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Three Centuries of a City Library
by George A. Stephen
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Transcribed from the 1917 Norwich Public Library Committee edition by David Price, ccx074@pglaf.org



THREE CENTURIES OF A CITY LIBRARY

AN HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE NORWICH PUBLIC LIBRARY ESTABLISHED IN 1608 AND THE PRESENT PUBLIC LIBRARY OPENED IN 1857

BY GEO. A. STEPHEN

City Librarian, Norwich Fellow of the Library Association Silver Medallist of the Royal Society of Arts Author of "Guide to the Study of Norwich," "Commercial Bookbinding," etc. Joint-author of "Manual of Library Bookbinding"

NORWICH THE PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMITTEE 1917

[Picture: Blackfriar's Church, now called St. Andrew's Hall, Norwich, circa 1650. Showing House in which the Public Library was originally established]

"I can wonder at nothing more, than how a man can be idle; but, of all other, a Scholar; in so many improvements of reason, in such sweetness of knowledge, in such variety of studies, in such importunity of thoughts. . . . To find wit, in poetry; in philosophy, profoundness; in mathematics, acuteness; in history, wonder of events; in oratory, sweet eloquence; in divinity, supernatural light and holy devotion; as so many rich metals in their proper mines, whom would it not ravish with delight!"—Joseph Hall, Bishop of Norwich, 1641-7.



PREFACE.

This book was prepared by instruction of the Norwich Public Library Committee, and it is now published as a souvenir of the sixtieth anniversary of the opening of the present Public Library, which will take place on March 16th, 1917. Norwich occupies a unique place in the history of libraries: it has the distinction of having established in 1608 one of the earliest provincial public libraries, if not the first in England, and it was the first municipality to adopt the Public Library Act, 1850. It is hoped, therefore, that the following sketch, besides giving local readers and archaeologists a detailed account of an important Norwich institution, will form an interesting chapter in the history of British Libraries.

The compilation has been made from the recently discovered Minute Book of the old Public Library, covering the period 1656-1733, from annual reports and other official records, and from notes accumulated since 1911. The work has been done under difficulties due to the abnormal conditions caused by the Great War, and I am conscious that imperfections have resulted; for these I crave the reader's indulgence.

I am grateful to the Dean of Norwich (the Very Rev. H. C. Beeching, D.D., D.Litt.) for his kind help in several matters, for many suggestions, and for reading the galley proofs. To Mr. Walter Rye I am indebted for reading the proofs, and for assistance. Thanks are also due to Mr. F. Johnson, the Assistant City Archivist, for consulting the City Records and providing me with some extracts; and to Mr. F. R. Beecheno, the historian of the parish of St. Andrew's, for assistance and information. My obligations to Dr. Montague Rhodes James, the Provost of King's College, Cambridge, and Mr. A. W. Pollard, M.A., of the British Museum, are acknowledged in the text. For any errors in the book I am solely responsible.

January, 1917. GEO. A. STEPHEN.



INTRODUCTION.

In mediaeval times the making, collecting, and preserving of books, as well as the maintenance of learning, were almost exclusively confined to monastic institutions, some of which lent books to laymen, and thus became the public libraries of the surrounding district. As to the literary life of Norwich in the fifteenth century, the late Dr. Jessopp wrote: "Whatever may have been the case in other dioceses, it is certain that the bishops of Norwich during the fifteenth century were resident in their see, and that they were prominent personages as scholars and men of culture and learning. . . . It is clear that . . . their influence was not inconsiderable in encouraging literary tastes and studious habits among their clergy. Pitts, in his list of distinguished Englishmen of letters who flourished during the latter half of the fifteenth century, mentions no less than twenty-four Norfolk men who were recognised as prominent scholars, controversialists, historians, or students of science." {1} Coincident with the decline of monastic learning in Europe were the revival of secular learning and the invention of printing, which gave a great impetus to the collection of books, especially on the continent. The sixteenth century was a dark age in the history of British libraries, the iconoclasts of the Reformation ruthlessly destroying innumerable priceless treasures both of books and bindings. John Bale, Bishop of Ossory, who was educated at a Carmelite Convent in Norwich, and became vicar of Swaffham, Norfolk, in 1551, wrote scathingly of the literary condition of England in the middle of the sixteenth century, and referred specifically to Norwich: "O cyties of Englande, whose glory standeth more in bellye chere, than in the serch of wysdome godlye. How cometh it, that neyther you, nor yet your ydell masmongers, haue regarded thys most worthy commodyte of your contrey? I meane the conseruacyon of your Antiquytees, and of the worthy labours of your lerned men. . . . I have bene also at Norwyche, oure seconde cytie of name, and there all the library monumentes are turned to the vse of their grossers, candelmakers, sope sellers, and other worldly occupyers." {2a}

In the early years of the seventeenth century many famous collegiate and town libraries—i.e., libraries under the guardianship of municipalities—were founded throughout the country, and in the history of the latter Norwich has a unique place. So far as can be ascertained from the published historical accounts of libraries, Norwich has the distinction of having established in 1608 (six years after the foundation of the Bodleian Library, and 145 years before the foundation of the British Museum) the first provincial town library under municipal control. {2b} The other earliest popular town libraries are those of Ipswich (1612), Bristol (founded in 1613 and opened in 1615), and Leicester (1632). Mr. Norris Mathews, the City Librarian of Bristol, contends that "The claim to the earliest [public library] in England still belongs to Bristol. This library was that of the Kalendars or Kalendaries, a brotherhood of clergy and laity who were attached to the Church of All-Hallowen or All Saints, still existing in Corn Street" ("Library Association Record," vol. 2, 1900, p. 642). In some notes regarding this Gild of Kalendars in Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith's Introduction to "Ricart's Calendar" {3} it is stated that "In 1464 provision was made as to a library, lately erected in the house of the Kalendars," and reference is made to a deed of that date by which it was "appointed that all who wish to enter for the sake of instruction shall have 'free access and recess' at certain times, and that, lest the books should be lost, three inventories shall be made, to be yearly collated with the books, which books shall be chained in a room, and for the loss of which heavy penalties are imposed on the prior. The prior to be appointed by the Mayor." Mr. John Taylor in his article on "The earliest English free libraries" ("Library Chronicle," vol. 3, 1886, p. 156), stated that these regulations were made by an ordinance of John, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1464. From the foregoing quotations it is obvious that the Library was under the control of the Gild, and not of the municipality, and therefore while, as a semi-monastic library, it may be regarded as a prototype of the modern public library, it cannot be justly claimed as the first public town library.

The following account of the first provincial town library and its successor is in two parts: part I. deals with the Library established in 1608 and now known as the City Library, and part II. deals with the Public Library, established under the Public Library Act of 1850.



PART I. THE CITY LIBRARY.

FOUNDATION AND HISTORY.

According to the judicious Norfolk antiquary John Kirkpatrick, who accumulated vast collections of material relating to Norwich, "There was a design of erecting a Public Library in this City, in the reign of Edward the Fourth, as appears by this legacy, in the will of John Leystofte, vicar of St. Stephen's church, here, A.D. 1461, namely,—"Item. I will that, if a library be begun in Norwich, within two years after my decease, I bequeath to the same, my book called Repyngton." {4} Kirkpatrick was unable to say whether the legacy was effected, and no record remains.

The first City Library of which there is any record was founded on the 3rd May, 1608, and by the following order of Assembly which was then recorded, it will be observed that it had an ecclesiastical basis, like so many libraries of previous centuries: "Ordered, with the consent of Jerrom Goodwyne, sword-bearer, that iij chambers, parcel of his dwelling-howse, which he hath by lease of the cyttie, shal be converted to a lybrary for the use of the preachers, and for a lodging chamber for such preachers as shall come to this cittie, to preach on the sabboth-dayes, and at other tymes, in the common place, and elsewhere, within this cittie; where the said Jerrom Goodwyn shall fynd beddyng, lynnynge, and other necessaries for lodging, for the preachers that so shall come, during their abode in the cittie for the intent aforesaid: which said romes for the lybrary shal be made fytt at the charge of this cittie; and the said Goodwyn to allowe one of his servants to attende the preachers. In consideration whereof, the said Goodwyne shal be allowed yearly the rent which he now payeth, and his lease, notwithstanding, to stand good for the terme therein expressed." {4}

The Library, however, was not intended solely for ministers. The wording of the title-page of the first donation book, commenced in 1659, states that it was founded for students: "Bibliotheca publica Norvicensis communi studiosorum bono instituta incoepta et inchoata fuit Ano Domini MDCVIII." (See reproduction, facing page 46). Moreover, the list of the early members of the Library includes the names of people who were not ministers. Facing pages 4 and 6 are facsimiles of the two pages in the Minute Book bearing signatures of early members who subscribed to the rules of the Library. Perhaps the most notable autographs are those of Charles Trimnell, Bishop of Norwich, William Whiston, translator of Josephus, and chaplain to John Moore, Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph, and Benjamin Mackerell, a Norfolk antiquary and Librarian of the Norwich Public Library.

[Picture: Autographs of early members of the City Library 1]

To Judge by the existing records, the City had then received no books for placing in the rooms. Mr. J. C. Tingey, {5a} however, considers it "rather strange that when, in 1608, three rooms were fitted up for the reception of the library at the New Hall there should be no existing books to be placed in the presses, though promises of donations may have been given. As a matter of fact the compilers of the old catalogues mention several works without being able to say by whom they were presented, and as many of these were printed in the 16th century it is not impossible that some of them constituted a primary stock. On the other hand many books whose donors are unknown were issued after the library was inaugurated, so of these it is certain that they were presented later." The number of works whose donors are not stated in the first printed catalogue of 1706 is 51, but in the second printed catalogue of 1732 the donors of 36 of these are stated, so there remain only 15 works in the first printed catalogue of which the donors are unknown. Of these fifteen one was printed after the establishment of the Library, and so the primary stock suggested by Mr. Tingey could not have consisted of more than 14 works.

