5, or 6. foote more or lesse, as the loose ground went, & three or foure in breadth, gathering vp such Shoad, as this turning of the earth doth offer to their sight. If any ryuer thwart them, and that they resolve to search his bed, hee is trained by a new channell from his former course. This yeeldeth a speedie and gaineful recompence to the aduenturers of the search, but I hold it little beneficiall to the owners of the soyle. For those low grounds, beforetime fruitfull, hauing herethrough their wrong side turned outwards, accuse the Tynners iniurie by their succeeding barrennesse.

To find the Load-workes, their first labour is also imployed in seeking this Shoad, which either lieth open on the grasse, or but shallowly couered. Hauing found any such, they coniecture by the sight of the ground, which way the floud came that brought it thither, and so giue a gesse at the place whence it was broken off. There they sincke a Shaft, or pit of five or six foote in length, two or three foote in breadth, and seuen or eight foote in depth, to proue whether they may so meete with the Load. By this Shaft, they also discerne which was the quicke ground (as they call it) that mooued with the floud, and which the firme, wherein no such Shoad doth lie. If they misse the Load in one place, they sincke a like Shaft in another beyond that, commonly farther vp towards the hill, and so a third and fourth, vntill they light at last vpon it. But you may not conceiue, that euerie likelyhood doth euer proue a certaintie: for diuers haue beene hindered, through bestowing charges in seeking, and not finding, and many vndone in finding and not speeding, whiles a faire show, tempting them to mvch cost, hath, in the end, fayled in substance, and made the aduenturers Banckrupt of their hope and purse.

Some have found Tynne-workes of great vallew, through meanes no lesse strange, then extraordinarie, to wit, by dreames. As in Edward the sixts time, a Gentlewoman, heire to one Tresculierd, and wife to Lanine, dreamed, that a man of seemely personage told her, how in such a Tenement of her Land, shee should find so great store of Tynne, as would serue to inrich both her selfe and her posteritie. This shee reuealed to her husband: and hee, putting the same in triall, found a worke, which in foure yeeres, was worth him welneere so many thousand pounds. Moreouer, one Taprel lately liuing, & dwelling in the Parish of the hundred of West, call'd S. Niot, by a like dreame of his daughter (see the lucke of women) made the like assay, met with the effect, farmed the worke of the vnwitting Lord of the soyle, and grew thereby to good state of wealth. The same report passeth as currant, touching sundrie others; but I will not bind any mans credite, though, that of the Authors haue herein swayed mine: and yet he that will afford his eare to Astrologers and naturall Philosophers, shall haue it filled with many discourses, of the constellation of the heauens, and the constitution of mens bodies, fitting to this purpose.

[10] There are, that leauing these trades of new searching, doe take in hand such old Stream and Loadworks, as by the former aduenturers haue beene giuen ouer, and oftentimes they find good store of Tynne, both in the rubble cast vp before, as also in veines which the first workmen followed not. From hence there groweth a diuersitie in opinion, amongst such Gentlemen, as by, iudgement and experience, can looke into these matters; some of them supposing that the Tynne groweth; and others, that it onely separateth from the consumed offall. But whosoeuer readeth that which Francis Leandro hath written touching the yron mynerals, in the Ile of Elba, will cleaue perhaps to a third conceite: for hee auoucheth, that the trenches, out of which the Owre there is digged, within twentie or thirtie yeeres, become alike ful againe of the same mettall, as at first, & he confirmeth it by sutable examples, borrowed from Clearchus, of Marble, in Paros Iland, and of Salt, in India, deducing thence this reason, that the ayre and water replenishiing the voide roome, through the power of the vniuersall agent, and some peculiar celestiall influence, are turned into the selfe substance; and so by consequence, neither the Owre groweth, nor the earth consumeth away: and this opinion, Munster in his Cosmographie, doth seeme to vnderprop, affirming, that neere the Citie of Apolonia in Dalmatia, the veines whence Brasse is digged, are filled in like maner. So doth he report, that neere Ptolomais, there lieth a round valley, out of which glassie Sand being taken, the winds fill the pit againe, from the upper part of the adioyning mountaines; which matter is conuerted into the former substance and that euen Mettals throwne Into this place, doe vndergoe the like Metamorphosis.

