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Trees, Fruits and Flowers of Minnesota, 1916
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TREES, FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF MINNESOTA

1916



Embracing the Transactions of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society from December 1, 1915, to December 1, 1916, Including the Twelve Numbers of "The Minnesota Horticulturist" for 1916.

Edited By The Secretary,

A. W. LATHAM,

Office and Library, 207 Kasota Block, Minneapolis, Minn.

Vol. XLIV.



Minneapolis Harrison & Smith Co., Printers 1916



While it is not the intention to publish anything in this magazine that is misleading or unreliable, yet it must be remembered that the articles published herein recite the experience and opinions of their writers, and this fact must always be noted in estimating their practical value.



THE MINNESOTA HORTICULTURIST

Vol. 44 JANUARY, 1916 No. 1



President's Greeting, Annual Meeting, 1915.

THOS. E. CASHMAN, PRESIDENT.

This is the forty-ninth annual meeting of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society. Nearly half a century has elapsed since that little band of pioneers met in Rochester and organized that they might work out a problem that had proven too difficult for any of them to handle single handed and alone. Those men were all anxious to raise at least sufficient fruit for themselves and families. They had tried and failed. They were not willing to give up. They knew they could accomplish more by interchanging ideas, and, furthermore, if they were able to learn anything by experience they wanted to pass it on to their neighbors.

Those men built better than they knew. The foundation was properly laid, and the structure, while not finished, is an imposing one. A great many people believe that this structure has been completed, that we have reached our possibilities in fruit raising. This is only half true. We are still building on this splendid foundation erected by those few enthusiasts.

None of those men are left to enjoy the benefits of their labor. The present generation and the generations to come are and will be the beneficiaries, and I believe as a tribute to their memory and the good that they have done that we should fittingly celebrate our fiftieth anniversary. At this time I can not suggest how this should be done; I simply make this suggestion in hopes that it may be worked out.

I was in hopes that a home for this society might have been erected this year or at least made ready for the 1916 meeting. This would surely have been an occasion worthy of the anniversary which we hope to celebrate.

The building committee appointed by the last meeting went before the legislature and tried with all the eloquence at their command to make the members of the legislature see the necessity of appropriating sufficient money to build a permanent home for this organization. The members saw the force of our argument, but we could not convince a majority of the appropriation committee that they should deviate from their plan of retrenchment which seemed to permeate their every act.

We were disappointed but not disheartened. We were promised better success in the 1917 session. So we are living in hopes, and I firmly believe that if our efforts are renewed at that time that this and the auxiliary societies may have an opportunity of meeting and transacting business in a home that, while it will belong to the state, will be for the use of these organizations, and that we may be able to take up our abode in it not later than the winter meeting of 1917.

Secretary Latham has prepared an excellent program for you. Many friends of this society are with us again, full of enthusiasm and vigor, and I know that we will have one of the most successful meetings ever enjoyed by this organization.

Owing to the fullness of the program, I should consider it an imposition on my part if I should attempt to make an extended address at this time and will hasten to call on the gentlemen who are to contribute to the success of this meeting.



Annual Meeting, 1915, Minnesota State Horticultural Society.

A. W. LATHAM, SECRETARY.

Did you attend the 1915 meeting of this association, held in the West Hotel, Minneapolis, four days, December 7-10 inclusive? Of course as a member of the society you will get in cold print the substance of the papers and discussions that were presented at this meeting, but you will fail altogether in getting the wonderful inspiration that comes from contact with hundreds of persons deeply interested in the various phases of horticultural problems that are constantly passing in review during the succeeding sessions of the meeting. With such a varied program there is hardly any problem connected with horticulture that is not directly or indirectly touched upon at our annual gathering, and the present meeting was no exception to this. In all there were sixty-nine persons on the program, and with the exception of Prof. Whitten, whom we expected with us from the Missouri State University, and whom sickness kept at home, and one other number, every person on the program was on hand to perform the part assigned to him. Isn't this really a wonderful thing where so many are concerned, emphasizing as it does the large interest felt in the work of the society?

The meeting was held in the same room in the West Hotel which was used for the banquet two years ago. It seats comfortably 250, and was approximately filled at all of the sessions of the meeting. At the first session there were in attendance about 200 when the meeting opened at ten o'clock Tuesday morning. Later in the morning the seats were practically all filled. Making allowance for the change in the personnel of those in attendance at the various meetings, it is easily within the limit to say that between 400 and 500 were in attendance at these meetings.

Immediately adjoining the audience room on the same floor, and opening out of the spacious balcony, were the various rooms occupied by the fruit exhibit and the vegetable exhibit. The plant exhibit was in two alcoves on this balcony, and the cut flowers were displayed along either side of the balcony, making altogether a wonderful showing of nature's floral products. The accommodations for this meeting were almost ideal, and judging from the expressions of the members we have never been more happily situated than on this occasion. I have endeavored to draw a plan of the arrangements at this meeting and submit it to you, not for criticism, but to assist you in understanding the situation.

We were greatly disappointed that Prof. Whitten was detained at home by illness, but others from abroad took up the time so that there was really no interim as a result of his absence. We were fortunate in having with us the last day and a part of Thursday afternoon Sen. H.M. Dunlap and Mrs. Dunlap, and their parts on the program were listened to with intense interest, and I am sure much good was gained for our membership from the service they rendered the society, which it must be understood is a gratuitious one—indeed that applies to all of those whose names appear upon the program. That is one good thing about the horticulturist, he is willing to tell what he knows for the benefit of others. To hold any other view than this would be too narrow and selfish certainly for the true lover of horticulture.

The exhibits were in every case in excess of what we anticipated. Notwithstanding the light crop of apples in the larger portion of the state, there was really a fine showing, and quality was very high. Of boxes of apples there were shown eleven, and of barrels of apples six, for each one of which exhibits some premium was paid, as besides the first, second and third premiums in each case there was also a sum to be divided pro rata. There were twenty-nine pecks of apples exhibited, for which premiums were also paid in the same way. Four collections of top-worked apples were on the list. Premiums were awarded to forty seedling apples, an exceedingly good showing for the season. As to the number of single plates shown the record is not easily available, but the accompanying list of awards will give information as far as they are concerned, there being of course many plates to which no awards were made.

The vegetable exhibit was an extraordinarily fine one and filled comfortably the convenient room assigned for its use. It was excellently managed by Mr. N.H. Reeves, President of the Minneapolis Market Gardeners' Association.

As to the flower exhibit under the fine management of W.H. Bofferding, it was so much better than we anticipated that it is hard to find words suitably to express our thought in regard to it. Besides the splendid collections of plants and the large display of cut flowers from the state, there was shown from several eastern parties rare flowers, many of them new productions, which had a great deal to do with the beautiful appearance of the balcony, where all of these flowers were shown.



Mention ought to be made of the monument erected in the center of the lobby on the ground floor of the West Hotel, a structure ten feet high, containing at its base some dozen or fifteen single layer boxes of choice apples and on its sides something like twenty bushels of apples put on in varying shades of red and green with a handsome ornamental plant crowning the whole. The seal of the society decorated with national colors appears upon the front. The picture taken of this monument is shown as a frontispiece of this number. It is incomplete in that the photographer cut off both ends of it, which is unfortunate in results obtained. Nevertheless it helped materially to advertise the meeting and was a distinct ornament in the lobby.

As to subjects in which there was a special interest on our program, the only one to which I will here refer is that of "marketing," which received particular attention from a considerable number of those on the program or taking impromptu parts at the meeting. The Ladies' Federation assisted us splendidly on the Woman's Auxiliary program, one number, that by Mrs. Jennison, being beautifully illustrated by lantern slides.

Delegates from abroad as usual and visitors were with us in considerable number. Prof. F. W. Brodrick came from Winnipeg, representing the Manitoba Society; Prof. N. E. Hansen, as usual, represented the South Dakota Society; Mr. Earl Ferris, of Hampton, Ia., the Northeastern Iowa Society; and Mr. A. N. Greaves, from Sturgeon Bay, Wis., the Wisconsin Society. We were especially favored in having with us also on this occasion Mr. N. A. Rasmusson, president of the Wisconsin Horticultural Society, and Secretary Frederick Cranefield of the same society. If all the members of that society are as wide awake as these three the Minnesota Society will have to look to its laurels.

I must not fail to mention Mr. B. G. Street, from Hebron, Ill., who was present throughout the meeting, an earnest brother, and gave us a practical talk on "marketing." Our friend, Chas. F. Gardner, of Osage, Iowa, managed to get here Friday morning after the close of the meeting of the Iowa Horticultural Society, which he had been attending, and so spent the last day of the meeting with us. Welcome, Brother Gardner! The meeting would certainly have been incomplete without the presence of those old veterans and long time attendants at our annual gatherings, Geo. J. Kellogg and A. J. Philips, both from the Wisconsin Society. We need you, dear brothers, and hope you may long foregather with us.

As to that war horse of horticulture, C. S. Harrison, of York, Nebr., what would our meeting be without the fireworks in language which he has provided now for many of these annual occasions. The wonderful life and sparkle of his message survives with us from year to year, and we look forward eagerly to his annual coming.

There were three contestants who spoke from the platform in competition for the prizes offered from the Gideon Memorial Fund as follows:

First Prize—G. A. Nelson, University Farm School, St. Paul. Second—A. W. Aamodt, University Farm School, St. Paul. Third—P. L. Keene, University Farm School, St. Paul.