There is a hiatus in the records of the Library proceedings from its establishment to 1656. Possibly the books presented to the Library from 1608 to 1656 were simply allowed to accumulate in the Library rooms, without any regulations in regard to their use and safe-keeping. That the books were sadly neglected is very evident from a codicil to the will dated September 18th, 1655, of John Carter, Rector of St. Laurence's Church, Norwich, giving to the Library "divers books, etc." He revoked his bequest by the following codicil, and "instead thereof gave 5 pounds to each of the three united parishes of St. Laurence, St. Swithin, and St. Margaret, for a stock of coals for ever": "nowe seeinge (to my no small grief) that that library is locked up, ministers shut out of it, and that it is never like to be of publique use againe, but that the books are devoted to the wormes, dust, and rotteness, to the dishonour of God, the damage of the ministry, and the wrong of the benefactors, the dead, and the living, &c." {5b}

[Picture: Autographs of early members of the City Library 2]

By 1656, the year of Carter's death, the Assembly had evidently realised the necessity for making regulations for the use of the Library, and had drawn them up before the 16th January in that year, when it was "ordered that the Articles moved touching the ordering of the Library be continued."

On the ninth day of the following month eight ministers met at the Library, when they received the "Orders" of the Council for the regulation of the Library, and having subscribed to them, they were admitted to the use of the Library. At this meeting they ordered two frames for the "Orders"; that Mr. John Collinges should be Library Keeper until January, 1657; that each minister admitted to the use of the Library should pay 12d. quarterly; and that "a book should be bought for registring the acts of the mins at their severall meetings in the Library, and sheets of parchment fit for the engrossing of the orders, and that the library keeper be desired to provide these against the next meeting." This minute book is still in the City Library, but it has been overlooked by all previous writers of notices of the Library. It commences with the proceedings of the meeting on the 9th February, 1656, and records the meetings until April 3rd, 1733. As the Assembly Minute Books for the years 1632 to 1682 are missing the actual "orders" previously mentioned cannot be quoted, but fortunately the other end of the Minute Book was used to write in the declaration of admission and the rules for the conduct of the Library. They are as follows:—

"We whose names are hereunto annexed upon our admission to ye use of ye Publick Library in ye City of Norwch, in Complyance wth an Act of ye Common Council of ye said City dated ye 16th January 1656, do faithfully engage and promise,

"Imprimis That we will not at any time Carry out of ye said Library any booke belonging to it.

"2 ly That we will not Leave any booke belonging to ye said Library (after our using it) out of its due place, nor write any thing in any of ye bookes, nor Leave them wth any Leaves turned downe.

"3 ly That we will not prejudice any other pson by our use of ye said Library, to which purpose we shall not at any time delay our going to ye Library after ye receipt of ye Keyes from ye Keeper, nor ye restoring them when we Come out of ye said Library.

"4 ly That we shall as to all these Articles be Responsabl for our friends who shall goe wth us to ye said Library, as for our selves.

"5 ly We shall (being duly Chosen thereto) not above once in seaven yeares, discharge ye office of Library-Keeper.

"6 ly We shall faithfully pay our proportions to ye under-Keeper of ye said Library quarterly, and also our equall share wth ye rest of our brethren in all Charges they shall be at for ye better preserving of ye said Library.

"All these things we shall endeavour faithfully to observe & keep, if through our negligence we shall fail in any of them, we Agree to subject our selves to ye Penalties mentioned in ye orders Confirmed by the Court of Common Councill in ye said City."

The Library at this time was clearly a Reference Library, and its maintenance partly depended on the members who agreed to pay their "proportions" of 12d. quarterly, and also their equal share in any charges made for the "better preserving of the Library." The earlier entries in the Minute Book give a fair record of the proceedings at the meetings: they record the names of the members present, the names of new members admitted to the use of the Library, the quarterly payments of the members, the donations of books, books purchased with money given to the Library, duplicate books exchanged for other books, the appointments of the Library Keepers and Under Library Keepers, and other matters connected with the administration of the Library; but the fulness of the entries gradually diminishes until the records are little more than lists of members present, and notes of quarterly payments.

The meetings were held monthly, and on February 6th, 1656, it was resolved that the meetings should be held on the second Monday in each month between 2 and 3 o'clock. At that meeting a levy on the members was recorded: "All the mins present at this meeting deposed Sixpence a piece in Mr. Collinges hand towards the providing of frames and parchment for the orders for the regulation of the library, in all 5/-: and ordered such as were not present if admitted already, or such as hereafter should be admitted, should at their admission or next appearing at meeting lay down so much towards the frames and parchment aforesaid, and the buying of a book to register the Acts of the mins in."

That the members were permitted to enjoy the fragrant weed on the library premises is evident from an entry under date October 12th, 1657: "Threepence was laid out for tobacco pipes," and on April 1st, 1690 it was recorded, "That Mr. Pitts is this day discharged from ye office of Library Keeper, and is endebted to ye under=Library=Keeper for his 2 years for fire, candle, pipes, pens, ink and paper, nine shillings."

From many records it is obvious that the City Authorities closely controlled the administration of the Library. According to the Minute Book on January 12th, 1673, the members "consented yt Mr Riveley and Mr Morley should attend yppon the Court to craue their Order for appoynting the time for ye Ministers Meeting at the Library for future to be uppon the first Tuesday in every moneth." The request was granted. On 29th March, 1673, the Court ordered "36s. to be paid for six Russia leather chairs for City Library." {8}

The library receipts from fees and charges are not regularly entered, but throughout the Minute Book there are occasional records of receipts and payments, and under date March 3, 1684, is the following: "This day ye account of ye Last year was stated. The Library keeper had received 4ll 3s & 4d and had expended 4l 11s 10d—due to Him 8s 6d."

Either as a means of raising additional money for the Library or of securing a better attendance of members at the meetings it was ordered on Jan. 15th, 1677 "that all persons that will continue the use & benefitte of the librarie shall pay for every omission of meeting upon the day appointed the forfeiture of 2 pence, no excuse to be admitted for absence; & the said forfeitures are to be dispos'd of every halfe year according as the major part of psons at yt meeting shall determine." The Minute Book does not show that the fines for absence were usually disposed of half-yearly, but the following memorandum was made therein on April 1st, 1690: "That this day we present cast up ye forfeitures of ye two last years, viz. 1688, 1689 And the several persons are indebted in all two pounds, ten shillings & four pence as appears by ye particulars in ye Book of forfeitures."

For the first 108 years of the Library's existence it remained a reference library, and books were not lent, but surreptitious borrowing probably took place occasionally. At any rate on December 2nd, 1684, the following memorandum was made: "That BP J. Ushers treatise de Macedonum et Assyriorum [Asianorum] anno solari was missing this meeting yt was, by ye under-library-keepers attestation here the last meeting and has bin missing this three weeks, 'tis desired that he that has it would be pleased to restore it, and not to do any such thing as is contrary to wt he hath subscribed." By 1716 the members had considered it desirable to allow the borrowing of books for home reading, and on May 7th, 1716, occurs the following record of the petition of the members to the City Court:

"This Society having requested ye Court to give leave yt an order might be made to render ye Library more usefull it was accordingly ordered by ye Court

"Norwich. At an Assembly held the third day of May Anno Dnj 1716

"The Petition of ye Clergy about ye Books in ye Library is now agreed to, so as such care be taken by ye Library-keeper yt there be no loss of ye Books.

P Cur: Chappell.

"The Articles or Conditions of borrowing any book out of ye Library are order'd to be written in ye first leave of a Register to be provided for ye use of ye Society."

"These Articles or Conditions are fortunately written at the end of the Minute Book, and are as follows:

"First, That every Person taking out any Book, shall enter ye same into a Book to be provided for yt purpose.

"2dly: That He shall be obliged to return ye same Book or Books wthin one month from ye time of borrowing, & enter ye return of ye sd Book in a Column of ye Register opposite to that wherein ye borrowing of ye sd Book is mention'd.

"3dly: That No Person shall have above ye Number of three Books (from this Library) at one time, unless ye leave of ye Society be first Ask'd & obtain'd.

"4thly: That if any damage be done to any Book, He in whose hands it is shall make it good, & to prevent disputes, if ye Book be damag'd before taken out of ye Library it shall be shown to ye Under=library=Keeper.

"5thly: That there be some Persons appointed to assist ye Upper Library Keeper in calling over ye sd Books ye first Monday of January next, & so yearly & every year, & yt ye Library Keeper shall have power to send for & call in such Books as are ytt abroad, & every person in whose hands any Books have been above ye limited time of one Month at such days of calling over ye sd Books shall forfeit two shillings & six pence to be applied to such use as ye Society shall adjudge proper.

"6thly: That No Person shall be admitted to ye use of this Library, (Those of this Court excepted) Nor have ye liberty of borrowing any Book from ye sd Library who are not already, or shall not hereafter be admitted to ye use of ye sd Library according to ye usages & Customs of the Society Now in great measure entrusted wth ye Care & Charge of ye Books of ye sd Library, except such Person shall first give unto ye sd Library ye sum of fourty shillings or Books to yt value.

"7thly: Tis agreed yt there be two fair Catalouges made, One to be & remain wth ye Court of this City, & ye other to be kept in ye Library, yt ye Library Keeper do get ye sd Catalouges made wth all convenient speed, yt ye Books be rang'd into some method & order, yt ye Library Keeper shall take in such assistance as is wanting, & his charge & trouble be allow'd according to ye discretion of ye Society."

These rules show that borrowers were permitted to record the books they borrowed, that they were allowed to retain them for a month, that damaged books should be reported to the Under Library Keeper before being taken away, and that a stocktaking fine of 2s. 6d. was provided for in the event of books not being returned in the January of each year.

The Minutes between 1716 and 1731 chiefly record formal matters, and little of note regarding the administration of the Library. On February 7th, 1731, "It was then unanimously agreed that the Members meet for the future on the first Tuesday in every Month at two o'Clock in ye afternoon." On the 7th of the following month two delinquent borrowers were dealt with: "Whereas the Revd Mr. Francis Johnson took some time since the Works of Bishop Bull in 4 volumes 8vo out of this Library, & has return'd only ye 1st, 3rd & 4th Vols & instead of ye 2d Sherlock on providence, it Was then Order'd, that that shd be return'd him again, & that he be requir'd either to send back ye sd 2d vol. or take the remaining three, & send an entire Sett. Order'd likewise that Mr Morrant be requir'd to return B-p. Stillingfleets Origines Sacrae, being ye 2d vol. of his works, Long since taken out by Him."

