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Trees of the Northern United States - Their Study, Description and Determination
by Austin C. Apgar
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TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES

THEIR STUDY, DESCRIPTION AND DETERMINATION

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE STUDENTS

BY AUSTIN C. APGAR

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE NEW JERSEY STATE NORMAL SCHOOL

"Trees are God's Architecture."—Anonymous. "A Student who has learned to observe and describe so simple a matter as the form of a leaf has gained a power which will be of lifetime value, whatever may be his sphere of professional employment."—Wm. North Rice.

NEW YORK-:-CINCINNATI-:-CHICAGO AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

Copyright, 1892, by the AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

W. P. 3.



PREFACE.

This book has been prepared with the idea that teachers generally would be glad to introduce into their classes work dealing with the real objects of nature, provided the work chosen were of a character that would admit of its being studied at all seasons and in all localities, and that the subject were one of general interest, and one that could be taught successfully by those who have had no regular scientific instruction.

The trees of our forests, lawns, yards, orchards, streets, borders, and parks give us just such a department. Though many consider a large part of the vegetable kingdom of little importance, and unworthy of any serious study, there are few who do not admire, and fewer still who do not desire to know, our trees, the monarchs of all living things.

The difficulty in tree study by the aid of the usual botanies lies mainly in the fact that in using them the first essential parts to be examined are the blossoms and their organs. These remain on the trees a very short time, are often entirely unnoticed on account of their small size or obscure color, and are usually inaccessible even if seen. In this book the leaves, the wood, the bark, and, in an elementary way, the fruit are the parts to which the attention is directed; these all can be found and studied throughout the greater part of the year, and are just the parts that must be thoroughly known by all who wish to learn to recognize trees.

Though every teacher is at liberty to use the book as he thinks best, the author, who has been a class teacher for over twenty years, is of the opinion that but little of Part I. need be thoroughly studied and recited, with the exception of Chapter III. on leaves. The object of this chapter is not to have the definitions recited (the recitation of definitions in school work is often useless or worse than useless), but to teach the pupil to use the terms properly and to make them a portion of his vocabulary. The figures on pages 38-43 are designed for class description, and for the application of botanical words. The first time the chapter is studied the figure illustrating the term should be pointed out by the pupil; then, as a review of the whole chapter, the student should be required to give a full description of each leaf.

After this work with Chapter III., and the careful reading of the whole of Part I., the pupils can begin the description of trees, and, as the botanical words are needed, search can be made for them under the proper heads or in the Glossary.

The Keys are for the use of those who know nothing of scientific botany. The advanced botanist may think them too artificial and easy; but let him remember that this work was written for the average teacher who has had no strictly scientific training. We can hardly expect that the great majority of people will ever become scientific in any line, but it is possible for nearly every one to become interested in and fully acquainted with the trees of his neighborhood.

The attainment of such botanical knowledge by the plan given in this volume will not only accomplish this useful purpose, but will do what is worth far more to the student, i.e., teach him to employ his own senses in the investigation of natural objects, and to use his own powers of language in their description.

With hardly an exception, the illustrations in the work are taken from original drawings from nature by the author. A few of the scales of pine-cones were copied from London's "Encyclopaedia of Trees"; some of the Retinospora cones were taken from the "Gardener's Chronicle"; and three of the illustrations in Part I. are from Professor Gray's works.

The size of the illustration as compared with the specimen of plant is indicated by a fraction near it; 1/4 indicates that the drawing is one fourth as long as the original, 1/1 that it is natural size, etc. The notching of the margin is reduced to the same extent; so a margin which in the engraving looks about entire, might in the leaf be quite distinctly serrate. The only cases in which the scale is not given are in the cross-sections of the leaves among the figures of coniferous plants. These are uniformly three times the natural size, except the section of Araucaria imbricata, which is not increased in scale.

The author has drawn from every available source of information, and in the description of many of the species no attempt whatever has been made to change the excellent wording of such authors as Gray, Loudon, etc.

The ground covered by the book is that of the wild and cultivated trees found east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the southern boundary of Virginia and Missouri. It contains not only the native species, but all those that are successfully cultivated in the whole region; thus including all the species of Ontario, Quebec, etc., on the north, and many species, both wild and cultivated, of the Southern States and the Pacific coast. In fact, the work will be found to contain so large a proportion of the trees of the Southern States as to make it very useful in the schools of that section.

Many shrubby plants are introduced; some because they occasionally grow quite tree-like, others because they can readily be trimmed into tree-forms, others because they grow very tall, and still others because they are trees in the Southern States.

In nomenclature a conservative course has been adopted. The most extensively used text-book on the subject of Botany, "Gray's Manual," has recently been rewritten. That work includes every species, native and naturalized, of the region covered by this book, and the names as given in that edition have been used in all cases.

Scientific names are marked so as to indicate the pronunciation. The vowel of the accented syllable is marked by the grave accent (') if long, and by the acute (') if short.

In the preparation of this book the author has received much valuable aid. His thanks are especially due to the authorities of the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, Massachusetts, and of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, for information in regard to the hardiness of species; to Mr. John H. Redfield, of the Botanical Department of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, for books, specimens from which to make illustrations, etc.; and to Dr. A. C. Stokes, of Trenton, New Jersey, for assistance in many ways, but especially for the accurate manner in which he has inked the illustrations from the author's pencil-drawings.

The author also wishes to acknowledge the help received from many nurserymen in gathering specimens for illustration and in giving information of great value. Among these, special thanks are due to Mr. Samuel C. Moon, of Morrisville Nurseries, who placed his large collection of living specimens at the author's disposal, and in many other ways gave him much intelligent aid.



CONTENTS.

PAGE. PART I. ESSENTIAL ORGANS, AND TERMS NEEDED FOR THEIR DESCRIPTION 9-43

CHAPTER I. Roots 9

CHAPTER II. Stems and Branches 11

CHAPTER III. Leaves 17

CHAPTER IV. Flowers and Fruit 24

CHAPTER V. Winter Study of Trees 29

CHAPTER VI. The Preparation of a Collection 35

CHAPTER VII. Figures to be used in Botanical Description 38

PART II. PLAN AND MODELS FOR TREE DESCRIPTION 44-50

PART III. KEY, CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES 51-201

* * * * *

GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS, AND INDEX TO PART I 203-212

INDEX TO PART III 213-224



TREES.



PART I.

THE ESSENTIAL ORGANS, AND THE TERMS NEEDED FOR THEIR DESCRIPTION.



CHAPTER I.

Roots.

Though but little study of the roots of trees is practicable, some knowledge of their forms, varieties, and parts is important.

The great office of the roots of all plants is the taking in of food from the soil. Thick or fleshy roots, such as the radish, are stocks of food prepared for the future growth of the plant, or for the production of flowers and fruit. The thick roots of trees are designed mainly for their secure fastening in the soil. The real mouths by which the food is taken in are the minute tips of the hair-like roots found over the surface of the smaller branches. As trees especially need a strong support, they all have either a tap-root—one large root extending from the lower end of the trunk deep down into the ground; or multiple roots—a number of large roots mainly extending outward from the base of the trunk.

Trees with large tap-roots are very hard to transplant, and cannot with safety be transferred after they have attained any real size. The Hickories and Oaks belong to this class.

Trees having multiple roots are readily transplanted, even when large. The Maples and Elms are of this class.

Roots that grow from the root-end of the embryo of the seed are called primary roots; those growing from slips or from stems anywhere are secondary roots.

Some trees grow luxuriantly with only secondary roots; such trees can readily be raised from stems placed in the ground. The Willows and Poplars are good examples of this group. Other trees need all the strength that primary roots can give them; these have to be raised from seed. Peach-trees are specially good examples, but practically most trees are best raised from seed.

A few trees can be easily raised from root-cuttings or from suckers which grow up from roots. The Ailanthus, or "Tree of Heaven," is best raised in this way. Of this tree there are three kinds, two of which have disagreeable odors when in bloom, but the other is nearly odorless. By using the roots or the suckers of the third kind, only those which would be pleasant to have in a neighborhood would be obtained. One of the large cities of the United States has in its streets thousands of the most displeasing of these varieties and but few of the right sort, all because the nurseryman who originally supplied the city used root-cuttings from the disagreeable kind.

If such trees were raised from the seed, only about one third would be desirable, and their character could be determined only when they had reached such a size as to produce fruit, when it would be too late to transplant them. Fruit-trees, when raised from the seed, have to be grafted with the desired variety in order to secure good fruit when they reach the bearing age.



CHAPTER II.

Stems and Branches.

The stem is the distinguishing characteristic of trees, separating them from all other groups of plants. Although in the region covered by this book the trees include all the very large plants, size alone does not make a tree.

A plant with a single trunk of woody structure that does not branch for some distance above the ground, is called a tree. Woody plants that branch directly above the soil, even though they grow to the height of twenty feet or more, are called shrubs, or, in popular language, bushes. Many plants which have a tendency to grow into the form of shrubs may, by pruning, be forced to grow tree-like; some that are shrubs in the northern States are trees further south.

All the trees that grow wild, or can be cultivated out of doors, in the northern States belong to one class, the stems having a separable bark on the outside, a minute stem of pith in the center, and, between these, wood in annual layers. Such a stem is called exogenous (outside-growing), because a new layer forms on the outside of the wood each year.

Another kind of tree-stem is found abundantly in the tropics; one, the Palmetto, grows from South Carolina to Florida. While in our region there are no trees of this character, there are plants having this kind of stem, the best illustration being the corn-stalk. In this case there is no separable bark, and the woody substance is in threads within the pithy material. In the corn-stalk the woody threads are not very numerous, and the pith is very abundant; in most of the tropical trees belonging to this group the threads of wood are so numerous as to make the material very durable and fit for furniture. A stem of this kind is called endogenous (inside-growing). Fig. 1 represents a longitudinal and a cross section of an exogenous stem, and Fig. 2 of an endogenous one.