Their addresses were all of a practical character and will appear in our monthly.

Prof. Richard Wellington conducted a fruit judging contest, in connection with which there was a large interest, and prizes were awarded as follows:

D. C. Webster, La Crescent, First $5.00 P. L. Keene, University Farm, St. Paul, Second 3.00 Marshall Hurtig, St. Paul, Third 2.00

At the annual election the old officers whose terms had expired were all re-elected without opposition, and later the secretary was re-elected by the executive board for the coming year, so that no change whatever was made in the management of the society. J. M. Underwood, being absent in the south, was nevertheless re-elected by the board as its chairman for the coming year.

A pleasant event of this gathering was the presentation of a handsome gold watch and chain to the secretary, a memento in connection with the termination of his twenty-fifth year as secretary of the society, which expression of appreciation on the part of the members it may well be believed was fully appreciated by the recipient.

The hall was brilliantly decorated with the national colors, which had never been used before at any of our annual gatherings. What can be more beautiful than the stars and stripes entwined with the colors of foliage and flower. Never has our place of meeting shown so brightly or been more enjoyed than in this favorable environment.

During the meeting upon the recommendation of the executive board there were five names by the unanimous vote of the society placed upon the honorary life membership roll of the society, as follows: John Bisbee, Madelia; J. R. Cummins, Minneapolis; Chas. Haralson, Excelsior; F. W. Kimball, Waltham, and S. H. Drum, Owatonna.

The meeting closed with seventy-five members in the hall by actual count at 4:30, and we certainly hated to say the parting word to those whom we earnestly hope to gather with again a year hence.

What can we say about the crowning event of our meeting, the annual banquet? Two hundred and two members sat down together and fraternized in a most congenial way. Gov. W. S. Hammond was the speaker of the evening and greatly enjoyed. All the other numbers on the program were on hand to perform their parts. Here follows the program and you can judge for yourself. Why don't you come and enjoy this most entertaining event of the meeting?

PROGRAM.

Prof. N.E. Hansen, Toastmaster.

Grace Rev. J. Kimball, Duluth Opening Song Trafford N. Jayne, Minneapolis Why Wake Up the Dreamers—Aren't They Getting Their Share? Prof. E. G. Cheyney, University Farm, St. Paul Reading Miss Marie Bon, Minneapolis What Joy in the Garden, Provided E. E. Park, Minneapolis Every True Horticulturist Has a Private Rainbow with a Pot of Gold at the End Mrs. T. A. Hoverstad, Minneapolis Song s. Grace Updegraff Bergen, Minneapolis The Joy of Service Gov. W. S. Hammond What Care I While I Live in a Garden A. G. Long, Minneapolis Song Trafford N. Jayne, Minneapolis Never Too Late to Mend—Unless You Are "80," A. J. Philips, West Salem, Wis. Reading Miss Marie Bon Right Living and Happiness—You Can't Have One Without the Other, T. E. Archer, St. Paul Closing Song Trafford N. Jayne, Minneapolis

* * * * *

"DON'TS" ISSUED TO PREVENT FOREST FIRES.—1. Don't throw your match away until you are sure it is out.

2. Don't drop cigarette or cigar butts until the glow is extinguished.

3. Don't knock out your pipe ashes while hot or where they will fall into dry leaves or other inflammable material.

4. Don't build a camp fire any larger than is absolutely necessary.

5. Don't build a fire against a tree, a log, or a stump, or anywhere but on bare soil.

6. Don't leave a fire until you are sure it is out; if necessary smother it with earth or water.

7. Don't burn brush or refuse in or near the woods if there is any chance that the fire may spread beyond your control, or that the wind may carry sparks where they would start a new fire.

8. Don't be any more careless with fire in the woods than you are with fire in your own home.

9. Don't be idle when you discover a fire in the woods; if you can't put it out yourself, get help. Where a forest guard, ranger or state fire warden can be reached, call him up on the nearest telephone you can find.

10. Don't forget that human thoughtlessness and negligence are the causes of more than half of the forest fires in this country, and that the smallest spark may start a conflagration that will result in loss of life and destruction of timber and young growth valuable not only for lumber but for their influence in helping to prevent flood, erosion, and drought.—U.S. Dept. Agri., Forest Service.



Award of Premiums, Annual Meeting, 1915, Minnesota State Horticultural Society.

The list of awards following will give in full detail the awards made in connection with the fruit exhibit:

VEGETABLES.

Carrots Chas. Krause, Merriam Park Second 2.00 Celeriac " " Third 1.00 Cabbage J. T. Olinger, Hopkins Second 2.00 Carrots " " Third 1.00 Onions (red) " " Second 2.00 Onions (yellow) " " Fourth .50 Celeriac Daniel Gantzer, Merriam Park First 3.50 Lettuce " " Third 1.00 Onions (red) " " Third 1.00 Onions (white) " " Fourth .50 Onions (yellow) " " Second 2.00 Onions (pklg) " " Second 2.00 Beets Karl Kochendorfer, So. Park Third 1.00 Carrots C. E. Warner, Osseo First 3.50 Onions (white) " " First 3.50 Beets Mrs. John Gantzer. St. Paul First 3.50 Cabbages " " Fourth .50 Onions (red) " " First 3.50 Onions (yellow) " " First 3.50 Beets Mrs. Edw. Haeg, Minneapolis Second 2.00 Cabbages " " Third 1.00 Celeriac " " Second 2.00 Carrots Alfred Perkins, St. Paul Fourth .50 Lettuce " " First 3.50 Onions (red) " " Fourth .50 Onions (white) " " First 3.50 Onions (yellow) " " Third 1.00 Onions (white) H. G. Groat, Anoka Second 2.00 Onions (pickling) " " Fourth .50 Beets Chas. Krause, Merriam Park Fourth .50 Cabbages " " First 3.50 Lettuce Mrs. Edw. Haeg, Minneapolis Second 2.00 Onions (white pklg) " " Third 1.00 Onions (white) Aug. Sauter, Excelsior Third 1.00 Globe Onions (red) P. H. Peterson, Atwater First 3.50 Salsify Mrs. John Gantzer, St. Paul First 3.50 Turnips (white) " " First 3.50 Rutabagas " " Fourth .50 Parsley Mrs. Edw. Haeg, Minneapolis Fourth .50 Hubbard Squash " " Third 1.00 Potatoes C. W. Pudham, Osseo Fourth .50 Hubbard Squash " " Fourth .50 Potatoes Frank Dunning, Anoka Second 2.00 Pie Pumpkins " " First 3.50 Hubbard Squash " " Second 2.00 Turnips (white) Alfred Perkins, St. Paul Fourth .50 Potatoes Fred Scherf, Osseo First 3.50 Rutabagas " " First 3.50 Pie Pumpkins " " Fourth .50 Parsley Chas. Krause. Merriam Park Third 1.00 Parsnips " " First 3.50 Salsify Chas. Krause, Merriam Park Second 2.00 Turnips (white) " " Second 2.00 Parsnips J. T. Olinger, Hopkins Third 1.00 Turnips " " Third 1.00 Rutabagas " " Second 2.00 Parsley Daniel Gantzer Second 2.00 Parsnips " " Second 2.00 Pie Pumpkins " " Second 2.00 Parsnips Karl K. Kochendorfer, So. Park Fourth .50 Potatoes Aug. Bueholz, Osseo Third 1.00 Hubbard Squash " " First 3.50 Rutabagas " " Third 1.00 Parsley Frank L. Gerten, So. St. Paul First 3.50 Pie Pumpkins " " Third 1.00 Radishes " " First 3.50

E. O. BALLARD, Judge.

COLLECTION OF APPLES.

Collection of Apples P. Clausen, Albert Lea $3.30 Collection of Apples Henry Husser, Minneiska 3.78 Collection of Apples D. C. Webster, La Crescent 3.96 Collection of Apples P. H. Perry, Excelsior 2.36 Collection of Apples F. I. Harris. La Crescent 3.48 Collection of Apples W. S. Widmoyer, La Crescent 3.12

SINGLE PLATES OF APPLES.