The regulations for the administration of the Library were again revised in 1732/3 by the City Council: {11}

"At an ASSEMBLY held on Feb. the 24th, 1732/3. the Right Worshipful the MAYOR, Sheriffs, Aldermen, and Common-Council this Day assembled, for the better Regulation of the Publick Library, have unanimously appointed the following ORDERS to be observed, upon Pain of Exclusion from the said Library.

"ORDERED, That the Catalogues already printed be Six Hundred; and that one Half of them be kept in the Town-Clerk's Office, to be delivered out to the Members of the Corporation; and the other Half be left in the Library, to be delivered out to the Subscribers.

"ORDERED, That the Books in the said Library be Annually called over, in the first Week of June, in the Presence of the Chamberlain; and that such books as are found to be Duplicates, be sold by the Chamberlain and Library-Keeper; and that the Money arising by Sale thereof, be laid out in the Purchasing of such Books as shall be thought proper by the said Subscribers.

"ORDERED, That after the said Annual Call is finished, the Subscribers to the said Library, upon their next Monthly Meeting, have Liberty to choose a Library-Keeper for the Year ensuing.

"ORDERED, That on the Reception of any Book or Books given to the said Library, the Donor's Name shall be written on the inside Cover of the Book, and that the Library-Keeper shall Register the same in the Vellum Book.

"ORDERED, That no Person shall have more than Three Books out of the said Library at one Time, nor keep them longer than one Month, without the Consent of the Majority of the Subscribers present at their Monthly Meeting: And that an Account of every Book Lent, and the Return thereof, be duly made and enter'd in a Book for that Purpose.

"ORDERED, That every Person who shall be admitted to the Use of the said Library, shall declare his full and free Consent to comply with the said Orders, as far as to him may appertain, according to the true Intent and Meaning of the same; and particularly with the following Orders or Articles, by subscribing his Name in the said Library-Book upon his Admission: And also that all the said Orders, and the following Articles, shall be entred in the said Library-Book, viz:

"First, That every Subscriber upon Admission shall pay to the Under Library-Keeper one Shilling, and also one Shilling Quarterly, for his Care of, and Attendance at the said Library: And every Subscriber shall also pay his Proportion of all Charges that may be thought necessary by the Subscribers, for the better preserving of the Books in the said Library; or shall be excluded the Use thereof.

"Secondly, That if any Book be lent out, and lost or damaged, the Borrower shall be obliged to make good such Loss or Damage.

"Thirdly, The Subscribers have Leave to meet the first Tuesday in every Month, to inspect the said Library, and take out such Books as they may have Occasion for, then or at any other Time; and see that the said Orders and Articles be duly observed.

"Per Curiam,

"LODGE." [i.e., Nehemiah Lodge, Town Clerk].

The Minute Book which finishes on April 3rd, 1733, is silent regarding these new regulations, but Benjamin Mackerell (Librarian of the City Library from 1724 to 1731) writing in 1737 shewed that they did not result in improving the management of the Library:

"For some few years it has been a Lending Library and some persons have had books two or three years together contrary to an order to the contrary. Here is no salary given by the city for anyone to take care and the charge of the books upon him only the keys thereof are left at the house of the Clark of St. Andrews Parish, and any man may be admitted that will but give him twelve-pence a quarter, but unless the Corporation would be at the expence of a salary for any sober discreet person to take the charge of the said books upon himself and have the sole custody of them, and pecuniary mulcts inflicted upon such as break the orders already made, there is little hopes of keeping the books there, or in any good order long together, besides this is also made use of upon the account of the trustees for the Charity Schools who frequently meet here, notwithstanding there are so many more convenient rooms in the said hall. Especially that in which the Grand Jury meet in at every Assizes. Persons may borrow two books out of this Library at a time but ought not to keep them above one month without giving notice to the Library keeper." {13a}

Mackerell's remarks, and the fact that the Minute Book was not filled, seem to indicate that the Library was neglected for some years. On September 21st, 1801, the Assembly complied with the request of the Committee of a subscription library, with the misnomer "Public Library" (established in 1784 in St. Andrew's Hall) by granting them leave "to have the use of the books in the City Library, to be kept under the care of their Librarian apart from other books, the President giving a receipt for the safe return of the same on demand." {13b} The City Committee reported to the Assembly in 1805 "that the books in the City Library have not of late been carefully preserved, that some valuable works have been mutilated and others lost or mislaid." {13c} The Assembly thereupon rescinded the order of September 21st, 1801, requested the President and Committee of the "Public Library" to "make good all losses and injuries," and committed the custody of the City Library to the Steward. In 1815 the City Library was again entrusted to the "Public Library." Ten years afterwards, the "Public Library," which still housed the City Library, was removed to a building in St. Andrew's Street. The admission fee to this Library in 1825, as stated in the Catalogue of the Library of that date, was five guineas, and the annual subscription was one guinea. This Catalogue contains the following rules regarding the City Library:

"LIV. The books belonging to the City Library having been deposited in the Library Room of the Public Library, by permission of the Corporation, are accessible to the subscribers, and may be delivered out under a written order of the president, or vice-president, countersigned by an officer of the Corporation.

"LV. The Librarian shall have charge of the books belonging to the City Library, and shall procure the necessary authority for the delivery of books to subscribers applying for them.

"LVI. The books belonging to the City Library shall be returned to the Librarian every quarter day; and the same fines and penalties shall apply to subscribers not attending to this regulation, or to losing, lending or injuring books belonging to the City Library, which are laid down by the laws for the protection of the books belonging to the Public Library."

In the same catalogue it was stated that the City Library was under the particular inspection of the Mayor and seven members of the Council who constituted the Library Committee of the Corporation. "The Right Worshipful the Mayor of Norwich, for the time being, is an Honorary Member of the Public Library; and the Members of the Library Committee of the Corporation, together with the Speaker of the Commons, the Town Clerk, and the Chamberlain, if not already Members of the Society, have the privilege of constant access to the Library Rooms during their continuance of office." {14} These rules were in force in 1847, and were reprinted in a new edition of the Catalogue printed in that year. The members of the rival subscription library, called "The Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution," which was established in 1822, were also allowed to borrow books from the City Library, by an order from the Chamberlain of the City. {15a} In 1835 the "Public Library" with the City Library was removed to a new building opposite the north door of the Guildhall, on the site of the present Norfolk and Norwich Subscription Library.

Ostensibly the City Library was adequately cared for by the "Public Library," but in reality it was greatly neglected. At a meeting of the Council on July 10th, 1856, the Town Clerk read a report from the City Library Committee, stating that they had inspected the books of the City Library, and "considered them in a very disorderly and dirty condition, that they could not be compared with the catalogue till they were re-arranged. They recommended that a grant of 25 pounds should be made for the rearrangement of the books, and that Mr. Langton [the Librarian] be employed for that purpose." {15b} In the discussion that ensued Mr. Ling said some of the books "were lying on the floor, damaged by dust and cobwebs, and an extremely valuable manuscript of Wickliffe's Bible was in a bad state." {15c} Mr. Brightwell suggested that the City Library would be a capital foundation for the Free Library, and the matter was referred back for the consideration of the City Library Committee. Those interested in the "Public Library" strove hard to retain the City Library, and on November 20th, 1856, the following memorial signed by the President was presented to the Council and discussed:—

To the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Norwich, in Council assembled. {15d} The Memorial of the Committee of the Norwich Public Library

Sheweth,—That at a quarterly assembly of the Corporation, held June 19th, 1815, a certain Report of the Library Committee was agreed to, and consent given for the city books to be taken to the Public Library under the direction of the same Committee.

That your memorialists have learned with deep regret that it is contemplated to apply to the Council for power to remove the city books to the Free Library.

That upon the faith of their tenure of these books, as long as the conditions imposed were satisfactorily complied with, various sums of money, to a considerable amount, have from time to time been expended by your memorialists from the funds of the Public Library in their preservation.

That the books of the City Library have been embodied in the catalogues of 1825 and 1847, under the same scientific arrangement as the books which are the property of the Public Library, distinguishing those which are the property of the Corporation by a prominent and appropriate designation; and that therefore by the removal of the City Library, the catalogue, to which your memorialists have recently published the first appendix, will be rendered quite useless and an expense, otherwise unnecessary, will be incurred.

That although the books of the City Library were recently found in a very dusty condition; yet that during the 40 years they have been in the custody of your memorialists, they have suffered no deterioration from damp, loss, or otherwise.

That the contiguity of the Public Library to the Guildhall affords the greatest convenience of application to the Town Clerk for permission to take out books from the City Library, and of the access of the Library Committee of the Corporation to inspect their property.

That it is in contemplation to place a fire in the room appropriated to the City Library, and further to improve it by the insertion of a large bay-window, which will make it a light and cheerful place for all who need reference to these ancient and valuable books.

That your memorialists venture to point out the entire unsuitableness, in their judgment, of works in learned languages, on abstruse subjects or in black letter, to the objects of the Free Library.

And your memorialists therefore pray that the books of the City Library be allowed to remain, as heretofore, in their keeping.

Signed on behalf of the Public Library Committee.

Norwich, Nov. 10th, 1856.

G. W. W. FIRTH, President.

Edward Edwards, in his monumental "Memoirs of Libraries," 1859, (vol. 1, p. 739) printed the above memorial which he said carried "its refutation on its face." "On so puerile a production," he continued, "it were idle to waste words. One remark, however, may be appropriate in anticipation of the history and objects of the Act of Parliament in pursuance of which the Free City Library of Norwich has been created. No Institution established under that Act can with justice address itself to any "class" of the population in particular. Rate-supported Libraries are ipso facto "Town Libraries." Their cost is defrayed by ratepayers of all degrees. It is the imperative duty of every Town-Council so to manage them as to make them conduce, in the utmost possible measure, to the researches, the pursuits, and the profit of every class of the townspeople. For some readers it may also be desirable to add that the so-called "Public" Library by whose managers this Memorial is drawn up, is Public in name only."

