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The Veterinarian
by Chas. J. Korinek
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[Transcriber's Notes]

Here are the definitions of some unfamiliar (to me) words.

Aloin Intensely bitter, crystalline, water-soluble powder obtained from aloe, used chiefly as a purgative.

Anise Annual, aromatic Mediterranean herb (Pimpinella anisum) cultivated for its fruit and the oil obtained from it; used to flavor foods, liqueurs, and candies.

Arecoline Toxic alkaloid obtained from the seeds of the areca, used in veterinary medicine to kill and expel intestinal worms.

Asafoetida (Asafetida) Fetid gum resin of various Asian plants of the genus Ferula (especially F. assafoetida, F. foetida, or F. narthex) occurring in the form of tears and dark-colored masses, having a strong odor and taste. Formerly used in medicine as an antispasmodic and a general prophylactic against disease.

Bismuth Subnitrate White bismuth-containing powder Bi5O(OH)9(NO3)4 used in treating gastrointestinal disorders.

Bistoury Long, narrow-bladed knife used to open abscesses or to slit sinuses and fistulas.

Boracic Acid Also called boric acid or orthoboric acid. H3BO3. Used in medicine in aqueous [water] solution as a mild antiseptic.

Caeca Large blind pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine.

Calomel Mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2. White, tasteless powder, used as a purgative and fungicide.

Cantharides Also called Spanish fly. Preparation of powdered blister beetles (the Spanish fly), used medicinally as a counterirritant, diuretic, and aphrodisiac.

Camphor Whitish, translucent, crystalline, pleasant-odored terpene ketone, C10H16O, obtained from the camphor tree. Used in medicine as a counter-irritant for infections and to treat pain and itching.

Carbolic Acid Called phenol, hydroxybenzene, oxybenzene, phenylic acid. White, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous mass, C6H5OH Used chiefly as a disinfectant and antiseptic.

Cascara Sagrada Bark of the cascara [buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana) native to northwest North America], used as a cathartic or laxative.

Catechu Several astringent substances obtained from tropical plants, including Acacia catechu and A. suma; used in medicine, dyeing, tanning, etc.

Chloral Hydrate Colorless crystalline compound, CCl3CH(OH)2, used as a sedative.

Cloaca Common cavity into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals open in birds, reptiles, amphibians and many fishes.

Creosote Colorless to yellowish oily liquid containing phenols and creosols, obtained by the destructive distillation of wood tar, especially from the wood of a beech, and formerly used as an expectorant in treating chronic bronchitis.

Crepitating Crackling or popping sound.

Drench Administer medicine to an animal by force.

Dropsical Edematous; swollen with an excessive accumulation of fluid.

Extravasation To force the flow of (blood or lymph) from a vessel out into surrounding tissue.

Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum; Plant of the legume family, cultivated for forage and for its mucilaginous seeds used in medicine.

Fomenting Application of warm liquid, ointments, etc., to the surface of the body.

Fowler's Solution Aqueous solution of potassium arsenite used in medicine to treat some diseases of the blood or skin.

Frog Triangular mass of elastic, horny substance in the middle of the sole of the foot of a horse.

Gentian Rhizome [root-like subterranean stem] and roots of a yellow-flowered gentian (Gentiana lutea) of southern Europe used as a tonic and stomachic [beneficial to the stomach].

Glauber's salt, Sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4.10H2O; also called mirabilite; used in medicine as a mild laxative.

Iodoform Triiodomethane. Yellowish, crystalline, water-insoluble solid, CHI3. Analogous to chloroform, used as an antiseptic.

Methylene blue Heterocyclic (ring structure with atoms besides carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen,) aromatic chemical compound with the molecular formula: C16H18ClN3S.

Middlings Coarsely ground wheat mixed with bran.

Nitrate of Potash Potassium nitrate, a mineral source of nitrogen. KNO3. Also called saltpetre.

Nux Vomica Orangelike fruit of an East Indian tree, Strychnos nux-vomica, of the logania family, containing strychnine, used in medicine.

Origanum Aromatic plants, including the sweet marjoram (O. Marjorana) and the wild marjoram (O. vulgare).

Pastern Part of the foot of a horse, cow, etc., between the fetlock and the hoof.

Petechial Small purplish spot on a body surface, such as the skin or a mucous membrane, caused by a minute hemorrhage.

Physic Medicine that purges; cathartic; laxative.

Poultice Soft, moist mass of cloth, bread, meal, herbs, etc., applied hot as a medicament to the body.

Probang Long, slender, elastic rod with a sponge at the end, to be introduced into the esophagus or larynx to remove foreign bodies or introduce medication.

Quassia Shrub or small tree, Quassia amara, of tropical America, having wood with a bitter taste. Also called bitterwood. A prepared form of the heartwood of these trees, used as an insecticide and in medicine as a tonic to dispel intestinal worms.

Santonin Colorless crystalline compound, C15H18O3, from wormwood, especially santonica; used to destroy or eliminate parasitic worms.

Shoat (shote) Young pig just after weaning.

Singletree Crossbar, pivoted at the middle, to which the traces of a harness are fastened for pulling a cart, carriage, plow, etc.

Sugar of Lead (lead acetate) White, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous solid, Pb(C2H3O2)2.3H2O; formerly used in medicine as an astringent.

Sweet Oil Vegetable oil used as food; especially olive or rape (Brassica napus) oil.

Tannic Acid Lustrous, yellow-brown, amorphous tannin, having the chemical composition C76H52O46. Derived from the bark and fruit of many plants; used as an astringent [contracts the tissues or canals of the body].

Thrifty Thriving physically; growing vigorously.

Tincture Solution of alcohol or of alcohol and water.

Vent Anal or excretory opening of birds and reptiles.

[End Transcriber's Notes]



The Veterinarian Chas. J. Korinek, V.S.

Compliments of Central Lumber Co. Lumber and Building Material Of Every Description

General Office, 846 McKnight Building Minneapolis, Minn.



STATE OF OREGON

TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME—GREETINGS

Know Ye, That reposing special trust and confidence in the capacity, and fidelity of Charles J. Korinek, of Salem, Oregon, we, Geo. E. Chamberline, Governor, F. W. Benson, Secretary of State, and W. H. Downing, President of the State Board of Agriculture, the Oregon Domestic Animal Commission, in the name and by the authority of the statute of the State of Oregon, do by these presence APPOINT AND COMMISSION him, the said C. J. Korinek Veterinary Surgeon for the State of Oregon for Term Ending July 1, 1909.

In Testimony Whereof, we have caused the Great Seal of the State to be affixed at the City of Salem, Oregon, this 2nd day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seven.

Signed Geo. E. Chamberline, Governor.

Signed F. W. Benson, Secretary, of State.

Signed W. H. Downing, State Treasurer

[Seal of the State of Oregon]



THE VETERINARIAN

DR. CHAS. J. KORINEK

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College of University of Toronto.

Ex-State Veterinarian of Oregon, Ex-President

Oregon State Veterinary Medical Board

Hon. Member Ontario Veterinary Medical Association



FOURTH EDITION

PUBLISHED BY THE GERLACH-BARKLOW CO. JOLIET, ILLINOIS, U. S. A. and Toronto, Canada 1917

COPYRIGHTED 1915 BY CHAS. J. KORINEK, V. S.

BRITISH COPYRIGHTS SECURED ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



FOREWORD

This treatise on the diseases of domestic animals has been written with the primary purpose of placing in the hands of stock owners, a book of practical worth; hence, all technical language or terms, as used by the professional veterinarian, have been eliminated and only such language used as all may read and understand.

The treatment suggested in each case is one I have used and found efficient in my many years of practice.

If my readers will study and follow these directions carefully, they will save themselves much unnecessary loss. My confidence in this accomplishment is my reward for my labor in behalf of our dumb friends—the domestic animals. THE AUTHOR



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I DISEASES OF THE HORSE

CHAPTER II DISEASES OF CATTLE

CHAPTER III DISEASES OF SWINE

CHAPTER IV DISEASES OF SHEEP AND GOATS

CHAPTER V DISEASES OF POULTRY

CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS



ILLUSTRATIONS

POINTS OF HORSE HACKNEY STALLION CLYDESDALE STALLION ARABIAN HORSES BELGIAN STALLION SADDLE STALLION PERCHERON STALLIONS POINTS OF DAIRY COW DAIRY HERD GALLOWAY BULL JERSEY COW HEREFORD BULL GUERNSEY COW SHORTHORN BULL AYRSHIRE COWS HOLSTEIN COW POINTS OF HOG CHESTER WHITES DUROC BOAR POLAND CHINA BOAR BERKSHIRE BOAR POINTS OF SHEEP DELAINE MERINO RAM AND EWES SHROPSHIRE RAM COTSWOLD EWES WHITE PLYMOUTH ROCKS BUFF ORPINGTON HEN PLYMOUTH ROCK COCK WHITE LEGHORN HEN COLUMBIAN WYANDOTTE COCK



DISEASES OF THE HORSE

Causes, Symptoms and Treatments



LOCATION OF PARTS OF THE HORSE 1. Mouth 2. Nostrils 3. Nose 4. Face 5. Eyes 6. Forehead 7. Ears 8. Poll 9. Throat latch 10. Jaw 11. Chin 12. Windpipe 13. Neck 14. Crest 15. Withers 16. Shoulder bed 17. Chest 18. Shoulders 19. Forearm 20. Knees 21. Cannon 22. Fetlocks 23. Pasterns 24. Feet 25. Feather 25-1/2. Elbow 26. Flank 27. Heart Girth 28. Back 29. Loin 30. Hip bone 31. Coupling 32. Ribs 33. Belly 34. Rear Flank 35. Stifle 36. Thigh 37. Buttocks 38. Croup 39. Tail 40. Quarters 41. Gaskin or Lower Thigh 42. Hocks



CHAPTER I

ABORTION IN MARES

CAUSE: Quality and quantity of food, poorly lighted, ventilated or drained stables, mare falling or slipping, sprains, kicks, hard, fast work or eating poisonous vegetation.