Yahnke F. I. Harris, La Crescent First $.75 Utter W. S. Widmoyer, La Crescent First .75 N.W. Greening " " First .75 Malinda " " Second .50 Plumb's Cider " " First .75 Patten's Greening F. W. Powers, Minneapolis First .75 Duchess " " First .75 Malinda F. I. Harris, La Crescent Third .25 Peerless " " First .75 Wolf River " " Second .50 Wealthy " " Second .50 Antonovka " " Second .50 Fameuse " " Second .50 Gilbert " " First .75 Duchess P. H. Perry, Excelsior Third .25 Yellow Transparent " " First .75 Tetofsky " " First .75 Charlamoff " " Third .25 Yahnke " " Second .50 Evelyn " " First .75 Lowland Raspberry P. Clausen, Albert Lea Second .50 Hibernal " " First .75 Okabena Francis Willis, Excelsior First .75 Milwaukee " " First .75 Patten's Greening " " Second .50 Longfield " " Second .50 University " " First .75 Longfield P. H. Perry, Excelsior First .75 Fameuse " " Third .25 Hibernal E. W. Mayman, Sauk Rapids Second .50 Wealthy Sil Matzke, So. St. Paul First .75 Peerless " " Second .50 N.W. Greening " " Second .50 McMahon " " First .75 Yellow Transparent Henry Husser Second .50 Fameuse " " First .75 Walbridge " " First .75 McMahon D. C. Webster, La Crescent Third .25 N.W. Greening " " Third .25 Brett " " First .75 Gideon " " First .75 Superb " " First .75 Okabena M. Oleson, Montevideo Second .50 Peerless " " Third .25 Hibernal " " Third .25 Longfield " " Third .25 University " " Second .50 Charlamoff Henry Husser, Minneiska Second .50 McMahon " " Second .50 Wolf River " " First .75 Jewell's Winter " " First .75 Anisim P. Clausen, Albert Lea First .75 Jewell's Winter " " Second .50 Antonovka " " First .75 Iowa Beauty " " First .75 Yahnke " " Third .25 Borovinca " " First .75 Patten's Greening P. H. Peterson, Atwater Third .25 Malinda " " First .75 Okabena " " Third .25 Lord's L. " " First .75 Lowland Raspberry " " First .75 Charlamoff " " First .75 Duchess " " Second .50 Tetofsky W. J. Tingley, Forest Lake Second .50 Wealthy H. B. Hawkes, Excelsior Third .25 Grimes' Golden P. H. Peterson, Atwater First .75

JNO. P. ANDREWS, Judge.

SEEDLING APPLES.

Early Winter—Arnt Johnson, Viroqua, Wis. $1.45 " " —W.S. Widmoyer, La Crescent 2.45 " " —J. Flagstad & Sons, Sacred Heart 2.15 " " —No. 96—Henry Rodenberg, Mindora, Wis. 1.55 " " —No. 32— " " 1.85 " " —No. 50— " " 1.55 " " —No. 82— " " 2.00 " " —No. 52— " " 2.40 " " —No. 64— " " 2.20 " " —Dr. O. M. Huestis, Minneapolis 1.55 " " —Jacob Halvorson, Delavan 1.55 " " —No. 102—Henry Rodenberg, Mindora, Wis. 1.15 " " —No. 138— " " 1.40 " " —No. 137— " " 2.00 " " —No. 131— " " 1.70 " " —H. H. Pond, Minneapolis 1.15 " " " 1.30 " " " 1.15 " " " 1.55 " " —Henry Husser, Minneiska 2.10 " " —O. O.—M. Oleson, Montevideo 1.85 " " —O. K.— " 2.05 " " —G. N.— " 1.30 " " —G. S.— " 2.20 " " —E. T.—M. Oleson 1.70 " " —E. A. Gross, La Moille 1.15 " " — " 1.90 " " — " 2.25 " " —No. 1—Arnt Johnson, Viroqua, Wis. 1.40 Late Winter—No. 133—Henry Rodenberg, Mindora, Wis. 3.90 " " —No. 134— " " 2.75 " " —No. 135— " " 2.55 " " —No. 104— " " 3.70 " " —No. 49— " " 3.25 " " —No. 16— " " 3.80 " " —No. 12— " " 3.25 " " W. S. Widmoyer, La Crescent 2.30 " " —Chas. Ziseh, Dresbach 2.30 " " —J. A. Howard, Hammond 4.20 " " " 4.15 " " —F. W. Powers, Excelsior 4.00 " " —J. Flagstad & Sons, Sacred Heart 3.25 " " Henry Husser, Minneiska 3.25 " " —No. 23—Henry Rodenberg, Mindora, Wis. 3.35

CLARENCE WEDGE, N. E. HANSEN, Judges.

COLLECTION OF TOP-WORKED APPLES.

Collection of Top-Worked P. H. Peterson, Atwater 4.16 Collection of Top-Worked P. Clausen, Albert Lea 11.45 Collection of Top-Worked Henry Husser, Minneiska 5.23 Collection of Top-Worked W. S. Widmoyer, Dresbach 4.16

DEWAIN COOK, Judge.

PECKS OF APPLES.

N.W. Greenings Aug. Sauter, Excelsior .95 Wealthy H .B. Hawkes, Excelsior 1.10 Wealthy P. H. Peterson, Atwater .90 Fameuse Henry Husser, Minneiska .80 Wolf River " " 1.00 Peerless " " .75 N.W. Greening " " .75 N.W. Greening D. C. Webster, La Crescent 1.10 Wealthy " " .90 Bethel " " 1.00 Scotts' Winter " " 1.00 Wealthy W. P. Burow, La Crescent .85 N.W. Greening " " 1.10 Wealthy E. W. Mayman, Sauk Rapids .80 Hibernal E. W. Mayman, Sauk Rapids .85 Wealthy Francis Willis, Excelsior .90 Duchess " " .55 Okabena " " .55 Milwaukee " " .80 Wealthy P. H. Perry, Excelsior .85 Fameuse " " .80 Seedlings " " .80 Peter " " .85 Wealthy F. I. Harris, La Crescent .85 N.W. Greening " " .95 Seedlings T. E. Perkins, Red Wing .80 N.W. Greenings F. W. Powers, Minneapolis 1.00 Wealthy " " .90 Duchess R. E. Olmstead, Excelsior .55

GEO. W. STRAND, Judge.

BUSHEL BOXES OF APPLES.

Wealthy—H. B. Hawkes, Excelsior 2.31 Wealthy—P. H. Peterson, Atwater 2.17 Wealthy—Henry Husser, Minneiska 2.43 Wealthy—D. C. Webster, La Crescent First 17.72 N.W. Greening—W. P. Burow, La Crescent 2.48 Wealthy—P. H. Perry, Excelsior 1.86 Wealthy—J. F. Bartlett, Excelsior Third 7.57 Wealthy—F. I. Harris, La Crescent Second 12.63 N.W. Greenings—F. W. Powers, Excelsior 1.98 Wealthy—F. W. Powers, Excelsior 2.08 Wealthy—S. H. Drum, Owatonna 1.77

W. G. BRIERLEY, Judge.

BARRELS OF APPLES.

H. B. Hawkes, Excelsior 8.98 Henry Husser, Minneiska 3.52 D. C. Webster, La Crescent First 25.23 W. P. Burow, La Crescent 3.05 Wealthy—P. H. Perry, Excelsior Third 14.37 F. I. Harris, La Crescent Second 19.85

W. G. BRIERLEY, Judge.

COLLECTION GRAPES.

Collection Grapes—Sil Matzke, So. St. Paul First 8.00

GEORGE W. STRAND, Judge.

NUTS.

Walnuts Henry Husser, Minneiska First 1.00 Butternuts " " First 1.00 Hickory Nuts " " Second .75 Hickory Nuts D. C. Webster, La Crescent First 1.00

H. J. LUDLOW, Judge.

PLANTS.

12 Palms Minneapolis Floral Co. First $10.00 12 Ferns " " Third 4.00 12 Blooming Plants " " Third 6.00 12 Ferns Merriam Park Floral Co. First 10.00 12 Blooming Plants " " First 12.00 12 Palms L. S. Donaldson Co., Mpls. Second 7.00 12 Ferns " " Second 7.00 12 Blooming Plants " " Second 9.00

CUT FLOWERS.

25 Carnations (pink) L. S. Donaldson Co., Mpls. Third 1.00 25 Carnations (white) " " Second 2.00 12 Roses (red) Minneapolis Floral Co. Third 1.00 12 Roses (white) " " Third 1.00 12 Roses (yellow) " " First 3.00 12 Roses (red) N. Neilson, Mankato First 3.00 12 Roses (pink) " " First 3.00 12 Roses (white) " " First 3.00 12 Roses (yellow) " " Second 2.00 12 Roses (pink) Hans Rosacker, Minneapolis Second 2.00 12 Roses (red) " " Second 2.00 12 Roses (white) " " Second 2.00 12 Carnations (white) " " First 3.00 12 Carnations (pink) " " Second 2.00 12 Carnations (red) " " First 3.00 25 Carnations (red) Minneapolis Floral Co. Second 2.00 25 Carnations (pink) " " First 3.00 25 Carnations (white) " " Third 1.00 12 Chrysanthemums (yellow) John E. Sten, Red Wing First 4.00 12 Chrysanthemums (any color) " " First 4.00 12 Chrysanthemums (any color) Minneapolis Floral Co. Second 3.00 12 Chrysanthemums (yellow) L. S. Donaldson Co., Mpls. Second 3.00 12 Chrysanthemums (any color) " " Third 2.00

FLOWERS.

Basket for Effect Minneapolis Floral Co. First $10.00 Bridesmaid Bouquet Minneapolis Floral Co. First Diploma Corsage Bouquet Minneapolis Floral Co. First Diploma Bridal Bouquet Minneapolis Floral Co. First Diploma

O. J. OLSON, Judge.



Judging Contest of Hennepin County High Schools.

(Held at Annual Meeting, December 9, 1915.)

The contest consisted of the judging of three crops, apples, potatoes and corn. Two varieties of each crop were used.

Each school was represented by a team of three men. Each man was allowed 100 as perfect score on each crop or a total perfect team score of 900 points.

Two high schools entered the contest, namely Central High, Minneapolis, and Wayzata High. Central High, of Minneapolis, won first with a total score of 697.8. Wayzata ranked second with a score of 672.

Minneapolis won on apples and potatoes, Wayzata winning on the corn judging.