Notwithstanding the persistent attempts of the "Public Library" on futile pretexts to retain the City Library, the Council on February 17th, 1857, decided by a large majority in favour of the removal of the City Library to the new library building under its own control. Even then the Free Library Committee had difficulty in securing the books, and it was only after their repeated applications that the City Library was installed in the Library in 1862. Mr. John Quinton, the Librarian of the Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution, superintended the removal of the books, and arranged them in their new quarters. The book-plate in the volumes was printed from a wood-block engraved by his daughter, Miss Jane Quinton, a student of the Norwich School of Art, which at that time occupied the top floor of the Library. The books were shelved in cases on the ground floor until 1879 when they were removed to their present glass cases in the News Room.

The Council on the 17th March, 1868, agreed to the recommendation of the City Committee "that the Wyckliffe Bible and other books be committed as a loan into the custody of the trustees of the [Norfolk and Norwich] Museum, proper provision to be made for the exhibition and preservation thereof." {17} Several manuscripts and printed books were sent to the Museum, and Mr. J. J. Colman, the Mayor in that year, presented to the city a glass case for the exhibition of the books.

In 1872 the Norfolk and Norwich Law Library, which had just been established, applied for the loan of between 30 and 40 legal works in the City Library, and the Council acceded to its request on condition that any person not a member of the Law Library should have access to the books, and that the books should be returned to the City Library on request. A list of the books lent was printed in the Catalogue of the Law Library published in 1874. The books were returned during the year ending March, 1900.

The Catalogue of 1883 stated that the following was the rule for the use of the City books: "A loan of these books may be obtained at the Free Library, from 11 to 4 on any day of the week excepting Thursday, by application to the Town Clerk, who will supply a Form to be filled up by the applicant and forwarded to the Chairman of the Libraries Committee." Now the books are issued by and at the discretion of the City Librarian, for use in the Reference Library, in accordance with the rules of the Public Library.

The City Committee, which is responsible for the City Library, provided in 1912 a large exhibition case in the Reading Room for the display of some of the more rare and interesting books.



DONORS.

The Library was formed almost entirely by donations, principally from local residents, including bishops, deans, and other clergy, magistrates, merchants and tradesmen. The donations from the inception of the Library in 1608 to 1737 are enumerated in the Vellum Book provided for the purpose in 1659, to which reference is made on page 46. The first donation was a gift of fifteen volumes from Sir John Pettus who was Mayor during the year of the foundation of the Library, viz., Severinus Binius' "Concilia generalia et provincialia," 4 vols. in 5, (Cologne, 1606), "Centuriones Magdeburgh," 7 vols., (Basel), and Bellarmine's "Disputationes de controversiis Christianae Fidei," 3 vols., (Paris, 1608). His gift was followed by one in the same year from Susannah Downing, wife of Alderman George Downing, who had been Mayor in the previous year. She gave Hieronymus Zanchius' "Opera theologica," 8 vols. in 3, 1605 (Excudebat Stephanus Gamonetus). In the following year Thomas Corye, merchant, gave Luther's Works in 7 vols. and three volumes of Ludwig Lavater's Commentaries, (Zurich); Sir Thomas Hirne, the Mayor, gave ten volumes of Calvin's works, and a polyglot Bible—Biblia Sacra, Hebraice, Graece, et Latine (1599), 2 vols.; Thomas Corbett gave St. Augustine's Works (Basel, 1569); and Henry Doyly gave St. Bernard's Works (Paris, 1586).

The three chief benefactors to the Library were Richard Ireland, who at the time of his death was rector of Beeston, Norfolk; Thomas Nelson, rector of Morston, Norfolk; and John Kirkpatrick, a linen merchant, of Norwich, the eminent antiquary.

Ireland's bequest was made in 1692, and the entry in the Vellum Book is as follows:

"Mr Richard Ireland, Formerly Rector of Beeston and sometime also of St Edmonds in the Citty of Norwich where he was born, gave by his last Will all his Bookes to the publick Library of the Citty: where they are set up on Shelves, and accordingly specifyed in the Catalogue of the Library, viz, the Folios on Classis. 16 and the smaller bookes on Classis 20 and 21. with some others of the Old Citty Library distinguished in the said Catalogue.

"Memorandum. Some of Mr Irelands bookes which the Library was furnished with before, are set up in the outward Library to be Sold and exchanged for others, as he gave leave." The total number of volumes shown in the Library Catalogue of 1732 to have been given by Ireland is 142.

The entry in the Vellum Book regarding Nelson's bequest in 1714 reads: "Mr Thomas Nelson Late Rector of Morston in the County of Norfolk gave by his Last Will and Testament All his Books unto the Publick Library of this City where they are placed upon Six Shelves by Themselves in the Inner Room belonging to the said Library with his Name Over them in Gold Letters." Numerically his gift was the largest to the Library, 570 volumes being assigned to him in the Catalogue of 1732.

The bequest of Kirkpatrick is recorded as follows under date 1728: "Mr John Kirkpatrick Mercht and Treasurer to the Great Hospital in this City did by his last Will and Testament Give (Note the following are the very Words of his Will) To the Maior Sheriffs, Citizens & Commonalty aforesaid All my Ancient Manuscripts and all my Medals and Ancient Coins of Silver & Brass to be reposited in their Library at the New-Hall. Also my Printed Books in the Anglo-Saxon Language, & all such of my Books which were Printed before the Year of our Lord 1600 as are not already in the said Library, together with Mountfaucon's Antiquities, & Maddox's Firma Burgi lately printed; and I will & desire that all these things be kept there For Publick Use as the other Books in the said Library are. (Thus Far his Will.—

"Sometime after the Decease of the said Mr John Kirkpatrick there was more than Two Hundred Books sent to this Library According to his Will and Desire which are inserted in the Catalogue with his Name before Each Book.

"N.B. The Medals and Coins are not yet delivered But are still in the Hands of John Custance, Esq." Although the memorandum following the extract from the will states that more than 200 books were sent to the Library, the total number of books assigned to him in the 1732 catalogue is 168. Possibly the remainder were duplicates, and were sold or exchanged for other books.

Many other donations are worthy of special mention, but it is impossible to enumerate all of them. Gabriel Barbar, in the name of the Society of Virginia, gave 11 vols. in 1614, in which year, says Blomefield, "the Lords of the privy council, by letters dated the 22nd of March, desired the city to given [sic] encouragement to a lottery, set on foot for the benefit of the English Virginia plantation, . . . and by another letter dated 21 Dec. 1617, they desired them to assist Gabriel Barbor, &c in the management of a running lottery, to be by them kept in Norwich." {20a} In 1618 Thomas Atkins, Merchant of Norwich, gave seven volumes and 5 pounds for books.

During the mayoralty of Thomas Cory, 1628-29, the City of Norwich gave a copy of the second edition of John Minsheu's "The Guide into Tongues" (London: John Haviland, 1627) for which twenty shillings were paid. {20b} This work is still of value as a dictionary of Elizabethan English. In 1659 the City also gave a set of the famous English Polyglot Bible, edited by Bryan Walton, in 6 vols., (London, 1657)—a work which was a fine scholarly achievement of the Church of England at a time of great depression.

In 1658 Joseph Paine, Alderman of Norwich, who was Mayor in 1660, gave one book and 20 pounds for the purchase of books. In the Minute Book the donation is described thus under date Dec. 13, 1658: "Mr. Whitefoot, Mr. Harmar, and Dr. Collings made report to ye rest of the Brethren mett this day That Mr. Joseph Paine Alderman of the City of Norwich uppon Munday preceding this meeting, sent for ye 3 minrs. aforesaid to his house, and there did give into the hands of Mr. John Whitefoot one of the aforesaid minrs. twenty pounds declaring it his mind that it should be laid out at the discretion of ye 3 minrs. aforesaid together with Mr. George Cock to bee added to them to buy such bookes with it as they shall judge most fit for ye City Library."

The ministers evidently desired to mark especially their appreciation of Paine's gift. On February 9th, 1662/3 "The brethren taking notice that no bookes were yet markd as the guift of Sr Jos. Paine, and Mr. Whitefoot acquainting the brethren that he had procured printed paps to this purpose—Ex Dono Dni Josephi Paine militis hujus Civitatis praetoris, they ordered that some of those papers should bee affixed to the 9 vol. of ye Criticks: wch cost 15l & to the 4 vol. of Gerard's Comon places wch cost 3l 13s & to the 2 vol. of Theophilact. wch cost 1l 02s: in all 19l 17s: the other 3s: beeing accounted for ye Carriage: they also ordered that a like paper be affixed to Ravanella before giuen to the library by ye said Sr Jos. Paine."

In the Vellum Book under date Dec. 12th, 1659, are entered 29 volumes as a gift from Thomasine Brooke, "Widow & Relict of Wm Brooke, Gent." These were evidently purchased with a donation of 20 pounds, as under the same date in the Minute Book is the following: "Mr. Whitefoot acknowledged himself to have received of Mrs Brooke wid. to the use of the library to bee laid out uppon bookes by ye Consent of ye minrs. the summe of twenty pounds."

Sir Thomas Browne, who made Norwich his home from 1637, gave in 1666 eight volumes of Justus Lipsius' Works, (Antwerp, 1606-17), and under the entry recording this gift, which describes the donor as "Thomas Browne, Med: Professor", has been written in a different hand, "Opera sua, viz. Religio Medicj, Vulgar Errors, &c." (A reproduction of the page in the Vellum Book recording Browne's gift faces page 46.) The latter volume was evidently a copy of his "Pseudodoxia Epidemica . . . together with the Religio Medici," sixth edition, (London, 1672), which is still in the Library.

Another eminent benefactor was Thomas Tenison, who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1694, and is noteworthy to librarians as having established a public library in his parish of St. Martins-in-the-Fields, London, in 1695. Tenison was educated at the Norwich Free School, and in 1674 he was chosen "upper minister" of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, having been previously preacher at that Church. He was admitted to the use of the City Library on February 9th, 1673, and on March 2nd, 1674 and April 6th, 1675, he gave the following five volumes: Georgius Codinus' "De Officijs et Officialibus Magnae Ecclesiae et Aulae Constantinopolitanae" (Paris, 1625); Edward Herbert's "De religione gentilium" (Amsterdam, 1663); Peter Heylyn's "Historia Quinqu-Articularis" (London, 1660); Archbishop James Ussher's "Chronologia sacra" (Oxford, 1660); and the "Racovian Catechism," which is entered in the 1732 catalogue as "Moscorrow's Catechism."