The colour both of the Shoad and Load, resembleth his bed, as the Sea sand doth the Cliffes, and is so diuersified to reddish, blackish, duskie, and such other earthy colours.

If the Load wherein the Tynne lieth, carrieth a foote and halfe in breadth, and be not ouerbarren, it is accompted a verie rich worke: but commonly the same exceedeth not a foote, vnlesse many Loads runne together.

When the new found worke intiseth with probabilitie of profit, the discouerer doth commonly associate himselfe with some more partners, because the charge amounteth mostly verie high for any one mans purse, except lined beyond ordinarie, to reach vnto: and if the worke doe faile, many shoulders will more easily support the burthen. These partners consist either of such Tinners as worke to their owne behoofe, or of such aduenturers as put in hired labourers. The hirelings stand at a certaine wages, either by the day, which may be about eight pence, or for the yeere, being betweene foure and sixe pound, as their deseruing can driue the bargaine: at both which rates they must find themselues.

If the worke carrie some importance, and require the trauaile of many hands, that hath his name, and they their Ouerseer, whome they terme their Captaine: such are the Pel, Whilancleuth, in English, The worke of the Ditches: Pulstean, that is, The myrie head: Crueg braaz, The great Borough: Saint Margets, and many surnamed Balls, which betoken the Vales where the works are set on foote.

[11] The Captaines office bindeth him to sort ech workman his taske, to see them applie their labour, to make timely prouision, for binding the worke with frames of Timber, if need exact it, to place Pumpes for drawing of water, and to giue such other directions. In most places, their toyle is so extreame, as they cannot endure it aboue foure houres in a day, but are succeeded by spels: the residue of the time, they weare out at Coytes, Kayles, or like idle exercises. Their Kalender also alloweth them more Holy-dayes, then are warranted by the Church, our lawes, or their owne profit.

Their ordinarie tooles, are a Pick-axe of yron, about sixteene inches long, sharpned at the one end to pecke, and flat-headed at the other, to driue certaine little yron Wedges, wherewith they cleaue the Rockes. They haue also a broad Shouell, the vtter part of yron, the middle of Timber, into which the staffe is slopewise fastned.

Their maner of working in the Loadmines, is to follow the Load as it lieth, either sidelong, or downe-right: both waies the deeper they sincke, the greater they find the Load. When they light vpon a smal veine, or chance to leefe the Load which they wrought, by means of certaine firings that may hap to crosse it, they begin at another place neere-hand, and so draw by gesse to the maine Load againe. If the Load lie right downe, they follow it sometimes to the depth of fortie or fiftie fathome. These Loadworkes, Diod.Sic.l.5.cap.8. seemeth to point at, where hee saith, that the Inhabitants of Veleriumm Promontorie, digge vp Tin out of rockie ground. From some of their bottomes you shal at noone dayes discrie the Starres: the workmen are let down and taken vp in a Stirrup, by two men who wind the rope.

If the Load lie slope-wise, the Tynners digge a conuenient depth, and then passe forward vnder ground, so farre as the ayre will yeeld them breathing, which, as it beginneth to faile, they sinke a Shaft downe thither from the top, to admit a renewing vent, which notwithstanding, their worke is most by Candle-light. In these passages, they meete sometimes with verie loose earth, sometimes with exceeding hard Rockes, and sometimes with great streames of water.

The loose Earth is propped by frames of Timber-worke, as they go, and yet now and then falling downe, either presseth the poore workmen to death, or stoppeth them from returning. To part the Rockes, they haue the foremencioned Axes, and Wedges, with which, mostly, they make speedie way, and yet (not seldome) are so tied by the teeth, as a good workman shall hardly be able to hew three foote, in the space of so many weekes. While they thus play the Moldwarps, vnsauorie Damps doe here and there distemper their heads, though not with so much daunger in the consequence, as annoyance for the present.