Chester Groves, of Wayzata, was high man of the contest.

County Adviser K. A. Kirkpatrick, gives a banner to the winning school. Judges of the contest were: Apples, Prof. T. M. McCall, Crookston; potatoes, Prof. R. Wellington, A. W. Aamodt; corn, Prof. R. L. Mackintosh.



Fruit Judging Contest.

(At Annual Meeting, December, 1915.)

One of the important features of the Wednesday afternoon program of the State Horticultural Society was the apple judging contest. This contest was open to all members of the society and students of the Agricultural College.

The contest consisted of the judging of four plates each of ten standard varieties. The total score of each contestant was considered by allowing 10 per cent for identification of varieties, 40 per cent for oral reasons and 50 per cent for correct placings.

The prizes offered were: First, $5.00; second, $3.00; third, $2.00. D.C. Webster of La Crescent, ranked first; P.L. Keene, University Farm, second; and Marshall Hertig, third.

Score First—D. C. Webster 87-1/2 Second—P. L. Keene 81-1/2 Third—Marshall Hertig 77-1/2 Fourth—Timber Lake 76-1/2

There were twelve men in the contest.

Judges: Prof. T. M. McCall, Crookston; Frederick Cranefield, Wisconsin; Prof. E. C. Magill, Wayzata.



Annual Report, 1915, Collegeville Trial Station.

REV. JOHN B. KATZNER, SUPT.

It is with pleasure and satisfaction that we are able to make a material correction of our estimate of this year's apple crop as noted in our midsummer report. We stated that apples would be about 15 per cent of a normal crop, and now we are happy to say it was fully 30 per cent. We picked twice as many apples as we anticipated. Considering that, as Prof. Le Roy Cady informed us, the apple crop would be rather small farther south and that they would practically get no apples at the State Farm, we may well be satisfied with our crop. In general, the apple crop was not so bad farther north as it was farther south in the state. This may have been due to the blossoms not being so far advanced here when the frost touched them as farther south.

The best bearing varieties this year were the Wealthy, Charlamoff and Duchess, in the order named. These three kinds gave us the bulk of the crop. The Wealthy trees were not overloaded, and the apples were mostly fine, clean and large. The Charlamoffs were bearing a heavy crop of beautiful, large-sized apples and were ahead of the Duchess this year. The Hibernals, too, were fairly good bearers. Most other varieties had some fruit, but it was not perfect; it showed only too well the effect of frost. More than half of the blossoms were destroyed. Many flowers were badly injured and though they were setting fruit the result of frost showed off plainly on the apples. While some had normal size and form, many of them were below size, gnarled, cracked or undeveloped and abnormal. Most all of them had rough blotches or rings about the calix or around the body. Malformed apples were picked not larger than a crab, with rough, cracked, leather-like skin, which looked more like a black walnut than an apple.

Of plums only some young trees gave us a good crop of nice, perfect fruit. The old trees have seen their best days and will have to give place to the new kinds as soon as they are tested. We have quite a variety of the new kinds on trial from the Minnesota State Fruit-Breeding Farm and wish to say that they are very vigorous growers. Many of them made a growth of four feet and more. We expect that some will bear next year and we are only waiting to see what the fruit will be before making a selection for a new plum orchard. We have already selected No. 8 for that purpose, as one tree was bearing most beautiful and excellent plums, of large size and superior quality, this year. They were one and three-fourths inches long by five and one-half inches in circumference and weighed two ounces each. They kept more than week before they got too soft for handling and are better than many a California plum. It seems to us if a man had ten acres of these plum trees, he could make a fortune out of them. We will propagate only the very best kinds for our own use and may have more to say about them another year.



Two or three of the imported pears bloomed again last spring, but the frost was too severe and they set no fruit. We have lost all interest in them and so, too, in our German seedling pears. The latter are now used as stocks and are being grafted with Chinese and hybrid pears. Of those already grafted this way some have made a growth of four and five feet. We have been successful in grafting the six varieties of hybrid pears obtained last spring from Prof. N.E. Hansen, of Brookings, S. Dak., and have trees of every variety growing. These, too, are very good growers, have fine large leaves and are promising. From the manner of growth in stem and leaf we would judge that at least two distinct Asiatic varieties have been used in breeding. We have gathered a little grafting wood and next spring some more German seedlings will lose their tops. It is only from continued efforts that success may be obtained in growing pears in Minnesota.

Who would have thought it possible that in spite of all the frost and cold rains we would get a pretty good crop of cherries? And yet this is a fact. We have four varieties, and among them is one originated by the late Clem. Schmidt, of Springfield, Minn., which was bearing a good crop of very fine cherries while the three other sorts did not do a thing. To get ahead of the many birds we picked the cherries a few days before they were ripe and put them up in thirty-two half-gallon jars. As the cherries become very soft when dead-ripe, it was of advantage to can them when they were still hard. These canned cherries are meaty and most delicious. We never tasted any better. It is only a pity that this seedling cherry is not quite hardy.

As most everywhere in the state, our grapes were a complete failure. The early growth with its good showing of fruit having been frozen in May, it was well toward the end of June when the vines had recovered from the shock and were able to grow vigorously again. There were a few grapes on some of the vines, but they never got ripe. The Alpha showed the most fruit, and a few bunches were just about getting ripe when the frost spoiled them. This May freeze was more severe than we thought it was. The wood of the old vines was not injured, but the one year old wood of young plants was killed to the ground. The lesson we learned from this is very important. It may be stated that vines full of sap and in growing condition can endure very little cold, but when the wood is ripe and dormant the vines will seldom be injured by sub-zero weather. This injury to vines from frost might have been averted at least in part by precautionary measures. In other countries people start smoldering fires, making much smoke in the vineyard so that the whole is covered with a cloud of smoke. This raises the temperature a few degrees and keeps the frost out. Such preventive means might have been used here very well to save the grapes, but it was not done.

Our currants were not very good; they ripened unevenly and showed that they, too, were touched by frost. A few bushes were also attacked by the currant worm.

We never cultivated any raspberries before. But last year we planted Raspberry No. 8, sent to us from the Fruit-Breeding Farm. This sort is a very vigorous grower; some canes grew over six feet high. It fruited this year; it is very prolific; the fruit is very large and of good quality. It would be quite satisfactory if it were a little hardier. Not being protected more than half of the plants were lost last winter.

But the everbearing strawberry No. 1017 received from the Fruit-Breeding Farm is a complete success. They were properly planted and well taken care of. All flowers were removed up to July 10th and then left alone. In early August the first berries were picked, and we kept right on picking till the frost killed the fruit stalks. The growing of this strawberry will be continued. A new bed will be planted next spring with young plants that were not allowed to bear last season. The fruit was all that could be desired, fine, large and of very good quality. It seems to be of greater advantage to grow the everbearing than the June-bearing sorts. The everbearing planted in spring will grow a large crop in fall and bear again in June next year. From the first we get two crops in fifteen months, from the second two crops in three years. And to fruit any sort oftener than two seasons is not considered very profitable.

Most all trees of apples, pears, plums, evergreens and grafts which were planted last spring, have done very well, and we don't know of any that failed to grow. The hybrid plums received last spring are all alive. The same may be said of the 50 Norway pine obtained from the Minnesota State Forester, W. F. Cox, not one failing to grow. If evergreens are handled right in transplanting they are just as sure to grow as any other trees. This year was especially favorable for transplanting on account of the many rains and cool weather.

This, too, was the kind of weather which pleased our vegetable gardener. He found it scarcely ever necessary throughout the season to apply water to the growing plants for their best development. All grew fine and large. Cabbage heads were grown that weighed thirty-five pounds; carrots, onions, beets, lettuce and in fact all the different varieties were first-class. Yet there was something that did not please the gardener nor ourselves, namely, the tomatoes did not get ripe. We had a few early kinds all right, but the bulk, the large, fine varieties, were hanging on the vines still green when the first heavy frost touched them. It was too cool for them to ripen. The same may be said of the melons. Not once did we have melons at table this year. They were too poor to be served.

Our floral plantings were a great success. The many artistic foliage designs developed wonderfully and were the admiration of all visitors. Our peonies were a mass of exceedingly beautiful flowers, filling the air with fragrance as of roses. We are not surprised that these flowers have gained so much popularity of late, for their great beauty and ease of culture recommend them to all lovers of flowers. The dahlias, too, were very excellent; in fact, we never saw them better. They are quite ornamental in flower and plant. The newer varieties have exceptionally large flowers, but the plants do not show off so well and bend down from the weight of the flowers. For symmetry and uniformity of growth the old varieties are hard to be excelled. Some of the roses were not so good as desired, the buds got too much rain at times and rotted away. The mock oranges, syringas and others were all very good, but the spireas suffered much when in flower from rains. As a whole, however, our lawns and grounds were beautiful and satisfactory and the new greenhouse has done good work.

The growing of fruit this year has been a disappointment to many horticulturists. Indeed, some got quite a showing of fruit in favored localities, but the majority got not much of a crop to be proud of. Well, we cannot regulate the weather conditions, but we are pleased with the thought that such abnormal conditions are not of frequent occurrence in Minnesota. Yet there is one redeeming feature of the season and that is, the wonderful growth of plants and trees which gives promise that with the usual normal conditions our expectations for a better fruit crop will be realized.