SYMPTOMS: Mare will show signs of colic, the outer portion of the womb will be swollen, and if the colicky symptoms continue there will be a watery discharge and the membranes covering the foetus or foal will become noticeable. The animal strains when lying down or getting up.

TREATMENT: Place the animal in comfortable quarters and blanket if chilly. When colicky pains are present treat the same as for spasmodic colic. To stop the straining and labor pains, give Tincture Opii one ounce, placing in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun every two hours. One to two doses, however, are generally sufficient as the mare will either abort or the dangerous period will have passed. Keep the animal quiet and feed good nutritious food and pure water with chill taken off in small quantities but often. Disinfect the mare's quarters thoroughly. A good general tonic should be used in this condition, one that will strengthen and assist nature to throw off impurities from the blood, such as Sodium Hyposulphite, eight ounces; Potassi Iodide, one ounce. Make into eight powders and give one powder two or three times a day in drinking water.



ABSCESS

CAUSE: Bruises and injuries. Abscesses are also seen in complications with various diseases, perhaps the most common being distemper, laryngitis, etc.

SYMPTOMS: Symptoms will vary, of course, according to the development of the disease. It may not be noticed at first, but upon careful examination small tortuous lines will be observed running from the point of irritation. In many cases a swelling is noticed which is hot, painful and throbbing and enlarges rapidly. In two or three days the soreness and heat gradually subside, but the abscess continues to grow. The hair falls from the affected parts and in a short time the abscess discharges, and the cavity gradually fills up and heals by granulation.

TREATMENT: In all cases hasten the repairing process as much as possible by applying hot water packs or hot bran, flaxseed or vegetable poultices. It is common with veterinarians to lance an abscess as soon as possible, but this requires skill and practice. I could not advise stockowners to perform this operation, as it requires exact knowledge of anatomy. It will usually be found a safe plan to encourage the full ripening of an abscess and allow it to open of its own accord, as it will heal much better and quicker and you take no chances of infection with an instrument. When opened do not squeeze the abscess to any extent, but press gently with clean hands or cloth, to remove the clot, and after this simply keep open by washing the abscess with a three per cent Carbolic Acid solution or Bichloride of Mercury, one part to one thousand parts of water. When an animal has abscesses it is well to give the following blood purifiers or internal antiseptics: Hyposulphite of Soda, eight ounces; Potassi Iodide, one ounce. Mix well and make into eight powders and give one powder twice daily in drinking water, or place in gelatin capsule and administer with capsule gun. This prescription will prevent the absorption of impurities from the abscess into the blood.



ANEMIA

CAUSE: Insufficient quality and quantity of food, insanitary surroundings, overwork, lack of exercise, drains on the system from acute or chronic diseases, worms; and can also be brought about by excessive heat, cold or pressure and lessening of the calibre of the arteries, poisons in the blood, suppurating wounds, repeated purging or bleedings.

SYMPTOMS: The visible mucous membranes of the nose, eyes and mouth are pale and sometimes have a yellow appearance. There is weakness, temperature of the body is lower than normal; pulse weak, legs cold to the feet, cold sweats are often present, breathing is quickened, especially in its last stages, animals tire easily, appetite and digestion become poor, swelling of the legs and the under surface of the abdomen, sheath and udder; the skin becomes rough and dry.

TREATMENT: Remove the cause if possible in its first stages, or when first noticed. Give a physic of Calomel, two scruples; Aloin, two drams; Pulv. Gentian, two drams; Ginger, two drams. Place in gelatin capsule and give at one dose with capsule gun. Also, administer the following: Arsenious Acid, one dram; Ferri Sulphate, three ounces; Pulv. Gentian, three ounces; Pulv. Fenugreek Seed, three ounces, and Pulv. Anise Seed, three ounces. Mix well and make into twenty powders. Give one powder three times a day in feed, or place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Endeavor to build up the condition of the animal by the proper quantity and quality of food. Give pure water to drink, also provide sanitary conditions, as pure air, sunlight if possible. Turn out to grass when the weather is favorable. This treatment should be continued until the animal shows sign of improvement. However, the administration of physics should be given with great care so as not to produce superpurgation of the bowels (scours), as physics in this condition would tend to weaken the animal.

It is to be borne in mind that pure water and nourishing food play a very important part in the treatment of Anemia.



APHTHAE

(Sore mouth and tongue—Pustular Stomatitis)

CAUSE: Superficial eruptions of the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue. Frequently seen during convalescence of intermittent fever. This condition may also follow diseases of the digestive system, as Indigestion, etc., due to the blood absorbing toxic materials which break out in the form of pustules about the mouth and the whole alimentary canal (stomach and intestines).

SYMPTOMS: The appetite is impaired, the mouth hot, the pulse not much affected as a rule, the temperature is slightly elevated, the animal is unable to masticate, and small vesicles appear and eventually terminate into pustules and burst and discharge a small amount of pus at the parts where the sores are the deepest.

TREATMENT: Remove the cause if possible. Feed clean, soft food that is easily digested, as hot wheat bran mashes and steamed rolled oats, vegetables, etc. For a mouth-wash dissolve the following: One dram of Copper Sulphate, one dram of Chlorate of Potash, one dram of Boracic Acid in clean hot water, and syringe out the mouth two or three times a day. To the drinking water add one ounce of Hyposulphite of Soda twice a day. Where the appetite is impaired, administer the following: Pulv. Nux Vomica, Pulv. Gentian Root, Pulv. Iron, Pulv. Nitrate of Potash each two ounces. Mix and make into sixteen capsules and give one capsule three times a day with capsule gun.



AZOTURIA

CAUSE: This disease is usually due to work after a period of idleness, during which the animal has been liberally fed. It is found principally among highly-fed draft horses, and never in animals which are regularly worked. Light breeds of horses are also susceptible to this disease.

SYMPTOMS: Attack is sudden and usually appears when the horse has traveled a short distance after having been stabled for a few days. The characteristic symptoms of this disease in an animal are: Excitability without apparent cause; actions seem to indicate injury of the hind quarters or loins. Animal has a peculiar goose-rumped look, owing to the muscles over the quarters being violently contracted, and are hard on pressure. One hind limb is generally advanced in front of the other, and on attempting to put weight on it, the hind quarters will drop until at times the hocks almost touch the ground. Sometimes a front leg is affected. The breathing is hurried. Animal is bathed in sweat, and is in such agony that it will seize almost anything with its teeth. Although the pulse is hard and frequent, the internal temperature, even in severe cases, seldom rises to any marked extent. The urine is dark-red to dirty-brown color. Owing to the stoppage of the worm-like movement of the bowels, there is generally constipation and retention of the urine. Sometimes the symptoms are milder than here described. In other cases the animal soon falls to the ground and continues to struggle in a delirious, half-paralyzed state until he dies. Sometimes this disease is mistaken for colic or acute indigestion, but it can be readily distinguished by the color of the urine.

TREATMENT: At the first symptom, stop and blanket the animal and let stand from one to three hours. Then move to the nearest shelter, keeping the animal as quiet and comfortable, as possible, as excitement aggravates the disease. Give Aloin, two drams; Ginger, two drams; in capsule, and administer with capsule gun. Also, give the following prescription: Potassi Nitrate, eight ounces; Sodii Bicarbonate, eight ounces; Potassi Iodide, one and one-half ounces. Mix well and make into thirty-two powders. Give one powder in drinking water every four hours, or in capsule, and give with capsule gun. Injections of soap and warm water per rectum are beneficial. Immerse a blanket in hot water and place over loins, then covering with a dry blanket, or, if this is impossible, apply the following liniment: Aqua Ammonia Fort., two ounces; Turpentine, two ounces; Sweet Oil, four ounces, and rub in like a shampoo over the loins. It may be necessary to draw off the urine, which is sometimes retained, and it is best to secure the services of a skilled veterinarian if, such is the case. Allow the animal to drink often, though in small quantities, of pure water with the chill taken off. If he is unable to stand on his feet it is well to turn him from side to side every six hours. It is also advisable to fill bags with hay and place against his shoulders to prevent him from lying flat on his side, as this may cause congestion of the lungs. Avoid drenching—it is dangerous. Should the animal show signs of uneasiness, give one ounce of Potassi Bromide in the drinking water every four hours until the excitement has subsided.



BARRENNESS

(Failure to Breed)

CAUSE: Contraction of the neck of the womb, growths on or in the ovaries, Whites or Leucorrhea. The first is the only form of barrenness which responds readily to treatment.

SYMPTOMS: A mare may come in heat normally, or stay in heat continually, or not come in heat at all.

TREATMENT: Wash the hands in some antiseptic solution, such as Carbolic Acid or Bichloride of Mercury and see that the finger-nails are smooth. Grease the hand and arm with vaseline and proceed to dilate the neck of the womb. It may be difficult at first to insert the finger, but the opening will gradually enlarge. Work slowly and carefully until three fingers may be inserted. Breeding should follow about three hours after the womb has been dilated.



BLEEDING AFTER CASTRATION

If bleeding is from the little artery in the back portion of cord, it will generally stop of its own accord, but if it should continue to bleed for thirty minutes, I throw clean, cold water against the part.

When bleeding is from the large artery in front of the cord, it is considered dangerous. The artery should be tied with a silk thread if possible, or twisted with a pair of forceps. Occasionally the artery cannot be found, in which case the hole in the scrotum should be plugged with a clean cloth saturated with Tincture of Iron, which will clot the blood and thus close the artery.



BLOOD POISONING

(Septicaemia or Pyemia)

CAUSE: By the popular term, "Blood Poison," is meant a state of constitutional disturbance brought on by the entrance of putrid products—usually from a wound—into the blood. As a rule some pressure or inoculation is necessary for the introduction of poison into the circulation; hence, the necessity of free drainage and thorough disinfection of the wound, and the only hopeful cases are those in which by this means the supply of poison may be cut short.

SYMPTOMS: It is introduced through any wound or abrasion, whether due to injury, disease or by an operation. Signs of septic poison are heat, pain and swelling.