For conueying away the water, they pray in aide of sundry deuices, as Addits, Pumps &. Wheeles, driuen by a streame, and interchangeably filling, and emptying two Buckets, with many such like: all which notwithstanding, the Springs so incroche vpon these inuentions, as in sundrie places they are driuen to keepe men, and some-where horses also at worke both day & night, without ceasing, and in some all this will not serue the turne. For supplying such hard seruices, they haue alwaies fresh men at hand.

[12] They cal it the bringing of an Addit, or Audit, when they begin to trench without, and carrie the same thorow the ground to the Tynworke, somewhat deeper then the water doth lie, thereby to giue it passage away.

This Addit, they either fetch athwart the whole Load, or right from the braunch where they worke, as the next valley ministreth fittest opportunitie, for soonest cutting into the Hil: and therfore a Gentleman of good knowledges, deduceth this name of Addit, Ab aditu ad aquas. Surely the practice is cunning in deuice, costly in charge, and long in effecting: and yet, when all is done, many times the Load falleth away, and they may sing with Augustus bird, Opera & impensa periit. If you did see how aptly they cast the ground, for conueying the water, by compassings and turnings, to shunne such hils & vallies as let them, by their two much height or lownesse, you would wonder how so great skill could couch in so base a Cabbin, as their (otherwise) thicke clouded braines.

As much almost dooth it exceede credite, that the Tynne, for and in so small quantitie, digged vp with so great toyle, and passing afterwards thorow the managing of so many hands, ere it come to sale, should be any way able to acquite the cost: for being once brought aboue ground in the stone, it is first broken in peeces with hammers; and then carryed, either in waynes, or on horses backs, to a stamping mill, where three, and in some places sixe great logges of timber, bound at the ends with yron, and lifted vp and downe by a wheele, driuen with the water, doe breake it smaller. If the stones be ouer-moyst, they are dried by the fire in an yron cradle or grate.

From the stamping mill, it passeth to the crazing mil, which betweene two grinding stones, turned also with a water-wheele, bruseth the same to a fine sand: howbeit, of late times they mostly vse wet stampers, & so haue no need of the crazing mils, for their best stuffe, but only for the crust of their tayles.

The streame, after it hath forsaken the mill, is made to fall by certayne degrees one somwhat distant from another; vpon each of which, at euery discent lyeth a greene turfe, three or foure foote square, and one foote thick. On this the Tinner layeth a certayne portion of the sandie Tinne, and with his shouell softly tosseth the same to and fro, that through this stirring, the water which runneth ouer it, may wash away the light earth from the Tinne, which of a heauier substance lyeth fast on the turfe. Hauing so cleansed one portion, he setteth the same aside, and beginneth with another, vntil his labour take end with his taske. The best of those turfes (for all sorts serue not) are fetched about two miles to the Eastwards of S. Michaels Mount, where at a low water they cast aside the sand, and dig them vp: they are full of rootes of trees, and on some of them nuts haue beene found, which confirmeth my former assertion of the seas intrusion. After it is thus washed, they put the remnant into a wooden dish, broad, flat, and round, being about two foote ouer, and hauing two handles fastened at the sides, by which they softly shogge the same to and fro in the water betweene their legges, as they sit ouer it, vntill whatsoeuer of the earthie substance that was yet left, be flitted away. Some of later time, with a sleighter inuention, and lighter labour, doe cause certaine boyes to stir it vp and downe with their [13] feete, which worketh the same effect: the residue after this often cleansing, they call blacke Tynne, which is proportionably diuided to euerie of the aduenturers, when the Lords part hath beene first deducted vpon the whole.