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STORING CABBAGE IN THE FIELD.—In choosing a site for a storage pit, select a ridge, well drained and as gravelly a soil as possible. The pit should be 6 to 10 inches deep, the length and width depending upon the amount to be stored. It is well to have it wide enough to accommodate 3 to 5 heads on the bottom row.

In harvesting the heads, pull up by the roots. Break off only the dead or diseased leaves, and fold the remaining leaves over the head as much as possible to protect them. Overripe or cracked heads should not be stored. The heads are placed in the pit with their heads down and roots up. The second layer is also placed heads down between the roots of the first layer. It is well not to have more than two layers, on account of the weight having a tendency to crush the lower layer.

When the cabbages are put in place they are covered with a layer of earth. When cold weather comes, straw or manure can be added.

Cabbages can often be kept better in pits than in common cellars.—E. F. McKune, Colorado Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colorado.



Wintering of Bees.

FRANCIS JAGER, APIARIST, UNIVERSITY FARM, ST. PAUL.

The winter losses of bees in Minnesota are great every year. Bee keepers can reduce these losses by preparing bees for their winter-quarters.

The chief known cause for winter losses are: Queenlessness, smallness of number of bees in colonies, insufficient food, improper food, dampness, bad air, the breaking of the clusters, and low temperature.

More colonies die from lack of food and from cold than from all other causes. In fact, most of the other causes can be traced to lack of food and cold.

Queenless colonies will certainly die in a few months.

If the number of bees in a colony is small the clusters cannot generate enough heat or keep it generated and the bees will perish. To avoid this, small colonies should be united in the fall into one big colony.

Bees must have food in the winter in order to generate heat. About forty pounds of honey to the colony should be provided when the bees are put into winter-quarters. Should the colony be short of honey of its own, finished frames may be supplied early in the fall or sugar syrup may be fed. Bee keepers should keep about one well filled extracting frame out of every seven for feeding purposes.

Dark (not amber) honey is poor food for bees in winter. All black honey should be removed and combs of white honey should be substituted. Experiments made by Dr. Phillips, in Washington, D. C., have shown that bees consume least honey and winter best when the temperature inside the hive is 57 degrees Fahrenheit.

Dampness in a cellar causes the comb and frames of the hive walls and cover to get damp and mouldy, and the bees perish from wet and cold after exhausting their vitality in generating heat.

Bees need fresh air. Foul air will cause excitement, causing an overheated condition; and the bees will scatter and die. Any excitement among bees in winter is fatal. Cellars on high ground, covered with straw over timbers, are best for wintering bees.

If the bee cluster divides or splits up during the winter, the smaller clusters will perish from cold. The present style of Hoffman frames divides the bee cluster into eleven divisions separated from each other by a sheet of wax comb, with no direct communication between different divisions except over, below or around the frames. If the bee cluster contracts during the winter on account of cold the divisions of the outside frames are sometimes left behind and die. Some bee keepers perforate their frames to keep an easy passage for bees from one compartment to another. If kept warm, even weak colonies may pass over or around the frames without much difficulty. When cold, only the strongest will be able to accomplish this difficult task. Wintering bees in division hives or in two story hives, which give them a horizontal bee space through the middle between the two divisions, is highly recommended for successful wintering.



In long-continued severe cold the bee clusters will contract into a very small, compact mass. The tendency of this cluster is to move upward where the air is warmer. If enough honey is stored above them they will keep in contact with it. If the honey is stored at the side, the bees sometimes lose their contact with it and die of starvation and cold. This is another argument in favor of wintering in two story hives. Often they will move towards one corner and die there, leaving the other corners filled with honey. If you must winter in one story hives give bees plenty of honey in the fall and place the cluster at one side of the hive so that they move necessarily toward the honey supply.

Bees should be kept in a cellar at a temperature of about 45 degrees. The difference in the temperature between the outside and the inside of the hive will be between 10 and 15 degrees. Very strong colonies, no matter where kept, will keep themselves warm and will survive any degree of cold, but there is no doubt that their vitality and ability to stand wintering will suffer a great deal thereby, causing dwindling in the spring. Cellar wintering is at present general in Minnesota. The bee cellar should be warm, dry, dark and ventilated. The bees should not be disturbed during their winter sleep by pounding, jarring, shaking and feeding. Mice also may cause the bees to get excited and perish. A four to one inch wire screen in front of the entrance will prevent mice from getting inside.

The fundamental principles to guide the bee keeper in wintering his bees are: First, strong colonies, at least six frames covered with bees when clustered; second, ample store, not less than forty pounds of honey; and third, a hive with not less than 57 degrees inside temperature. This temperature may be maintained outside in a double walled hive or in a hive lined with flax or felt, now manufactured for that purpose, or by packing the hives in leaves, straw or shavings—or by putting them into a warm cellar.

Bees in our climate should be put into winter quarters about November 15 and should not be put on their summer stands in the spring until soft maples are in bloom.

By following these suggestions winter losses may be reduced to an insignificant percentage, and these mostly from accidents and causes unforseen, for bees respond wonderfully to proper treatment.



The Currant as a Market Garden Product.

B. WALLNER, JR., WEST ST. PAUL.

The currant is essentially a northern fruit, therefore does well in Minnesota.

I plant my currants on a clay loam as it retains moisture and coolness, which the currant prefers. Their roots run somewhat shallow, and hence sandy or friable soils are not desirable. Soils such as will prevent a stagnant condition during heavy rainfalls are essential. I plant my currants early in spring as soon as the frost leaves the ground and a proper preparation can be secured. I plant them five by five feet apart, as they require a thorough cultivation the first two years from planting.

I plant mangels between the rows the first year; second year continued cultivation is practiced; third year I apply a mulch consisting of mushroom manure to a depth of from four to six inches, which answers a double purpose, to keep out weeds and to act as mulch at the same time. During a prolonged dry spell the soil is moist under this covering, and it makes it more pleasant for the picking, as it prevents the berries getting soiled after a rain during the picking season. You cannot fertilize the currant too abundantly, as it is a gross feeder and requires plenty of manure to get best results, as such fruit commands the best price on the market.

I planted my currants on ground previously well fertilized with well decayed barnyard manure.

I prefer strong well rooted two-year-old plants. The long straggling roots are shortened, and bruised portions cut off with a sharp knife. The tops are somewhat reduced, depending on the size of plants. I set them in a furrow, sufficiently deep to admit the roots to spread out in a natural position, fill in with surface soil and pack around the roots, so that when the earth is firmly settled the roots will not protrude out any place.

In regard to pruning I find the best and largest fruit is produced on canes not over four years old, and if judicious cutting out of the old canes is followed nice, large, full clusters of fruit of excellent character will be obtained. This is a fact that I want to emphasize: if the market is glutted with currants, you can readily dispose of your product, providing they are qualified as extra large, which results can be attained by following these rules.

Pertaining to insects and diseases, I spray my currants twice for the currant worm with arsenate of lead at the rate of two pounds to fifty gallons of water.

I also use hellebore (dry powdered form), especially valuable in destroying the worms when berries are almost ready for market, and on which it is dangerous to use arsenical poisons. I never was troubled with the currant worm cane borer. I attribute the absence of this dreaded insect to my keeping all old wood cut out, which is generally infested with it.

As to varieties I planted the following: Wilder, Victoria, Prince Albert, Red Cross, Diploma and White Grape. The Wilder is the best commercial berry, very productive and large, while the Diploma is one of the largest fruited varieties in existence, its main drawback consisting of a straggling habit of growth which requires either tying up the branches or pruning back somewhat short.

The Prince Albert is late and can be recommended for commercial use. Victoria is a prolific bearer, fair size fruit and requires little pruning. Red Cross is large fruited, but shy bearer. The White Grape meets with little demand as a market berry, fine to eat out of hand and an excellent table berry.

I also planted a few Black Champion; have not grown it long enough to know definite results.

The demand for black currants is limited, but the prices are fair. As to picking would say we pick them when not quite ripe, as the average housewife claims they jell better than when over-ripe. They must be picked by the stem and not stripped off—all defective, over-ripe and bruised berries should be eliminated at the picking.

When the box is being filled a few gentle raps should be given to settle the clusters into place, as they shake down considerably. All the conveniences and same character of boxes and crates used in handling of other small fruits are equally adapted to the currant.

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WELCOME THE THRUSHES—THESE BIRDS DO THE FARMER LITTLE HARM AND MUCH GOOD.—That thrushes—the group of birds in which are included robins and bluebirds—do a great deal of good and very little harm to agriculture is the conclusion reached by investigators of the United States Department of Agriculture who have carefully studied the food habits of these birds. Altogether there are within the limits of the United States eleven species of thrushes, five of which are commonly known as robins and bluebirds. The other six include the Townsend solitaire, the wood, the veery, the gray-cheek, the olive-back, and the hermit thrushes.—U.S. Dept. of Agri.



Report of Committee on Examination of Minnesota State Fruit-Breeding Farm for the Year 1915.

DR. O. M. HUESTIS, MINNEAPOLIS; FRANK H. GIBBS, ST. ANTHONY PARK.