TREATMENT: It is necessary to see that the wound has good drainage, and wash with Carbolic Acid, one tablespoonful to one pint of distilled water or Bichloride of Mercury perhaps is the best in an infected wound. Apply one part to one thousand parts water. Also, give internally, Potassi Iodide, one ounce; Sodii Hyposulphite, eight ounces. Make into eight powders and give one powder two or three times a day in their drinking water or in capsule, and give with capsule gun. This is an intestinal antiseptic which is very valuable in the treatment of Blood Poisoning. Feed soft, laxative food and green grass, if possible.



BONE SPAVIN

CAUSE: Sprains of the hock from falling, slipping, jumping, pulling, traveling on uneven roads, falling through bridges, etc.

Since Spavin is due to causes which come into existence after birth, it cannot be regarded as an hereditary disease. Hereditary predisposition, however, is largely accountable for its appearance. In the first place, the process of evolution in the horse, which is a single-toed animal, descended from a five-toed ancestor, predisposes him to suffer from union of the bones of the hock, just as it predisposes him to splints. The weaker the bones of the hock in comparison to the weight of the body the more inclined will the animal naturally be to contract Spavin.

SYMPTOMS: Spasmodic catching up of the spavined limb, the moment the heel of the foot touches the ground, something after the manner of string-halt. At times the stiffness can be observed only when the animal is pushed from one side of the stall to the other. Spavin may often be detected when riding a horse down a steep hill from the fact that he drags the toe.

The time of all others when a spavined horse will be apt to show his lameness will be the day following a hard day's work, and when he makes his first move from the stable in the morning is the proper moment for examination. Therefore, you should be prepared to form judgment quickly in these cases, for the longer the animal is trotted up and down the less lame will he generally become.

We may have a visible sign of Spavin, swelling and hardness of the part, without lameness. If there be heat and tenderness on pressure, lameness will almost always be present. A careful comparison should be made of the hocks.

TREATMENT: An important factor in treating Spavin is keeping the animal quiet. This can be accomplished by placing the animal in a very narrow stall, carrying his feed and drinking water for a month or six weeks, and apply the following ointment: Red Iodide of Mercury, two drams; Pulverized Cantharides, three drams; Turpentine, thirty minims; Pine Tar, two drams; lard, two ounces. Mix well and rub in well for twenty minutes every forty-eight hours until three applications have been applied. Repeat this treatment again in two weeks, and grease well with lard.

To cure a bone spavin it is necessary to unite two or more bones of the hock, and a fractured bone cannot unite if moved frequently. The same thing exists in bone spavin as in a fractured bone, only we have no ragged edges like that of a fractured bone to unite; therefore, keep the animal quiet. The younger the animal the easier the spavin is to treat, because the bones hardened with age contain more mineral matter and less flexible animal matter. While treating the animal, feed food that is easily digested.



BOG SPAVIN

CAUSE: Faulty conformation, slipping, falling through a bridge or culvert; large loosely built draft horses are prone to this blemish. Bog Spavin is hereditary, and you should, therefore, select a good type of animal for breeding purposes.

SYMPTOMS: A puffy swelling located in front and on the inside of the hock, varying from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. It very seldom causes lameness, but is a serious disfigurement and blemish.

TREATMENT: Treatment is not satisfactory unless taken in its first stages and when the animal is young. If there is heat, pain and swelling, apply cold water or ice packs until the inflammation has left the parts. Then use the following prescription: Tincture of Iodine, two ounces; Gum Camphor, two ounces; Gasolene, one pint. Mix and shake well before applying with a nail or tooth brush twice a week.

I may add that I have derived some wonderful results in treatment of Bog Spavin with the above mentioned prescription in both young and old animals, and perhaps it will be well to use it on both young and old animals in both acute and chronic forms of Bog Spavin.



BOTS

(Gastrophilis)

Effect of Bots on the Health of Horses

Although the presence of bots inside of a horse can be of no possible advantage to him, their presence, when in small numbers, as a rule produce very little or no ill effect in the horse, but if their number be large they cannot help being a source of debility and irritation. In practically all cases they produce indigestion, especially among young horses, also loss of condition, colic and even death.

CAUSE: By the bot flies, which lay their eggs during the autumn on the skin and hair of the horses. These eggs on becoming hatched (in from 20 to 25 days) produce small worms which irritate the skin by their movements and thus cause the horse to lick them off and to take them into his mouth, with the result that they gain access to various parts of the intestinal canal. The bot having selected its place of residence, attaches itself to the membranes lining the stomach and intestines, and derives its sustenance during its stay from the wound made by its hooks. In the summer the larva, after living inside the horse for about ten months, quits its hold and is expelled with the feces. Having concealed itself near the surface of the ground it becomes changed into a chrysalis from which the gadfly issues after an inactive existence of from thirty to forty days. The female fly becomes impregnated, lays her eggs on those parts of the horse from which they can be most easily licked off, and thus completes her cycle of existence.

SYMPTOMS: Membranes about the eyes and mouth are very pale, as though the animal had lost a large quantity of blood; they will also be subject to colicky attacks, hair faded, dull, rough appearance, appetite poor and manifests a pot belly.

PREVENTION: The best means of prevention are spraying your horses with the following fly repellant: Crude Carbolic Acid, 10%; Oil of Tar, 25%; Crude Oil, 65%. Mix thoroughly. This prevents the gadfly from depositing her eggs on the animals.

TREATMENT: Withhold all food for twenty-four hours, then administer Oil of Turpentine, one ounce; place in a gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Follow this in six hours with a physic consisting of Aloin, two drams; Ginger, two drams. Place in a gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Repeat the above treatment in a week or ten days to insure the expulsion of Bots that might have escaped the first treatment.



HACKNEY STALLION BAGTHORP SULTAN, FIRST INTERNATIONAL SHOW. Owned by Henry Fairfax of Virginia.



BRONCHITIS

CAUSE: It may be the result of debility, constitutional diseases, inhalation of impure air, smoke, or gases. Sometimes brought on by drenching by the escape of liquid into the windpipe; remember, a horse cannot breathe through his mouth. It may also be caused by sudden chill, foreign bodies in windpipe, micro organisms, or it may be associated with influenza, glanders, lung fever, etc.

SYMPTOMS: Sore throat, loss of appetite, thirst, animal appears dull, membranes of the mouth, eyes and nose are reddened; urine is scanty and highly colored; cough dry and husky. After two or three days the cough becomes looser and, a frothy, sticky mucus of a yellowish color is present. This gradually becomes pus-like, after which the animal seems somewhat relieved. In the first stages the pulse is soft and weak, but frequently the temperature is high, ranging from 105 to 106 degrees F.; the breathing is quick and more or less difficult.

TREATMENT: Place the horse in a clean, comfortable, well ventilated stall, exclude drafts, blanket if the weather is chilly. Also, hand rub the legs and bandage them. Inhalations from steam of hot water and Turpentine are beneficial. Also administer Chlorate of Potassi, two ounces; Nitrate of Potash, two ounces; Tannic Acid, one ounce. Mix this with a pint of black-strap molasses and give about one tablespoonful well back on the tongue with a wooden paddle every six hours. In severe attacks of Bronchitis it is well to apply a liniment consisting of Turpentine, Aqua-Ammonia Fort., and raw Linseed Oil, each four ounces; mix well and apply to the throat and down the windpipe once or twice a day. The animal should be fed on soft food, such as hot bran mashes, grass, carrots, kale, apples or steamed rolled oats. After the acute symptoms of the disease disappear, give Pulverized Gentian Root, one ounce; Nux Vomica, two ounces; Nitrate of Potash, three ounces; Pulverized Fenugreek Seed, six ounces. Mix and give one tablespoonful three times a day in the feed or in a gelatin capsule and administer with a capsule gun.



CAPPED KNEE

CAUSE: Bruises from pawing or striking objects with the knee, falling on the ground, etc., are perhaps the most common causes.

SYMPTOMS: It may be a simple bruise, or it may be a severe wound. There is always swelling, heat and pain present. The joint becomes stiff and interferes with the movement of the leg. Under careful treatment the swelling and enlargement disappear.

TREATMENT: Relieve the inflammation and clean the wound by fomenting with hot water, to which add a few drops of Carbolic Acid. If the wound is very large, trim off the ragged edges with a pair of scissors and apply the following: Boracic Acid, two ounces; Iodoform, one ounce; Tannic Acid, one ounce. Powder finely, mix and apply two or three times a day. If the skin is not broken, apply cold water or ice packs until the inflammation has subsided; then use the following: Tincture of Iodine, one ounce; Camphor, two ounces, and Gasolene, eight ounces. Apply with nail or toothbrush every thirty-six hours until the enlargement has disappeared.



CAPPED HOCK

CAUSE: Some horses have the habit of rubbing or striking their hocks against the partition of their stalls. May also be produced by kicks from other horses, or hocks may be bruised by the singletree.

SYMPTOMS: An enlargement at the point of the hock, which may run up along the tendons and muscles of the leg. Repeated injuries cause the hock to enlarge and become flabby, and in some cases it contains a bloody serum or pus.

TREATMENT: Do not attempt to lance the puffy swelling on the point of the hock, as you may produce an open joint, which is very difficult to treat, and chances are that you would lose the animal.

The treatment that I would recommend is to find out the true cause and remove it. When the puffy swelling is swollen, hot and painful, apply cold water or ice packs. When the heat and pain have subsided apply the following: Tincture of Iodine, two ounces; Gum Camphor, two ounces, dissolved in one pint of Gasolene. Shake the contents of the bottle before using each time and apply with a nail or toothbrush every forty-eight hours. This is very penetrating and will remove the enlargement or absorb fluids that might have accumulated from the result of the bruise.



CHOKING

This term applies to obstruction of the gullet as well as that of the windpipe.

CAUSE: Too rapid eating, by which pieces of carrots or other roots, or a quantity of dry food become lodged in the gullet. Although obstructions of the windpipe caused while drenching, or food entering the lungs, will kill an animal in a very short time, obstructions in the gullet may not prove fatal for several days.