Nathaniel Cock, described as a Merchant of London, but who was doubtless connected with the county, is credited with a donation of 33 volumes in 1674. These volumes were evidently purchased with the legacy of 20 pounds which Edmund Cock, his executor, paid to the Library-Keeper. This legacy is mentioned in the Minute Book, and also by Blomefield, {22} who states that he was the brother of Edmund Cocke, and that he also "gave the city chamberlain 100l, to be freely lent to five honest poor weavers, housekeepers and freemen, without interest, they giving security for the repayment at three years end."

In 1676, the year of the death of Edward Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich, the Vellum Book records a donation from him of 24 volumes. These books, however, were probably purchased with a legacy, as in the Assembly Book, 21st Sept., 1676, it is stated that the Clavors [Keepers of City Chest] to pay Robt Bendish Esq. 20 pounds to be pd to Mr John Whitefoot senr. to buy bookes for City Library according to will of Edward [Reynolds] late Bp. of Norwich.

Dean Humphrey Prideaux, the orientalist, was another distinguished benefactor. In August, 1681, he was installed as a Prebendary of Norwich, and in the following March he gave a copy of his edition of two tracts by Maimonides which he published with the title "De jure pauperis et peregrini apud Judaeos" (1679), "and other money [1 pound] from many others received" with which were purchased Joannes Caspar Suicerus' "Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus," 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1682), and J. J. Hoffman's "Lexicon Universale Historico-Geographico-Chronologico-Poetico-Philologicum," 2 vols. (Basel, 1677). When Dean of Norwich he gave a copy of the two works upon which his literary fame rests, "Life of Mahomet" and "The Old and New Testament Connected," 2 vols. (1716-18), and also his "Validity of the Orders of the Church of England," and "The Original and Right of Tithes," (Norwich, 1710).

Three citizens and Aldermen of Norwich gave donations of money in 1678 amounting to 11 pounds, with which ten volumes were purchased: Augustine Briggs 5 pounds, Thomas Wisse 3 pounds, and Bernard Church 3 pounds.

In 1700 William Adamson, Rector of St. John's Maddermarket, Norwich, who was buried therein in 1707, "gave to this Library three shelves full of books, viz. Classis 17, 18, and 19, the first in Folio, the Second in quarto, the third in Octavo, and are Specifyed in the Catalogue of the Library." The total number of the books assigned to him in the 1732 catalogue is 118 vols.

In 1706 John Moore, Bishop of Norwich "gave to this Library Eusebij, Socratis, Sozomeni, Theodoriti, & Evagrij Hist. Ecclesiast. in 3 vol., Paris, 1678," and Thomas Tanner, who had been made Chancellor of the Norwich Diocese in 1701, gave a copy of La Bigne's "Sacrae Bibliothecae Sanctorum Patrum," 5 vols. (Paris, 1589). Tanner also gave a large donation in 1726 which was thus recorded: "Thomas Tanner, S.T.P. and Chancellor of the Diocess of Norwich This year added more than an Hundred Books to those which he had formerly Given to this Publick Library; Which are particularly inserted in the Catalogue, with his Name before each Book." Possibly some of the books he gave were duplicates and were exchanged for others, as the 1732 Catalogue credits him with only 92 vols.

During the years 1707 to 1709 several Fellows of Trinity and other Cambridge Colleges gave donations of books (See List of Donors at the end of Part I., pp. 52-56). The Minute Book records that on August 5th, 1707 "was brought into the Library by Mr. Reddington, Fellow of Trinity College, in Cambridge, these following books being the gift of several persons of the said college, as here follows." These donations, numbering 28 volumes, were the gift of twelve Fellows, and may have been the result of an organised effort by Reddington to increase the Library. John Reddington was Rector of St. Edmund, Norwich, 1712, Rector of Rackheath, 1711-39, and of Hethel, 1737-39, and master of Norwich Grammar School from 1732 to 1737. He died in 1739, aged 57. In 1708 the Minute Book states that on Sept. 6th Mr. Reddington brought in five books the gift of five Fellows of Trinity College; and on Oct. 4, Mr. Brett brought in 8 volumes the gift of John Lightwin, the President of Caius College, and four other Cambridge men.

Benjamin Mackerell, described as "of the City of Norwich, Gent.", gave two volumes in 1716, and 13 volumes in 1731, when he held the office of Library Keeper.

John Jermy was stated in 1729 to "have sent & Given to this Library several Law Books and others; which are particularly inserted in the Catalogue, with his Name before Each Book." In 1733 he gave forty books, and in 1737 fourteen books. In the 1732 Catalogue he is credited with 67 volumes.

Edmund Prideaux, the son of Dean Prideaux, in 1730 "gave to this Library more than Threescore Books which are all of them inserted in the Catalogue with his Name before each Book." In the 1732 Catalogue only 49 volumes are shown to have been given by him.

The last entry in the Vellum Book records a gift from Robert Nash, Chancellor of the Diocese of Norwich, of a copy of "A Defence of Natural and Revealed Religion: being an abridgment of the Sermons preached at the Lecture founded by the Hon. R. Boyle," 4 vols. (London, 1737), by Gilbert Burnet, vicar of Coggeshall, which was published in that year.

Possibly it was the misfortune of the Library to lose a donation of manuscripts from Peter Le Neve relating to Norfolk that would have been of inestimable value, as the collector's work, said Mr. Walter Rye, "was characterised by strictest honesty," and the material "formed the backbone of the well-known county history, begun by Blomefield, and completed by Parkin." {24} Bishop Tanner, one of Le Neve's executors, stated in a letter to Dr. Rawlinson in 1735 that "There was an ugly Codicil made a few days before his death in favour of his wife, upon which she set up a claim for several of his Norfolk Collections, and has hindered the execution of that part of his will, which relates to the putting those papers into some public library in Norwich. But I have hopes given me that she is coming into better temper, and will let us perform our trust without entering into a chancery suit." {25a} There is no codicil to the will at Somerset House, and the actual words relating to his collections are as follows: "I give and bequeath unto the Revd. Doctor Tanner Chancellor of Norwich and Mr. Thomas Martin of Palgrave all my abstracts out of Records old Deeds Books pedigrees seals papers and other collections which shall only relate to the antiquities and history of Norfolk and Suffolk or one of them upon condition that they or the survivor of them or the Exors or Admors of such survivor do & shall within 12 months next after my decease procure a good and safe repository in the Cathedral Church of Norwich or in some other good and publick building in the said city for the preservation of the same collections for the use and benefit of such curious persons as shall be desirous to inspect transcribe or consult the same." Le Neve's widow evidently impeded his purpose, as his collections did not come to the city.

A donation, the loss of which, however, cannot be regretted, is referred to in the Court Book for 1677: "The Chamberlain, with the advice of Rob' Bendish & Jo: Manser, Esqrs are to consult a good workeman about ye making of a Case of Deale for ye skeleton of a Man given to the City Librarie & to report ye charge." {25b} Kirkpatrick quotes this and remarks: "But it seems it was not made, for there is no skeleton in the library now." {25c} Since the days of Rameses II., whose Egyptian Library bore the inscription "Dispensary of the Soul," libraries have often been properly so regarded, as their contents are undoubtedly remedial agents of vigour and virtue, but it is not clear why a library should be regarded as a repository for man's mortal frame.



CONTENTS OF THE LIBRARY.

The Library having been established primarily but not exclusively for the clergy, by whom it was chiefly used, its contents were designed to facilitate their studies, and pre-eminence was given to theological works, and other works of particular interest or value to them. Regarding the contents of the Library in 1706, when the first printed catalogue was published, the Rev. Joseph Brett said in the preface: "It may be more proper to observe, that upon the first Foundation of this Library many and great Benefactions, (by which alone it was first raised, and still encreases) were given by the Magistrates, Gentlemen and Tradesmen of this City, by which means, here is no inconsiderable Collection of Divinity Book, [sic] for that time especially. But considering the great Advance of Learning, in the last Century, the fine Editions of many of the Fathers, and the many learned Books that were then published, it must be owned, that this Library is now very deficient, even in Divinity itself. Besides here are very few Humanity Books, few or none of Law, Physick, Mathematicks, or indeed of any science but Divinity." Large donations from the Rev. Thomas Nelson, John Kirkpatrick, and others greatly increased the usefulness of the Library, and accordingly Mackerell, in his preface to the 1732 Catalogue, considered that "this Library is far from being meanly provided with Books (I wish I could say in all Faculties)."

While time has caused many of the works to decrease in value and practical interest, it has greatly enhanced the value of the few manuscripts and the considerable number of early printed books in the Library. The following are the most interesting and valuable manuscripts, some of which are on loan at the Castle Museum for exhibition. Dr. Montague Rhodes James, the Provost of King's College, Cambridge, one of the greatest authorities on early manuscripts, has kindly examined and dated four of them, and he has also supplied detailed descriptions which it is hoped will be published on another occasion.

MANUSCRIPTS.

Anon. IN APOCALYPSIN. XIIIth century.

Vellum, 10.25 x 7.5 inches, ff. 5 + 74 + 28, double columns, the number of lines varies. Bound in wooden boards. Presented to the Library in 1618 by Thomas Atkins, merchant, Norwich.

Contains: 1. Anonymous comment on the Apocalypse, with a few very rough pictures, coloured.

2. The Summa of Richard de Wethersett, Chancellor of Cambridge, called Qui bene praesunt.

BIBLIA HIERONYMI, OR BIBLE OF ST. JEROME. XIIIth Century.

Vellum, 9 2/10 x 7 1/10 inches, double columns of 52-53 lines. The illuminated initial letters are unfinished. Brown leather binding.

Presented to the Library in 1614 by Bassingbourne Throckmorton.