Since all the stems with which we have to deal are exogens, a particular description of that class will here be given. Fig. 1 shows the appearance of a section of an Ash stem six years old. The central portion, which is about as thick as wrapping-twine, is the pith; from this outward toward the bark can be seen the six annual layers of the wood; and then comes the bark, consisting of two portions. First there is an inside layer of greenish material, the fresh-growing portion, and lastly the outer or dead matter. This outer portion must crack open, peel off, or in some way give a chance for the constant growth of the trunk. The different kinds of trees are readily known by the appearance of the bark of the trunk, due to the many varieties of surface caused by the allowance for growth. None of the characteristics of trees afford a better opportunity for careful observation and study than the outer bark.

The Birches have bark that peels off in thin horizontal layers—the color, thinness, and toughness differing in the different species; the Ashes have bark which opens in many irregular, netted cracks moderately near each other; the bark of the Chestnut opens in large longitudinal cracks quite distant from one another. The color of the bark and the character of the scales are quite different in the White and the Black Oaks.

In the woody portion radiating lines may be seen; these are the silver grain; they are called by the botanist medullary rays.

The central portion of the wood of many large stems is darker in color than the rest. This darker portion is dead wood, and is called heart-wood; the outer portion, called sap-wood, is used in carrying the sap during the growing season. The heart-wood of the Walnut-tree is very dark brown; that of the Cherry, light red; and that of the Holly, white and ivory-like. The heart-wood is the valuable part for lumber.

If examined under a magnifying glass, the annual layers will be seen to consist of minute tubes or cells. In most trees these tubes are much larger in the portion that grew early in the season, while the wood seems almost solid near the close of the annual layer; this is especially true in the Ashes and the Chestnut; some trees, however, show but little change in the size of the cells, the Beech being a good example. In a cross-section, the age of such trees as the Chestnut can readily be estimated, while in the Beech it is quite difficult to do this. Boxwood, changing least in the character of its structure, is the one always used for first-grade wood-engravings.

When wood is cut in the direction of the silver grain, or cut "quartering" as it is called by the lumbermen, the surface shows this cellular material spread out in strange blotches characteristic of the different kinds of wood. Fig. 16 shows an Oak where the blotches of medullary rays are large. In the Beech the blotches are smaller; in the Elm quite small. Lumber cut carefully in this way is said to be "quartered," and with most species its beauty is thereby much increased.

Any one who studies the matter carefully can become acquainted with all the useful and ornamental woods used in a region; the differences in the color of the heart-wood, the character of the annual layers, and the size and the distribution of the medullary rays, afford enough peculiarities to distinguish any one from all others.

BRANCHING.—The regular place from which a branch grows is the axil of a leaf, from what is called an axillary bud; but branches cannot grow in the axils of all leaves. A tree with opposite leaves occasionally has opposite branches; while a tree with alternate leaves has all its branches alternate.

Most branches continue their growth year after year by the development of a bud at the end, called a terminal bud. Many trees form this bud for the next year's growth so early in the year that it is seldom or never killed by the winter weather; such trees grow very regularly and are symmetrical in form. Most evergreens are good examples. Fig. 3 represents a good specimen. The age of such trees, if not too great, can be readily ascertained by the regularity of each year's growth. The tree represented is sixteen years old. The branches that started the fifth year, about the age at which regular growth begins, are shown by their scars on the trunk.



The terminal buds of many trees are frequently killed by the frosts of winter; such trees continue their growth by the development of axillary buds; but as growth from an axillary bud instead of a terminal one will make a branch crooked, such trees are irregular in their branching and outline. Just which axillary buds are most apt to grow depends upon the kind of tree, but trees of the same variety are nearly uniform in this respect. Most trees are therefore readily recognized by the form of outline and the characteristic branching. A good example of a tree of very irregular growth is the Catalpa (Indian Bean), shown in Fig. 4. The tendency to grow irregularly usually increases with age. The Buttonwood, for example, grows quite regularly until it reaches the age of thirty to forty years; then its new branches grow in peculiarly irregular ways. The twigs of a very old and a young Apple-tree illustrate this change which age produces.



There are great differences in the color and surface of the bark of the twigs of different species of trees; some are green (Sassafras), some red (Peach, on the sunny side), some purple (Cherry). Some are smooth and dotless, some marked with dots (Birch), some roughened with corky ridges (Sweet Gum), etc.

The taste and odor of the bark are characteristics worthy of notice: the strong, fragrant odor of the Spice-bush; the fetid odor of the Papaw; the aromatic taste of the Sweet Birch; the bitter taste of the Peach; the mucilaginous Slippery Elm; the strong-scented, resinous, aromatic Walnut, etc.

The branches of trees vary greatly in the thickness of their tips and in their tendency to grow erect, horizontal, or drooping. Thus the delicate spray of the Birches contrasted with the stout twigs of the Ailanthus, or the drooping twigs of the Weeping Willow with the erect growth of the Lombardy Poplar, give contrasts of the strongest character. In the same way, the directions the main branches take in their growth from the trunk form another distinctive feature. Thus the upward sloping branches of the Elm form a striking contrast to the horizontal or downward sloping branches of the Sour Gum, or, better still, to certain varieties of Oaks.

When the main trunk of a tree extends upward through the head to the tip, as in Fig. 3, it is said to be excurrent. When it is soon lost in the division, as in Fig. 4, it is said to be deliquescent.



CHAPTER III.

Leaves.

Leaves are the lungs of plants. The food taken in by the roots has to pass through the stem to the leaves to be acted upon by the air, before it becomes sap and is fit to be used for the growth of the plant. No portion of a plant is more varied in parts, forms, surface, and duration than the leaf.

No one can become familiar with leaves, and appreciate their beauty and variety, who does not study them upon the plants themselves. This chapter therefore will be devoted mainly to the words needed for leaf description, together with their application.

THE LEAF.—In the axil of the whole leaf the bud forms for the growth of a new branch. So by noting the position of the buds, all the parts included in a single leaf can be determined. As a general thing the leaf has but one blade, as in the Chestnut, Apple, Elm, etc.; yet the Horse-chestnut has 7 blades, the Common Locust often has 21, and a single leaf of the Honey-locust occasionally has as many as 300. Figs. 17-58 (Chapter VII.) are all illustrations of single leaves, except Fig. 43, where there are two leaves on a twig. A number of them show the bud by which the fact is determined (Figs. 25, 26, 31, 33, 34, 36, 40, etc.); others show branches which grew from the axillary buds, many of them fruiting branches (Figs. 37, 42, 43, 50, and 54), one (Fig. 51) a thorny branch.

The cone-bearing plants (Figs. 59-67) have only simple leaves. Each piece, no matter how small and scale-like, may have a branch growing from its axil, and so may form a whole leaf. A study of these figures, together with the observation of trees, will soon teach the student what constitutes a leaf.

ARRANGEMENT.—There are several different ways in which leaves are arranged on trees; the most common plan is the alternate; in this only one leaf occurs at a joint or node on the stem. The next in frequency is the opposite, where two leaves opposite each other are found at the node. A very rare arrangement among trees, though common in other plants, is the whorled, where more than two leaves, regularly arranged around the stem, are found at the node. When a number of leaves are bundled together,—a plan not rare among evergreens,—they are said to be fasciculated or in fascicles. The term scattered is used where alternate leaves are crowded on the stem. This plan is also common among evergreens.

CAUTION.—In some plants the leaves on the side shoots or spurs of a twig are so close together, the internodes being so short, that at first sight they seem opposite. In such cases, the leaf-scars of the preceding years, or the arrangement of the branches, is a better test of the true arrangement of the leaves. The twig of Birch shown in Fig. 5 has alternate leaves.



There is one variety of alternation, called two-ranked, which is quite characteristic of certain trees; that is, the leaves are so flattened out as to be in one plane on the opposite sides of the twig (Fig. 6). The Elm-trees form good examples of two-ranked alternate leaves, while the Apple leaves are alternate without being two-ranked. Most leaves spread from the stem, but some are appressed, as in the Arbor-vitae (Fig. 7). In this species the branches are two-ranked.

PARTS OF LEAVES.—A complete leaf consists of three parts: the blade, the thin expanded portion; the petiole, the leafstalk; and the stipules, a pair of small blades at the base of the petiole. The petiole is often very short and sometimes wanting. The stipules are often absent, and, even when present, they frequently fall off as soon as the leaves expand; sometimes they are conspicuous. Most Willows show the stipules on the young luxuriant growths.



VEINING.—The leaves of most trees have a distinct framework, the central line of which is called a midrib; sometimes the leaf has several other lines about as thick as the midrib, which are called ribs; the lines next in size, including all that are especially distinct, are called veins, the most minute ones being called veinlets (Fig. 8).



KINDS.—Leaves are simple when they have but one blade; compound when they have more than one. Compound leaves are palmate when all the blades come from one point, as in the Horse-chestnut; pinnate when they are arranged along the sides, as in the Hickory. Pinnate leaves are of two kinds: odd-pinnate, when there is an odd leaflet at the end, as in the Ash, and abruptly pinnate when there is no end leaflet.

Many trees have the leaves twice pinnate; they are either twice odd-pinnate or twice abruptly pinnate. The separate blades of a compound leaf are called leaflets. Leaves or leaflets are sessile when they have no stems, and petiolate when they have stems.

When there are several ribs starting together from the base of a blade, it is said to be radiate-veined or palmate-veined. When the great veins all branch from the midrib, the leaf is feather-veined or pinnate-veined. If these veins are straight, distinct, and regularly placed, the leaf is said to be straight-veined. The Chestnut is a good example. Leaves having veinlets joining each other like a net are said to be netted-veined. All the trees with broad leaves in the northern United States, with one exception, have netted-veined foliage. A leaf having its veinlets parallel to one another is said to be parallel-veined or -nerved. The Ginkgo-tree, the Indian Corn, and the Calla Lily have parallel-veined leaves. The narrow leaves of the cone-bearing trees are also parallel-veined.

FORMS.—Leaves can readily be divided into the three following groups with regard to their general outline:

1. Broadest at the middle. Orbicular, about as broad as long and rounded. Oval, about twice as long as wide, and regularly curved. Elliptical, more than twice as long as wide, and evenly curved. Oblong, two or three times as long as wide, with the sides parallel. Linear, elongated oblong, more than three times as long as wide. Acerose, needle-shaped, like the leaf of the Pine-tree.