TREATMENT: No time should be lost in attempting to remove the obstruction from the gullet. It may be dislodged by gently manipulating the gullet. If unsuccessful in dislodging the obstruction in this manner, secure the services of a competent veterinarian. He will use a probang, an instrument made for this purpose, or inject Sweet or Olive Oil into the gullet with a hypodermic syringe, or give hypodermic injections of Arecoline. In administering drenches with the object of dislodging obstructions in the gullet, you must remember that the liquids used are apt to go the wrong way, that is to say, enter the lungs, and give rise to lung complications, as lung fever, bronchitis, etc. Obstructions of solid substance in the windpipe generally cause death very shortly. When liquids enter the lungs, death is not so apt to occur, as the animal may live several days, and sometimes even get well. They should be treated the same as for lung fever.



CRACKED HEELS

CAUSE: There is little doubt in my mind that ammonia, which is so plentifully found in ill-kept stables, is the chief cause of cracked heels. The action of ammonia on the skin renders it soft and pulpy, and diminishes its strength by separating the layers of which it is composed.

SYMPTOMS: When inflammation is set up in the part, the secretion of natural oil is interfered with and cracks usually occur in the place where the skin becomes wrinkled when the pastern joint is bent. The discharge from cracked heels has an offensive smell. In early stages there is extreme heat and swelling, there is pain and lameness, which usually disappear as the case becomes chronic.

TREATMENT: Keep the affected parts clean as possible, if there is extreme inflammation present. Apply hot poultice made from bran or flaxseed meal. When the inflammation subsides, apply Zinc Ointment twice daily. Before applying each application of ointment, wash with Warm Water and Castile Soap. Feed carrots, green grass, if possible, also hot bran mashes or steam rolled oats each morning. Sometimes it is well to give a physic, and I would recommend Aloin, one and one-half drams; Ginger, two drams. A physic has very good effect in reducing the swelling of the legs.



COFFIN-JOINT LAMENESS

(Navicular Disease)

CAUSE: Driving young animals on hard roads. Always found in the front feet, owing no doubt to the fact the front feet support largely the weight of the body.

SYMPTOMS: The symptoms are very hard to detect. As a rule the animal will point the affected foot when at rest even before there is any lameness present. While at work he apparently goes sound, but when placed in the stable, or when stopped on hard ground, one foot will be set out in front of the other and resting on the toe. It will be noticed that the animal takes a few lame steps and then goes well again. Again he may be lame for a day, or he may leave the stable in the morning apparently well and sound and go lame during the day. In the course of time he will develop a severe case of lameness, which may last for five or six days. These spells are intermittent and finally he becomes permanently lame, and the more he is driven the greater the lameness, and he steps short, wears the toe of the shoe, stumbles, falls on his knees when the road is rough. Sometimes both front feet are affected and the shoulders will be stiff. When put to work he sweats from pain; there will be extreme heat about the foot, and he will flinch from pressure.

Comparatively few recoveries are made from this disease.

TREATMENT: First remove the shoe. If the foot is inflamed, poultice with hot bran or flaxseed meal. After the inflammation disappears, clean the foot well, clip the hair from around the top of the hoof and use the following: Red Iodide of Mercury, two drams; Pulverized Cantharides, four drams; Turpentine, thirty drops; Lard, two ounces. Mix well and apply every forty-eight hours, rubbing in well for twenty minutes each time. After three or four applications have been applied, turn the animal out to pasture. Repeat this treatment again in a month or so. Animals affected with this disease should be put to slow and easy work on soft ground, and carefully shod. This disease is unsatisfactorily treated and only a few cases recover when the best care is taken.



CORNS

CAUSE: Dry feet, increased pressure from ill fitting shoes, or high heeled shoes, which tend to contract the heels and produce corns. Wide flat feet are predisposed to bruises which terminate in corns.

SYMPTOMS: Lameness, or as the old saying goes, "The animal will go tenderfooted." When standing the animal is generally very restless, they paw their bedding behind them at night. Tapping or pressure on the foot will assist in locating a corn.

TREATMENT: Discover the true cause of the corn and remove it if possible. Take away all pressure from over the corn and turn the animal out in some damp pasture. If this cannot be done, put on a flat "bar" shoe, packing the sole of the foot with Pine Tar and Oakum; then place a leather between the foot and shoe. Repeat this application every two weeks, as this will keep the sole soft and flexible, and with proper shoeing your animal will be relieved of corns.

Frequently coffin-joint lameness or navicular disease is mistaken for corns.



CLYDESDALE STALLION SIR EVERARD (5353). Sire of Famous Baron's Pride (9122), who earned $300,000.00 in the Stud, who Sired Baron O'Buchlyvie, who was sold for $45,000.00, the Highest Price ever paid for a Draft Stallion.



CONSTIPATION

CAUSE: Indigestible foods, irregular feeding, lack of, or too much, exercise, insufficient secretion of digestive materials, strictures, ruptures, paralysis, worms, folding and twisting of the intestines, which frequently occurs in old age.

SYMPTOMS: The animal cannot expel the contents of the intestines, which frequently causes colicky pains. Death from this form of constipation is generally due to rupture of the intestines, when due to indigestible foods or irregular feeding. Lack of, or too much, exercise seldom produces death, although the animal may not pass any fecal matter for a week.

TREATMENT: Give a capsule containing Aloin, two drams, and Pulverized Ginger, two drams, every eighteen hours until the animal has a movement of the bowels. Then give the following tonic: Pulverized Nux Vomica, two ounces; Pulverized Gentian Root, two ounces; Pulverized Fenugreek Seed, four ounces. Mix well and give one tablespoonful in feed three times a day. If the animal refuses to eat it in the feed, place one tablespoonful in gelatin capsule and administer with capsule gun. This will stimulate the worm-like movement of the bowels and strengthen the heart action.

Give the animal all the water it will drink. If the water is cold, take the chill off by warming or adding warm water. If the animal will eat, feed food that is easily digested, such as grass, carrots, turnips, potatoes and apples, but do not feed too large a quantity at one time. Hot bran mashes or steamed rolled oats are very nourishing and easily digested. Rectal injections of Soap and Turpentine in small quantities, added to warm water, are very beneficial, and I would recommend their use. It is advisable to elevate the animal's hind parts when giving rectal injections, as compelling the animal to stand with its head lower than its hind parts will cause the animal to retain the injection much longer, consequently it does its intended work much better.

If due to worms, fast the animal for twenty-four hours and give Barbadoes Aloes, three drams; Calomel, one dram; Ferri Sulphate, two drams; Antimony Tartrate, two drams. Place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun, This dose should be repeated in ten days to insure the expulsion of newly hatched worms.



COLD

(Nasal Catarrh)

CAUSE: Atmospheric changes common in the spring and fall; animal allowed to chill when standing in a draft, or driven when the system is in a poor condition. It is also produced by inhaling irritating gases, smoke, drenching through the nose, dusty hay or grain that contains infectious matter.

SYMPTOMS: Animal is stupid, does not take food very freely, hair stands and looks dusty, throat becomes sore, pulse is not greatly affected. There may be a slight rise of temperature, say 101 to 103 degrees F. After a day or two there will be a discharge of mucus from the nostrils which may be offensive to the smell. There is generally an increased flow of urine. The breathing is not much affected.

TREATMENT: Make the animal as comfortable as possible by placing in a clean stall with pure air, but avoid drafts. Blanket if the weather is chilly and give the following prescription: Chloride of Potash, two ounces; Nitrate of Potash, four ounces. Mix these well in a pint of Pine Tar and place about one tablespoonful of the mixture as far back on the tongue as possible every six hours. Relief is very certain if this treatment is given in the first stages. If not it will become chronic and terminate into nasal gleet, or lung complications.



COUGH

(Acute and Chronic)

As a cough is a symptom of various diseases, these in addition to the cough should be treated.

KINDS OF COUGH: Many writers give several different varieties, but for sake of convenience I will divide them into two forms, namely: Acute and Chronic.

CAUSE: Acute Coughs are generally due to sudden exposure to cold, drafts and are the forerunning symptom of a disease of the organs of breathing.

Chronic Coughs are associated with, and often a result of, sore throat, lung fever, pleurisy, bronchitis, broken wind, influenza, nasal gleet, catarrh, glanders, heaves and distemper.

TREATMENT: Under each disease of which a cough is a symptom, I have also prescribed to include its suppression. The following prescription is reasonable in price, yet very effective in all forms of cough: Tannic Acid, one ounce; Potassi Chlorate, four ounces; Potassi Nitrate, four ounces. Powder well and mix with Black Strap Molasses, one pint; placing container retaining the above in hot water assists in dissolving. When this is thoroughly mixed add Pine Tar one pint, and place one tablespoonful well back on the tongue with a wooden paddle every three or four hours, according to the severity of the cough.

Sometimes a liniment applied to the throat and windpipe has a good effect, and I would recommend the following on account of its penetrating qualities: Aqua Ammonia Fort., two ounces; Turpentine, two ounces; Raw Linseed Oil, four ounces. Mix and apply twice daily, shaking the contents of the bottle well before using.



COLT CONSTIPATION

CAUSE: Improper digestion of its mother's milk, especially when overheated or not allowed to nurse enough.

SYMPTOMS: The colt appears stupid; does not care to move about, but lies flat on either side and shows signs of great pain.

TREATMENT: Give two tablespoonfuls of Cascara Sagrada. Great care must be exercised in administering the medicine to place it well back on the tongue; do not hold the nose high or some of the liquid may enter the lungs; it is much better to waste some of the medicine. One of the most important factors in the treatment of Colt Constipation is rectal injections; they relieve temperature, gases, and pain, promoting the worm-like action of the bowels and liquefying their contents.



COLT DIARRHOEA

CAUSE: Specific infection, the action of which is favored by insanitary conditions, irregular feeding, or permitting the colt to nurse when the mother is overheated or out of condition.

SYMPTOMS: Frequent watery discharges, sometimes tinged with blood, and as the disease progresses the colt shows signs of great pain. If not treated promptly, the disease will terminate fatally in the course of six or ten days.