Then doth each man carrie his portion to the blowing house, where the same is melted with Char-coale fire, blowne by a great paire of Bellowes, mooved with a water-wheele, and so cast into peeces of a long and thicke squarenesse, from three hundred to foure hundred pound waight, at which time the owners marke is set thereupon. The last remooue, is to the place of Coynage, which I shall touch hereafter. I haue alreadie told you, how great charge the Tynner vndergoeth, before he can bring his Owre to this last mill: whereto if you adde his care and cost, in buying the wood for this seruice, in felling, framing, and piling it to bee burned, in fetching the same, when it is coaled through such farre, foule, and cumbersome wayes, to the blowing house, together with the blowers two or three Moneths extreame and increasing labour, sweltring heate, danger of skalding their bodies, burning the houses, casting away the worke, and lastly their ugly countenances, tanned with smoake and besmeared with sweate: all these things (I say) being duly considered, I know not whether you would more maruaile, either whence a sufficient gaine should arise to counteruaile so manifold expences, or that any gaine could traine men to vndertake such paines and perill. But there let vs leaue them, since their owne will doth bring them thither. During the Tinnes thus melting in the blowing house, diuers light sparkles thereof are by the forcible wind, which the bellows sendeth forth, driuen vp to the thatched roofe. For which cause the owners doe once in seuen or eight yeeres, burne those houses, and find so much of this light Tynne in the ashes, as payeth for the new building, with a gainefull ouerplus. A strange practise (certes) for thrifts sake, to set our house on fire. Others doe frame the Tunnels of the Chimnies verie large and slope, therein to harbour these sparkles, and so saue the burning. This casualtie may bee worth the owner some ten pound by the yeere, or better, if his Mil haue store of sutors. But sithence I gathered stickes to the building of this poore nest, Sir Francis Godolphin, (whose kind helpe hath much aduanced this my playing labour) entertained a Duch mynerall man, and taking light from his experience, but building thereon farre more profitable conclusions of his owne inuention, hath practised a more sauing way in these matters, and besides, made Tynne with good profit, of that refuse which the Tynners reiected as nothing worth.

We will now proceede, to take a view of the orders and customes most generally vsed among the Tynners.

Their workes, both Streame and Load, lie either in seuerall, or in wastrell, that is, in enclosed grounds, or in commons. In Seuerall, no man can search for Tynne, without leaue first obtained from the Lord of the soile; who, when any Myne is found, may worke it wholly himselfe, or associate partners, or set it out at a farme certaine, or leaue it vn wrought at his pleasure. In Wastrell, it is lawfull for any man to make triall of his fortune that way, prouided, that hee acknowledge the Lordes right, by sharing out vnto him a certaine part, which they call toll: a custome fauouring more of [14] indifferencie, then the Tynners constitutions in Deuon, which inable them to digge for Tynne in any mans ground, inclosed, or vnclosed, without licence, tribute or satisfaction. Wherethrough it appeareth, that the Law-makers rather respected their owne benefit, then equitie, the true touch of all lawes. The Wastrel workes are reckoned amongst chattels, and may passe by word or Will. When a Myne is found in any such place, the first discouerer aymeth how farre it is likely to extend, and then, at the foure corners of his limited proportion, diggeth vp three Turfes, and the like (if he list) on the sides, which they terme Bounding, and within that compasse, euery other man is restrained from searching. These bounds he is bound to renew once euerie yeere, as also in most places to bestow some time in working the Myne, otherwise hee loseth this priuiledge. The worke thus found and bounded, looke how many men doe labour therein, so many Doales or shares they make thereof, and proportionably diuide the gaine and charges. The Lord of the soyle is most-where allowed libertie to place one workman in euerie fifteene for himself, at like hand with the aduenturers, if hee be so disposed.

They measure their blacke Tynne, by the Gill, the Toplisse, the Dish and the Foote, which containeth a pint, a pottel, a gallon, and towards two gallons.

