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What to See in England
by Gordon Home
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WHAT TO SEE IN ENGLAND

A GUIDE TO PLACES OF HISTORIC INTEREST, NATURAL BEAUTY, OR LITERARY ASSOCIATION

BY GORDON HOME

1908



[Illustration: REFERENCE TO RAILWAY STATIONS

Broad Street Cannon St. (South Eastern & Chatham) Charing Cross (South Eastern & Chatham) Euston Station (London & North Western) Fenchurch St. (London, Tilbury, & Southend) Great Central Station Great Eastern (Liverpool St.) Great Western Station King's Cross (Great Northern) Liverpool St. (Great Eastern) London Bridge (South Eastern & Chatham & Brighton & South Coast) London & North Western (Euston Station) London & South Western (Waterloo) London, Tilbury, & Southend (Fenchurch St.) Marylebone Station (Great Central) Paddington Station (Great Western) St Pancras (Midland) South Eastern & Chatham: Cannon Street Charing Cross Holborn Viaduct London Bridge Ludgate Hill Victoria Waterloo South Western Railway (Waterloo) Victoria (London, Brighton, & South Coast & South Eastern & Chatham) Waterloo (London & South Western)]



PREFACE

This book is intended to put in the smallest possible space the means by which one may reach the chief places of interest in England and Wales. It will possibly make many holidays, week-ends, or isolated days more enjoyable by placing a defined objective before the rambler. Places within an hour or two of London are in the front of the book, so that as one turns over the pages one is taken further and further afield. The brief summary of the interests of each place, and the many illustrations, may help to memorise the impressions obtained.

The first edition of a book of this nature must of necessity be incomplete, and the author is prepared to hear of long lists of places which should have been included, and also to hear criticisms on his choice of those appearing. It is to some extent natural that special familiarity with certain places and certain writers or heroes of the past may distort one's vision, and perhaps induce a choice of subjects which may not seem so comprehensive to some individuals as to others. Future editions will, however, give ample scope for embracing all the good suggestions which may be made.

G.H.



HAM HOUSE AND PETERSHAM

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Richmond (1-1/4 miles from Petersham Church). Distance from London.—10 miles. Average Time.—1/2 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 1s. 3d. 1s. 0d. 0s. 9d. Return 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 3d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Castle Hotel," "Roebuck Hotel," Richmond. "Dysart Arms" at Petersham.

The little church at Petersham is interesting on account of the memorial it contains to the memory of Vancouver, the discoverer, in 1792, of the island bearing his name, on the west coast of the North American continent. It is said that "the unceasing exertions which Vancouver himself made to complete the gigantic task of surveying 9000 miles of unknown and intricate coasts—a labour chiefly performed in open boats—made an inroad on his constitution from which he never recovered, and, declining gradually, he died in May 1798." The church is also the burying-place of the Duchess of Lauderdale, whose residence was Ham House. This fine old Jacobean mansion stands at no great distance from Petersham Church. It was built as a residence for Prince Henry, the eldest son of James I., who, however, died early, the gossips of the time hinting at poison. The house is still said to be haunted by the spirit of the old Duchess of Lauderdale, who lived in the time of Charles II.



WALTON-ON-THAMES (SCOLD'S BRIDLE)

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Walton. Distance from London.—17 miles. Average Time.—3/4 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 10d. 1s. 10d. 1s. 5d. Return 4s. 0d. 3s. 0d. 2s. 6d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Ashley" at station; "Swan," on the river; "Duke's Head," in the town, etc.

Walton-on-Thames is a little riverside town, very much surrounded by modern villas. The church contains in a glass case in the vestry a "scold's bridle." This rusty iron contrivance is one of the few specimens of this mediaeval instrument of torture to be seen in this country, and it is certainly the nearest to London.

In Elizabethan times a "scold" was looked upon in much the same light as a witch, and this bridle was applied to those women who obtained for themselves the undesirable reputation.



HARROW

How to get there.—Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Harrow. Distance from London.—11-1/2 miles. Average Time.—1/2 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 1s. 6d. 1s. 0d. 0s. 9d. Return 2s. 3d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 0d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"King's Head," etc. Alternative Routes.—Train from Baker Street, Metropolitan Railway. Train from Broad Street, L. and N.W. Railway. Train from Marylebone, Great Central Railway.

Harrow, from its high position, 200 feet above the sea, was selected by the Romans as an important military station. By the Saxons it was called Hereways, and was purchased in 822 by Wilfred, Archbishop of Canterbury. The ancient manor-house, of which no traces now remain, was formerly the residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and it was here that Thomas a Becket resided during his banishment from Court. Cardinal Wolsey, who was once Rector of Harrow, resided at Pinner, and is said to have entertained Henry VIII. during his visit to Harrow. The manor was exchanged by Archbishop Cranmer with the king for other lands, and was subsequently given to Sir Edmund Dudley, afterwards Lord North.