2. Broadest near the base. Deltoid, broad and triangular. Ovate, evenly curved, with a broad, rounded base. Heart-shaped or cordate, similar to ovate, but with a notch at the base. Lanceolate, shaped like the head of a lance. Awl-shaped, shaped like the shoemaker's curved awl. Scale-shaped, short, rounded, and appressed to the stem. The Arbor-vitae has both awl-shaped and scale-shaped leaves.

3. Broadest near the apex. Obovate, same as ovate, but with the stem at the narrow end. Obcordate, a reversed heart-shape. Oblanceolate, a reversed lanceolate. Wedge-shaped or cuneate, having a somewhat square end and straight sides like a wedge.

These words are often united to form compound ones when the form of the leaf is somewhat intermediate. The term which most nearly suits the general form is placed at the end; thus lance-ovate indicates a leaf between lanceolate and ovate, but nearer ovate than lanceolate; while ovate-lanceolate indicates one nearer lanceolate.

BASES.—Oftentimes leaves are of some general form, but have a peculiar base, one that would not be expected from the statement of shape. An ovate leaf which should have a rounded base might have a tapering one; it would then be described as ovate with a tapering base. A lanceolate leaf should naturally have a tapering base, but might have an abrupt one. Many leaves, no matter what their general form may be, have more or less notched bases; such bases are called cordate, deeply or slightly, as the case may be; and if the lobes at base are elongated, auriculate. If the basal lobes project outward, the term halberd-shaped is used. Any form of leaf may have a base more or less oblique.

POINTS.—The points as well as the bases of leaves are often peculiar, and need to be described by appropriate terms. Truncate indicates an end that is square; retuse, one with a slight notch; emarginate, one with a decided notch; obcordate, with a still deeper notch; obtuse, angular but abrupt; acute, somewhat sharpened; acuminate, decidedly sharp-pointed; bristle-pointed and awned, with a bristle-like tip; spiny-pointed, with the point sharp and stiff (Holly); mucronate, with a short, abrupt point.

MARGINS.—Entire, edge without notches; repand, slightly wavy; sinuate, decidedly wavy; dentate, with tooth-like notches; serrate, with notches like those of a saw; crenate, with the teeth rounded; twice serrate, when there are coarse serrations finely serrated, as on most Birch leaves; serrulate, with minute serrations; crenulate, with minute crenations. Leaves can be twice crenate or sinuate-crenate. Revolute indicates that the edges are rolled over.

When a leaf has a few great teeth, the projecting parts are called lobes, and the general form of the leaf is what it would be with the notches filled in. In the description of such leaves, certain terms are needed in describing the plan of the notches, and their depth and form.

Leaves with palmate veining are palmately lobed or notched; those with pinnate veining are pinnately lobed or notched. While the term lobe is applied to all great teeth of a leaf, whether rounded or pointed, long or short, still there are four terms sometimes used having special signification with reference to the depth of the notches. Lobed indicates that the notches extend about one fourth the distance to the base or midrib; cleft, that they extend one half the way; parted, about three fourths of the way; and divided, that the notches are nearly deep enough to make a compound leaf of separate leaflets.

So leaves may be palmately lobed, cleft, parted or divided, and pinnately lobed, cleft, parted or divided. The term pinnatifid is often applied to pinnately cleft leaves. The terms entire, serrate, crenate, acute-pointed, etc., are applied to the lobes as well as to the general margins of leaves.

SURFACE.—The following terms are needed in describing the surface of leaves and fruit.

Glabrous, smooth; glaucous, covered with a whitish bloom which can be rubbed off (Plum); rugous, wrinkled; canescent, so covered with minute hairs as to appear silvery; pubescent, covered with fine, soft, plainly seen hairs; tomentose, densely covered with matted hairs; hairy, having longer hairs; scabrous, covered with stiff, scratching points; spiny, having stiff, sharp spines; glandular-hairy, having the hairs ending in glands (usually needing a magnifying glass to be seen).

TEXTURE.—Succulent, fleshy; scarious, dry and chaffy; punctate, having translucent glands, so that the leaf appears, when held toward the light, as though full of holes; membranous, thin, soft, and rather translucent; thick, thin, etc.

DURATION.—Evergreen, hanging on the tree from year to year. By noticing the color of the different leaves and their position on the twigs, all evergreen foliage can readily be determined at any time during the year. Deciduous, falling off at the end of the season. Fugacious, falling early, as the stipules of many leaves.



CHAPTER IV.

Flowers and Fruit.

The author hopes that those who use this work in studying trees will become so much interested in the subject of Botany as to desire more information concerning the growth and reproduction of plants than can here be given. In Professor Asa Gray's numerous works the additional information desired may be obtained: "How Plants Grow" contains an outline for the use of beginners; "The Elements of Botany" is a more advanced work; while the "Botanical Text Book", in several volumes, will enable the student to pursue the subject as far as he may wish. In this small book the barest outline of the parts of flowers and fruit and of their uses can be given.



FLOWERS.—Parts. The flowers of the Cherry or Apple will show the four kinds of organs that belong to a complete flower. Fig. 9 represents an Apple-blossom. The calyx is the outer row of leaves, more or less united into one piece. The corolla is the row of leaves within the calyx; it is usually the brightest and most conspicuous part of the flower. The stamens are the next organs; they are usually, as in this case, small two-lobed bodies on slender, thread-like stalks. The enlarged parts contain a dust-like material called pollen. The last of the four kinds of parts is found in the center of the flower, and is called the pistil. It is this part which forms the fruit and incloses the seed.

The stamens and the pistil are the essential organs of a flower, because they, and they only, are needed in the formation of seeds. The pollen from the stamen, acting on the pistil, causes the ovules which are in the pistil to grow into seeds.

The calyx and corolla are called enveloping organs, since they surround and protect the essential parts.

The pieces of which the calyx is composed are called sepals. The Apple-blossom has five sepals.

The pieces that compose the corolla are called petals.

KINDS OF FLOWERS.—When the petals are entirely separate from each other, as in the Apple-blossom, the flower is said to be polypetalous; when they grow together more or less, as in the Catalpa (Fig. 10), monopetalous; and when the corolla is wanting, as in the flowers of the Oak, apetalous.



When all sides of a flower are alike, as in the Apple-blossom, the flower is regular; when one side of the corolla differs from the other in color, form, or size, as in the Common Locust, or Catalpa, the flower is irregular.

In trees the stamens and pistils are often found in separate flowers; in that case the blossoms containing stamens are called staminate, and those containing pistils pistillate; those that contain both are called perfect. Staminate and pistillate flowers are usually found on the same tree, as in the Oaks, Birches, Chestnut, etc.; in that case the plant is said to be monoecious, and all trees of this kind produce fruit. Sometimes, however, the staminate and pistillate flowers are on separate trees, as in the Willows, which are dioecious; and then only a portion of the trees—those with pistillate flowers—produce fruit.

ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS.—Flowers, either solitary or clustered, grow in one of two ways; either at the end of the branches, being then called terminal, or in the axils of the leaves, then called axillary. The stem of a solitary flower or the main stem of a cluster is called a peduncle; the stems of the separate blossoms of a cluster are called pedicels. When either the flowers or the clusters are without stems, they are said to be sessile.

Clusters with Pedicellate Flowers.

Raceme, flowers on pedicels of about equal length, scattered along the entire stem. Locust-tree.

Corymb, like a raceme except that the lower flowers have longer stems, making the cluster somewhat flat-topped; the outer flowers bloom first. Hawthorn.

Cyme, in appearance much like a corymb, but it differs in the fact that the central flower blooms first. Alternate-leaved Cornel.

Umbel, stems of the separate flowers about equal in length, and starting from the same point. Garden-cherry.

Panicle, a compound raceme. Catalpa.

Thyrsus, a compact panicle. Horse-chestnut.

Clusters with Sessile or Nearly Sessile Flowers.

Catkin, bracted flowers situated along a slender and usually drooping stem. This variety of cluster is very common on trees. The Willows, Birches, Chestnuts, Oaks, Pines, and many others have their flowers in catkins.

Head, the flowers in a close, usually rounded cluster. Flowering Dogwood.

FRUIT.—In this book a single fruit will include all the parts that grow together and contain seeds, whether from a single blossom or a cluster; there will be no rigorous adherence to an exact classification; no attempt made to distinguish between fruits formed from a simple pistil and those from a compound one; nor generally between those formed from a single and those formed from a cluster of flowers. The fruit and its general classification, determined by the parts easily seen, is all that will be attempted.

As stated before, it is hoped that this volume will not end the student's work in the investigation of natural objects, but that the amount of information here given will lead to the desire for much more.

Berry will be the term applied to all fleshy fruits with more than one seed buried in the mass. Persimmon, Mulberry, Holly. The pome or Apple-pome differs from the berry in the fact that the seeds are situated in cells formed of hardened material. Apple, Mountain-ash. The Plum or Cherry drupe includes all fleshy fruits with a single stony-coated part, even if it contains more than one seed. Peach, Viburnum, China-tree. In some cases, when there is but one seed in the flesh and that not stony-coated, it will be called a drupe-like berry.

The dry drupe is like the Cherry drupe except that the flesh is much harder. The fruit of the Walnut, Hickory, and Sumac.



The inner hard-coated parts of these and some others will be called nuts. If the nut has a partial scaly covering, as in the Oaks, the whole forms an acorn. If the coating has spiny hairs, as in the Chestnut and Beechnut, the whole is a bur. The coating in these cases is an involucre. If the coating or any part of the fruit has a regular place for splitting open, it is dehiscent (Chestnut, Hickory-nut); if not, indehiscent (Black Walnut).



Dry fruits with spreading, wing-like appendages, as in the Ash (Fig. 11), Maple (Fig. 12), Elm (Fig. 13), and Ailanthus, are called samaras or keys.

Dry fruits, usually elongated, containing generally several seeds, are called pods. If there is but one cell and the seeds are fastened along one side, Pea-like pods, or legumes. Locust. The term capsule indicates that there is more than one cell. Catalpa, Hibiscus.