On the morning of October 12, 1915, your committee visited the State Fruit-Breeding Farm, was met at the Zumbra Heights Station, on the M. & St. Louis R.R., by Superintendent Haralson and were very soon in the midst of a plat of over 3,000 everbearing strawberry plants all different—some plants with scores of ripe and green berries as well as blossoms, others with few berries and many runners. The superintendent had already made selections and marked some 250 plants for propagation. In another plat of 1,000 varieties it was very apparent that No. 1017, a cross between Pan-American and Dunlap, was the superior, although others were choice, both as plant makers and fruit-bearers. No doubt many excellent kinds will come from those selected. It certainly was encouraging to be able, even after the heavy frost of a week before, to pick three quarts of large, well ripened berries, a photo of which we obtained on reaching the city and will appear in the Horticulturist.



Of the June-bearing varieties No. 3, a cross between Senator Dunlap and Pocomoke, would seem to surpass anything else we saw as to strength of plant and health of foliage. As to its fruiting ability, will refer to the display made at the last summer meeting of the society, which was so much admired. We have no doubt there is a great future for No. 3, as has been for its illustrious parent, the Dunlap. Next we went over to the raspberry field containing, it seemed, thousands of strong, straight, healthy plants, which would have to be seen to be appreciated and only then when in fruiting. No. 4 took our special attention. The canes were especially clean, well branched and healthy—a cross between Loudon and King. Many others seem to be very promising.



Next we were shown a variety of everbearing raspberry from which we indulged in ripe fruit of good size and flavor and which it is hoped will be as valuable as the everbearing strawberry. Of the thousands of everbearing seedlings selections had been made of about 100 which were fine looking plants, well cultivated and free from disease.

We were then shown some hundreds of wild peach seedlings, seedlings of Burbank plums, thousands of hybrid plums of all ages, and a plat of thousands of plum seedlings which will be disposed of to nurserymen this fall and bring a nice income to the state; also wild pears from Manchuria with good prospects of being hardy and free from blight.

We saw a number of nice plum trees, of which the superintendent told us the fruit would color before ripening and would stand long shipments, which so far promise well. Several hundred Beta grape seedlings probably even more hardy than the parent, many crosses in roses which if judged by the foliage must be seen in bloom to be appreciated, seedlings of Compass cherry crossed with apricot; Compass cherry crossed with nectarines; seedling currants, over 2,000 from which to select the best. Over a hundred commercial varieties of apples from East and West, and over 200 varieties of peaches from China and Manchuria, walnuts, butternuts and many dwarf apple trees on Paradise stocks, which fruit early. A good field of corn in shock, for feed for the horses. The old orchard on the place when bought, which had been top-worked to some extent, looked healthy everywhere. The farm seemed to be free from noxious woods, free from pocket gophers or moles and well cultivated, we thought, for the small number of men employed. Machinery and tools were well housed. We were also pleased to be shown through the new home of the superintendent, not yet occupied, which seemed to be complete in all its appointments.

We think the state has a great asset in the farm and recommend that as far as possible members of this society visit it during the coming summer and that the society use its influence with the Board of Regents that more land be procured as soon as possible in order that trial plants may remain longer to more definitely prove their worth and that a greater work may be done for the state. We notice in a report made just six years before, viz., October 12, 1909, by Brothers Wedge, Underwood and the then president of the society, Prof. Green, that even runnerless everbearing strawberries were represented and that they had the usual pleasure of picking strawberry blossoms in October. Had they been with us they would have had a large dish of No. 1017 covered with rich cream and served at the hand of Mrs. Haralson.

Mr. C. S. Harrison: Mr. Chairman, I think the slogan of this society should be "Urbanize the country and ruralize the town." I see tremendous changes going on all the while. Can you think of the possibilities of Minnesota? About 40 per cent of the land under cultivation and that half worked. By and by there is going to be a crop of boys who will raise seventy-five to 100 bushels of corn to the acre where their dads raised twenty-five. You got to keep out of their way, you got to help them along.



Marketing Fruit by Association.

A. N. GRAY, MGR. BAY LAKE FRUIT GROWERS' ASSN., DEERWOOD.

Marketing fruit or any farm product by association is the modern farmer's insurance of results.

A great deal might be said on this subject, but I shall tell you briefly what the Bay Lake Fruit Growers' Association have accomplished.

The first raspberry growing for market at Bay Lake was back in 1886. Nick Newgard, one of our first settlers, sold quite a few berries that year. Bay Lake is seven miles from Deerwood, the nearest railroad point, and at that time there was only a trail between these places, and it was necessary for Mr. Newgard to pack his berries in on his back. This same method was used in transporting supplies.



Mr. Newgard told me recently that he received a very good profit on his berries the first ten years, but each year the acreage increased and each year the growers' troubles increased in disposing of the crop.

In 1909 there was an unusually large crop and, shipping individually, as we did at that time, it was a case of all shipments going to Duluth one day, flooding the market, then the next day every one shipping to Fargo and flooding that market, and at the end of the season when the growers received their final returns they found that they had received very small pay for their berries.

In the fall of that year the growers around Bay Lake called a meeting to see if some organization could not be formed to handle their berries and look after the collections. The result of this meeting was the incorporation of the Bay Lake Fruit Growers' Association.

When the berry season opened in 1910 we had a manager, hired for the season, on a salary, who worked under a board of five managing directors. It was the manager's business to receive the berries at the station, find a market for them, make the collections and settlements with the growers. The result of this first year was so satisfactory to the members that the total membership increased that fall to almost 100. This new system had eliminated all the worry, and we received a good price for our berries after the expense of our manager had been deducted.

We have just closed our sixth season, which by the way has been a very successful one, as the prices received have been above the average. We now have about 150 members, and we have two shipping stations, Deerwood and Aitkin. We market strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, gooseberries, plums, Compass cherries, apples, sweet corn and celery.

We have a nice trade worked up and have little trouble in finding a ready market for any of our products.

It is our aim, as growers, to give our customers all A No. 1 quality. During the berry season we have an inspector whose duty it is to inspect the berries as they arrive at the station and any found to be of poor quality we dispose of locally for canning. The grower of these berries receives a credit for the amount we realize. In this way we keep the standard of our berries up, and we have very few complaints from our customers on soft berries.

As for losses on bad debts, we have thus far had very few. We usually get a credit rating from the prospective customer's bank and ship to him accordingly. Our old customers file standing orders with us to ship them so many crates each day, and each year brings us new customers who have heard of the fine Bay Lake berries.

In 1912 the association built a potato warehouse at a cost of about $2,500, and we store the members' potatoes for them at a nominal cost. In 1914 the association decided to put in a stock of flour and feed and keep the manager the year around. Our business in this line has been increasing all the time. It is very interesting to note that over 60 per cent of our flour and feed customers are not members of the association.

We are growing all the time and branching out. A few months ago we added a small stock of hardware and some groceries, and these have taken so well that we would not be at all surprised if eventually we find ourselves in the retail store business.



Evergreens for Both Utility and Ornament.

EARL FERRIS, NURSERYMAN, HAMPTON, IOWA.

As far as horticulture is concerned, the only touch of color on the Northwestern landscape during the coming winter will be furnished by the greens and blues of evergreens.

Did you ever pass a farm home in the winter that was protected by a good evergreen grove and notice how beautiful it looked? Did you ever stop to think of the difference in temperature that an evergreen grove makes, to say nothing of the contrast in the appearance of the place to that of a home with no grove?



When I was a small boy I was fortunate enough to be raised on a farm in Butler County, Iowa, that was well protected by a good Norway spruce, white pine and Scotch pine windbreak. The Norway spruce and white pine are still there and if anything better than they were thirty years ago. At that time my father fed from one to five carloads of stock every winter back of this grove, and I honestly believe that he fed his steers at a cost of from $5 to $15 per steer less than a neighboring feeder who fed out on the open prairie with a few sheds to furnish the only winter protection. I shall never forget the remark a German made who was hauling corn to us one cold winter day. As he drove onto the scales back of this grove, he straightened up and said: "Well, the evergreen grove feels like putting on a fur coat," and I never heard the difference in temperature described any better. Our evergreen grove moved our feeding pens at least 300 miles further south every winter, as far as the cold was concerned.



Near Hampton, Iowa, we have three or four of the best stock raisers in the United States. Every one of them is feeding cattle back of a large evergreen grove. In recent years they have divided up some of their large farms into smaller places and made new feeding sheds, and the first improvement that they made on each and every one of these places was an evergreen grove. They buy the best trees that can be obtained that have been transplanted and root pruned, and most of them prefer the Norway spruce in the two to three foot size. After planting, they take as good care of them as they do of any crop on the farm, for they fully realize that cultivation is an all important thing in getting a good evergreen grove started.

Several days ago, I talked with one of these feeders who has time and again topped the Chicago market. He made the remark that the buildings on his farm cost thousands of dollars while his evergreen grove had only cost from $100 to $200, but that he would rather have every building on the place destroyed than to lose that windbreak.

As the price of land and feed increases, the farmers of the Northwest are waking up to the fact that an evergreen grove is an absolute necessity, and that they cannot afford to plant any other. The maple, willow, box elder and other similar trees take so much land that they cannot afford them. They are a windbreak in the summer, but a joke in the winter.

The time is not far distant when every up-to-date farmer in Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska and other Northwest states will have a good evergreen grove which will be considered as much of a necessity as his barn, house or other outbuildings.