At the bottom of the hill, and spreading rapidly in all directions, are quantities of modern houses and villas, but the point of greatest interest in Harrow is the celebrated school, wonderfully situated on the very summit of the hill, with views extending over thirteen counties. Founded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by John Lyon, a yeoman of the parish, the school has now grown enormously, the oldest portion being that near the church, which was erected three years after the founder's death. In the wainscotting of the famous schoolroom are the carvings cut by many generations of Harrovians, among them being the names of Peel, Byron, Sheridan, the Marquess of Hastings, Lord Normanby, and many others.

The church stands on the extreme summit of the hill, and from the churchyard the view is simply magnificent. In the building are some interesting tombs and brasses, and a monument to John Lyon, the founder of the school.

The grave shown on the opposite page is known as "Byron's tomb," on account of his fondness for the particular spot it occupied in the churchyard, from whence the fascinating view just mentioned can be seen, from the shade of the trees growing on either side.



HOLWOOD HOUSE, KESTON

THE HOME OF WILLIAM PITT

How to get there.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, and London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Hayes (2 miles from Keston village). About 3 miles from Holwood House. Distance from London.—12 miles. Average Time.—35 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 0d. 1s. 3d. 1s. 0-1/2d. Return 3s. 3d. 2s. 4d. 1s. 10d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The Fox Inn," "The George." Alternative Route.—To Orpington Station by the South-Eastern and Chatham Railway, about 4 miles distant.

Visitors are able to pass through the park on a public footpath.

About 3 miles' walk from Hayes Station by a pleasant road over Hayes Common is Holwood House, a stately, classic building, for many years the home of William Pitt, the famous statesman and son of the Earl of Chatham. He owned the estate between 1785 and 1802, and it was during this period that the British camp in the park suffered so severely. The earth-works were occupied by some early British tribe before Caesar crossed the Channel, and the place probably owed its strength to its well-chosen position. Pitt, however, caused these fascinating remains to be levelled to a considerable extent, in order to carry out some of his ideas of landscape gardening. A magnificent tree growing near the house is known as "Pitt's Oak," from the tradition that Pitt was specially fond of spending long periods of quiet reading beneath its overshadowing boughs. Another tree of more interest still stands quite near the public footpath through the park. This is known as "Wilberforce's Oak," and is easily distinguished from the surrounding trees by the stone seat constructed in its shade. The momentous decision which makes this tree so interesting is given in Wilberforce's diary for the year 1788. He writes, "At length, I well remember after a conversation with Mr. Pitt in the open air at the root of an old tree at Holwood, just above the steep descent into the vale of Keston, I resolved to give notice on a fit occasion in the House of Commons of my intention to bring forward the abolition of the slave-trade."

With the exception of Knole Park, Holwood boasts some of the finest beeches in the country. The present house took the place of the one occupied by Pitt in 1825; the architect was Decimus Burton.



CHIGWELL, ESSEX

How to get there.—Train from Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street. Great Eastern Railway. Nearest Station.—Chigwell. Distance from London.—12-3/4 miles. Average Time.—55 minutes. Quickest train, 31 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 1s. 10d. 1s. 4d. 0s. 11d. Return 2s. 6d. 1s. 10d. 1s. 4d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The King's Head."

In 1844 Charles Dickens wrote to Forster: "Chigwell, my dear fellow, is the greatest place in the world. Name your day for going. Such a delicious old inn facing the church—such a lovely ride—such forest scenery—such an out-of-the-way rural place—such a sexton! I say again, Name your day." This is surely sufficient recommendation for any place; and when one knows that the "delicious old inn" is still standing, and that the village is as rural and as pretty as when Dickens wrote over sixty years ago, one cannot fail to have a keen desire to see the place. "The King's Head" illustrated here is the inn Dickens had in his mind when describing the "Maypole" in Barnaby Rudge, and the whole of the plot of that work is so wrapped up in Chigwell and its immediate surroundings that one should not visit the village until one has read the story. One may see the panelled "great room" upstairs where Mr. Chester met Mr. Geoffrey Haredale. This room has a fine mantelpiece, great carved beams, and beautiful leaded windows. On the ground floor is the cosy bar where the village cronies gathered with Mr. Willett, and one may also see the low room with the small-paned windows against which John Willett flattened his nose looking out on the road on the dark night when the story opens.

Chigwell School, built in 1629, and founded by Archbishop Harsnett, still remains, although there have been several modern additions. Here William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was educated. (See Index for Jordans and Penn's Chapel at Thakeham.)

Chigwell Church, facing "The King's Head," has a dark avenue of yews leading from the road to the porch. A brass to the memory of Archbishop Harsnett may be seen on the floor of the chancel. The epitaph in Latin was ordered to be so written in the will of the archbishop. Translated, the first portion may be read: "Here lieth Samuel Harsnett, formerly vicar of this church. First the unworthy Bishop of Chichester, then the more unworthy Bishop of Norwich, at last the very unworthy Archbishop of York."