Contains: Genesis—2 Chron. (imperfect), Proverbs—Ecclus. Then the prologue to Wisdom and a small piece of the text of Wisdom repeated. Matthew, 1 leaf of Mark. Philippians, Col. 1, 2 Thess. Laodiceans (apocryphal) 1, 2 Tim. Tit. Phil. Heb. Apoc.

MEDICA. XIIIth century.

Vellum, 7.5 x 5.5 inches, ff. 62, double columns of 40 lines, in a small clear hand which Dr. James thinks may be South French. Initials in green and red and blue. There is no binding; the first page is much soiled.

Contains thirteen items: medical tracts, list of materia medica, etc.

MANUALE. XVth century.

Vellum, 9 7/8 x 7.25 inches, ff. 1 + 62 + 1, double columns of 27 lines, early XVth century, well written.

Original binding, white skin with circuit edge over wooden boards bevelled at the edges; remains of two strap and pin fastenings.

On the fly-leaf: John Kirkpatrick, Sept. 12, 1704. An old pressmark: 4to K 147. An illegible (not early) note of price.

The covers are lined with four half-leaves of a folio XVth century Missal in double columns, with parts of the Offices for St. Thomas of Canterbury and Sundays after Epiphany. At the end are bound in 7 smaller leaves of paper on which Kirkpatrick (?) has carefully facsimiled alphabets and abbreviations, and arranged the latter in alphabetical order.

Contents: The occasional offices to be used by a priest, according to Sarum use. The first page has a rather rough border in gold, red, and blue, and an initial of the same. Other like initials head the principal offices.

BIBLE: GENESIS TO PSALMS. WYCLIFFE'S TRANSLATION. XVth century.

Vellum, 17 2/10 x 12 inches, ff. 208 + 1, double columns of 59 lines.

Original sides of brown leather have been laid down on modern binding; ornamented in blind with rectangular panel formed by two roll stamps, enclosing another panel formed by the same stamps. Illuminated page at beginning of each book.

It belonged to Sir James Boleyn of Blickling Hall, who died in 1561, and was presented to the Library in 1692 by Richard Ireland.

ASTROLOGICAL TRACTATES. XVth century.

Paper, 5 3/4 x 4.5 inches, ff. 120, 32 lines to a page. In three hands; clearly written.

Original binding, wrapper of skin lined with linen. Contains thirteen items: astrological treatises, tables, etc.

PRECEDENTIA TEMPORE REGNI HEN. VIII. Circa 1500.

Vellum, 11.5 x 8.5 inches, ff. 124 (imperfect, commences at f. 10), 37 lines to a page. Rough calf binding.

Book of Precedents of Royal Writs.

SEARCH BOKE FOR LYNN, SWAFFHAM, WALSYNGHAM, AND FAKENHAM. XVIIth century.

Paper, 11 x 7.5 inches, ff. 81. Vellum binding.

Alphabetical index of offenders at various sessions courts held at Fakenham, Walsingham, Lynn and Swaffham, from 1651 to 1669.

The early printed books in the Library include no less than twenty-eight incunabula, four of these being from English presses, and two, the 1483 "Scriptum super logica," printed at St. Albans, and the 1497 "Expositio Hymnorum et Sequentiarum," printed by Pynson, are of great rarity. Several of the incunabula are imperfect, but Mr. Alfred W. Pollard, M.A., the Hon. Secretary of the Bibliographical Society and an eminent authority on early printed books, very kindly identified them, and he also undertook to edit the list of incunabula. To Mr. Pollard the writer's thanks are tendered for the following annotated list, arranged chronologically, and giving the place of printing and the name of the printer:—

WORKS REFERRED TO.

B.M. = Catalogue of Books printed in the XVth century now in the British Museum. Parts 1-111. 1908-1913.

Campbell. = Annales de la typographie neerlandaise au XVe siecle. Par M. F. A. G. Campbell. 1874.

Copinger. = Supplement to Hain's Repertorium Bibliographicum. By W. A. Copinger. 1895-1902.

Hain. = Repertorium bibliographicum in quo libri omnes ab arte typographica inventa usque ad annum MD typis expressi ordine alphabetico vel simpliciter enumerantur vel adcuratius recensentur. Opera Ludovici Hain. 1826-1838.

Proctor. = An Index to the Early Printed Books in the British Museum from the invention of printing to the year MD. By Robert Proctor. 1898.



INCUNABULA.

1480 COLOGNE. Conrad Winters de Homborch. JACOBUS DE VORAGINE. Legenda Aurea. Quarto. B.M. p. 248 (IB. 4043). 1481 NUREMBERG. Anton Koberger NICOLAUS DE LYRA. Postillae super Biblia cum additionibus Pauli Burgensis. Folio. Hain *10369. B.M. p. 419 (IC 898). [1482, after July end] WESTMINTSER. Wm. Caxton. HIGDEN, Ranulphus. Polychronicon. Folio. Blades 46. De Ricci no. 19, copy 38. Imperfect at beginning and end. [1483] [ST. ALBANS. Schoolmaster printer.] ANDREAE, Antonius. Scriptum super logica. Quarto. Imperfect copies at Jesus College, Cambridge, and Wadham College, Oxford. [About 1483-85.] LONDON. Wilhelmus de Machlinia. ALBERTUS MAGNUS. Liber aggregationis seu De virtutibus herbarum. Quarto. Proctor 9770. [1485?] LOUVAIN. Johannes de Westphalia. [ROLEWINCK, Werner]. De Regimine Rusticorum. Quarto. Campbell *1480. Proctor 9274. 1487 VENICE. Georgius de Arrivabenis. Biblia Latina. Quarto. Hain *3099. Proctor 4912. 1490 STRASSBURG. [Printer of Jordanus de Quedlinburg]. Modus legendi abbreuiaturas in utroque iure, etc. Folio. Hain 11485. B.M. p. 140 (IB. 2030). 1491 MAINZ. Jacobus Meydenbach. Hortus Sanitatis. Folio. Hain *8944. B.M. p. 44 (IB. 343). Imperfect, wanting seven leaves at the end. 1492 PARIS. Antoine Caillaut. GUILLERMUS PARISIENSIS. Super septem sacramentis. Quarto. ?Hain 8313. Not described. 1493 NUREMBERG. Anton Koberger. SCHEDEL, Hartmann. Liber Cronicarum. Folio. Hain *14508. B.M. p. 437 (1C. 7451). 1494 NUREMBERG. Anton Koberger. DURANTI, Guilelmus. Rationale diuinorum officiorum. Quarto. Hain *6497. B.M. p. 439 (IB. 7478). 1494 NUREMBERG. Anton Koberger. HEROLT, Joannes. Sermones de tempore et de sanctis. Folio. Hain *8504. B.M. p. 440 (IB. 7485). 1494 STRASSBURG. [Martin Flach]. MARCHESINUS, Joannes. Mammotrectus super Bibliam. Quarto. Hain *10573. B.M. p. 153 (IA. 2184). 1495 PARIS. Jean Petit. Postilles des dimenches et des festes de lanee. Quarto. Not described. [1495?] VENICE. Bernardus Benalius. TERTULLIANUS. Apologeticus aduersus Gentes. Folio. Hain 15443. Proctor 4899. [About 1495] [FRANCE?] BURLEY, Walter. De vita et moribus philosophorum. Quarto. Copinger 1387. Copy in University Library, Cambridge. 1496 NUREMBERG. Anton Koberger. GREGORY IX. Decretales cum summariis. Folio. Hain *8034. B.M. p. 442 (IB. 7519). 1496 VENICE. Baptista de Tortis. GREGORY IX. Decretales cum summariis. Folio. Hain *8035. Proctor 4656. 1497 BOLOGNA. Benedictus Hectoris Faelli. PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA (Giov. Fran.). De morte Christi, etc. Quarto. Hain *13002. Proctor 6634. 1497 LONDON. Richard Pynson. Expositio Hymnorum secundum usum Sarum. Expositio Sequentiarum secundum usum Sarum. Quarto. Other copies known are at the Bodleian Library and St. John's College, Oxford. 1497 NUREMBERG. Anton Koberger. Biblia Latina cum postillis Nicolai de Lyra et additionibus Pauli Burgensis. Folio. A complete copy has four parts. This contains only the first and about half of the second. Wrongly lettered 1481. Hain *3171. B.M. p. 443 (IB. 7535). 1497 VENICE. Simon Bevilaqua. LACTANTIUS. De diuinis institutionibus, etc. Folio. Hain *9818. Proctor 5401. 1497 VENICE. Bonetus Locatellus for Octavianus Scotus. GUAINERIUS, Antonius. Practica. Folio. Hain *8099. Proctor 5076. 1498 etc. BASEL. Johann Froben & Johann Petri. Biblia Latina cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Nicolai de Lyra. Folio. Hain *3172. B.M. p. 791 (IB. 37895). Imperfect, wanting parts 3, 5 and 6. 1499 VENICE. Simon de Luere for Andreas Torresanus. BARTHOLOMAEUS MONTAGNANA. Consilia medica. Folio. Proctor 5622. 1499 STRASSBURG. Johannes Gruninger. SIBYLLA, Bartholomaeus. Speculum peregrinarum quaestionum. Quarto. Hain *14720. B.M. p. 113 (IA. 1486). 1500 VENICE. Johann Emerich for L. A. Giunta. JOANNES FRANCISCUS BRIXIANUS. Quattuor viuendi regulae. Quarto. Hain *13827. Proctor 5504.

In addition to the foregoing early printed books the Library includes examples from the English presses of Wynkyn de Worde, Julian Notary, Peter Treveris, Thomas Berthelet, Richard Grafton, John Day, Richard Tottell, Christopher Barker, Robert Barker, John Norton (celebrated for his magnificent edition of St. Chrysostom's Works in 8 vols., printed at Eton, 1610-1612—a copy of which is in the Library—which T. B. Reed described as "one of the most splendid examples of Greek printing in this country"), Thomas Roycroft, etc. Continental typography is also represented by specimens from many presses, including those of Jean du Pre, Jodocus Badius Ascensius (Josse Bade of Asch), the Estiennes, the Elzevirs, Christopher Plantin, John Koberger, H. Petrus, Peter Perna, etc.