Late this fall, my wife and I left Hampton for an automobile trip through Minnesota, North Dakota and into Canada. It seemed to me on this trip that the most beautiful thing we saw about the farm buildings were the evergreen groves that many of the farmers now have all through Minnesota and Dakota. I was certainly very much surprised at some of these windbreaks and at some of the varieties of evergreens that were being grown successfully as far north as Fargo. Near Fargo we found some extra good specimens of Norway spruce, which I consider the best of all windbreak makers. We also found the Scotch pine doing well 100 miles northwest of Fargo, and other varieties which were naturally to be expected being planted to a considerable extent.

As far as usefulness is concerned, the farmer of the prairie states is bound to get more real value from an evergreen than any other person, but I am very glad to say that the homes of the wealthy in the cities each season are being improved more and more by the planting of the more ornamental evergreens. Cities like Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Boston, St. Paul, Minneapolis, and other large cities of the United States are using thousands of evergreens every season to beautify the homes, of not only the wealthy but of the laboring man also. The price of evergreens at the present time is within the reach of everyone owning a home, and there is no other improvement that can be placed upon a piece of ground at so little expense and so little labor that will add so many dollars in real value to that property as will the evergreen, either as a windbreak or in landscape work.



Annual Report, 1915, Executive Board.

J. M. UNDERWOOD, CHAIRMAN

The report of the executive board is necessarily brief from the fact that the machinery of our society is kept in such excellent condition by our secretary, that there is little left for our board to do. His monthly issues of the "Horticulturist" keep the membership posted on all important items of interest and are a splendid examplification to the public of the value of our publications and of the meetings of our society. Your executive board meets twice a year to verify the accounts of the secretary and treasurer and at other times when there is something of importance to attend to.

We wish to call your attention to the fact that your board is practically self supporting. The members work for nothing and board themselves, which is a mighty good way to do.

There is a work of very great importance for the members of our society to do the coming year. That is to help in every legitimate way to secure an appropriation by the next legislature with which to build for our society a home. We should have had it provided so that we could celebrate our semi-centennial a year from now in our own home. If we were a private society, we would have had a home years ago.

We should be closely affiliated with the horticulture of the State University. Our home should be located on the grounds of the Agricultural College, where the building could be used for other purposes when not needed by our society. Let every member of our society interview the senator and member of the house from his or her district next fall and secure their promise to support a bill to appropriate $50,000 for building us a home.



Annual Report of Treasurer, 1915.

GEO. W. STRAND, TAYLORS FALLS, TREASURER.

RECEIPTS.

1914.

Dec. 1. Balance on hand $4,948.35 Interest on certificate of deposit, six months, to November 1, 1914 126.15

1915.

Mar. 1. Semi-annual allowance 1,500.00 Apr. 5. Interest on deposit, six months, to April 1 85.96 A. W. Latham, receipts secretary's office, November 25, 1914 to June 21, 1915 3,290.74 Sept. 4. State Treasurer, semi-annual allowance 1,500.00 Dec. 1. A. W. Latham, receipts secretary's office June 21, 1915, to December 1, 1915 1,064.30 ————— $12,515.50

DISBURSEMENTS.

1914.

Dec. 12. Order 229, A .W. Latham, Revolving Fund $600.00 Dec. 12. Order 235, Premiums Annual Meeting 596.50

1915.

Mar. 1. Order 230, A. W. Latham, first quarter salary 450.00 Apr. 5. A. W. Latham, interest on deposit 85.96 June 1. Order 231, A. W. Latham, second quarter salary 450.00 June 21. Order 232, A. W. Latham, expenses secretary's office November 25 to June 21, 1915 3,290.74 June 25. Order 236, Premiums Summer Meeting 1915 172.00 Sept. 3. Order 233, A. W. Latham, third quarter salary 450.00 Dec. 1. Order 234, A. W. Latham, fourth quarter salary 450.00 Dec. 1. Order 237, A. W. Latham, expenses secretary's office June 21, 1915 to December 1, 1915 1,064.30 ————— $7,609.50 Dec. 1. Balance on hand 4,906.00 ————— $12,515.50 Deposits, Farmers & Mechanics Bank $4,276.15 Deposits, First & Security National Bank 629.85 ————— $4,906.00



Annual Meeting, 1915, N.E. Iowa Horticultural Society.

C. E. SNYDER, PRESTON, DELEGATE

Your delegate arrived at Decorah at nine-thirty, Wednesday, November seventeenth. Full accommodations offered by the Winneshiek Hotel made the trip complete and homelike to delegates and members.

The convention was held in the old Marsh Hall, a very suitable place, offering ample room with all necessary accommodations for such a gathering.

Decorations showed much time and skill, resulting in a beautiful display of shrubbery-boughs, evergreen, etc.

The area of a table about one hundred feet long and six feet wide, running through the center of the hall, contained a great variety of apples surprising for this season. Many, including C.H. True, of Clayton county, proved themselves successful orchardists.



On various other tables large displays of agriculture, apiary, greenhouse and garden products completed the harmonizing of horticulture, floriculture and agriculture, including mentioned decorations appearing as a striking feature and an encouragement to the cause.

The meeting was called to order shortly after ten o'clock by President Geo. S. Woodruff. The mingling of many instructive papers with humorous selections and music proved the program well arranged. Same carried out very successfully held the interest of a not large but fair attendance throughout. A paper and address by Wesley Greene, of Des Moines, should have reached the ears of every Iowa and Minnesota citizen. A striking selection on "The Tree," by J. A. Nelson, was descriptive, instructive, humorous and poetic.

A topic of great interest was the everbearing strawberry, which persistently bobbed up every now and then in interesting discussion. Brother Gardner, with his practical experience, was right at hand, a leader and authority on this fruit. Clarence Wedge, who always contended that the Progressive was away ahead of all others, was endorsed by every man that grew them in this convention, by a vote on merit of varieties.

Reports from the different districts showed a heavy rainfall throughout the season, resulting in rust and scab. Sprayed orchards showed better results than others. Small fruits were abundant and good.

Shortly after four o'clock Wednesday afternoon automobiles drew up and took delegates and members over beautiful Decorah, stopping at Symond's greenhouses, and on through the most beautiful park in this section, then to the palatial residence of John Harter, where a very bountiful banquet was enjoyed.

During convention Secretary Black's and Treasurer True's reports showed the society in flourishing condition.

All officers were re-elected, place of next meeting to be chosen later by the executive committee.

* * * * *

HANDLING RASPBERRIES.—In 1911 the Government investigators made comparative tests of the keeping qualities of carefully handled raspberries and commercially handled raspberries. Several lots of each kind were held in an ice car for varying periods and then examined for the percentage of decay. Other lots were held a day after being withdrawn from the refrigerator car and then examined. The results are most significant.

After 4 days in the ice car it was found that the carefully handled berries showed only 0.4 per cent. decay, while the commercially handled fruit had 4.6 per cent. After 8 days in the car the difference was vastly greater. The carefully handled fruit showed only 2.2 per cent. decay, but with the commercially handled this percentage had risen to 26.7, or more than one-quarter of the entire shipment. When the fruit was examined a day after it had been taken out of the ice car, the evidence was equally strong in favor of careful handling. Carefully handled fruit that had remained 4 days in the car was found a day after its withdrawal to show only 1 per cent. of decay against 17.5 per cent. in commercially handled berries. Carefully handled fruit left in the car 8 days, and then held one day, showed only 8.1 per cent. of decay as against 47.6 per cent. in commercially handled fruit.

The following year experiments were made with actual shipments instead of with the stationary refrigerator car, and the results confirmed previous conclusions. It was found, for example, that there was less decay in the carefully handled berries at the end of 8 days than in the commercially handled berries at the end of 4. Carefully handled fruit that was 4 days in transit, and had then been held one day after withdrawal from the refrigerator car showed less than 1 per cent of decay, whereas commercially handled berries subjected to the same test showed nearly 10 per cent.



Orcharding in Minnesota.

RICHARD WELLINGTON, ASST. HORTICULTURIST, UNIVERSITY FARM, ST. PAUL.

This paper is purposely given a broad title so that it may cover any questions which come under the head of orcharding. Many of you who have been pestered with an "Orchard Survey Blank" can easily guess what subjects are to be taken up. Thanks to many of the members of this society and other fruit growers for their hearty co-operation, a large amount of data has been collected from fifty-three counties, representing most of the districts within the state. As would be expected certain counties have contributed much more information than others, probably owing to their greater interest in orcharding. For example: Thirty-one replies have already been received from Hennepin County, seven from Goodhue, six from Renville, five each from Houston, Meeker and Rice, four each from Chippewa, Dakota, Mower, Polk and Wabasha, three each from Blue Earth, Nicollet, Ottertail, Pine, Ramsey, Steele, Washington and Watonwan and one or two each from the remaining counties. Perhaps if the right parties had been reached the low-standing counties would have a higher ranking.

The best way to present the data is an enigma. If all the information was given at one time we would need a whole day instead of fifteen minutes. Of course much of the material is a repetition, and a general summary will cover the main facts in most cases. Nevertheless it is not feasible to take up all of the subject matter in this short period, and therefore the first two topics on the survey blank have been selected, namely, orchard sites and protective agencies. At a later date, if you are sufficiently interested in dry facts other subjects, as soils, dynamiting, orchard management, stock of fruit trees, methods of planting and pruning, varieties for various localities, etc., will be taken up. Some of the subjects, like sites and soils, will be treated as state problems, while others must be considered as sectional.