Townes specially priuiledged for the Coynages, are Helston, Truro, Lostwithiel, and Liskerd. The times of Coynage come twise in the yeere, Viz. about Midsummer and Michaelmas: but because it falleth out verie often that the Tynne which is wrought, cannot be blowen and brought thither, against the limited dayes, there are, in fauour of the Tynners, certaine later times assigned, which they terme Post-coynages.

The officers deputed, to manage this Coynage, are, Porters, to beare the Tynne, Peizers to weigh it, a Steward, Comptroller, and Receiuer to keepe the accompt, euerie of which haue entertainement from her Maiestie, and receiue a fee out of the coyned Tynne.

For the maner of Coynage: the Blockes or peeces of Tynne, are brought into a great roome ordained for that purpose, and there first peized, then tasted, that is, proued whether they be soft Tynne or hard, and after, marked with their Maiesties stampe. To the hard (lesse worth by fiftie shillings in the thousand than the soft) the letter H. is added, e're it come from the blowing-house. Each thousand must answere fortie shillings to the Queene, which with the other incident fees being satisfied, then, and not before, it is lawfull for the owner to alienate and distract the same.

But about the price there groweth much adoe, betweene the Marchants and the owners, before they can iumpe to an agreement. The Marchant vnfoldeth his packe of strange newes, which either he brought with him from London (where most of them dwell) or forged by the way, telling what great likelyhood there is of warres, what danger of Pirates at Sea, how much of the fore-bought Tynne lieth on their hands, &c. The owner, on,the other side, stoppeth his eares against these charmes, answeres his newes with the Spaniards, Credo en Dios, encounters his reasons, with the present scarcitie and charges of getting and working Tynne, and so keeping vp the price, Iniquum petit, ut aequum ferat. In the end, after much bidding, and louing, varying, and [15] delaying, commonly that Marchant who hath most money to bestow, and that owner who hath most Tynne to sell, doe make the price, at which rate the Marchant is bound to yeeld present payment for so much Tynne as shall be brought him, and, of necessitie, must bargaine for tenne thousand at the least. Others notwithstanding are not bound to buy or sell at this price, but euerie man left at libertie, to make his best market.

The Tynne so sold, hath vsually amounted heretofore to the worth of thirtie or fortie thousand pound in money, and carried price betweene twentie and thirtie pound the thousand, sometimes higher, and sometimes lower, according to the quicke vent and aboundance, or the dead sale and scarcitie; wherein yet some haue obserued, that this so profitable, and vendible a marchandize, riseth not to a proportionable enhauncement, with other lesse beneficiall, and affected commodities, and they impute it partly to the Easterne buyers packing, partly to the owners not venting, and venturing the same.

Here I must either craue or take leaue of the Londoners, to lay open the hard dealing of their Tynne Marchants in this trade. When any Western Gent, or person of accompt, wanteth money to defray his expences at London, he resorteth to one of the Tynne Marchants of his acquaintance, to borrow some: but they shall as soone wrest the Clubbe out of Hercules fist, as one penie out of their fingers, vnlesse they giue bond for euerie twentie pound so taken in lone, to deliuer a thousand pound waight of Tyn at the next Coynage, which shal be within two or three months, or at farthest within half a yeere after. At which time the price of euerie thousand, will not faile to be at least twentie three, prehaps twentie five pound: yea, and after promise made, the party must be driuen (with some indignitie) to make three or foure errands to his house, ere hee shall get the money deliuered. In this sort, some one Marchant will haue 5. hundred pound out beforehand, reaping thereby a double commoditie, both of excessiue gaine for his lone, and of assurance to be serued with Tyn for his money. This they say is no Vsurie, forsooth, because the price of Tynne is not certainely knowne beforehand: (for once onely within these twelue yeeres, of set purpose to escape the penaltie of the Law, they brought it a little vnder twentie pound the thousand:) but if to take aboue fiftie in the hundred be extremitie, whatsoeuer name you list to giue it, this in truth can bee none other, then cutthroate and abominable dealing. I will not condemne all such as vse this trade, neither yet acquite those who make greatest pretence of zeale in Religion: and it may be, that some vpon by-respects, find somwhat friendly vsage in Vsance, at some of their hands: but the common voice saith, that for the most part, they are naught all.