All the dry, scaly fruits, usually formed by the ripening of some sort of catkin of flowers, will be included under the term cone. Pine, Alder, Magnolia. If the appearance of the fruit is not much different from that of the cluster of flowers, as in the Hornbeams, Willows, and Birches, the term catkin will be retained for the fruit also. The scales of a cone may lap over each other; they are then said to be imbricated or overlapping, (Pine); or they may merely touch at their edges, when they are valvate (Cypress). When cones or catkins hang downward, they are pendent. If the scales have projecting points, these points are spines if strong, and prickles if weak. The parts back of the scales are bracts; these often project beyond the scales, when they are said to be exserted. Sometimes the exserted bracts are bent backward; they are then said to be recurved or reflexed.



CHAPTER V.

Winter Study of Trees.

Many of the peculiarities of trees can be studied much better during the winter and early spring than at any other time of the year. The plan of branching, the position, number, size, form, color, and surface of buds, as well as the arrangement of the leaves within the bud and the peculiarities of the scales that cover them, are points for winter investigation.

GENERAL PLAN OF BRANCHING.—There are two distinct and readily recognized systems of branching. 1. The main stem is excurrent (Fig. 3) when the trunk extends as an undivided stem throughout the tree to the tip; this causes the spire-like or conical trees so common among narrow-leaved evergreens. 2. The main stem is deliquescent (Fig. 4) when the trunk divides into many, more or less equal divisions, forming the broad-topped, spreading trees. This plan is the usual one among deciduous trees. A few species, however, such as the Sweet Gum and the Sugar-maple, show the excurrent stem while young, yet even these have a deliquescent stem later in life. The English Maple and the Apple both have a deliquescent stem very early.

All the narrow-leaved evergreens, and many of the broad-leaved trees as well, show what is called definite annual growths; that is, a certain amount of leaf and stem, packed up in the winter bud, spreads out and hardens with woody tissue early in the year, and then, no matter how long the season remains warm, no additional leaves or stem will grow. The buds for the next year's growth then form and often become quite large before autumn.

There are many examples among the smaller plants, but rarely one among the trees, of indefinite annual growth; that is, the plant puts forth leaves and forms stems throughout the whole growing-season. The common Locust, the Honey-locust, and the Sumacs are illustrations.

BUDS.—Buds are either undeveloped branches or undeveloped flowers. They contain within the scales, which usually cover them, closely packed leaves; these leaves are folded and wrinkled in a number of different ways that will be defined at the end of this chapter.



POSITION AND NUMBER.—While the axils of the leaves and the ends of the stems are the ordinary places for the buds, there are many peculiarities in regard to their exact position, number, etc., that render them very interesting for winter study. Sometimes there are several to the single leaf. In the Silver Maple there are buds on each side of the true axillary one; these are flower-buds, and during the winter they are larger than the one which produces the branch. The Butternut (Fig. 14) and the Walnut have several above each other, the upper one being the largest and at quite a distance from the true axil. In these cases the uppermost is apt to grow, and then the branch is said to be extra-axillary. In the Sycamore the bud does not show while the leaf remains on the tree, as it is in the hollow of the leafstalk. In the winter the bud has a ring-like scar entirely around it, instead of the moon-shaped scar below as in most trees. The Common Locust has several buds under the leafstalk and one above it in the axil. This axillary bud may grow during the time the leaf remains on the tree, and afterward the growth of the strongest one of the others may give the tree two branches almost together.

Some plants form extra buds especially when they are bruised or injured; those which have the greatest tendency to do so are the Willows, Poplars, and Elms. Such buds and growths are called adventitious. By cutting off the tops or pollarding such trees, a very great number of adventitious branches can be made to grow. In this way the Willow-twigs used for baskets are formed. Adventitious buds form the clusters of curious thorns on the Honey-locust and the tufts of whip-like branches on the trunks and large limbs of the Elms.

In trees the terminal bud and certain axillary ones, differing according to the species or variety of tree, are, during the winter, much larger than the rest. These are the ones which naturally form the new growth, and upon their arrangement the character of branching and thus the form of the tree depend. Each species has some peculiarity in this regard, and thus there are differences in the branching of all trees. In opposite-leaved plants the terminal bud may be small and weak, while the two buds at its side may be strong and apt to grow. This causes a forking of the branches each year. This plan is not rare among shrubs, the Lilac being a good example.

BUD-SCALES.—The coverings of buds are exceedingly varied, and are well worthy of study and investigation. The large terminal buds of the Horse-chestnut, with their numerous scales, gummy on the outside to keep out the dampness, and hairy within to protect them from sudden changes of temperature, represent one extreme of a long line; while the small, naked, and partly buried buds of the Honey-locust or the Sumac represent the other end.

The scales of many buds are merely extra parts formed for their protection, and fall immediately after the bursting of the buds; while other buds have the stipules of the leaves as bud-scales; these remain on the twigs for a time in the Tulip-tree, and drop immediately in the Magnolia.

FORMS OF BUDS.—The size of buds varies greatly, as before stated, but this difference in size is no more marked than the difference in form. There is no better way to recognize a Beech at any time of the year than by its very long, slender, and sharp-pointed buds. The obovate and almost stalked buds of the Alders are also very conspicuous and peculiar. In the Balsam Poplar the buds are large, sharp-pointed, and gummy; in the Ailanthus they cannot be seen.



All the things that might be learned from a small winter twig cannot be shown in an engraving, but the figures here given illustrate some of the facts easily determined from such specimens. The first twig (Ash) had opposite leaves and is 3 years old (the end of each year's growth is marked by dotted lines on all the figures); the year before last it had 6 leaves on the middle portion; last year it had 8 leaves on the end portion and 12 on the side shoots of the middle portion. The buds near the end of the annual growth are strongest and are most apt to grow. The specimen illustrated was probably taken from the end of a branch of a rather young and luxuriantly growing tree. Thus the Ash must have quite a regular growth and form a regularly outlined tree.

The second twig (Sweet Gum) shows 7 years' growth and is probably a side shoot from more or less within the tree-top. It is stunted in its growth by the want of light and room. The leaves were alternate.

The third twig (Sycamore) also had alternate leaves; the pointed buds must have been under the leafstalks, as the leaf-scars show as rings around the buds. The larger branch grew three years ago. From the specimen one judges that the Sycamore is quite an irregularly formed tree. The twig had 11 leaves last year.

The fourth twig (Silver Maple) shows that the plant had opposite leaves, and supernumerary buds at the sides of the true axillary ones; the true axillary buds are smaller than those at the sides. It would, in such cases, be reasonable to suppose that the supernumerary buds were floral ones, and that the plant blooms before the leaves expand. The annual growths are quite extended; two years and a part of the third make up the entire twig. If it was cut during the winter of 1891-92, it must have had leaves on the lower part in 1889 and 12 leaves on the middle portion in 1890, as well as probably 4 on the lower portion on the side shoots. Last year it had 14 leaves on the end portion, two at least on each side shoot below, making 24 in all.

Folding of Leaves in the Bud.

There are some peculiarities in the arrangement of leaves in the bud which can be investigated only in the early spring. The common plans among trees are—Inflexed: blade folded crosswise, thus bringing it upon the footstalk. Tulip-tree. Conduplicate: blade folded along the midrib, bringing the two halves together. Peach. Plicate: folded several times lengthwise, like a fan. Birch. Convolute: rolled edgewise from one edge to the other. Plum. Involute: both edges rolled in toward the midrib on the upper side. Apple. Revolute: both edges rolled backward. Willow. Obvolute: folded together, but the opposite leaves half inclosing each other. Dogwood.



CHAPTER VI.

The Preparation of a Collection.



Three specimens are needed of each kind of tree: one, a branch showing the flowers; another, showing the fruit—one of these, and in many cases both, will show the leaves. The third specimen, cut from a large limb or trunk, shows the bark and the wood. This should be a specimen with a surface so cut as to show the wood in the direction of the silver grain, radial section; with another surface cut in the direction of the annual layers, tangential section; and with a third cut across the grain, cross-section. It should be a specimen old enough to show the change of color in the heart-wood. By taking a limb or trunk 8 inches in diameter, all these points can be secured. A specimen cut as shown in the figure will illustrate all the desired points. Side E F G shows sap-and heart-wood in tangential section; side A B D C shows the same in radial section; end A B F E, in cross-section; and B F G D shows the bark. The central pith is at I; the heart-wood extends from C to J; the sap-wood from J to D. The silver grain is well shown at the end, and the blotches formed by it on the radial section.

By having the piece made smooth, and the upper part down to the center (H) varnished, the appearance of the wood in furniture or inside finish will be illustrated.

The specimens should be as nearly uniform in size as possible. If a limb 8 inches in diameter be taken and a length of 6 inches be cut off, the section A B D C should pass through the line of pith; the section E F G should be parallel with this at a distance from it of two inches; and two inches from the line of pith, the section A E C should be made. The whole specimen will then be 6 inches wide and long, and 2 inches thick.

The twigs containing leaves, flowers and fruit need to be pressed while drying in order that they may be kept in good form and made tough enough to be retained as specimens. The plants should be placed between a large supply of newspapers, or, better still, untarred building-felt, while drying. A weight of from 40 to 80 pounds is needed to produce the requisite pressure. The weight is placed upon a board covering the pile of plants and paper. On account of the size of many leaves and flower-clusters, these pressed specimens of trees should not be shorter than from 12 to 15 inches, and even a length of 18 inches is an advantage. The pads or newspapers should be about 12 by 18 inches. A transfer of the plants into dry pads each day for a few days will hasten the drying and increase the beauty of the specimens. The specimens of twigs can be mounted on cardboard by being partly pasted and partly secured by narrow strips of gummed cloth placed across the heavier portions. The cardboard should be uniform in size. One of the regular sizes of Bristol-board is 22 by 28 inches; this will cut into four pieces 11 by 14. Specimens not over 15 inches in length can readily be mounted on these, and for most collectors this might be a very convenient size. Another regular size is 22 by 32 inches, cutting well into pieces 11 by 16. Specimens 15 to 18 inches long can be mounted on these.

Some kinds of Evergreens, the Spruces especially, tend to shed their leaves after pressing. Such kinds can in most cases be made to form good specimens without pressing. Fasten the fresh specimens on pillars of plaster in boxes or frames 2 to 3 inches deep, so that they touch nothing but the column of plaster. Mix calcined plaster in water (as plasterers do), and build up a column high enough to support the branch. Place the specimen on the top of the pillar already formed, and pour over the whole some quite thin plaster till a rounded top is formed completely fastening the specimen. If the leaves are not touched at all, after they are dry, they will hang on for a long time, making specimens that will show the tree characteristics better than pressed specimens possibly could.