WALTHAM ABBEY AND CROSS

How to get there.—Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern Railway. Nearest Station.—Waltham. Distance from London.—12-3/4 miles. Average Time.—40 minutes. Quickest train, 23 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 1d. Return 3s. 3d. 2s. 6d. 1s. 7d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The New Inn," etc.

Waltham Abbey is a market town in Essex on the banks of the Lea, which here divides into several branches which are used as motive power for some gunpowder and flour mills. Harold II. founded the stately Abbey Church in May 1060. William the Conqueror disputed Harold's claim to the throne and landed in England at Pevensey in 1066. At Waltham Abbey, troubled and anxious, Harold prayed for victory in England's name before the fatal battle of Hastings, where he was slain. William at first refused to give up Harold's body to his mother, Gytha, but he afterwards allowed two monks from Waltham to search for the body of the king. They were unable to find it amongst the nameless dead, but his favourite, Edith the swan-necked, whose eye of affection was not to be deceived, discovered it. His weeping mother buried the disfigured corpse probably about 120 feet from the east end of the old church.

At Waltham is one of the many crosses erected by Edward I. in memory of his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, wherever her body rested on its way to Westminster from Lincoln. At Northampton is another of these famous crosses. When the king asked the Abbot of Cluny to intercede for her soul, he said, "We loved her tenderly in her lifetime; we do not cease to love her in death."

A little way to the left of Waltham Cross, now a gateway to the park of Theobalds, stands Temple Bar, stone for stone intact as it was in the days when traitors' heads were raised above it in Fleet Street, although the original wooden gates have gone. A portion of the richly-carved top of the gate is still in existence in London. Waltham Abbey is probably close to that part of the river Lea where King Alfred defeated the Danes. They had penetrated far up the river when King Alfred diverted the waters of the river from underneath their black vessels and left them high and dry in a wilderness of marsh and forest. The gentle Charles Lamb was very fond of the country all round Waltham Abbey, especially Broxbourne and Amwell.



DOWNE

THE HOME OF DARWIN

How to get there.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Orpington (3-1/2 to 4 miles from Downe). Distance from London.—13-3/4 miles. Average Time.—35 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 4d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 2-1/2d. Return 4s. 0d. 3s. 0d. ...

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Queen's Head," at Downe, facing the church. Hotels at Farnborough—"White Lion," "George and Dragon."

The home of the great scientist is still standing in the little village of Downe in Kent. The road to the hamlet is through Farnborough, and the walk takes an hour. Downe is a pleasant place, possessing a large village pond and a small church with a shingled spire. Darwin's home, known as Downe House, was built in the eighteenth century. Its front is of white stucco, relieved by ivy and other creepers. The wing on the west side of the house was added by Darwin shortly after he came to live there. This new portion of the house was used partly to accommodate his library. On the north side is the room used by Darwin as a study, in which he wrote some of his most important works. The garden of the house is sheltered and reposeful, and from the old wall-garden to the south there is a beautiful view over the delightful stretch of country in the direction of Westerham.

The life led by Darwin when at Downe was exceedingly quiet and regular, for he always went to bed at an early hour, and rising at six was enabled to get in a walk and breakfast before commencing work at eight o'clock. At some other time of the day he would manage to get an opportunity for another walk, and part of the evening would be given up to his family and friends who were privileged to enjoy conversation with the great author of The Origin of Species. Professor Haeckel, describing a visit to Darwin's home, says, "There stepped out to meet me from the shady porch ... the great naturalist himself, a tall and venerable figure, with the broad shoulders of an Atlas supporting a world of thought, his Jupiter-like forehead, highly and broadly arched ... and deeply furrowed with the plough of mental labour; his kindly, mild eyes looking forth under the shadow of prominent brows."



EPSOM: ITS RACES AND ITS SALTS

How to get there.—From Waterloo, South-Western Railway. From London Bridge or Victoria, London, Brighton, and South Coast Rly. Nearest Station.—Epsom. Distance from London.—14 miles. Average Time.—3/4 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 3d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 2d. Return 3s. 0d. 2s. 6d. 2s. 2d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"King's Head," "Spread Eagle," etc.