And yet how bad soeuer this fashion may justly bee accompted, certaine of the same Countrymen do passe farre beyond it, as thus: The Marchant, that hee may stand assured to haue Tynne for his money, at the time of Coynage or deliuerance, besides his trade of lone abouementioned, layeth out diuers summes beforehand, vnto certaine Cornishmen, owners of Tynworkes, or otherwise of knowne sufficiencie, who are bound to deliuer for the same, so many thousands of Tynne, as [16] the money shal amount vnto, after the price agreed vpon at the Coinages. To these hungrie flies, the poore labouring Tynner resorteth, desiring some money before the time of his pay at the deliuerance: the other puts him off at first, answering he hath none to spare: in the end, when the poore man is driuen through necessitie to renew his suite, he fals to questioning, what hee will do with the money. Saith the Tynner, I will buy bread and meate for my selfe and my houshold, and shooes, hosen, peticoates, & such like stuffe for my wife and children. Suddenly herein, this owner becomes a pettie chapman: I will serue thee, saith he: hee deliuers him so much ware as shall amount to fortie shillings, in which he cuts him halfe in halfe for the price, and four nobles in money, for which the poore wretch is bound in Darbyes bonds, to deliuer him two hundred waight of Tynne at the next Coynage, which may then bee worth fiue pound or foure at the verie least. And as mischiefe still creepes onward, this extreme dealing of the London Marchant and Countrie chapman, in white Tynne is imitated (or rather exceeded) by the wealthier sort of Tynners themselues in the blacke, by laying out their money after thus much the marke: which trade, though subtill and darke, I will open as plainely as I can.

A foote of blacke Tynne (as is before said) containeth in measure two gallons; the waight vncertainely followeth the goodnesse. A foote of good Moore-tyn, (which is counted the best sort) will way about foure-score pound. Of the Myne Tynne (which is meaner) fiftie two pound: of the worst fiftie pound. Two pound of good blacke Tynne, being melted, will yeeld one of white: twentle eight or thirtie foote of the best, fortie: of the middle, 52. of the meanest, a thousand. Now the wealthier sort of Tynners, laying out part of their money beforehand, buy this black Tynne of the poore labourers, after so much the marke: that is, looke how many markes there are in the price, made at the Coynage for the thousand, so many two pence halfepenie, three pence, or foure pence, partly after the goodnesse, and partly according to the hard conscience of the one, and necessitie of the other, shal he haue for the foote: as if the price be twentie sixe pound, thirteene shillings & foure pence the thousand, therein are fortie markes: then shall the poore Tynner receiue of him who dealeth most friendly, for euerie foote of his best blacke Tynne (of which as was said, about thirtie will make a thousand) fortie times foure pence: viz. thirteene shillings and foure pence, which amounteth to twentie pound the thousand: whereas that foote at the price, is worth aboue fiue pence the marke. Likewise will hee pay for the meaner blacke Tynne (of which about fortie foote will make a thousand) three pence the marke, which is ten shillings the foote, and so shall he haue also after twentie pound for the thousand: for the worse they giue lesse, rateably. By which proportion, how vncertaine so euer the goodnesse of the Tynne, or the greatnesse of the price do fall, their gaine of a fourth part at least riseth alwaies certainly. Whereto adding, that they lay out beforehand but a portion of the money due, and that onely for some small time, you shall find it grow to the highest degree of extremitie.

But whether it proceedeth from this hard dealing, or for that the Tynners whole familie giue themselues [17] to a lazie kind of life, and depend only upon his labour and gaynes; which often ill succeeding adventurers, & such ouer-deare bought Tynne daylie impaire, or from both these together; once it hath beene duly obserued, that the parrishes where Tynne is wrought, rest in a meaner plight of wealth, then those which want this dammageable commoditie: and that as by abandoning this trade, they amend, so by reuiuing the same, they decay againe; whereas husbandrie yeeldeth that certayne gaine in a mediocritie, which Tynneworkes rather promise, then performe in a larger measure.