Coming to early Norwich printed books there are unfortunately no examples of the rare works from the first Norwich press set up about 1566 by Anthony de Solemne or Solempne, whose first extant printed work is dated 1570, and whose last is dated 1579. The Library, however, possesses an example from the press established by Francis Burges, who in 1701 styled himself "the first printer in Norwich." It is a copy of Erasmus Warren's "A Rule for Shewing Mercy," printed by F. Burges, and "sold by the widow Oliver, Bookseller in Norwich, 1706." When Burges died in 1706 his business was carried on by his widow, and the 1706 catalogue of the City Library (see page 47) "Printed by Eliz. Burges, near the Red-Well," is a specimen from her establishment. The press of Freeman Collins is represented by Dean Prideaux's "The Original and Right of Tithes," printed in 1710. The second catalogue of the City Library, printed in 1732, (see page 48) was printed by "William Chase, in the Cockey Lane," who founded the Norwich Mercury.

A perusal of the 1883 catalogue will shew that the Library had indeed "no inconsiderable Collection of Divinity Book[s], for that time especially," as was said by Brett in his Catalogue of 1706, and repeated by Mackerell. There are sixteen printed Bibles and five New Testaments in the Library, including the second and fourth of the great Polyglots, the Plantin edition (1572) and Brian Walton's (1655-57), and the following English versions: Matthew's Bible (1549), The Great Bible (1553), and the first edition of the Geneva version (1560). It is curious that there should be no copy of any edition of the Bishops' Bible.

Most of the principal Fathers are represented by some of their writings. Of the ante-Nicene Fathers there are writings by Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen and Cyprian, and of the post-Nicene Fathers there are writings by Eusebius of Caesarea, Hilary of Poitiers, Athanasius, Basil, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ambrose, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Augustine, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory the Great, and John of Damascus.

The literature of the theological controversies which raged in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the writings of the principal theologians of those centuries are fairly well represented in the Library.

Belonging to the period of the Revival of Learning are Hugh Latimer's "Frutefull Sermons" (1575) Cranmer's "Defence of the True and Catholike doctrine of the sacrament of the body and bloud of our Savior Christ" (London: R. Wolfe, 1550), Thomas Becon's Works (London: various dates), and others. The theological literature of the Elizabethan period is represented by such works as the "Ecclesiastical Polity" (London, 1622) by Richard Hooker—that great champion of Anglicanism—and some of the published writings of the famous controversy between Bishop Jewel and the Roman Catholic Thomas Harding.

The works of Dutch scholars of the first half of the seventeenth century, when Dutch scholarship was the ripest in Europe, are represented by five works of G. J. Vossius (a German by birth), including his valuable "Historia Pelagiana" (Leyden, 1618), three works of Daniel Heinsius, and five works of Hugo Grotius, the great Dutch jurist and theologian. The latter include an edition of "De Jure Belli ac Pads" (Amsterdam, 1667), which was translated into the principal European languages, and "De veritate religionis Christiana" (Paris, 1640), a popular treatise which became for a time the classical manual of apologetics in Protestant colleges.

The "Annales Ecclesiastici" of the Italian Cardinal, Caesar Baronius—of which the Library has an edition in twelve volumes, (Cologne, 1609)—a work characterized by great learning and research, greatly stimulated Protestant study no less than it provoked criticism. Its most important critic was Isaac Casaubon, who issued a fragment of the massive criticism which he contemplated, "Exercitationes in Baronium." The Library has a copy of the edition printed in Frankfort, 1615.

The Jacobean period was "The Golden Age of the English Pulpit," the period when sermons were extremely popular, and discharged, with the playhouse, some of the functions of the modern newspaper. At this time Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, who was eminent in the capacities of prelate, preacher, and writer, was generally regarded as the very "stella praedicantium." Of his published sermons the Library now possesses "XCVI Sermons," 3rd ed. (London, 1635), and "Nineteen Sermons concerning Prayer" (Cambridge, 1641). The most erudite of theologians in this erudite time was James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, described by Selden as "learned to a miracle." Of his works the Library contains eight, including his "Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti" (London, 1650), which is regarded as his most important production, and his "Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates" (London, 1687).

Joseph Hall, Bishop and satirist, who took an active part in the Arminian and Calvinistic controversy in the English Church, is of particular interest to Norwich, of which he became Bishop in 1641. In the Library are his "Works" (London, 1647), "Resolutions and Decisions of Cases of Divers Practicall Cases of Conscience" (London, 1649) and "Remaining Works" (London, 1660). Just before he came to Norwich he wrote "An Humble Remonstrance to the High Court of Parliament" (1640), in which he skilfully vindicated liturgies and episcopacy. This provoked an answer by "Smectymnuus," the pseudonym of five puritan divines, the initials of whose names made up the word. This "Answer" (2nd ed., London, 1654), a subsequent "Vindication" in reply to the Bishop's "Defence" (London, 1641), and Milton's "Apology for Smectymnuus" (London, 1642) are all in the Library.

An important theologian in the Caroline period was Jeremy Taylor, whose works are only represented by "The Great Exemplar of Sanctity" (London, 1667), "Ductor Dubitantium" (London, 1696), which is still the chief English treatise on casuistry, and "A Collection of Polemical and Moral Discourses" (London, 1657). The Library contains two editions of the works (1683 and 1716) of Isaac Barrow, whom Charles II. described as "the best scholar in England." Other eminent writers of this period represented in the Library are Thomas Fuller, Richard Baxter, William Chillingworth, Henry Hammond, who has been called "the Father of English Biblical Criticism," Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln, John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, and Bishop Pearson, a Norfolk man, whose famous "Exposition of the Creed" (the Library has a copy of the 3rd edition, 1669), is a masterpiece of the doctrinal exposition of the time.

The theological writers of the Augustan age are also fairly represented in the Library. For example, there are three works by Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, including a copy of his "Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles" (London, 1700), which was for more than a century as famous as Pearson's "Exposition of the Creed," and his "History of the Reformation," 2 vols. (London, 1681-83); the works (6 volumes, London, 1710) of Edward Stillingfleet, called because of his personal beauty and piety "the beauty of holiness"; the works (6th edition, London, 1710) and "Sermons" of John Tillotson, who rose to be Archbishop of Canterbury as much through the pulpit as through politics; the "Opera Omnia" of George Bull (London, 1703), and others.

Works of history, antiquities and travel form the class which is next in importance and extent to the theological works. In proportion to the size and character of the Library, the selection in this class is moderately good. Most of the chief or popular English historians from Matthew Paris to Strype and Dugdale are represented by some of their works. There are, for example, Fabyan's Chronicle (London, 1559), Hall's "Union of the . . . famelies of Lancastre and Yorke" (London, 1550), Grafton's Chronicle (1569), Holinshed's Chronicles, first and second editions (1577 and 1587), Stow's "Annales" (1615), Speed's "Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine" (1611), Camden's "Remains concerning Britain" (1657), "History of Queen Elizabeth" (in "A Complete History of England," London, 1706), "Annals of King James I.", and "Britannia", (1695), Sir Thomas Smith's "Commonwealth of England" (1633), Foxe's "Ecclesiasticall Historie" (1597), Sir Walter Raleigh's "History of the World" (1676), {35} Rushworth's "Historical Collections" (1659), Bacon's "Life of Henry VII." (in "A Complete History of England," London, 1706), Herbert's "King Henry VIII." (in "A Complete History of England," London, 1706), Heylyn's "Cosmographie" (1669), Clarendon's "History of the Rebellion" (odd vols. of the 1706 edition), Bulstrode Whitelocke's "Memorials of the English affairs" (1682), Burnet's "History of the Reformation" (1681-83), Strype's "Annals of the Reformation" (1709), Dugdale's "Monasticon Anglicanum" (odd vols.), and his "Antiquities of Warwickshire" (1730), and Anthony a Wood's "Athenae Oxonienses" (1691-92).

Other historical and geographical works are Munster's "Cosmographiae Universalis" (Basel, 1559), the first detailed, scientific and popular description of the world; Foresti's "Supplementum Supplementi Chronicarum" (Venice, 1506), a universal history written by an Italian monk and historian; Lonicerus' "Chronicorum Turcicorum in quibus Turcorum origo" etc. (Frankfort, 1578); and Braun and Hogenberg's "Civitates Orbis Terrarum" (Cologne, 1577-88), containing the earliest general collection of topographical views of the chief cities of the world, including one of Norwich.

The Rev. Joseph Brett in 1706 pointed out that the Library possessed "very few Humanity Books, few or none of Law, Physick, Mathematicks, or indeed of any science but Divinity," and it never became strong in these subjects. It is weak in the ancient classics, but the following are some of the authors represented: Aristotle, Cicero, Cornelius Nepos, Diogenes Laertius, Euclid, Eutropius, Juvenal, Livy, Lucan, Plato, Pliny, Plutarch, Seneca, Suetonius, and Tacitus. In English belles-lettres the chief works are Chaucer's Works (London, 1721), Abraham Cowley's Works (1668), Michael Drayton's "Poly-Olbion" (1613), Gower's "Confessio Amantis" (London, 1554), and George Herbert's "The Temple and other Sacred Poems" (1633).

The outstanding scientific works are Sir Isaac Newton's "Opticks" (1704), Burnet's "Theory of the Earth" (1691), The Grete Herball (London: Peter Treveris, 1526), Walter Charleton's "Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana" (London, 1654) and his "OEconomia Animalis" (London, 1659), J. B. Duhamel's "Elementa astronomica" (Cambridge, 1665), Galileo's "Systeme of the World," transl. by T. Salusbury (London, 1661), Gassendi's "Institutio astronomica" (London, 1653), Johannes de Sacro Bosco's "Opus sphericum" (Cologne, 1508), Munster's "Rudimenta mathematica" (Basel, 1551), "Hortus Sanitatis" (Mainz, 1491), vol. 3 of John Ray's "Historia Plantarum" (London, 1704), and Thomas Willis' "Cerebri anatome" (London, 1664).