One must choose any other than a race-day if one wishes to see the charming old town of Epsom at its best. But if, on the other hand, one wishes, to see something of the scene on the race-course depicted in Mr. Frith's famous picture, one gets no suggestion of the great spectacle except on race-days. On these occasions, at the Spring meeting and during Derby week, one has merely to follow the great streams of humanity which converge on the downs from the roads from London and from the railway stations. On ordinary days the wide rolling downs are generally left alone to the health-giving breezes which blow over them. In the town itself there is much to be seen of the seventeenth-century architecture associated with the days of Epsom's fame as a watering-place. The wide portion of the High Street at once attracts one's notice, for with one or two exceptions its whole length is full of the quaintest of buildings with cream walls and mossy tiled roofs. The clock-tower was built in 1848, when it replaced a very simple old watch-house with a curious little tower rising from it. The "Spread Eagle" is one of the oldest of the Epsom inns; its irregular front and its position looking up the High Street make it more conspicuous than the "King's Head," an equally old and very interesting hostelry facing the clock-tower. Pepys stayed there in 1667, for in his diary of July 14 of that year he writes, "To Epsom, by eight o'clock, to the well; where much company. And to the towne to the King's Head; and hear that my Lord Buckhurst and Nelly (Gwynne) are lodged at the next house, and Sir Charles Sedley with them: and keep a merry house." This house, next to the "King's Head," is still standing. A little further along the street is the large red-brick building known to-day as Waterloo House. It was built about the year 1680, and was then known as the New Inn. The old banqueting-hall it contains is divided up now, for the building is converted into shops.

Durdans, the residence of Lord Rosebery, is about ten minutes' walk from the High Street. One can see the house and grounds from the narrow lane leading to the downs.



EPPING FOREST

How to get there.—From Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street. Great Eastern Railway. Nearest Station.—Theydon Bois. Other stations near the forest are Chingford, Loughton, and Epping. Distance from London.—15 miles. Average Time.—1 hour. Quickest train, 38 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 8d. 1s. 11d. 1s. 3-1/2d. Return 3s. 9d. 2s. 11d. 1s. 11d.

Those who wish to ramble through Epping Forest off the beaten paths should carry a compass and a map, so that they do not merely keep in one section of the forest, and thus miss some of the tracts which are quite distinct in character to others. The best days during the summer for having the glades to one's self are Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday, but during the winter the whole place is left to the keepers and the feathered inhabitants of the forest. During spring and autumn one also finds that the grassy walks are left almost entirely alone, and at these periods the forest is at its very best. Those who have only visited it in the height of summer, when the foliage is perhaps drooping a little, when the birds are not singing, and when there are traces of more than one picnic party, have no idea of the true beauty of the forest. A herd of deer are allowed to breed in the wilder and less frequented portions if the forest, and these add much to the charm of some of the umbrageous by-paths when one suddenly disturbs a quietly grazing group. Queen Elizabeth's hunting lodge, which adjoins the Forest Hotel at Chingford, is a restored three-storied and much gabled building, constructed of plastered brickwork and framed with oak. It seems that the building originally had no roof, but merely an open platform, from which one could obtain a good comprehensive view of any sport going on in the vicinity. The lodge has now been made the home of a museum of objects of antiquity discovered in the forest. The special points of Epping Forest which should be included in a long day's ramble are Connaught Water, a lake near Chingford; High Beach, an elevated portion of the forest possessing some splendid beeches; the earthwork known as Loughton Camp, which probably belongs to pre-Roman times, and Ambresbury Banks, towards Epping. This camp is said to have been the last fortress of the Britons under Boadicea. From here they are believed to have marched against the Romans to receive the crushing defeat inflicted upon them.



HAMPTON COURT

How to get there.—South-Western Railway. Waterloo Station. Nearest Station.—Hampton Court. Distance from London.—15 miles. Average Time.—3/4 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 2-1/2d. Return 2s. 9d. 2s. 0d. 1s. 10d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Castle Hotel," "Mitre Hotel," "The King's Arms Hotel," "Greyhound Hotel," etc. Alternative Route.—By steamboats from London Bridge, etc., during the summer months.

Within a few hundred yards of the Hampton Court station on the London and South-Western Railway stands the magnificent palace of Hampton Court, originally erected by Cardinal Wolsey for his own residence, and after his sudden downfall appropriated by his ungrateful master Henry VIII. for his private use and property.

The approach from the station lies through a pair of finely designed wrought-iron gates to the north frontage of the palace, erected by Wolsey himself. This front is all in the fine red-brick architecture of the period, with quaint gables, small mullioned windows, and a collection of moulded and twisted red-brick chimneys of wonderfully varied designs. The entrance through the gatehouse, flanked by two towers, is under a massive Tudor gateway, and leads into an inner quadrangle and thence into a second court, both of the same picturesque character. In these inner courts are the suites of rooms given as residences by royal favour, and on the left-hand side is Wolsey's great banqueting-hall, with a magnificent open timber roof.

The southern and eastern portions, with the Fountain Court and the splendid frontage to the gardens, were designed by Sir Christopher Wren, and form one of the best examples of his work. In this part of the building are the picture galleries, containing a priceless collection of works, comprising Sir Peter Lely's Beauties of King Charles II.'s time, valuable specimens of Holbein, Kneller, West, Jansen, Vandyck, Reynolds, and other masters, and seven wonderful cartoons by Raphael.