CHAPTER VII.

Figures to be used in Botanical Description.



PART II.

PLAN AND MODELS FOR TREE DESCRIPTION

All pupils should be required to write some form of composition on the trees of the region. As far as possible, these compositions should be the result of personal investigation. It is not what a pupil can read and redescribe in more or less his own words, but how accurately he can see and, from the information conveyed by his own senses, describe in his own way the things he has observed, that makes the use of such a book as this important as an educational aid. Some information in regard to trees, in a finished description, must be obtained from books, such as hardiness, geographical distribution, etc. Pupils generally should be required to include only those things which they can give from actual observation.

There are four distinct forms of tree descriptions that might be recognized by the teacher and occasionally called for as work from the pupil. 1st. A bare skeleton description, written by aid of a topical outline, from the observation of a single tree and its parts. 2d. A connected description, conveying as many facts given in the outline as can well be brought into good English sentences. This again is the description of a single tree. 3d. A connected, readable description of a certain kind of tree, made up from the observation of many trees of the same species to be found in the neighborhood. 4th. The third description including information to be obtained from outside sources in regard to the origin, geographical distribution, hardiness, character of wood, habits, durability, etc. These four plans of description are more or less successive methods to be introduced as the work of a class. Pupils should be induced to carry on their own investigations as far as possible before going to printed sources for information. A good part of class work should be devoted to the first three of the methods given, but the work might finally include the fourth form of composition. The first two methods should follow each other with each of the trees studied; that is, one week let a mere outline be written, to be followed the next week with as clear and connected a description as the ability of the pupil will allow, and containing as much of the information given in the outline as possible.

OUTLINE FOR TREE DESCRIPTION.

The tree as a whole: size, general form, trunk, branching, twigs, character of bark, color of bark on trunk, branches, and fine spray.

Leaves: parts, arrangement, kinds, size, thickness, form, edges, veining, color, surface, duration.

Buds: position, size, form, covering, number, color.

Sap and juice.

Flowers: size, shape, color, parts, odor, position, time of blooming, duration.

Fruit: size, kind, form, color when young and when ripe, time of ripening, substance, seeds, duration, usefulness.

Wood (often necessarily omitted): hardness, weight, color, grain, markings, durability.

Remarks: the peculiarities not brought out by the above outline.

NOTES ON THE FOREGOING OUTLINE.

The height of a tree can be readily determined by the following plan. Measure the height you can easily reach from the ground in feet and inches. Step to the trunk of the tree you wish to measure and, reaching up to this height, pin a piece of white paper on the tree. Step back a distance equal to three or four times the height of the tree; hold a lead-pencil upright between the thumb and forefinger at arm's-length. Fix it so that the end of the pencil shall be in line with the paper on the trunk; move the thumb down the pencil till it is in line with the ground at the base of the tree; move the arm and pencil upward till the thumb is in line with the paper, and note where the end of the pencil comes on the tree. Again move the pencil till the thumb is in line with the new position, and so continue the process till the top of the tree is reached. The number of the measures multiplied by the height you can reach will give quite accurately the height of the tree.

The width of the tree can be determined in the same manner, the pencil, however, being held horizontally.

In giving the forms of trees, it is well to accompany the description with a penciled outline.

The distance from the ground at which the trunk begins to branch and the extent of the branching should be noted. The direction taken by the branches, as well as the regularity and the irregularity of their position, should also be observed and described.

Although most twigs are cylindrical, still there are enough exceptions to make it necessary to examine them with reference to their form.

Under leaves, it will be well to make drawings, both of the outline and of the veining.

Crushed leaves will give the odor, and the sap can best be noticed at the bases of young leaves. The differences in sap and juice need the following words for their description: watery, milky, mucilaginous, aromatic, spicy, sweet, gummy, resinous.

Pupils should not always be expected to find out much about the flowers of a tree, as they are frequently very evanescent, and usually difficult to reach.

The fruit lasts a greater length of time and, usually dropping spontaneously, gives a much better chance for investigation.

Specimens of most of the common woods may be obtained from cabinet-makers and carpenters. In cases where these specimens are at hand, description of the wood should be required. If the school has such specimens as are described in Chapter VI., Part I., the wood in all its peculiarities can be described.

EXAMPLES OF TREE DESCRIPTION.

Taxodium distichum (Bald Cypress).

(Atterbury's Meadow.)

No. 1.

Tree eighty-four feet tall, thirty feet wide near base, ovate, conical, pointed; trunk seven feet in circumference near base and ridged lengthwise, but only four feet at the height of six feet from the ground, where it becomes round or nearly so, then gradually tapering to the top; branches small, very numerous, beginning six feet from the ground, sloping upward from the trunk at an angle of nearly forty-five degrees; twigs very slender, numerous, pendulous, two, three or even more growing together from supernumerary buds around the old scars; bark brownish, quite rough, thick and soft on the trunk, smoother on the branches, greenish on the young spray.



Leaves about sessile, without stipules, alternate, crowded, two-ranked, thin, linear, entire, parallel-veined, with midrib, dark green, smooth, deciduous.

Buds show in the axils of only a few of the leaves, and are very small; but there are several supernumerary buds around many of the clusters of the shoots of the year.

Sap clear and slightly sticky with resin.



Flowers looked for, but not seen; must have been small, or have bloomed before my examination in the spring.

Fruit one inch in diameter, cone globular, brown in the autumn; did not notice it before; fifteen six-sided scales, two seeds under each, still hanging on, though the leaves have dropped; only to produce seeds, I think.

The wood I do not know about.

Remarks. Around the base, at some distance from the trunk, there are four peculiar knobs, seemingly coming from the roots, one being nearly a foot high and nine inches through.

No. 2.

The Bald Cypress standing near a small ditch in Atterbury's meadow is a very beautiful, tall, conical tree, over 80 feet high, with an excurrent trunk which is very large and ridged near the ground. It tapers rapidly upward, so that the circumference is only about half as great at the height of 6 feet, where the branches begin. The branches are very numerous and, considering the size of the trunk, very small; the largest of them being only about 2 inches through. They all slope upward rapidly, but the tip and fine spray show a tendency to droop; the fine thread-like branchlets, bearing the leaves of the year, are almost all pendulous.

The bark is very rough, thick and soft, as I found in pinning on the bit of paper to measure the height of the tree, when I could easily press the pin in to its head.

The leaves are very small and delicate, and as they extend out in two ranks from the thread-like twigs, look much like fine ferns. The small linear leaves and the spray drop off together in the autumn, as I can find much of last year's foliage on the ground still fastened to the twigs. I could not see any flowers, though I looked from early in the spring till the middle of the summer; then I saw a few of the globular green cones, almost an inch in diameter, showing that it had bloomed. Next spring I shall begin to look for the blossoms before the leaves come out.

On the ground, about 6 feet from the tree, there are four very strange knobs which I did not notice till I stumbled over one of them. They seem to grow from the roots, and are quite soft and reddish in color.

No. 3.

I have found twenty-two Bald Cypresses in Trenton; they are all beautiful conical trees, and seem to grow well in almost any soil, as I have found some in very wet places and some in dry, sandy soil. They look from their position as though they had been planted out, and as I have found none in the woods around the town, they are probably not native in this region. They are from 50 to nearly 100 feet tall. I found one 96 feet high. They are all of a very symmetrical, conical form, and pointed at the top; in no case has the trunk divided into branches, and on the old trees the trunk enlarges curiously near the ground, the lower portion being very rough with ridges. The bark is very thick and rough, and is so soft that a pin can readily be pushed through it to the wood. The branches are very numerous and small, and are not regularly arranged in whorls like most of the narrow-leaved trees. These branches all slope upward from the trunk, the ends having a tendency to bend downward and make delicate drooping spray, with very small, linear, entire leaves only 1/2 inch long. Four of the largest trees show fruit, and each of these has only about a half-dozen of the globular cones. Only a few of the trees—those in the wettest places—have the knobs on the ground near the base.

No. 4.

The Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) is a common tree, a native of the Gulf States, growing very abundantly in the wettest swamps of that region. The northern limit of the tree in its wild state is said to be central Delaware and southern Illinois, but it can be successfully cultivated in the region around Boston. There are several named varieties, one with the leaves but slightly spreading from the spray, and the whole of the branches showing a decided weeping tendency, so that it is called the Weeping Cypress. The knobs from the roots, called Cypress-knees, grow very abundantly around all the trees in the southern swamps. These grow to the height of from 2 to 4 feet, and are very thick, sometimes as much as 5 feet. They are hollow, and are occasionally used for bee-hives.

It is said to be a broad, flat-topped tree, spreading its top over other trees. This seems very strange, as none of those in Trenton, N. J., show such a tendency, but are quite spire-shaped. The wood is light, soft, straight-grained, and is said to be excellent for shingles and for other purposes. It generally has a dark reddish or brownish hue. It is a large tree, growing to the height of 140 feet. The trunk is sometimes 12 feet through near the ground. The flowers of the tree are in small catkins, blooming before the leaves expand in the early spring; in February, in South Carolina.



PART III.

KEY, CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES.

Method of Using the Key.

First read all the statements following the stars (*) at the beginning of the Key; decide which one of the statements best suits the specimen you have. At the end of the chosen one there is a letter in parenthesis ( ). Somewhere below, this letter is used two or more times. Read carefully all the statements following this letter; at the end of the one which most nearly states the facts about your specimen, you will again be directed by a letter to another part of the Key. Continue this process till, instead of a letter, there is a number and name. The name is that of the genus, and forms the first part of the scientific name of the plant. Turn to the descriptive part of the book, where this number, in regular order, is found. Here descriptions of the species of the genus are given. If there are many species, another Key will lead to the species. While the illustrations are intended to represent characteristic specimens, too much dependence must not be placed upon them; the leaves even of the same plant vary considerably, and the different varieties, especially of a cultivated plant, vary widely. Read the whole description before deciding.