TREATMENT: Determine the exact cause, if possible, and remove it. If the colt has not been weaned, attention should at once be given the mare, and if anything is wrong with her, it may be best to take the little patient away from its mother and feed it on cow's milk sweetened with sugar. Give two tablespoonfuls of Castor Oil on the tongue; this will remove the irritant within the bowels. The following prescription is a very reliable remedy: Protan, three ounces; Pulv. Ginger, four drams; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, four grains. Mix and make into twelve powders; give one powder on the tongue every four hours, effecting a cure within a few days. Do not pull the tongue, or hold the head too high. Permit the animal to swallow slowly. Remember that sanitary surroundings are essential in the treatment of all diseases.



CURB

CAUSE: Faulty conformation of the hind legs; that is to say, if an animal has crooked legs, a slight sprain from slipping or jumping will produce Curb. In cases where an animal has well proportioned limbs, and is afflicted with Curb, it is caused by a rupture of the small ligament or cord situated just back of the hock.

SYMPTOMS: A swelling will be noticed on the back part of the hock. At first the animal is lame and the enlargement is hot and painful. After a few days' rest the inflammation will partially subside and the enlargement can be plainly seen. When the animal is walked about he may be very lame at the start, but this will disappear as he is moved.

TREATMENT: When the Curb is hot and painful, it is well to apply ice packs or cold water to the part. When the inflammation subsides, apply Red Iodide of Mercury, two drams; Lard, two ounces. Mix and rub in well for twenty minutes; repeat every forty-eight hours until three applications are applied. If the Curb is of long standing it is more difficult to treat, in which case the above treatment should be repeated again in two or three months. Do not use the animal in drawing heavy loads, or drive on slippery roads, for six months. Give the blister time to strengthen the ruptured tendons. A high-heeled shoe is often valuable in relieving tendons of their tension.



The Famous Team of Arabian Horses. Owned by Dr. C. J. Korinek.



DIARRHOEA

CAUSE: Sudden change of food, frozen food, soft food, unwholesome food, stagnant water, or drinking large quantities of water at one time, purgative medicines, or it may be associated with blood diseases, lung and intestinal affections, or produced by micro-organisms. Many horses, particularly slack loined, slight, "washy" animals, purge if worked or excited, as may be observed among race horses when taken to a race course. Diarrhoea may also be due to worms, or it may be merely an effort on the part of nature to expel some irritant matter from the bowels or from the blood, in which case it should on no account be prematurely checked.

SYMPTOMS: Frequent loose evacuations of the intestines, with or without pronounced abdominal pain; generally, loss of appetite, animal looks gaunt and the hair rough.

TREATMENT: Keep the animal quiet, comfortably stabled and warmly blanketed. Give pure water to drink, often, but in small quantities. If the animal will eat, feed moderately on clean food, as rolled oats and dry bran. Also, give the following prescription: Protan, three ounces; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, ten grains; Creosote, one dram; Powdered Ginger, two ounces; Powdered Gum Catechu, six drams; Powdered Gum Camphor, one-half dram. Mix and make eight powders. Place one powder in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun, or the same sized dose dissolved in a pint of water and used as a drench. However, be very careful when drenching an animal. It is dangerous. This prescription will not only check the diarrhoea, but will tone the muscular fibres of the intestines which aid in throwing off these irritant matters from the system. If the horse shows colicky pains, administer the same treatment as that recommended for colic. It is well to give the following treatment in the convalescing stages of diarrhoea: Pulv. Gentian Root, four ounces; Ferri Sulphate, four ounces; Pulv. Nux Vomica, four ounces; Pulv. Fenugreek Seed, eight ounces. Mix and give one heaping tablespoonful three times daily in feed. This facilitates digestion by stimulating the flow of gastric juices.



DISTEMPER

CAUSE: Distemper is placed among the germ diseases, and is produced by the Streptococcus of Schutz. It is contagious and a number of animals in the same stable may become affected at the same time. It is supposed to attack an animal but once, but it may be contracted a second time. May occur at any time of the year.

SYMPTOMS: The animal will first appear dull, and show loss of appetite; and the hair will look dull and rough. There will be a watery discharge from the nose, and in a day or so a lump will appear between the jaws; the animal keeps his head in a peculiar position; saliva runs from its mouth; the pulse will be a little faster than normal. The breathing will become more rapid and the lump between the jaws will get larger. This lump, or tumor, may form in other parts of the body, on the shoulder, in the groin, lungs or intestines. It usually causes death if it cannot be absorbed. This is called irregular distemper. A determined effort should be made to draw the lump, or tumor, to a head as soon as possible.

TREATMENT: Place the horse in a clean, well-ventilated and lighted stall, excluding all drafts, blanket the animal, hand rub the legs and bandage them; give inhalations of steam from Hot Water and Turpentine. A good method for heating water for this purpose is to place hot stones or bricks in the water and Turpentine. This will relieve the hard breathing. Remember a horse cannot breathe through his mouth, therefore, liquid drenches are dangerous. A paste made from Potassi Chlorate, two ounces; Potassi Nitrate, two ounces, dissolved in a pint of warm molasses and given well back on the tongue in tablespoonful doses every two or three hours is very beneficial. A liniment made from equal parts of Aqua Ammonia Fort., Turpentine and Sweet Oil should be applied, every morning over the enlargement that appears in the region of the throat. If the enlargement fails to come to a head, secure the services of an accomplished veterinarian, who will use a clean instrument for lancing purposes.

After an attack of distemper your horse is generally run down in condition. Give the following: Potassi Nitrate, four ounces; Pulv. Gentian Root, four ounces; Pulv. Anise Seed, eight ounces. Make into thirty-two powders and give one powder three times daily in feed.



DROPSY

(Of the Belly, Chest, Sheath, Udder and Legs)

CAUSE: Poor circulation; kidneys not working properly; lack of exercise; diseases of the lungs, liver, heart, womb or sheath. Mares heavy with foal often have dropsical swellings.

SYMPTOMS: Swelling seldom contains fluid, although sometimes a sticky serum oozes through the skin; fingers pressed against the swollen parts leave impressions.

TREATMENT: Avoid giving physics in this condition when possible, especially to mares with foal. Feed laxative food, as hot bran mashes, green grass, carrots, potatoes, etc.; also the following mixture: Potassi Iodide, two ounces; Potassi Nitrate, four ounces; Chloride of Potash, two ounces. Mix and make into sixteen powders. Place one powder in their drinking water three times a day. Exercise the animal as much as possible and you will derive good results from this treatment within a week or so.

I may add that in the above affection it is a bad practice to apply hot applications, as the chances are it would produce a sloughing of the skin.



ECZEMA

CAUSE: Anything that interferes with the healthy action of the skin, as checked sweating, irritation from dirty blankets or harness, or from accumulation of dirt on the skin through want of grooming, errors in feeding, overheat, or by infection. In some cases the cause seems to be constitutional; in others, local. Though the disease is not parasitic in character, it is probable that when once contracted the diseased parts may be become infected.

SYMPTOMS: Slight dryness and eruptions that may affect the head, ears, neck, shoulders, flanks, inside of thighs and root of the tail, followed by vesicles or pimples which burst and discharge, or the contents may be absorbed. The animal will rub against the stall, manger, or any other object he can reach, until the parts are very sore, or if worked, he will rub himself violently when unharnessed.

TREATMENT: Give Fowler's Solution of Arsenic, one tablespoonful morning and night on their feed; also give a physic consisting of two drams of Aloin and two drams of Pulverized Ginger in gelatin capsule. Give at one dose. One physic is all that is necessary to cool out the blood, which will assist materially in treating Eczema. Also, apply Zinc Ointment twice daily over the vesicles or pimples which will appear on the skin. Also, feed easily digested food if possible, such as carrots, apples, grass, hot bran mashes and steamed rolled oats, and keep the animal clean and groom carefully with clean combs and brushes.



EYE DISEASES

CONJUNCTIVITIS, or Inflammation of the superficial structure of the eye.

CAUSE: Direct or indirect injury to the eye, as a blow from a whip, dust, sand or chaff in the eye, or it may be due to extreme cold, heat, or foul air.

Inflammation of the Membrane of Nictitans

The membrane of nictation is an accessory eyelid common to all domestic animals, the purpose of which is to remove foreign substances from the eye in much the same manner as we use the hand.

SYMPTOMS: Conjunctivitis and inflammation of the membranes of nictitans are very much the same. A partial or complete closure of the eye, and a watery discharge due to overstimulation of the lachrymal glands, the fluid being secreted so abundantly that it is impossible for the tear duct to carry it away; hence, there will be a continuous overflow of tears down the horse's face. The formation of a film or scum over the eye need not cause alarm if the eye shows no sign of puncture.

TREATMENT: Examine the eye carefully and remove any foreign body with clean cloth or feather and apply the following: Yellow Oxide of Mercury, three grains; Lanolin, one ounce. Mix well together and apply to the eye three or four times daily. Avoid the use of liquid medicines, as they are hard to apply, and the animal throws them out by shaking the head.



FISTULOUS WITHERS

CAUSE: Fistulous Withers are seen mostly in horses that have a thick neck as well as those that are very high in the withers, or among saddle horses, those that are very low on the withers, the saddle here riding forward and bruising the parts. They are often caused by ill-fitting collars or saddles, by direct injury from blows, and from the horse rolling upon rough, sharp stones. In this location, the ulcer of the skin or a simple abscess, if not properly and punctually treated, may terminate into Fistula. The pus burrows and finds lodgment deep down between the muscles, and escapes only when the sinuses become surcharged when, during motion of the muscles, the pus is forced to the surface.

SYMPTOMS: These of course will vary according to the progress made by the Fistula. Following an injury we may often notice soreness or stiffness of the front legs, and upon careful examination of the withers we will see small tortuous lines running from the point of irritation downwards and backwards over the region of the shoulder. The stiffness of the limbs may disappear at this time, and heat and soreness of the parts may become less noticeable, but the swelling of the shoulders continues to enlarge. The swelling may often have the form of a running ulcer, or its contents may dry up and leave a tumor, which gradually develops the common characteristic of a fistulous tumor. When the enlargement has an opening, we should carefully examine the pus cavity, as upon this condition will wholly depend our treatment.