The splendidly kept gardens, about 44 acres in extent, are still very much as they were in the time of William III. Hampton Court "Maze" is one of the most intricate in the country.

The palace, grounds, and picture galleries are open to the public daily, free, except on Fridays; summer, 10 to 6; winter, 10 to 4. Sundays, summer, 2 to 6; winter, 2 to 4.



RYE HOUSE, BROXBOURNE

How to get there.—Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern Rly. Nearest Station.—Broxbourne (quite close to Rye House). Distance from London.—17 miles. Average Time.—50 minutes. Quickest train, 39 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 3d. 2s. 3d. 1s. 6d. } reduced during Return 4s. 9d. 3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. } summer months.

Accommodation Obtainable.—Rye House has been converted into an hotel.

Rye House stands close to the banks of the river Lea, and is now perhaps more of a resort than some would wish it to be, for it has been altered from a manor-house into an hotel. It has not, however, quite lost its picturesqueness, as one will see from the illustration given here, and within one may see the fine old dining-hall and the famous "Great bed of Ware," large enough, it is said, to contain twelve people! The historical interest which attaches itself to Rye House, though well known, may be briefly given here. It was in 1683 the scene of a plot, in Charles II.'s reign, to assassinate the king and his brother the Duke of York, afterwards James II., on their way to London from Newmarket. Charles, though restored to the throne, was giving great dissatisfaction to many in the country. Though professedly a Protestant, it was well known that his leanings were towards Roman Catholicism, and his brother the Duke of York was an avowed Catholic. Then it was discovered that Charles had been receiving a pension from Louis XIV. of France, on condition that this country did not go to war with the French, an arrangement which was most humiliating to the English people. The nation was thoroughly alarmed, and at the next meeting of Parliament the Commons brought in a bill to exclude the Duke of York from ever coming to the throne. Many of the leading Whigs, including Lord William Russell, Algernon Sidney, and the Earl of Essex, formed a confederacy. It has never been proved that they ever meant the country to rise against the king, but unfortunately, just at the same time, some bolder and fiercer spirits of the Whig party determined to kill both Charles and James at the lonely Rye House belonging to Rumbolt. The plot failed from the fact that the house which the king occupied at Newmarket accidentally caught fire, and Charles was obliged to leave Newmarket a week sooner than was expected. This conspiracy as well as the meetings of the Whig party were betrayed to the king's ministers. Russell was beheaded in 1683, and Sidney shared the same fate.



HATFIELD HOUSE, HERTS

How to get there.—From King's Cross. Great Northern Railway. Nearest Station.—Hatfield. Distance from London.—17-3/4 miles. Average Time.—35 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 6d. ... 1s. 5-1/2d. Return 5s. 0d. ... 2s. 11d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Red Lion Hotel," etc.

Permission to see the interior of Hatfield House can be obtained when the Marquess of Salisbury is not in residence.

After the Norman Conquest Hatfield, the Haethfield of the Saxons, became the property of the bishops of Ely, and was known as Bishops Hatfield, as indeed it is marked on many maps. There was here a magnificent palace, which at the Reformation became the property of Henry VIII., and was afterwards given to the Cecils by James I., who received Theobalds in exchange.

The town of Hatfield is a quaint, straggling place, with narrow streets and many antique houses. A steep declivity leads up to the old church, dedicated to St. Etheldreda, just outside one of the entrances to the grounds of Hatfield House. The church contains a monument to Sir Robert Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, also tombs of the Botelers, Brockets, and Reads of Brocket Hall.

The entrance gateway, close to the churchyard, leads to what are now the stables of Hatfield House, a fine red-brick structure, once the banqueting-hall of the Bishop's Palace. This building, with its fine open timber roof, is perhaps the only example of its kind in England used as a stable.

Hatfield House is one of the most perfect and magnificent of Elizabethan mansions in the kingdom. It was built by the first Earl of Salisbury in 1611, and is practically unaltered. The fine oak panelling and carving, the plaster ceilings, and much of the furniture, all remain as they were in the days of the great Lord Burleigh. The great hall, with its splendid timber roof, and the gallery, with a fine collection of pictures and curios, are two striking features. The staircase is magnificent in design and detail, and is furnished with gates at the bottom, placed there originally for preventing the dogs from wandering upstairs.

The paintings in the hall and other rooms in Hatfield House include portraits of the great Burleigh, Sir Robert and other Cecils, by Lely and Kneller; Henry VIII., Anne Boleyn, Mary Queen of Scots, the Earl of Leicester, and Queen Elizabeth.



RUNNYMEAD, THE SIGNING OF MAGNA CHARTA

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Staines. Distance from London.—19 miles. Average Time.—50 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 0d. 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. Return 5s. 0d. 3s. 6d. 2s. 9d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—At Staines—"Pack Horse Hotel," "Swan Hotel," "Bridge Hotel." Alternative Route.—Train from Paddington to Staines. G.W.R.