The fractions beside the figures indicate the scale of the drawing as compared with the natural size of the part: 1/1 indicates natural size; 2/1, that the drawing is twice the length of the object; 1/4, that the drawing is one fourth the length of the object, etc.

In the description of leaves the dimensions given refer to the blade.

KEY TO THE GENERA OF TREES.

* Leaves narrow linear, needle, scale or awl shaped, usually but not always evergreen. (GG.) page 60.

* Leaves broad, flat, usually deciduous, occasionally evergreen, rarely over 5 times as long as wide. (A.)

A. Leaves alternate,[1] simple. (B.)

A. Leaves alternate, compound. (m.) page 57.

A. Leaves opposite or whorled on the stem. (u.) page 58.

B. Leaves with a midrib, netted-veined. (C.)

B. Leaves without a midrib, parallel-veined 109. Salisburia.

C. With radiating ribs, and including those which have the lower ribs longer and more branching than those above them. (f.) page 56.

C. With distinct and definite feather-veining. (D.)

D. Margin entire, or so nearly so as to appear entire, sometimes slightly angulated but not lobed. (V.)

D. Once or twice serrate or crenate or wavy-edged, but not lobed. (E.)

D. Distinctly lobed. (S.) (If the notches are over 10 on a side, look under E.)

E. Straight-veined. (M.)

E. Not distinctly and evenly straight-veined. (F.)

F. Leaves evergreen with either revolute or spiny-tipped margins 18. Ilex.

F. Leaves evergreen, lanceolate-oblong, minutely serrate; flowers white, 4 in. in diameter 8. Gordonia.

F. Leaves deciduous. (G.)

G. Fruit with fleshy and often edible pulp. (K.)

G. Fruit a dry and more or less rounded pod. (H.)

G. Fruit and flowers in dry catkins; leaves, in most species, 3 or more times as long as wide, finely serrate to entire, with free stipules, in many species remaining on the young twigs, in others shown by a rounded scar on the sides of the stem; wood soft; the Willows 91. Salix.

G. Fruit dry akenes with silky pappus, in small heads; whole plant whitened with scurf; leaves broadened and coarsely notched near tip; a broad spreading bush 49. Baccharis.

H. Flowers conspicuous, 1 in. or more in size, white. (J.)

H. Flowers quite small. (I.)

I. Flowers and fruit in large panicles; leaves elongated, peach-like in shape, sour 50. Oxydendrum.

I. Flowers in terminal, erect racemes; fruit small, three-celled pods; leaves oval, 3-7 in. long, pointed, thin, finely serrate; plant hardly a tree 53. Clethra.

I. Fruit rounded, small, with calyx adhering to the lower part, one-seeded, in clusters of 3-many; leaves 1-3 in. long. 56. Styrax.

I. Fruit hairy, in long, hanging panicles, tipped with long, persistent style, one-seeded 57. Pterostyrax.

J. Flowers bell-shaped, 1 in. long; leaves widest below the middle; fruit winged pods 58. Halesia.

J. Flowers spreading, 2 in. broad; leaves about twice as long as wide, widest near the center 7. Stuartia.

J. Flowers spreading, 3 in. broad; leaves about 3 times as long as wide, widest near tip 8. Gordonia.

K. Fruit a plum-like drupe with a single bony stone; plant sometimes thorny 36. Prunus.

K. Fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading calyx; plant generally quite thorny 38. Crataegus.

K. Fruit berry-like, black when ripe, small, without calyx, with usually 3 cartilaginous coated seeds 20. Rhamnus.

K. Fruit berry-like, red when ripe, small, without calyx, with usually 4-6 hard-coated, grooved nutlets 18. Ilex.

K. Fruit a small or large apple-like pome, with the seeds in horny cells. (L.)

L. Fruit about 1/2 in. in diameter, sweet, in drooping racemes 39. Amelanchier.

L. Fruit either sour or much larger, and not in elongated racemes 37. Pyrus.

M. Leaves harsh to the touch; somewhat oblique at base; quite distinctly two-ranked; large trees 74. Ulmus.

M. Leaves decidedly oblique at base; margin wavy; small tree, usually a shrub 40. Hamamelis.

M. Fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading calyx; plant generally quite thorny 38. Crataegus.

M. Leaves not regularly oblique at base; plant not thorny. (N.)

N. Leaves thin and light, not harsh to the touch; spray light; bark smooth, in two species somewhat rough on the trunk. (Q.)

N. Leaves thick; edge wavy, almost lobed; fruit an acorn. 88. Quercus.

N. Leaves broad for the length, generally doubly serrate or wavy and serrate; shrubs, rarely tall enough for trees. (P.)

N. Not included in the above. (O.)

O. Leaves 3 or more times as long as wide, widest near the center; fruit a round, prickly bur with 1-3 horny-coated nuts 89. Castanea.

O. Leaves widest near the sharply serrate tip, narrow and entire near the base; fruit small pods in terminal racemes; small tree or shrub 53. Clethra.

O. Leaves widest near the base, usually small; bark scaling off like the Buttonwood; fruit axillary, solitary, small (1/4 in.) roundish, dry drupes. A cultivated species, has rather large leaves, widest near the center 75. Planera.

P. Fruit an open oval woody catkin or cone, remaining on the plant through the winter 84. Alnus.

P. Fruit a rounded stony nut, in green leafy edged bracts; shrubs or small trees 85. Corylus.

Q. Usually aromatic; bark dotted on the spray and with horizontal marks on the trunk, peeling off in thin, often papery layers 83. Betula.

Q. Bark not peeling off in thin layers. (R.)

R. Leaf-buds long and slender; fruit a small prickly bur with two triangular, horny-coated nuts; large trees 90. Fagus.

R. Fruit an elongated catkin with large leaf-like bracts; bark close, gray, on a grooved trunk 87. Carpinus.

R. Fruit a hop-like catkin; bark brownish, finely furrowed 86. Ostrya.

S. Plant more or less thorny; shrub or small tree; fruit rounded berries ending in persistent calyx-lobes 38. Crataegus.

S. Plant not thorny. (T.)

T. Leaf deeply pinnatifid, usually with the basal lobes completely separated; cultivated 37. Pyrus.

T. End of leaf as though cut off; sides with one large lobe; margin entire; large tree 2. Liriodendron.

T. Lower leaves three-lobed, heart-shaped at base, upper merely ovate, margin entire; small tree or shrub 66. Clerodendron.

T. Not as above; leaves usually many-lobed. (U.)

U. Leaves thin; bark of trunk peeling off in thin horizontal strips 83. Betula.

U. Leaves thin; leaf-buds long, slender, sharp-pointed; bark smooth, not peeling; cultivated 90. Fagus.

U. Leaves thickish; bark roughish; fruit an oval woody cone, remaining on through the year 84. Alnus.

U. Leaves thick; fruit an acorn 88. Quercus.

V. Leaves evergreen, small, 2-3 in. long, thick, with revolute margins; fruit an acorn 88. Quercus.

V. Leaves evergreen, oval to lance-oval, usually large; small trees, almost shrubs. (d.) page 56.

V. Leaves deciduous (some are evergreen in the Southern States). (W.)

W. Plant more or less spiny. (c.)

W. Plant not at all spiny. (X.)

X. Leaf-blade thin, long, pointed, with curved parallel veins or ribs 45. Cornus.

X. Leaf-blade thin, circular or broadly oval in outline, with blunt, almost rounded apex; veins not regularly parallel 27. Rhus.

X. Leaf quite elongated, 5 or more times as long as wide. (b.)

X. Leaves with none of the above peculiarities. (Y.)

Y. Deciduous bud-scales (stipules), leaving a scar or mark completely around the stem at the base of the leaves. 1. Magnolia.

Y. Leaves covered on one or both sides with silvery scales 71. Elaeagnus.

Y. No such ring around the stem, or silvery scales on the leaves. (Z.)

Z. Leaves distinctly straight-veined, thin 90. Fagus.

Z. Leaves thick, obtuse; fruit an acorn 88. Quercus.

Z. Leaves 6 in. or more long; crushed leaves with a rank, fetid odor 5. Asimina.

Z. Leaves 3-5 in. long; twigs and leaves very spicy; shrub rather than tree 70. Lindera.

Z. Leaves about 2 in. long, oval, on twigs which have ridges extending down from the sides of the leafstalk; small tree, almost a shrub, with beautiful flowers 43. Lagerstroemia.

Z. Leaves not as above. (a.)

a. Fruit a large (1/2-1 1/2 in.) rounded pulpy berry with a heavy calyx at the base 55. Diospyros.

a. Fruit small (1/4 in.), fleshy, drupe-like, with a striate stone; limbs branching horizontally, often descending 46. Nyssa.

a. Fruit a black, juicy berry (1/3-1/2 in.), with about 3 seeds 20. Rhamnus.

a. Fruit an ovoid dry drupe (1/2 in.); leaves sweet-tasting 59. Symplocos.

a. Fruit an apple-like pome (Quince) 37. Pyrus.

b. Wood soft; both kinds of flowers in catkins in spring; with either stipules or stipular sears 91. Salix.

b. Wood hard; leaves thick; fruit an acorn 88. Quercus.

c. Fruit a 2-4-seeded small berry; juice not milky 20. Rhamnus.

c. Fruit large, orange-like in size and color when ripe; juice milky 77. Maclura.

c. Fruit small, black when ripe, cherry-like; juice milky 54. Bumelia.

d. Aromatic; berries dark blue on red stalks 68. Persea.

d. Not aromatic; leaves nearly 1 ft. long; flowers large and solitary. 1. Magnolia.

d. Not aromatic; leaves 1-4 in. long; flowers very small; fruit small dark-colored berries, with 2-4 seeds 20. Rhamnus.

d. Not aromatic; flowers large, in showy clusters. (e.)

e. Leaves 5 in. or more long 52. Rhododendron.

e. Leaves less than 4 in. long 51. Kalmia.

f. Leaves decidedly aromatic, usually somewhat irregularly lobed, margin entire, base tapering 69. Sassafras.

f. Leaves usually deltoid, sometimes heart-shaped with serrate margin and gummy buds, rarely palmately lobed. All have either the petiole flattened sidewise, the leaf-blade densely silvery-white beneath, or gummy aromatic buds 92. Populus.