The bias of local patriotism is declared by Mr. Havelock Ellis in his "Study of British Genius" to be "an unfailing sign of intellectual ill-breeding," notwithstanding which no apology is herein made for drawing special attention to the fact that the Library includes some of the writings of more than a score of authors—most of whom achieved some eminence—who are connected with Norfolk or Norwich, either by birth or residence. Taking the names in alphabetical order, the first of the Norfolk men whose writings are represented is Thomas Becon or Beacon, who took orders in 1538, and preached in Norfolk and Suffolk. The edition of his "Works," is that printed by John Day [? 1560-64], containing a tract on "The Common-places of Holy Scripture," dedicated "To my deare countrymen and faythfull Ministers of Iesu Christ watching and attending upon the Lordes flocke in the Parishes of Norfolke and Suffolke," dated 1562. Francis Blomefield's "History of the Ancient City and Burgh of Thetford," printed at the author's residence at Fersfield in 1739, contains a book-plate, apparently printed by the author, stating that the book was presented to the City Library. Samuel Clarke, who was born at Norwich in 1675, became chaplain to Bishop Moore of Norwich, and afterwards rector of Drayton, is represented by his "Scripture-Doctrine of the Trinity," 1712, and his Boyle lectures of 1704 and 1705, viz., "Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God," 1705, and "Discourse concerning the unchangeable obligations of Natural Religion," 1706. Of the works of the great Sir Edward Coke, judge and law writer, who came of an old Norfolk family, there are the "First Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England," 1629, and "Les Reports de Edward Coke . . . donnes . . . per les judges, et sages de la ley," 11 vols. The "Scholastic History of the Canon of the Holy Scripture" (London, 1684) is the only volume of the works of John Cosin, Bishop of Durham, who was born at Norwich in 1594. In the preparation of this, his most elaborate and important work, he injured his eyesight. Thornhagh Gurdon, a receiver-general for Norfolk, who is included in Mr. Walter Rye's "Norfolk Families," and who resided mostly at Norwich, presented a copy of the first edition of his "History of the High Court of Parliament" (London, 1731). The only work of Hamon Le Strange, a Norfolk historian and theologian, is "The Alliance of Divine Offices" (London, 1690), in the preface of which he speaks of having undergone an eight years' sequestration, apparently between 1643-1651. John Pearson, Bishop of Chester, whose "Exposition of the Creed" has already been referred to, was born at Great Snoring on 28th Feb., 1612/3.

Again taking the names in alphabetical order, the first author who is connected with the county by residence is Edward Boys, who became rector of Mautby in 1639, where he died in 1667. Of his publications the Library contains "Sixteen Sermons preached upon several occasions" (London, 1672). William Bridge, whose "Works" (London, 1649) are in the Library, was born at Cambridge, became rector of St. Peter Hungate, Norwich, in 1636, and afterwards settled at Yarmouth. John Collinges, a Presbyterian, who came to Norwich in 1646, published controversial and devotional tracts and sermons. He is only represented by "A Short Discourse against Transubstantiation" (London, 1675), and "On the Intercourse of Divine Love" (1676), but the Local Collection of the Public Library contains many of his writings. "The Notion of Schism" (London, 1676) is the work of another parson who came to Norfolk, Robert Connould, rector of Bergh Apton. John Graile, rector of Blickling, whom Blomefield referred to as "This learned and pious pastor," presented to the Library his "Youth's Grand Concern" (London, 1711) and "Sacra Privata" (London, 1699). Reference has already been made to the works of Bishop Hall (see p. 33). There are two volumes, "The Open Door for Man's approach to God" (London, 1650) and "A Consideration of Infant Baptism" (London, 1653), by John Horne, who was beneficed at All Hallows, King's Lynn. John Jeffery, who was elected to the living of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, in 1678, and became Archdeacon of Norwich in 1694, is represented by "Select Discourses" (London, 1710), "Complete Collection of Sermons and Tracts," 2 vols. (London, 1753), and "Forms of Prayer" (1706). Dr. Peter de Laune, a minister of the French Church in Norwich during the early years of the seventeenth century, presented to the Library a copy of his translation of the English Prayer Book into French, entitled "La Liturgie Angloise; ou, le livre des prieres publiques" (London: John Bill, 1616). His name is not printed in the book, but the copy in the Library bears on the title-page the following inscription which was probably written by him: "Liber bibliothecae publicae Nordouicensis ex dono doctoris Petri Launaei quo authore Anglicanae haec ecclesiae liturgia facta est Gallicana." {38} This book is the first French edition of the English Prayer Book entered in the Catalogue of the British Museum. Francis Mason's "Vindiciae Ecclesiae Anglicanae," is the work of an Archdeacon of Norfolk, who is remembered for his vigorous defence of the authority of the church, which earned for him the title of "Vindex Ecclesiae Anglicanae." Another preacher with the memorable title "Apostle of Norwich," procured by a great reputation, was John More, minister of St. Andrew's Church, Norwich, whose posthumous work "Table from the Beginning of the World to this Day" (Cambridge, 1593) is in the Library. "An Explanation of the Epistle of St. Jude" (London, 1633) is a series of sermons preached in the parish church of North Walsham by Samuel Otes, rector of South Repps, Norfolk, who was chaplain to the Lord Chief Justice Hobart. Reference has already been made to the works of Humphrey Prideaux, Dean of Norwich. Anthony Sparrow, Bishop of Norwich, who was born in Suffolk, published "Rationale upon the Book of Common Prayer" (London, 1661), which was often reprinted and is still of some value, and a companion volume "Collection of Articles, Canons," etc. (London, 1684). Last but not least to be mentioned is the "Increpatio Barjesu" (London, 1660) of Matthew Wren, who was successively Bishop of Hereford, Norwich and Ely. It is a volume of polemical interpretations of Scripture, in reply to the Racovian catechism—a copy of which was in the Library—written during the author's imprisonment in the Tower, and edited by his son Matthew.

Many of the books have autographs of their former owners, and some have inscriptions and annotations. Edward Lhuyd's "Archaeologica Britannica" contains some notes made by George Borrow, who also wrote an English translation of some Arabic in Thomas Erpenius' "Grammatica Arabica." The second folio of the "Golden Legend" (1503) bears the signature of Thomas Kirkpatrick, and the first fly-leaf has the following inscription: "This book was given to the Publick Library of the City of Norwich, A.D. 1728, by Mr. Thomas Kirkpatrick, merchant there, and was bound at the expence of Isaac Preston, Esq., 1742, that it might the better be preserv'd being an Authentick & antient Evidence of the extravagant Foppery and Superstition of the Church of Rome, & of the necessity of the Reformation. Vide the Commandments page ye 20th in the life of Moses."

An interesting request from Archbishop Wake for the loan of a Prayer Book, which was not returned, is recorded in the Minute Book under date February 2nd, 1718/9: "This day a Book wch has for some years been lodged in ye Library of ye City entituled—The Book of Common-prayer & Administration of ye Sacraments & other Rights & Ceremonies of the Church of England, printed at London by Robert Barker, 1632—Wherein are several Marginal Notes in Writing done by ye order of King Charles ye first was delivered to Mr Brand of this city Clerke to be by Him transmitted to the Arch-Bishop of Canterbury He having requested the said Book might be sent to Him." A memorandum against this entry reads: "The order of the Court dated Jan. 28, 1718, and enter'd in this book was alter'd May ye ninth 1719, and ye Common prayer book there nam'd deliver'd by Mr. Mott yn Mayor to Dr. John Clark to be by Him sent to ye A: Bp: of Canterbury." The Dean of Christ Church, Oxford (the Very Rev. Thomas B. Strong, D.D.), after receiving a copy of the foregoing quotation, examined the Prayer Books in the Wake Collection at Christ Church, and found one which answers to the description. He has kindly consented to the publication of the following quotation from his correspondence thereon: "I took the book to the Bodleian Library yesterday; and Dr. Craster (the Sub-Librarian), who is an expert in these matters, has verified the facts for me. The book is a quarto book, 'printed by Robert Barker, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty and by the assignees of John Bull, 1632.' There are no marks of any kind in the book except the mark K11 (I suppose a shelf-mark {40}) on the inside of the cover. It is bound in limp vellum. A blank sheet of paper has been cut out in front of the title-page. On the page opposite the beginning of the Morning Prayer, and under the Ornaments Rubric, there is the signature of Charles I. Under the signature is the following note, in a clear and formal hand, which Dr. Craster has proved to be the handwriting of Archbishop Laud's secretary:—

'I gave the Arcbbp. of Canterburye comand to make the Alterations expressed in this Booke, and to fitt a Liturgy for the Church of Scotland. And whersoever they shall differ from another Booke signed by Us at Hampt. Court September 28, 1634, Our pleasure is to have these followed rather than the former, unless the Archbp. of St. Andrews, and his Brethren who are upon the place, shall see apparent reason to the contrary. At Whitehall Apr. 19, 1636.'

The same hand has made various alterations in the book; and has written the collect for Easter Even, which appeared first in the Scottish Prayer-Book of 1637, in its place. The remaining notes and alterations are in the hand of Archbishop Laud. The 1637 edition of the Scottish Prayer-Book follows exactly, as far as I have been able to verify them, all the notes in the book. One note is perhaps worth mentioning. In the Quicunque, the verse, 'He therefore that will be saved must thus think of the Trinity,' is altered as follows: 'He therefore that would be saved, let him thus think'; and this alteration appears in the 1637 book."

A fair number of the books are still in their original bindings or have been so rebound that their original covers have been preserved. Of these most are ornamented in "blind," i.e., impressed with tools or panel stamps without being gilt or coloured, but a few have centre-pieces in gold. A few examples may be noted. In the early Tudor period panel stamps with heraldic or pictorial designs were frequently used by English and foreign binders practising their craft in England. A number of English binders adorned their books with a pair of large heraldic panel stamps, the different binders making slight variations in the designs. A fairly good example of a binding stamped with two such panels is that of a copy of "Anticella cum quamplurimis tractatibus superadditis," (Venice, 1507) in the Library, which has had its original covers repaired and laid down again. The lower cover shows the arms of Henry VIII. (France and England) supported by two angels; the upper cover has a large Tudor rose surrounded by two ribbons, supported by two angels, and bearing the distich:

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