Runnymede takes a prominent place among the many historical spots which crowd the banks of the Thames. The river at this point is winding and picturesque. Some doubt attaches to the exact spot where John, in 1215, realising at last that the barons were too strong for him, confirmed their articles with his hand and seal, with the full intention of breaking his word as soon as it was possible. It was either on the south side of the river, or on an island opposite the end of the meadow, now known as Magna Carta Island, that this early bulwark of freedom was granted by the king. Though there is strong tradition in favour of the meadows on the opposite bank, possibly the balance of favour is with the island. On the island there is a rough stone bearing an inscription stating that this is the celebrated spot.

The island is now private property. Above it, on the left, is a low wooded ridge known as Cooper's Hill, from which one can enjoy some exquisite views of the Thames valley.



THE OLDEST BRASS IN ENGLAND

How to get there.—Train to Leatherhead by South-Western or London, Brighton and South Coast lines. Distance from London.—19 miles. Accommodation Obtainable.—"Swan Hotel," etc., at Leatherhead.

Two and a half miles from Leatherhead is situated the ancient church of Stoke d'Abernon, famous for possessing the oldest brass in England. It shows a complete figure of Sir John d'Abernoun, who died in 1277. The church, restored externally, overlooks the river Mole.



ST. ALBANS

VERULAMIUM AND GORHAMBURY

How to get there.—Through train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway. Nearest Station.—St. Albans. Distance from London.—20 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1/2 to 1 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 2s. 8d. ... 1s. 7-1/2d. Return 5s. 4d. ... 3s. 3d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The Peahen," "Red Lion Hotel," "The George," etc. Alternative Routes.—Train from Euston, L. and N.W. Railway. Train from King's Cross, Great Northern Railway.

St. Albans is an ancient town of much historic interest, being built close to the site of the old Roman city of Verulamium. West of the town; by a little stream, the Ver, some remains of the old Roman wall may be seen, and the frequent discoveries made there are placed in the museum in the town. St. Alban, or Albanus, who has given his name to the town, was the first British martyr. He lived in the reign of Diocletian, and was beheaded on the site of the abbey raised in his honour. The Benedictine monastery which arose became the wealthiest and most popular in England through the fame of the saint. Most of the kings from Saxon times until the dissolution of the monastery in Henry VIII.'s reign, visited this shrine. In later times the Abbey Church was made parochial, and finally a cathedral.

St. Albans owes some of its importance to its situation on the famous northward road; Watling Street runs through it. Owing to its proximity to London, it was the scene of two battles in its High Street during the Wars of the Roses.

The cathedral occupies the highest site of any in England. The square Norman tower owes its red hue to the Roman bricks used in its construction. One remarkable feature is the length of the nave, which is only exceeded by Winchester. Every style of architecture is represented in the interior from Early Norman to Late Perpendicular, and in the triforium of the north transept are to be seen some Saxon balusters and columns. The shrine of St. Alban is in the Saint's Chapel, with the interesting watching-loft on the north side. The west end has been very much renovated by Lord Grimthorpe.

At Gorhambury can be seen the tower of the ruined house formerly occupied by Sir Nicholas Bacon, and visited by Queen Elizabeth. In the antique church of St. Michael in Verulamium is Lord Bacon's monument.



STOKE POGES CHURCH, BUCKS

How to get there.—Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly. Nearest Station.—Slough (2-1/2 miles from Stoke Poges). Distance from London.—21-1/4 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 3/4 to 1 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 0d. 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. Return 5s. 0d. 3s. 6d. ...

Accommodation Obtainable.—Windsor—"White Hart Hotel," "Castle Hotel," "Bridge House Hotel," etc. Alternative Route.—Train from Waterloo to Windsor, 3 miles from Stoke Poges. London and South-Western Railway.

"The curfew tolls the knell of parting day" has immortalised the otherwise unimportant district of Stoke Poges—a parish embracing numerous small hamlets.

Leaving Slough by the north end of the railway bridge, one turns first to the right and then to the left, and soon after leaving the uninteresting bricks and mortar of the town, one enters some of the most beautiful lanes in the home counties. At the first cross road one turns to the right, and again through an open gate to the left, and thence a field path leads to the churchyard.

The little church, which is always open, has walls of old red brick and flint, with patches of rough plaster. It is wonderfully picturesque, with its partial covering of ivy and beautiful background of fine old trees, and no one can view the scene at sunset without recalling Gray's immortal Elegy written in a Country Churchyard—those exquisite verses which breathe in every line the peace of an ideal country scene. To a lover of Nature there can be nothing more beautiful than the lines—

Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight, And all the air a solemn stillness holds; Save where the beetle wheels his drony flight, And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.