TREATMENT: Keep the animal as quiet as possible, as any movements of the limbs cause the pus to spread between the lines of the muscles and form larger abscesses or tumors. When the bone becomes diseased, it is very difficult to effect a cure, especially where the pus burrows back of the Scapula (Shoulder Blade). In case the abscess is newly formed, and close to the surface, syringing out with a solution made from Bichloride of Mercury, five grains to one ounce of water, generally causes the white fibrous tissue to slough away and the parts to heal rapidly. If the abscess is deep, and the bones become diseased, the pus will have a very offensive odor, and I would recommend the services of a competent Veterinarian to remove all diseased portions of bone or muscle.



FILARIAE

(Thread-like Worm)

CAUSE: Drinking stagnant water, or eating hay gathered from swamps or marshy land. When full grown, the worm measures from two to six inches in length; the tail is more or less curved. They are found in the lung cavity, the heart sac, and the intestinal cavity, from which they sometimes descend into the sac containing the testicles. Animals said to have a snake in the eye have been exhibited as curiosities; in all cases the simulated snake was nothing more than the Filariae.

SYMPTOMS: Colicky spells; poor appetite, indigestion, pot-belly, rough coat; swelling of the sheath, legs, and the lower surface of the belly.

TREATMENT: Prevention is the only treatment, for when the worms once enter the digestive canal, it is impossible to remove them.



FOUNDER

CAUSE: Overeating or drinking—in fact, any irritation of the stomach or intestines is liable to be followed by Founder, owing to the similarity in the sensitive structure of the foot, skin, and mucous membranes. Horses with weak feet are predisposed to Founder, but it may also occur in strong-footed animals. Founder is also produced by driving an animal on a hot summer day and then placing in the stable where the sweat is suddenly checked by drafts, etc.

SYMPTOMS: The horse is stiff, and moves with great difficulty; he will generally, though not always, remain standing. Throws weight upon the heel of the foot to relieve the toe, and if an effort is made to back him he will drag his feet. Excessive heat is present at the top of the hoof, and a throbbing of the arteries may be felt. When the fore feet only are affected, the horse will relieve them of as much weight as possible when walking by placing the hind feet well under the body, which results in a peculiar jumping motion. Founder may occur in all four feet, but the fore feet are more often affected than the hind ones. Mares sometimes founder after giving birth to a colt, due to inflammation of the womb; symptoms correspond to those of common Founder. Founder may be mistaken for disease of the lungs or kidneys, owing to the standing position and arched back. Veterinarians have been known to mistake it for lung fever; the services of such men are dangerous and should be avoided.

TREATMENT: In all cases of Founder, administer Potassi Iodide, one ounce; Soda Bicarbonate, four ounces; Potassi Nitrate, four ounces. Mix and give one tablespoonful in drinking water every six hours. If the animal will not take it in its water, place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun.

Find out the true cause of the disease, if possible, and perhaps a physic will be indicated, containing Aloin, two drams; Ginger, two drams; place it in a capsule and give with capsule gun. If desired results are not obtained in eighteen hours, repeat the dose until there is an action of the bowels. Founder following excessive irritation of the stomach and intestines, or mares heavy with foal, should not receive physics. Feed food that is easily digested, as carrots, kale, apples, potatoes, hot bran mashes, or steamed rolled oats, etc.

It is well to elevate the hind quarters and give rectal injections of Warm Water and Glycerine. Stand in mud or water, or apply bags containing mud, bran or ice; in fact, anything that will have a cool, moist effect on the feet.

After the inflammation of the feet has subsided, and the animal walks fairly well, you should apply a blister containing Red Iodide of Mercury, two drams; Lard, two ounces, around the top of the hoofs, and rub in well twice forty-eight hours apart. In some cases of Founder it is recommended to bleed the animal in the foot. If this is attempted, good disinfectants should be used, as lock-jaw might follow.



GALLS

CAUSE: Injuries from ill-fitting collars, saddles, harness, hobbles and scalping-boots.

TREATMENT: Remove the cause. Never wash a Gall with water, as this prevents its healing, nor use oils or salves, as they accumulate dirt, dust and germs, which may cause infection. The following application makes a very valuable dressing for Galls: Boracic Acid, one ounce; Corn Starch, one ounce; Tannic Acid, one-half ounce; Iodoform, one dram. Powder finely and place in sifter-top can. Dust on Gall before going to work and on retiring. This heals and refreshes the Galls and wounds by forming a smooth surface over the part, which permits it to heal while the horse works.



GREASE HEEL

CAUSE: Parasitic fungi invading cracked heels.

SYMPTOMS: Offensive discharge from the glands under the skin, and if not properly treated, red spots will appear, and the yellow discharge will form a hard crust sticking to the roots of the hair.

TREATMENT: Cleanliness is one of the most important measures. Also, good nourishing food. If the skin is swollen and tender, poultice with hot Flaxseed Meal or bran. After the swelling and tenderness have abated, wash well with good Castile Soap and Warm Water. Dry with clean cloth and apply the following mixture: Calomel, one dram; Iodoform, one dram; Boracic Acid, one ounce. Mix well and apply two to three times a day. Feed green grass, carrots, kale, apples, or potatoes if possible, also feed hot bran mashes. In all cases of Grease Heel give the following physic: Aloin, two drams; Pulv. Ginger, two drams. Place in a capsule and give with capsule gun. A physic has a very good effect on the blood, which assists materially in healing the cracks and nodules that appear in Grease Heel.



BELGIAN STALLION BELVEDERE, FIRST PRIZE WINNER. Owned by Crawford & Griffin, Newton, Iowa.



GLANDERS OR FARCY

CAUSE: Due to a specific germ called the Bacillus Malleii, or Bacillus of Glanders. Glanders, or Farcy, is very contagious, and is transmissible to man as well as animals. Cattle and sheep alone are immune. The disease may be contracted at watering troughs, stables, horseshoeing shops, in boats, trains and by harness, bits, curry combs, bedding, pails, etc., as well as by direct contact with a diseased animal.

SYMPTOMS: Animal does not thrive although the appetite is good at times; loss of flesh, and is subject to sweats, the hair looks rough, the temperature increasing slightly, perhaps two degrees, a cough is generally present. Legs and abdomen are swollen; discharge from the nose, sometimes tinged with blood and very sticky, the membranes of the nose look dusty, and ulcers or spots are visible if closely examined. The glands under the back of the ears and between the jaws are hard, lumpy and swollen.

In addition to the above symptoms, Farcy affects the skin by producing swellings, or nodules, varying from the size of a pea to that of a hickory nut (called Farcy buds, or Farcy buttons), which are found inside of the hind legs under the abdomen, on the side of the chest; shoulder and neck, also around the nose, lips and face. Generally there is a discharge of greenish-yellow pus, which is very sticky.

Glanders, or Farcy, may be mistaken for nasal catarrh, nasal gleet, ulcerated teeth, nettle rash, lymphangitis, distemper, etc. Fortunately, this dreaded disease is not very prevalent in this country, as every precaution has been taken to stamp it out.

NO TREATMENT: If at any time you have reason to think one of your animals has the disease, or even a neighbor's, or a transient horse, exhibits the symptoms, it is your duty to report the fact to the State Veterinarian at once. You will do this if you have your own welfare and that of your neighborhood at heart.



HEAVES

(Emphysema of the Lungs)

CAUSE: Fast or heavy work. It may follow Lung Fever or Pleurisy, or the animal may inherit weakness in the walls of the air-cells of the lungs. A very common cause is feeding dusty or dirty hay, or bulky food. Horses that are accustomed to eating ravenously are often victims of Heaves.

SYMPTOMS: Disease may develop slowly or rapidly. When the animal is at rest, the air is taken into the lungs in a more or less normal manner, but is expelled by two distinct efforts, the abdominal muscles aiding the lungs in expiration, as may be seen by the heaving of the flank; the movement of the ribs in breathing is scarcely noticeable in a heavy horse. A healthy animal, when at rest, will throw the air from the lungs in a single effort. The difficulty in breathing is constant and increases in proportion to the amount of food in the stomach and intestines. At the beginning of the attack there is a spasmodic cough, which is more or less intermittent; this develops later into a short, weak, suppressed cough, as if the animal lacked strength in his chest to expel a full breath, often accompanied by expulsion of wind from the anus, which is somewhat protruded.

TREATMENT: Feed good, nourishing food, but nothing that is of a bulky nature. Feed more grain and less hay, which should be dampened with water if dusty. Do not feed dusty, musty or bulky food, but give plenty of potatoes, apples, kale and green grass. Have your druggist make you up one quart of Fowler's Solution of Arsenic, omitting the Tincture of Lavender. This is soothing to the organs of breathing, and should be given two tablespoonfuls three times a day on the feed. After a week or ten days you might increase the dose slightly. Although this will make the horse work much better, do not give it with the hope of effecting a complete cure, as very few cases recover fully from this disease.



HORSE DENTISTRY

This is a very important branch of Veterinary Science, although, if I were to go into detail on the subject, it would require the writing of an individual volume. This science requires considerable practice. The price of special costly instruments would prohibit the average stockman from doing his own dentistry.

My advice is to secure nothing but the services of a qualified Veterinarian, who has had privileges of a thorough knowledge of Veterinary Science.

The art of animal dentistry has been abused by the owners of stock allowing the services of irresponsible men in the veterinary profession, who do not look to the betterment of the animal's condition. The owner of the animal, not being able to see the condition of the animal's teeth for himself, is persuaded into having the animal's teeth worked on regardless of whether it is needed or not. The quack or transient Veterinarian will pull and crack healthy, sound teeth, and also lacerate the poor animal's mouth. Be sure the Veterinarian employed for this purpose is competent.