f. Leaves broadly heart-shaped; margin entire; small tree with abundance of red flowers in early spring; fruit a pea-like pod. 32. Cercis.

f. Leaves not as above given. (g.)

g. Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with a serrate margin and a petiole about as long as the blade, sometimes longer; base of leaf not oblique 4. Idesia.

g. Leaves broadly heart-shaped, those on the suckers much lobed; base not oblique; margin serrate; juice milky; bark very tough. (l.)

g. Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with an oblique base; margin regularly serrate; juice not milky 11. Tilia.

g. Leaves slightly if at all heart-shaped at base, usually somewhat oblique, with neither milky juice nor lobes. (j.)

g. Leaves decidedly and quite regularly lobed. (h.)

h. Leaves with 3-5 large lobes, the margin entire or slightly angulated. 10. Sterculia.

h. Leaves star-shaped, with 5-9 pointed, serrate lobes. (i.)

h. Leaves large, irregularly margined; leaf-stem covering the bud; large tree 80. Platanus.

h. Plant quite thorny; fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading calyx; small trees or shrubs with apple-like blossoms. 38. Crataegus.

h. Leaves with a tapering base; small tree, almost a shrub, with large Hollyhock-like flowers; plant not thorny 9. Hibiscus.

i. Large tree, with fruit 1 in. in diameter, dry, rough, hanging on a long stem 41. Liquidambar.

i. Small tree with few branches and the trunk usually quite prickly; fruit berry-like in large clusters 44. Aralia.

j. Fruit small berries, with 3 flattened seeds, in clusters in the axils of the leaves, which are decidedly 3-ribbed from the base 21. Hovenia.

j. Fruit small drupes, with 1 seed, either solitary or in pairs in the axils of the leaves. (k.)

k. Plant without prickles; leaves decidedly oblique at base 76. Celtis.

k. Plant with prickles; leaves narrow, decidedly 3-ribbed, and 2-ranked on green twigs 22. Zizyphus.

l. Fruit not very edible; leaves rough above, very hairy below, on some of the twigs opposite 79. Broussonetia.

l. Fruit edible; leaves not very hairy, never opposite 78. Morus.

m. Leaves of 3 entire-edged leaflets; fruit a pea-like pod 28. Laburnum.

m. Leaves of 3 quite regularly serrate, transparent-dotted leaflets 13. Ptelea.

m. Leaves once or twice pinnate; the leaflets entire. (s.)

m. Leaves once or twice pinnate; the leaflets with margins more or less serrate or notched. (n.)

n. Leaves irregularly once to twice, in one case three times, pinnate. (r.)

n. Leaves regularly once pinnate. (o.)

o. Leaves less than 1 ft. long, on a small, quite prickly plant; fruit very small pods (1/4 in. long) 12. Xanthoxylum.

o. Leaves less than 1 ft. long; leaflets 3 in. or less long; fruit bright-colored, berry-like pomes in clusters, persistent through the autumn; plant not thorny; branches not heavy-tipped. 37. Pyrus.

o. Leaves usually larger on the small tree or almost a shrub; juice in most cases milky; branches heavy-tipped 27. Rhus.

o. Leaves 1-2 ft. long; leaflets 3 in. or more long; fruit a bony nut with green fleshy coat; large trees. (q.)

o. Leaves very large, 2 ft. or more long on the rapid-growing branches; branches heavy-tipped; odor of bruised leaves quite strong; leaflets 15 or more in number; large trees; juice not milky. (p.)

p. Leaflets with 1-3 glandular notches at the base 17. Ailanthus.

p. Leaflets entire at base, but very slightly serrate near the tip 16. Cedrela.

q. Coat of fruit more or less dehiscent into 4 valves; nut smoothish; leaflets, except in one species, not over 11 in number, usually 5-7 82. Carya.

q. Coat of fruit not regularly dehiscent; nut, in the wild species, rough-coated; leaflets, except in a cultivated species, over 11 in number 81. Juglans.

r. Leaves quite regularly twice odd-pinnate; leaflets about 1 in. long; juice not milky; fruit rounded berries in large clusters; plant not prickly; branchlets not heavy-tipped 15. Melia.

r. Leaves once to twice irregularly odd-pinnate; the leaflets very irregularly and coarsely toothed; a small, round-headed tree with bladdery pods 24. Koelreuteria.

r. Leaves irregularly about twice odd-pinnate; the leaflets lanceolate; quite a low plant with few heavy-tipped branches; plant without prickles 27. Rhus.

r. Leaves 2 (sometimes 3) times odd-pinnate; tree-stem with prickles; small tree or shrub, with few branches 44. Aralia.

r. Leaves once to twice abruptly pinnate; large tree with slender-tipped branches, usually very thorny 34. Gleditschia.

s. Leaves very large (2 ft. or more long), about twice abruptly pinnate; leaflets broad and often 2 in. long; branches blunt; no thorns 33. Gymnocladus.

s. Leaves and leaflets much smaller, leaves quite irregularly once or twice abruptly pinnate; branches slender-tipped; large tree, usually very thorny 34. Gleditschia.

s. Leaves twice abruptly pinnate; leaflets over 400 in number, with midrib near the upper edge 35. Albizzia.

s. Leaves regularly once pinnate, not over 2 ft. long. (t.)

t. Leaves abruptly pinnate, not over 5 in. long; leaflets 8-12, small, mucronate-pointed 29. Caragana.

t. Leaves odd-pinnate; shrub or small tree, with few, heavy-tipped branches; no spines or prickles 27. Rhus.

t. Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets large (3-5 in. long), not usually over 11 in number; round-topped tree 30. Cladrastis.

t. Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets less than 3 in. long, frequently 11-21 in number; often with spines at the bases of the leaves in the place of stipules 12. Xanthoxylum or 31. Robinia.

u. Leaves palmately compound. (CC.)

u. Leaves pinnately compound. (BB.)

u. Leaves simple, evergreen, sessile, in whorls around the stem, which they completely cover (98a. Araucaria.)

u. Leaves simple, opposite, evergreen, entire, over 2 in. long 61. Osmanthus.

u. Leaves simple, opposite, evergreen, entire, under 1 in. long 73. Buxus.

u. Leaves simple, deciduous. (v.)

v. Branches ending in thorns; small trees, or shrubs. (AA.)

v. Plants not thorny. (w.)

w. Leaves palmately lobed (one variety, rarely cultivated, lacks lobes, but is heart-shaped with a serrate margin), the lobes over 3 in number, or with notches or serrations; fruit dry, winged 25. Acer.

w. Lower leaves palmately 3-lobed, and heart-shaped at base, upper ones ovate, all with entire margin; fruit with juicy pulp covering the 4 seeds 66. Clerodendron.

w. Leaves palmately lobed; fruit small, one-seeded, berry-like drupes in large clusters, with flattened stones, or large rounded clusters of flowers without stamens or pistils; shrubs rather than trees 47. Viburnum.

w. Leaves heart-shaped, entire or slightly angulated; not lobed. (DD.)

w. Leaves irregularly serrate, somewhat straight-veined; fruit single-winged; large cultivated tree 60. Fraxinus.

w. Leaves neither heart-shaped nor lobed; small trees, almost shrubs. (x.)

x. Leaves entire. (z.)

x. Leaves serrate or dentate, ovate or oval. (y.)

y. Fruit rounded drupes in large clusters, with single flattened stones 47. Viburnum.

y. Fruit lobed pods, which burst open in the autumn; branchlets somewhat 4-sided 19. Euonymus.

z. Leaves small, lanceolate; flowers and fruit large and beautiful 42. Punica.

z. Leaves broad, thin, with curved parallel veins or ribs. 45. Cornus.

z. Leaves large, broad, oval, without either curved or straight parallel ribs 63. Chionanthus.

AA. Leaves entire and covered on both sides with silvery, peltate scales 72. Shepherdia.

AA. Leaves ovate, small, minutely serrate 20. Rhamnus.

BB. Leaves large, 18 in. or more long; leaflets 11 or more, very finely serrated 14. Phellodendron.

BB. Leaves smaller; leaflets entire or quite evenly toothed, usually over 5 in number 60. Fraxinus.

BB. Leaflets coarsely and quite irregularly toothed, 3-5 (rarely 7) in number 26. Negundo.

CC. Leaflets slender-lanceolate, almost entire; shrub or small tree, 5-10 ft. high 67. Vitex.

CC. Leaflets broader and serrate; usually large trees. 23. AEsculus.

DD. Leaves with radiating ribs. (FF.)

DD. Leaves with feather-veining. (EE.)

EE. Leaves 2-6 in. long; flowers small, in large, dense, terminal clusters 62. Syringa.

EE. Leaves 1-4 in. long; flowers in pairs 48. Lonicera.

FF. Leaves large, 6 in. or more long; two almost hidden buds, one above the other, in the axils of the leaves on the rapid-growing branches; flowers large, purple, blooming in early spring; fruit rounded pods 64. Paulownia.

FF. Leaves large, 6 in. or more long; flowers large, white, blooming in June; fruit long pods 65. Catalpa.

FF. Leaves 2-4 in. long, with red stems 3. Cercidiphyllum.

GG. Leaves scattered singly over the stem, not in bundles or clusters. (JJ.)

GG. Leaves in large or small clusters. (HH.)

HH. Clusters in whorls of many leaves around the stem like an umbrella 100. Sciadopitys.

HH. Leaves clustered in bundles of 2-6 93. Pinus.

HH. Leaves clustered in bundles of over 8. (II.)

II. Leaves deciduous, soft 97. Larix.

II. Leaves evergreen, rigid 98. Cedrus.

JJ. Leaves hardly evergreen; spray quite slender. (ZZ.)

JJ. Leaves fully evergreen. (KK.)

KK. Leaves awl or scale shaped, and mainly appressed to the stem. (WW.)

KK. Leaves linear or needle shaped, and decidedly spreading from the stem, though sometimes with a decurrent base. (LL.)

LL. Leaves narrowed to a distinct though short stem. (RR.)

LL. Leaves sessile; if narrowed, not so abruptly as to form a petiole. (MM.)

MM. Leaves opposite or whorled on the stem. (PP.)