Near the east wall of the church is the red brick tomb where Gray sleeps his last sleep, and in the meadow by the chancel window stands the huge cenotaph raised to his memory by John Penn. Of the little cottage where he spent his summer vacations and wrote the Elegy nothing now remains. Gray was born in London in 1716, and died at Cambridge in 1771.

The interior of the church has lost its high old pews and galleries, so that it lacks the interest it might have had, for until these were removed the building was almost exactly what Gray knew so well.



WINDSOR

How to get there.—Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway. Nearest Station.—Windsor. Distance from London.—21-1/4 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1/2 to 1 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 6d. 2s. 3d. 1s. 9d. Return 5s. 6d. 4s. 0d. 3s. 4d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"White Hart Hotel," "Bridge House Hotel," "Castle Hotel," etc. Alternative Route.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

The chief interest of Windsor centres in its castle, without which visitors to the town would probably be few in number. Some of the old streets are narrow, and there are many architecturally interesting buildings. The business portion of the town lies nearest to the Castle, the residential parts being chiefly round the Great Park. The Town Hall, in the High Street, was commenced in 1686, and was completed under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren.

The history of Windsor Castle commences with the granting of the site of the castle and town to the Abbot of Westminster by Edward the Confessor. William the Conqueror, was, however, so struck with its splendid military position, that he revoked the grant, and where the castle now stands built a fortress of considerable size. Of this there is no description extant. The first court was held at Windsor by Henry I., and during his reign many splendid functions took place there. Edward III. employed William of Wykeham to rebuild almost the whole castle. Henry VII., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth all made additions to the buildings. Many magnificent paintings were added during the reign of Charles I. George I. made Windsor Castle his chief residence, and appointed a Royal Commission to rebuild the castle in its present form at a cost of more than one million sterling. About 1860, Wolsey's Chapel, now known as the Albert Memorial Chapel, was restored in memory of the Prince Consort, and the Duchess of Kent's mausoleum was erected. St. George's Chapel, a splendid specimen of ecclesiastical architecture, was originally built by Edward III., and was finally restored in 1887. The State apartments, which can be seen when the Royal family are absent, are sumptuously furnished and contain much beautiful tapestry and a valuable collection of pictures.

Windsor Great Park, the chief feature of which is the Long Walk, is well stocked with deer.



JORDANS AND WILLIAM PENN

How to get there.—Train from Baker Street. Metropolitan Railway. Nearest Station.—Chalfont Road (3 miles from Jordans). Distance from London.—22 miles. Average Time.—51 minutes. (Convenient trains, 10.27 A.M., 12.17 and 2.27 P.M.)

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 2d. 2s. 4d. 1s. 7d. Return 4s. 9d. 3s. 5d. 2s. 5d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—None at Jordans. Alternative Route.—Train to Uxbridge. Great Western Railway.

Jordans, the burial-place of William Penn, the great English Quaker and philanthropist, lies on a by-road in Buckinghamshire, leading from Chalfont St. Peter to Beaconsfield. The place itself, though full of the typical charm of English scenery in the home counties, does not contain anything of particular interest, and it owes its reputation to the associations with the wonderful man who lived and died there. Jordans is visited by many hundreds of tourists during the summer, mainly Americans. One of these offered to remove Penn's remains to Philadelphia, capital of Pennsylvania, and there build a mausoleum over them; but the offer was declined.

The road runs south-west from the village of Chalfont St. Peter, and after a sharp curve brings the visitor to the Meeting House, a very plain and unobtrusive structure, dating from about the end of the seventeenth century. In the secluded burying-ground surrounded and overhung by great trees lies William Penn. Five of his children also rest among these quiet surroundings; and here are buried two well-known Quaker leaders, Isaac Penington and Thomas Ellwood. At the actual time of burial there were no gravestones, but these have since been added. Though the house as a regular place of meeting has long fallen into disuse, there is still an annual gathering of Quakers there in memory of the great dead.

Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, an eminent admiral, and was born in 1644. His violent advocacy of the Quaker creeds led him into continual trouble and several times into prison. In 1681 he obtained, in lieu of the income left by his father, a grant from the Crown of the territory now forming the state of Pennsylvania. Penn wished to call his new property Sylvania, on account of the forest upon it, but the king, Charles II., good-naturedly insisted on the prefix Penn. The great man left his flourishing colony for the last time in 1701, and after a troublous time in pecuniary matters, owing to the villany of an agent in America, Penn died at Ruscombe in Berkshire in 1718.



KNOLE HOUSE AND SEVENOAKS

How to get there.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Sevenoaks (Knole House is just outside Sevenoaks). Distance from London.—22 miles. Average Time.—45 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 10d. 2s. 5d. 1s. 11d. Return 6s. 8d. 4s. 10d. 3s. 10d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—At Sevenoaks—"Royal Crown Hotel," "Royal Oak Hotel," "Bligh's Private Hotel," etc.