INFLUENZA

(Pink Eye-Epizootic Catarrh)

CAUSE: Influenza is a specific and infectious fever, which shows a marked tendency to rapidly spread over a large area of country. It generally appears suddenly, without, preliminary symptoms, and may become fully developed in twenty-four hours.

SYMPTOMS: The usual symptoms are those of Catarrh, although the bowels, lungs and brain complications may be present, either singly or combined. It always gives rise to great weakness. The distinguishing characteristics of Influenza from Distemper, Sore Throat, and other diseases affecting the organs of breathing, are the suddenness of the attack, rise of temperature, varying from 103 to 106 degrees F., pulse feeble and fast, and a pinkish, swollen appearance of the inside of the eyelids. The animal is dull, in some cases almost unconscious. Sometimes the legs are very stiff and swollen, and there is great difficulty in moving about.

TREATMENT: Place the affected animal in a clean, well ventilated stall, avoid drafts, give pure water to drink with chill taken off, in small quantities but often. Blanket if the weather is chilly, hand rub the legs and bandage, give Quinine, two drams, in a gelatin capsule with capsule gun every four hours. In addition to the above, administer the treatment recommended for Acute and Chronic Coughs.

Feed good, nutritious food that has a laxative effect on the bowels, as it is dangerous to give horses physic with this disease. Hot bran mashes, steamed rolled oats and vegetables are very beneficial.



LAMPAS

CAUSE: In young horses it is commonly caused by cutting teeth. In older animals it is usually due to indigestion.

SYMPTOMS: A puffy swelling and redness of the gums. The animal may have difficulty in eating.

TREATMENT: In young animals, when cutting teeth, let nature take its course, but when an animal is five years or over, place two drams of Aloin, and two drams of Pulv. Ginger, in a gelatin capsule and administer with capsule gun. Then tone up the digestive organs by mixing one ounce of Pulv. Gentian Root, one ounce of Pulv. Nux Vomica, four ounces of Bicarbonate of Soda. Make into eight powders and give one powder in feed twice daily, or place in gelatin capsule and administer with capsule gun.



LEECHES

(Haemopis)

The leeches which suck the blood of the horse may be divided into two classes, the external parasites which attach themselves to the skin of the legs and adjacent parts of the horse, and the Haemopis Sanguisuga, and others of this class, which, not being able to penetrate the skin, endeavor to enter the mouth or nostrils of the horse when he is drinking or grazing in wet and leech-infected pastures. They sometimes cling to the mucous membrane of the eyes. The horse leech, which lives in the water, usually gains access to the mouth and nostrils of the animal, when young and not more than one-tenth of an inch long. They rarely go beyond the air and food passages, generally fastening themselves to the walls of the windpipe and gullet, where they cling till the animal dies from loss of blood or suffocation. They often cause bleeding from the mouth and nostrils, and may be seen by close examination.

TREATMENT: Endeavor to build up the condition of the animal with suitable food. Also feed liberal quantities of stock salt. Where the leeches cling tightly to the mucous membranes of the mouth and nostrils, it is well to cause the horse to inhale the vapor from hot water containing turpentine.



LOCK-JAW

(Tetanus)

CAUSE: The bacilli of Tetanus are widely distributed and can be found in practically every part of the globe. Their favorite place of production, however, is in barn yards and marshy ground. They are frequently swallowed by stock along with forage, and can often be found in recently expelled feces. The most favorable temperature for their development is about 70 degrees F. They act by means of extremely virulent poisons which they produce, and which causes the terrible symptoms that are characteristic of the disease.

SYMPTOMS: The muscles of expression are usually the first brought under the continual spasm of tetanus, and when thus affected give the face of the animal a pinched and drawn-in appearance. The other muscles of the head and those of the neck are next attacked. The mouth is closed, the nose poked out, the head elevated. The muscles of breathing, and those of the limbs, become contracted so that the neck is hollowed, and the tail is raised, the horse stands with outstretched limbs. The animal shows great stiffness or rigidity in attempted movements. The eyes are sunken, and when startled or excited, the breathing is quickened and the flanks have a wrinkled or corrugated appearance. Death may quickly occur from continuous spasms of the muscles of the throat. Another sign is the flying up of the accessory eyelid when the animal is excited.

TREATMENT: If noticed in its first stages, and if the animal is able to eat, secure the services of an accomplished Veterinarian and insist on the use of fresh vaccine. This disease is almost impossible to cure, and about ninety per cent die.



LUNG FEVER

(Pneumonia)

CAUSE: Predisposition is largely accountable for this disease, which is more common to young horses than old; also, changes of temperature, introduction of foreign bodies or liquids into the trachea (windpipe) and the bronchial tubes, inhalation of smoke or irritating gases, excitement, exposure to cold after clipping, turning out to pasture from a warm stable, or injury to chest or ribs from being struck with a pole, etc.

SYMPTOMS: Dullness in spirit; animal usually shivers or trembles; when this ceases the temperature rises to perhaps 103 to 106 degrees F., pulse increases to sixty or ninety per minute, full and bounding; breathing short and labored and abnormally quick, increasing to perhaps fifty inspirations per minute, whereas in health it does not exceed twelve or thirteen per minute. A cough is also likely to be present, and the animals remain standing until they are on the road to recovery, or until death takes place. Other symptoms are constipation, feces covered with mucus or slime; urination frequent, scanty and dark in color; appetite poor, but thirst great; the eyes look glassy and the membranes have an inflamed appearance. It is a good sign if the animal looks about freely. When the critical stage is past the temperature and pulse gradually fall, the appetite returns and the urine becomes more abundant, and takes on its natural color, the cough loosens, and the discharge from the lungs is profuse, and of a yellowish color, and the breathing becomes normal.

TREATMENT: Good care is of the utmost importance. Place the horse in a comfortable, well ventilated stall, being careful to exclude drafts. Hand rub and bandage the legs with woolen cloth. Blanket the animal, give plenty of bedding and keep pure water before him at all times. Internally administer Quinine, two ounces; Iodide of Ammonia, two ounces; Ammonia Bicarbonate, two ounces. Mix well and make into sixteen powders. Place powder in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun every four hours. It is quite necessary that the above remedy should be placed in capsule, as drugs of this nature tend to irritate the throat. Do not give physics, as it is much safer to give laxative food, as hot bran mashes, steam rolled oats or some vegetables, in fact anything the animal will eat, i.e., that has food values. It is advisable to apply over the chest the following liniment; Aqua Ammonia Fort., four ounces; Turpentine, four ounces; Raw Linseed Oil, four ounces. Mix and shake well before applying each time over the chest cavity.

In case the animal is constipated, give rectal injections of soap and warm water containing a few drops of Turpentine.



MANGE

(Scabies)

CAUSE: Mange is a contagious disease, produced by the presence of a small parasite that varies in length from a fiftieth to a hundredth of an inch, according to the species, of which there are three: Sarcoptes, which generally affects the withers; Symbiotes Communis, affecting the legs, and the Psoroptes Communis, which affects horses about the root of the tail and mane. The latter is the one most commonly found affecting horses. They multiply rapidly and are spread from diseased to healthy horses by their bodies coming in contact with one another, or by corrals, stables, railroad cars, etc., recently occupied by mangy horses.

SYMPTOMS: The mange mite attacks the skin and produces a thickness of its outer surface, covering it with crusts and scabs, with a consequent loss of hair. Intense itching accompanies the disease, and affected horses continually bite and rub themselves.

Psoroptic Mange commences at the root of the tail, or at the roots of the mane on the neck or withers, and gradually spreads over the back, up to the head, over the sides, and finally affects the entire body. In cases of long standing the skin becomes ulcerated, the animal becomes greatly weakened, emaciated and finally dies.

TREATMENT: When a large number of horses are affected (in one locality) it is best to prepare a vat and dip them, under the supervision of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. When just a few horses become affected, the following has proven very effective: Sulphur, eight ounces; Oil of Tar, eight ounces; Sweet Oil, two quarts. Mix and apply liberally to the parts affected. A few applications are generally sufficient to eradicate the disease.



MONDAY MORNING DISEASE

(Lymphangitis)

CAUSE: This ailment is common with hard working horses, and is caused by confining them in the stable and allowing their usual amount of food. More nutriment is consumed than can be taken up by the system, which causes an irritation. It is frequently found in certain stables on Monday morning, hence its name—Monday Morning Disease.

SYMPTOMS: Swelling and lameness, most usually affecting the hind leg inside of the thigh and extending down the leg in a hard ridge. It will pit on pressure, and cause intense pain; the horse will have difficulty in extending the limb forward, the swelling may surround the leg entirely. Pulse will be fifty to sixty per minute, temperature 102 to 104 degrees F., breathing will be faster than normal. The animal has great thirst, but the appetite is very poor; usually remains standing; if he lies down will have great difficulty in getting up.

TREATMENT: In this particular disease apply hot fomentations to the affected limb or limbs, for one hour, then rub dry and apply Camphorated Liniment. Give Nitrate Potassi, Chlorate of Potassi, Iodide Potassi, each four ounces. Mix and make into thirty-two powders. Give one powder three times a day in drinking water or in a gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun.

In most cases it is advisable to give a physic: Aloin, two drams; Pulv. Gentian Root, one dram; Ginger, one dram. Place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun.



MUD FEVER

CAUSE: Horses driven over muddy roads during the day and exposed to freezing weather at night, or driving them over muddy roads, then washing the limbs and not drying them properly, often produces a superficial inflammation of the legs.

SYMPTOMS: The legs are swollen, extremely hot and tender, the horse is stiff, the hair comes off the legs easily and if the cause is not removed severe complication may follow, as the secretions of the skin become greatly affected.

TREATMENT: Prevention. Horses that are driven over muddy, wet roads should have their legs rubbed dry when stabling them for any length of time. When the legs are badly swollen wash them with clean warm water and Castile soap and dry them well with a clean soft cloth. Then apply Zinc Oxide Ointment or a lotion made from Acetate of Lead, one ounce; Zinc Sulphate, one-half ounce. Place in a quart of clean water and apply twice daily. Either application is very beneficial in the treatment of Mud Fever. Feed the animal wheat bran mashes, steamed rolled oats, vegetables, etc., as they have a very good effect on the system which aids in relieving the inflammation of the skin.