Let vs now examine what course of Iustice is held for deciding such controuersies as befall in Tinne causes, and with what priuileges they are endowed and encouraged.

After such time as the Iewes by their extreame dealing had worne themselues, first out of the loue of the English inhabitants, and afterwards out of the land it selfe, and so left the mines vnwrought, it hapned, that certaine Gentlemen, being Lords of seuen tithings in Blackmoore, whose grounds were best stored with this Minerall, grewe desirous to renew this benefit: and so vpon suit made to Edmond, Earle of Cornwal, sonne to Richard, king of the Romans, they obtayned from him a Charter, with sundrie Priuileges: amongst which, it was graunted them to keepe a Court, and hold plea of all actions, life, lymme, and land excepted: in consideration whereof, the sayd Lords accorded to pay the Earle a halfpeny for euery pound of Tynne which should be wrought; and that for better answering this taxe, the sayd Tynne should bee brought to certayne places purposely appointed, and there peized, coyned, and kept, vntill the Earles due were satisfied. Againe, the Lords of these Tithings, were, for their parts, authorised to manage all Stannerie causes, and, for that intent, to hold parliaments at their discretion, and in regard of their labour, there was allotted vnto them the toll-Tynne within those Tithings, which their successours doe yet enioy. This Charter was to be kept in one of the Church steeples, within those Tithings, and, the Seale had a Pick-axe and Shouell in saultier grauen therein. This I receiued by report of the late master William Carnsew, a Gentleman of good qualitie, discretion, and learning, and well experienced in these mynerall causes, who auouched himselfe an eye-witnesse of that Charter, though now it bee not extant. Howbeit, I have learned, that in former time, the Tynners obtained a Charter from king Iohn, and afterwards another from king Edward the first, which were againe expounded, confirmed and inlarged by Parliament, in the fiftieth yeere of Edward the third, and lastly strengthened by Henrie the seuenth.

King Edward the firsts Charter, granteth them liberty of selling their Tynne, to their best behoofe. Nisi (saith he) nos ipsi emere voluerimus. Vpon which ground certaine persons in the Reignes of K. Edward 6. & Queene Marie, sought to make vse of this preemption, (as I have beene enformed) but either crossed in the prosecution, or defeated in their expectation, gaue it ouer againe; which vaine successe could not yet discourage some others of later times from the like attempt, alleadging many reasons how it might proue beneficiall both to her Highnesse and the Countrie, and preiudiciall to none saue onely the Marchants, who practised a farre [18] worse kind of preemption, as hath beene before expressed. This for a while was hotely onsetted and a reasonable price offered, but (upon what ground I know not) soone cooled againe. Yet afterwards it receiued a second life, and at Michaelmas terme 1599. the Cornishmen, then in London, were called before some of the principal Lords of her Maiesties Council, and the matter there debated, by the Lord Warden, in behalfe of the Countrie, and certaine others deputed for the Marchants, who had set this suite on foote. In the end it grew to a conclusion, and Articles were drawne and signed, but they also proued of void effect.

Last of all, the said Lord Warden, in the beginning of Nouember 1600. called an assembly of Tynners at Lostwithiel, the place accustomed, impanelled a Iurie of twentie foure Tynners, signified her Maiesties pleasure both for a new imposition of six pound on euerie thousand, that should bee transported (ouer and aboue the former fortie shillings, and sixteene shillings alreadie payable) as also that her Highnesse would disburse foure thousand pound in lone to the Tynners, for a yeres space, and bee repayed in Tynne at a certaine rate.