MM. Leaves rather spirally arranged around the stem, not just opposite. (NN.)

NN. Leaves linear to lanceolate, flattened, spreading quite squarely from the stem. (OO.)

NN. Leaves not flattened but 4-sided, curved, gradually enlarging from the tips to the bases, which are decurrent, and on the young twigs completely cover the stem; cones rounded; the scales not lapping 105. Cryptomeria.

OO. Leaves about linear in form, of nearly the same width throughout, and usually fastened to the cylindrical stem by a distinct disk-like base; cones erect; scales lapping. 96. Abies.

OO. Leaves about 2 in. long and gradually widening from the acute tips to the broad (1/8 in.) bases, which are decurrent on the stem 99. Cunninghamia.

OO. Leaves 1/2-1 in. long, sharp-pointed, very flat, two-ranked, somewhat lanceolate in form; base narrowed almost to a petiole 102. Sequoia.

PP. Leaves not decurrent, usually in whorls of three around the stem, sometimes opposite, acute-pointed; fruit small (1/8 in.), rounded, dark-colored berries 106. Juniperus.

PP. Leaves decurrent on the stem, less than 1/2 in. long. (QQ.)

QQ. Fruit small, globular cones; the scales not lapping 104. Chamaecyparis.

QQ. Fruit small, elongated cones of few, lapping scales 103. Thuya.

RR. Leaves usually but little flattened, but jointed to a short, brown petiole which is attached to a somewhat grooved twig; cones pendent, of lapping scales 94. Picea.

RR. Leaves decidedly flattened, not jointed, but narrowed to a petiole which is usually green or greenish in color. (SS.)

SS. Leaves rounded or obtuse at the tip, distinctly two-ranked, usually less than 1 in. long; cones oval, 1 in. or less long, of lapping scales 95. Tsuga.

SS. Leaves acute at the tip; fruit (found only on a portion of the plants, as the flowers are dioecious) drupe-like, with a single nut-like seed. (TT.)

TT. Leaves not two-ranked, over 2 in. long 108. Podocarpus.

TT. Leaves quite regularly two-ranked. (UU.)

UU. Leaves marked by two longitudinal lines; bruised or burned leaves with a very disagreeable odor (107a. Torreya.)

UU. Leaves with the midrib forming a distinct ridge, odor not disagreeable. (VV.)

VV. Leaves usually less than an inch long 107. Taxus.

VV. Leaves usually more than an inch long (107b. Cephalotaxus.)

WW. Spray decidedly two-ranked, fan-like. (YY.)

WW. Spray branching in an irregular way, not two-ranked. (XX.)

XX. Fruit a purplish berry; bark shreddy 106. Juniperus.

XX. Fruit a cone of thick, pointed, not lapping scales 102. Sequoia.

YY. Cones elongated, of lapping scales 103. Thuya.

YY. Cones globular, of peltate, valvate scales 104. Chamaecyparis.

ZZ. Leaves very broad at base, half clasping the stem and rapidly narrowed to an acute tip; hardly at all spreading from the thread-like twigs; flowers pinkish, in spike-like clusters 6. Tamarix.

ZZ. Leaves more elongated, quite even in width, not clasping the stem 101. Taxodium.

[Footnote 1: Look on the elongated branches for the arrangement of the leaves; they are too closely clustered on the short side shoots. See page 18.]

CLASS I. ANGIOSPERMAE.

Plants with a pistil consisting of a closed ovary, which contains the ovules and forms the fruit.

ORDER I. MAGNOLIACEAE. (MAGNOLIA FAMILY.)

Trees or shrubs, mainly of tropical regions, including, in our section, the three following genera:

GENUS 1. MAGNOLIA.

Trees and tall shrubs with alternate, thick, smooth, entire leaves with deciduous stipules which form the bud-scales, and are attached entirely around the stem, leaving a ridge, as in Liriodendron.

Flowers very large (3 to 10 in. in diameter), usually white, solitary.

Fruit a large cone from which the seeds, drupe-like, usually red, hang out on long threads during the autumn.

* Blooming with or before the opening of the leaves. (A.)

A. Flowers entirely white 9, 10.

A. Flowers dark purple 11.

A. Flowers mixed purple and white. A large number of hybrids from China and Japan.

* Blooming after the leaves expand. (B.)

B. Leaves evergreen, more than 8 in. long 1.

B. Leaves evergreen, not 6 in. long 2.

B. Leaves deciduous. (C.)

C. Leaves decidedly auriculate or cordate at the base. (D.)

D. Leaves very large (1 to 3 ft. long) 5.

D. Leaves smaller and much clustered at the tips of the flowering branches 6.

C. Leaves not conspicuously cordate at base. (E.)

E. Leaves clustered at the tips of the flowering branches 7.

E. Leaves scattered along the branches. (F.)

F. Base of leaf abrupt 3, 4.

F. Base of leaf tapering. (G.)

G. Leaves quite large, about 1 ft. long; a very erect growing tree 8.

G. Leaves smaller, medium thick, glossy above 2. medium thin (5 to 10 in. long) 3.



1. Magnolia grandiflora, L. (LARGE-FLOWERED MAGNOLIA. SOUTHERN EVERGREEN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves evergreen, thick, oval-oblong; upper surface glossy, under surface somewhat rusty. Flowers large, 6 to 10 in. wide, white, fragrant. In spring. Fruit oval, 3 to 4 in. long, ripe in October. Seeds scarlet. Splendid evergreen tree (50 to 80 ft.) in the Southern States; half hardy, and reduced to a shrub (10 to 20 ft.) when cultivated in the Middle States.



2. Magnolia glauca, L. (SWEET-BAY. SWAMP-MAGNOLIA.) Leaves quite thick, oblong-oval, obtuse, smooth and glossy above, white or rusty pubescent beneath; evergreen in the Southern States. Leaf-buds silky. Flowers globular, white, and very fragrant. June to August. Fruit about 1 1/2 in. long, ripe in autumn. Shrub, 4 to 20 ft. high, in the swamps of the Atlantic States from Massachusetts southward. Slender tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, when cultivated in good damp soil.



3. Magnolia acuminata, L. (CUCUMBER-TREE.) Leaves thin, green above, paler beneath, oblong, usually pointed at both ends, 5 to 10 in. long. Leaf-buds silky. Flowers pale yellowish-green, 3 in. wide, late in spring. Fruit irregular-oblong (2 to 3 in. long), rose-colored when ripe, with a few hard, bony, black seeds, coated with red pulp, ripe in autumn. Large (50 to 90 ft.) noble forest tree, wild in western New York and southward. Wood rather soft, yellowish-white, quite durable, and extensively used for pump logs. Occasionally cultivated; fine for avenues.



4. Magnolia cordata, Michx. (YELLOW CUCUMBER-TREE.) Leaves broadly ovate or oval, rarely cordate at base, smooth above, white-downy beneath, 4 to 6 in. long. Flowers lemon-yellow slightly streaked with red. June. Fruit nearly 3 in. long, red when ripe in autumn. A rather small, broad-headed tree (20 to 50 ft.), wild in the Southern States, but hardy as far north as Boston; not often cultivated. Probably an upland variety of the preceding.



5. Magnolia macrophylla, Michx. (GREAT-LEAVED MAGNOLIA.) Leaves very large, sometimes 3 ft. long, crowded at the summit of the branches, obovate-oblong, cordate at the narrowed base, glaucous-white beneath, green above; twigs whitish pubescent. Flowers very large (12 in. broad), white with a purple spot near the base; fragrant. Fruit cylindrical, 4 in. long, deep rose-colored when ripe in autumn. A medium-sized (30 to 40 ft.), spreading tree; wild from Kentucky south, hardy and cultivated as far north as New York City.



6. Magnolia Fraseri, Walt. (EAR-LEAVED UMBRELLA-TREE.) Leaves crowded at the ends of the flowering branches, obovate or spatulate, auriculate at base, smooth (1 ft. long). Leaf-buds smooth. Flowers (6 in. wide) white, slightly scented. April to May. Fruit 3 to 4 in. long, rose-colored, ripe in autumn. Medium-sized, rather slender tree (30 to 50 ft.), with soft yellowish-white wood. Virginia and southward. Hardy and extensively cultivated as far north as New York City.



7. Magnolia umbrella, Lam. (UMBRELLA TREE.) Leaves clustered at the ends of the branches, obovate-lanceolate, pointed at both ends, 1 to 2 ft. long; downy beneath when young, but soon becoming smooth. Flowers white, 6 to 8 in. broad. May. Fruit oblong, 4 to 6 in. long, rather rose-colored when ripe in autumn. A small, rather straggling tree, 20 to 40 ft. high; common in the Southern States, and wild as far north as New York State; cultivated throughout.



8. Magnolia hypoleuca, S. & Z. (JAPAN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves large (1 ft. long), somewhat purple-tinted above, white and glaucous beneath. Midrib and leafstalk often red. Flowers cream-white, fragrant, appearing after the leaves in June. Twigs stout and polished. A medium-sized, very erectly growing tree; from Japan.



9. Magnolia conspicua, Salisb. (YULAN OR CHINESE WHITE MAGNOLIA.) Leaves deciduous, obovate, abruptly acuminate, pubescent when young. Flowers large (4 in.), cream-white, very fragrant, appearing very early (May), before any of the leaves. Fruit rarely formed, with few (1 to 3, rarely more) seeds to a cone. Bark dark brown on the young branches; terminal winter buds over 1/2 in. long. Small tree (10 to 30 ft.) with spreading habit and stout branches; very extensively cultivated for its abundant early bloom; from China.



10. Magnolia Kobus. (THURBER'S JAPAN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves similar to the preceding, but smaller. Flowers also similar, but pure white. Fruit abundantly formed, with several (2 to 12) seeds to the cone. Bark green on the young growth; terminal winter-buds under 1/2 in. long. Small tree (15 to 40 ft.) with erect habit and slender branches. A beautiful tree of recent introduction from Japan.



11. Magnolia purpurea, Sims. (PURPLE JAPAN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves obovate, pointed at both ends, dark green. Flowers erect, of 3 sepals and 6 obovate, purple petals; blooming about as the leaves expand. A low tree, or usually merely a shrub, from Japan; often cultivated.

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