NASAL GLEET

(Chronic Catarrh)

CAUSE: Exposure to cold followed by neglect, and lack of nourishing food; bruise or fracture of the frontal bones of the head; injury of the blood-vessels inside the bones, or an ulcerated tooth. May also be caused by tumor, or foreign substance or liquids in the nasal cavities. Sometimes dried pus in the nostrils, resulting from a cold, will cause nasal gleet.

SYMPTOMS: A white or yellowish discharge from one or both of the nostrils, the quantity varying with the severity of the attack and the length of time the disease has been established. If, when tapping over the nose below the eye, a dull sound is produced, it is safe to conclude that the cavities are filled with pus; to make certain, compare the sick animal with a healthy one; in some cases you will notice that even the bones of the nose below the eye are slightly elevated. The lining of the nose may be of a red or yellow color but not ulcerated in spots, as in Glanders. The animal may continue in pretty good spirits and work well for a time but as the case develops he becomes lean in flesh and what is termed hide-bound. Always examine the teeth. In a case of long standing, the discharge has a fetid smell, differing in this respect also from Glanders.

TREATMENT: If not due to fractured bones of the head or ulcerated teeth, the animal will, in most cases, recover with proper medical treatment. When due to injury to the bones of the head, tumors, ulcerated teeth or dried pus in the nasal cavities, it is best to secure the services of a skillful Veterinarian, one whose professional knowledge renders him thoroughly competent. In the mild forms of nasal-gleet or chronic catarrh, administer the following: Ferri Sulphate, Potassi Iodide, Nux Vomica, each four ounces. Mix well and make into thirty-two capsules. Give one capsule three times daily and feed food that is nourishing and easily digested.



SADDLE STALLION ASTRAL KING, CHAMPION SADDLE STALLION. Owned by James Houchin, Jefferson City, Mo.



NAVEL STRING INFECTION

(Umbilical Pyemia)

CAUSE AND NATURE: While the unborn foal (foetus) is in the womb of its mother, it is surrounded by enveloping membranes which constitute the after-birth on delivery. These membranes are attached to the wall of the womb and are connected to the foetus by means of the navel-string (umbilical cord) which is provided with two arteries and a vein for the nourishment of the young creature and for the removal of its waste products.

It also has a narrow canal (the urachus) which serves to remove the urine of the foetus; in fact the subsequently formed bladder takes its origin from a dilation of the urachus. Under normal conditions when the foal is born, respiration takes place, the umbilical arteries and veins become quickly blocked up, urine is discharged through the urethra (which communicates with the penis or vagina, as the case may be), the foal enjoys a separate existence and the wound caused by the division of the umbilical cord leaves a scar which is known as the navel.

It is usually supposed that the germ of navel-string infection gains admittance into the body through the exposed surface before the wound is closed. However, I am of the opinion that the mother is the bearer of the infection in a great many cases for in the uterine secretions of mares whose foals fell with navel-string infection, the same characteristic germs were found as were present in the joints of the affected foals. The infectious material is, by the act of covering, conveyed from mare to mare, so that the mucous membranes of the womb becomes the habitat of the specific germ. By inoculation of these germs into the blood stream of foals an illness is produced which in the smallest particular cannot be distinguished from that arising in naturally affected foals. It is a strange fact that when the infected germs are transmitted by the mother, their presence does not produce any disturbance in her.

This is a very common malady in most places. I have known several instances on particular farms where they were unable to raise either foals or calves, but if the mother were removed to another farm immediately after or before foaling, the foal or calf lived and was reared without difficulty, and although constitutional debility plays an important part, the presence of specific germs constituting an infected area is, I believe, the most important factor in producing this disease.

According to my observation, about seventy-five per cent of the cases die within the first three weeks after birth. This high rate of mortality would be considerably diminished if proper treatment was adopted.

SYMPTOMS: The attack usually comes on during the second or third week after birth and almost always before the closure of the navel opening, which, in affected animals, will be found to be in a wet and suppurating condition. Occasionally foals two or three months old which have the urachus closed and are in an apparently healthy condition contract this disease in a form of painful swelling of the joints. The first symptoms are generally dullness; more or less fever; lameness which is often attributed to rheumatism or to injury caused by the mare treading on the foal; the disinclination to move or even to stand. Upon examination the patient will be found to have a soft, gelatinous swelling of one or more of the joints of which the hock, elbow, fetlock, stifle and hip usually manifest the enlargement most clearly.

These swellings are hot and painful to the touch; they tend to suppurate and frequently cause intense lameness. In very rare cases open urachus may exist without any joint inflammation. In this disease, inflammation of the joints and open urachus are almost always co-existent.

Animals that recover from a bad attack are seldom worth the trouble of rearing, because as a rule their constitution becomes permanently impaired and one or more of their joints becomes stiffened by the attack.

TREATMENT: In the treatment of this disease, we have to attend to constitutional disturbances, inflamed joints, open urachus and complications such as constipation and diarrhoea. The comfort of our little patient must be studied under all circumstances. If the weather be at all cold it should be covered by a warm sheet. Should the foal have any difficulty in rising from the recumbent position, an attendant should assist it to rise and see that it is regularly fed. It is only in extreme cases that the animal refuses to suck its dam. During warm weather, and especially if the ground is dry, such a patient is always better off for a little sunshine, but on no account must it be left out during extreme heat, as in this state it is very liable to sunstroke. The best food for the mare is grass, which, during the day, she can generally have. The inflamed joints of the foal should be rubbed lightly with the following, after being thoroughly mixed: Red Iodide of Mercury, two drams; Vaseline, two ounces, every forty-eight hours, which, when applied to the skin, appears to have a well-marked antiseptic action on the underlying tissues. An inflamed joint should on no account be bathed with warm water, fomented or poulticed because the application of moist heat would be the best possible means for promoting the development of the infective germs which are the cause of the local and general disturbance. The open navel-string should not be ligatured because that operation is generally followed by an increased inflammation of the part, and by an aggravation of the other symptoms apparently on account of this outlet for deleterious products becoming blocked up. If the navel-string has been ligatured and is in an inflamed state, the ligature should be removed without delay. If the foal is constipated give two to three ounces of Castor Oil; also, administer the following: Zinc Sulphocarbolates, one-half dram; Hyposulphite of Soda, four ounces. Mix and make into thirty-two powders. Give one powder well back on the tongue every four hours.

As a supplement to the food, we may give brown sugar or treacle, both of which are easily digested and are very nourishing. Four or five eggs daily will also aid in keeping up the strength.



NAVEL RUPTURE

(Umbilical Hernia)

CAUSE: Hereditary predisposition is well marked in this complaint. It may exist at birth, but so-called congenital rupture may very probably be the result of the pulling which the navel-string underwent at the time of foaling. However, umbilical hernia usually occurs during the first two or three months after birth; that is to say, while the opening at the navel is becoming obliterated and the tissues at that place are becoming consolidated. They can, however, appear later and may result from more or less violent strains sustained when the foals are jumping or playing. At other times these strains are induced by intestinal irritation accompanied by diarrhoea or constipation with straining. But, however the strain may take place, the abdominal muscles contract and push the intestines towards the wall of the belly. Then if they find an opening or even a weak spot, like the ring of the navel while it is undergoing the process of becoming blocked up, they select it and a rupture is produced.

SYMPTOMS: This rupture, the situation of which clearly shows its character, may vary in size from that of a hen's egg to that of an ostrich's egg. If pressed upon with the hand, especially if the animal is placed on its back, the rupture will disappear, to return, however, when the pressure is removed. If it be composed of intestines it will be soft and elastic when the bowels are empty, but when they are full of semi-solid food they will be doughy. In any event, the tumor will feel elastic when composed of intestines, but when formed of its connecting membranes, will naturally not vary in consistence. If intestines be present, movements and abdominal rumblings may be detected in it. This rupture rarely gives rise to serious consequences because its contents are composed of large intestines and omentum, either of which is, in this position, not liable to become strangulated. It may, however, become engorged and inflamed from injury. Its existence naturally depreciates the value of an animal suffering from it.

TREATMENT: In the majority of cases, they will disappear with their own accord in two or three months. In case the rupture shows no signs of diminishing in size it is well to apply a bandage around the abdomen or secure the services of a competent veterinarian and he will prescribe a treatment or operate, which will apply directly to your colt's or horse's particular case.



OPEN JOINT

CAUSE: Injuries such as a kick from a sharp shoe, wire cuts, punctures from snags, or from probing a wound near a joint. Open joint is one of the most serious accidents that may happen to a horse, for the sufferer is apt to die from the ensuing constitutional disturbance, and even if he recovers the joint will, in all probability, be permanently stiff.

SYMPTOMS: If the joint is opened or severely injured the wound will have an ordinary appearance except that there may be a flow of joint oil from the injured oil sack. However, the discharge gradually becomes more unhealthy until finally it is mixed with pus and blood and assumes a fetid odor. After two or three days the joint swells and becomes very painful and a high fever sets in. In unfavorable cases the animal dies from exhaustion very shortly, or at best recovers with a permanently stiff joint.

TREATMENT: Never probe a wound near a joint. If the injury is small and noticed immediately, apply Red Iodide of Mercury, two drams; Vaseline, two ounces. Mix and rub in well over the wound. This will set up sufficient inflammation to close the opening and kill any infection that may be present, as it possesses powerful antiseptic properties. If the wound is large, wash with Bichloride of Mercury, one part to one thousand parts distilled water. The wound should be washed twice a day with this solution. Then dust the wound with Tannic Acid, one ounce; Iodoform, one ounce; Boracic Acid, one ounce; Calomel, one dram. Mix and place in sifter top can and apply this after washing each time. Then bandage the wound by first placing clean absorbent cotton over the wound. Do not attempt to syringe a solution into an opening or some of the solution may gain entrance into the joint. Keep the animal as quiet as possible and feed laxative food.

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