Minnesota, as you all know, contains many different climatic conditions, and consequently its orchard practices and recommendations must vary accordingly. To meet this problem the writer, in consultation with Prof. Cady, divided the state into six sections, namely, the southeastern, east central, northeastern, northwestern, west central and southwestern. Many counties are, of course, in an intermediate position and might be thrown into either of the adjoining sections, but an arbitrary line must be drawn somewhere. Freeborn, Waseca, Rice, Goodhue and all the counties east of them are placed in the southeastern section. Nicollet, LeSueur, Sibley, McLeod, Wright, Isanti and the counties to the east are included in the central east, and Pine, Mille Lacs, Morrison and the counties to the north and east are placed in the northeastern section. Beltrami, Hubbard, Ottertail and the counties to the west are placed in northwestern section; Traverse, Douglas, Todd, Stearns, Meeker, Renville, Yellow Medicine and the enclosed counties in the west central, and the remainder to the south and west are in the southwestern section. Thus, when the various sections are mentioned, you will know what part of the state is being referred to.

Site of Orchard. By site of orchard we refer to its location, that is, whether it is on rolling, level or hilly ground, and the direction of its slope, provided it has one. From past experience it is believed that an orchard situated on a north slope is ideally located for Minnesota conditions, as its blossoming period is retarded and consequently the liability of injury from late frosts decreased. But all people who want orchards do not possess such a slope, so they set out their orchards on the most convenient location. A few growers have orchards sloping in all directions, and their opinion on the influence of slope on hardiness and retardation of the blooming period should be valuable. It is of interest to note that, out of 108 reporting on the levelness of the orchard ground, only twelve had level ground, two level to nearly level, one level to decidedly rolling, twenty-nine nearly level, seven nearly level to slightly rolling, three nearly level to medium rolling, twenty-nine slightly rolling, four slightly rolling to medium rolling, eighteen rolling and three decidedly rolling. A glance at the figures shows that the majority of orchards are on nearly level to slightly rolling land. In addition to the numbers given thirteen reported a slight slope, one a slight slope to a medium slope, two a slight to a steep slope, sixteen a medium slope, one a medium to a steep slope, and five a steep slope—the emphasis being laid on the moderate rising ground. No grower reported an orchard location entirely at the base of a slope, but six reported orchards extending from the base to the top of the slope, two from the base to midway of the slope, twenty-five at midway of the slope, seven from midway to the top and twenty-two at the top of a slope—the high ground evidently being preferred for orchard sites. As a general rule, as would naturally be expected, those who reported their orchards on the top of the slope usually reported their ground as either high or medium. Of ninety-six reports on the elevation of the orchards only four reported low land, and two of these were on top of a slope, two low and medium, one low and high, forty-six medium, fourteen medium and high, and twenty-seven high—the medium taking the lead. These figures have been given of the state as a whole, but when the sections are considered the southeastern and the west central take the lead in the highest percentage of high ground in comparison with the lower ground; the southeastern and east central, for the greatest amount of rolling land; and the southwestern, for the most level or nearly level land.



As for the effect of direction of slope on hardiness, there were many varied opinions. Thirty stated without question that the direction had an effect, thirty-one stated that it had no effect, and seventy-two admitted that they did not know. Of those answering in the affirmative only seven had two or more distinctly different slopes, while fifteen of the negatives had two or more slopes for comparison. Nine of those who stated they didn't know had two or more slopes upon which to base their judgment. In summing up the direction of sites preferred, seventy-seven recommended a northerly slope, nine had no preference, one preferred southeast, one west, one west and east, two east, one north and east, one northeast or east, and sixty-four expressed no opinion. Two growers stated that the north slope prevented early bloom and thereby lessened liability to injury from late frosts, two growers stated that northern slopes decreased the loss of moisture, and one stated that the northeast slope gives the largest fruit and the west the best colored.

As a brief summary of the reports on orchard sites, it may be stated that high ground, rolling or sloping to the north, is preferred by the majority of growers who filled out these orchard survey blanks.

Protective Agencies. Under this heading comes windbreaks of all kinds, whether hills, natural timber or planted trees, and bodies of water which ameliorate the climate. Out of fifty-four replies from the central east section, sixteen reported that their orchards were favorably affected by lakes, the benefit coming in most cases from the prevention of early and late frosts. One grower attributed the cooling of the air during the summer as a benefit and two stated that the bodies of water furnished moisture. Two growers in the southeast section received favorable influences from the Mississippi River, and one in the southwestern and two in the west central sections thought they received beneficial effects from lakes. According to this data, orchards in the east central section, owing largely to the influence of Lake Minnetonka, are greatly benefited by the presence of water.

Windbreaks are a very important factor in successful orcharding in Minnesota, even though one party in the southeast section and three parties in the central east noted no beneficial effects. According to reports from the central west and southwest sections they are of great benefit and in some cases indispensable to apple growing. As would be expected by any one who is acquainted with Minnesota, the planted windbreaks are a more important factor in the prairie country than in the natural wooded and hilly regions. In the southeast section, five orchards were reported as protected by bluffs and hills, three by both hills and natural woods, two by natural woods, two by both natural and planted woods, and twenty-one by planted woods; in the central east section, one by a hill and a planted windbreak, one by a town, fifteen by natural timber, two by natural and planted timber, and nineteen by planted windbreaks; in the northeast section, two by natural and four by planted windbreaks; in the northwest section, three by natural and two by planted windbreaks; in the west central section, one by a hill and natural timber, five by natural timber, two by natural timber and planted windbreaks, and eighteen by planted windbreaks; and in the southwest section, one by a hill and natural woods, one by a hill and planted windbreak, two by natural timber, and fifteen by planted windbreaks. If Meeker County, which has natural timber, was not included in the central west—and perhaps it should have been included in central east—this section would have only one orchard protected alone by natural timber; and if Blue Earth County was eliminated from the southwest, this section would have no orchard protected alone by natural timber.

The beneficial effects from windbreaks may be summed up as follows: Twenty-five reported that they prevented fruit from being blown off trees, nine that they prevented trees and limbs being broken by winds and storms, ten that they protected trees from injury by winds without specifying the kind of injury, four that they reduced injury from frosts, ten that they either prevented or reduced winter injury, four that they helped to retain moisture, five that they helped to hold snow, eight that they prevented snow drifting, five that they protected orchards from hot and dry winds, three that they permitted the growing of apples, and one that they supplied all advantages.

The kinds of trees recommended for windbreaks and the methods of planting are numerous and variable and to discuss them at length would take too much time. However, the principal facts may be briefly enumerated.

In eighty-five reports that listed set out windbreaks, it was found that fifty-seven growers had used evergreens, thirty-seven willows, twenty-nine box elders, twenty-five maples, seventeen cottonwoods, thirteen ashes, eleven elms, eight poplars, four oaks, four plums, three nuts and one apple. The evergreens consisted of thirteen Scotch pine, eleven evergreens (not named), eight Norway spruce, five spruce (not named), three balsam, three Austrian pine, two white pine, one yellow pine, two cedar, two white spruce, two pine (variety not named), two fir, two jack pine, one Black Hills spruce, and one tamarack. In the willows were given twenty willows (variety not named), two laurel-leaved, seven white and eight golden; in the maples, sixteen soft maples, two hard maples, one silver-maple and six maples (kind not named); in the poplars, five Norway, one Carolina, two poplar (kind not named); and in the nuts, one black walnut, one butternut and one walnut. The major part of the box elders, cottonwoods, willows and ashes were noted in the central west and southwest sections. Thirty-seven experienced growers of windbreaks, the most of them living in the southwest, west central and southeast sections, recommended the following trees for windbreaks in the given proportions, twenty-four evergreens, fifteen willows, seven maples, six poplars, five elms, five box elders, three elms, two plum, two cottonwood, three hedges, one oak, one hackberry and one black walnut. The evergreens are decidedly the most popular, and among the varieties mentioned Norway spruce takes the lead for those recommended, and the Scotch pine for those planted.

There are about as many different systems of planting used as growers. The main point in all cases was to have a planting that would stop the wind and storms. A few growers advocated the use of a hedge or plum trees to fill in under the windbreak, while one grower desires a circulation of air under the branches of his trees. Cultivation and intercropping of windbreaks are also recommended in a few cases. The distance of planting varies, of course, with the trees or shrubs used. For example: one grower recommends 8 ft. x 8 ft. for large deciduous trees, and another grower, 6 ft. x 12 ft. apart in rows and two rows, 12 ft. apart. For Scotch pine one grower advocates eight feet. In some cases a mixture of many kinds of trees is recommended, and then again only one kind. One very solid windbreak is made up of a lilac hedge, four rows of jack pine, four rows of Norway poplar and one row of willow. Another is one row willow, one of evergreen, one of willow and one of evergreen.

Various distances between windbreak and orchard were used and recommended. A large number of orchards were started at about twenty feet from the windbreak and a few as close as one rod, but these distances proved to be too close. One grower, however, recommended close planting and later the removal of a row of trees in the windbreak when more space was needed. The recommended distances for planting varied from thirty to 500 feet, although seventy-five to 100 was satisfactory in most cases.

More details have been given in regard to orchard sites and windbreaks than many of you are probably interested in, but for one who is planning to set out an orchard they should prove of value and profit, as they are based upon the experiences of many of Minnesota's best orchardists.

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