By the foreremembred ancient Charters, there is assigned a warden of the Stanneries, who supplieth the place, both of a Iudge for Law, and of a Chancellour for conscience, and so taketh hearing of causes, either in Forma iuris, or de iure & aequo. Hee substituteth some Gentleman in the Shire of good calling and discretion, to be his Vice-Warden, from whom either partie, complainant or defendant, may appeale to him, as from him (a case of rare experience) to the Lords of the Councill, and from their Honours to her Maiesties person: other appeale or remoouing to the common law they gaynsay.

The Gayle for Stannery causes is kept at Lostwithiel, and that office is annexed to the Comptrolership.

The Tynners of the whole shire are diuided into foure quarters, two called Moores, of the places where the Tynne is wrought, viz. Foy moore, and Blacke moore: the other, Tiwarnaill and Penwith. To each of these is assigned by the L. Warden, a Steward, who keepeth his Court once in euery three weekes. They are termed Stannery Courts of the Latine word Stannum, in English Tynne, and hold plea of whatsoeuer action of debt or trespasse, whereto any one dealing with blacke or white Tynne, either as plaintife or defendant, is a party. Their maner of triall consisteth in the verdict giuen by a Iurie of sixe Tynners, according to which the Steward pronounceth iudgement. He that will spare credit to the common report, shall conceiue an ill opinion touching the slippings of both witnesses and iurours sometimes in these Courts: For it is sayd, that the witnesses haue not sticked now and then to fatten their euidence, rather for seruing a turne, then for manifesting a truth, and that the Iurours verdict hath fauoured more of affection then of reason, especially, in controuersies growne betweene strangers and some of the same parts. And such fault-finders vouch diuers causes of this partialitie: One, that when they are sworne, they vse to adde this word, my conscience, as the Romans did their Ex animi mei sententia, which is suspected to imply a conceyted enlargement of their othe: Another, that the varietie of customes, which in euery place (welneere) differ one from another, yeeldeth them in a maner an vnlimited [19] scope, to auerre what they list, and so to close the best Lawyers mouth with this one speech, Our custome Is contrary. And lastly, that they presume upon a kind of impunity, because these sixe mens iuries fall not within compasse of the Star-chambers censure, and yet the L. Wardens haue now & then made the pillory punishment of some, a spectacle, example, and warning to the residue. For mine owne part, I can in these Tynne cases, plead but a hearesay experience, and therefore will onely inferre, that as there is no smoke without a fire, so commonly the smoke is far greater then the fire. Strange it were, and not to be expected, that all poore Tynne Iurours and witnesies, should in such a remote corner alwayes conforme themselues to the precise rule of vprightnesse, when we see in the open light of our public assises, so many more iudicious and substantiall persons now and then to swarue from the same.

In matters of important consequence, appertayning to the whole Stannery, the L. Warden, or his Vnderwarden, vseth to impannell a Iury of foure and twenty principall Tynners, which consist of sixe out of euery quarter, returnable by the Maiors of the foure Stannery townes, and whose acts doe bind the residue.

Next to the liuelesse things, follow those which pertake a growing life, and then a feeling.

The women and children in the West part of Cornwall, doe vse to make Mats of a small and fine kinde of bents there growing, which for their warme and well wearing, are carried by sea to London and other parts of the Realme, and serue to couer floores and wals. These bents grow in sandy fields, and are knit from ouer the head in narrow bredths after a strange fashion,

Of herbes and rootes for the pot and medicine, Cornishmen enioy a like portion in proportion with other Shires, which somewhere also receiueth an increase by the sowing and planting of such as are brought thither from beyond the seas. The like may bee sayd of rootes, and sallets for the table, saue that (I suppose) Cornewall naturally bringeth forth greater store of Seaholm and Sampire, then is found in any other County of this Realme. The Seaholme roote preserueth eyther in sirrup, or by canding, is accepted for a great restoratiue. Some of the gaully grounds doe also yeeld plenty of Rosa solis. Moreouer natures liberall hand decketh many of the sea cliffes with wilde Hissop, Sage, Pelamountayne, Maiorum, Rosemary, and such like well-fauouring herbes.

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