Sevenoaks is famous for its beautiful situation near the Weald of Kent. It possesses still some old inns, relics of coaching days. The Grammar School was founded in 1432 by Sir William Sevenoke, who, from being a foundling, became Lord Mayor. St. Nicholas' Church is a large building in the Decorated and Perpendicular style, much restored.

The chief charm of Sevenoaks is Knole House, a splendid example of the baronial dwellings that were erected after the Wars of the Roses, when the fortress was no longer so necessary. The demesne of Knole was purchased in the fifteenth century by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, who rebuilt the mansion on it. It was taken from Cranmer by the Crown and granted in 1603 to Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of Dorset, who is now represented by the Sackville-West family, the present owners.

The first Earl of Dorset greatly improved Knole, employing, it is said, 200 workmen constantly. The building surrounds three square courts and occupies about 5 acres. Knole possesses an extremely valuable collection of paintings, and the mediaeval furniture is untouched from the time of James I. There are famous pictures by Flemish, Dutch, Venetian, and Italian painters. In the dressing-room of the Spangled Bedroom are to be seen some of Sir Peter Lely's beauties. The Cartoon Gallery has copies of Raphael's cartoons by Mytens, and in the Poet's Parlour are portraits of England's famous poets—some by Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The banqueting-hall has a screened music gallery. It is said that there are as many rooms in the house as there are days in the year. The drives and walks of the large park are always open, and the house is shown on Fridays from 10 A.M. to 5 P.M., and on Thursdays and Saturdays from 2 to 5 P.M. at a charge of 2s.; there is a reduction for a party. Tickets are procurable at the lodge.



GREENSTEAD CHURCH

A SAXON CHURCH WITH WOODEN WALLS

How to get there.—Train from Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street. Great Eastern Railway. Nearest Station.—Chipping Ongar (1 mile from Greenstead Church). Distance from London.—22-3/4 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 11d. 2s. 10d. 1s. 11-1/2d. Return 5s. 9d. 4s. 2d. 3s. 1d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—Inn, etc., at Ongar.

Entering Ongar from the railway station one finds on the right a footpath leading into a fine avenue. About ten minutes' walk down this brings one to Greenstead Hall, a red brick Jacobean house, with the church adjoining it. Set among a profusion of foliage, the simple little building would be quite interesting as an ideally situated little rustic church, but when one realises how unique it is, the spot at once becomes fascinating. The walls of the diminutive nave, as one may see from the illustration given here, consist of the trunks of large oak trees split down the centre and roughly sharpened at each end. They are raised from the ground by a low foundation of brick, and inside the spaces between the trees are covered with fillets of wood. On top the trees are fastened into a frame of rough timber by wooden pins. The interior of the building is exceedingly dark, for there are no windows in the wooden walls, and the chief light comes from the porch and a dormer window. This window in the roof, however, was not in the original design, for the rude structure was only designed as a temporary resting-place for the body of St. Edmund the Martyr. It was in A.D. 1010 that the saint's body was removed from Bury to London, its protectors fearing an incursion of the Danes at that time. Three years afterwards, however, the body was brought back to Bury, and on its journey rested for a time at Greenstead—a wooden chapel being erected in its honour. The remains of this chapel, built nearly half a century before the Conquest, are still to be seen in the wooden walls just referred to. The length of the original structure was 29 feet 9 inches long by 14 feet wide. The walls, 5 feet 6 inches high, supported the rough timber roof, which possessed no windows. The chancel and tower were added afterwards.

Ongar Castle, a huge artificial mound surrounded by a moat, is close to the main street. The church contains in the chancel, hidden by a carpet, the grave of Oliver Cromwell's daughter. A house in the High Street is associated with Livingstone.



CHALFONT ST. GILES

HOME OF MILTON

How to get there.—Train from Baker Street. Metropolitan Railway. Nearest Station.—Chalfont Road (2-1/2 miles from Chalfont St. Giles). An omnibus runs between the village and the station during the summer months. Distance from London.—23-3/4 miles. Average Time.—51 minutes. (Convenient trains, 10.27 A.M., 12.17 and 2.27 P.M.)

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 2d. 2s. 4d. 1s. 7d. Return 4s. 9d. 3s. 5d. 2s. 5d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The Merlin's Cave Inn," etc.

This pretty little Buckinghamshire village has become almost as celebrated as its neighbour Stoke Poges, on account of having been the home of John Milton. The poet's cottage is the last on the left side at the top of the village street. As one may see from the illustration, it is a very picturesque, half-timbered house, whose leaded windows look into a typical country garden. In 1887 a public subscription was raised and the cottage was purchased. Visitors are therefore able to see the interior as well as the exterior of Milton's home, which, it should be mentioned, is the only one existing to-day of the various houses he occupied. For those who are not residents in the parish a charge of sixpence is made for admission. The poet's room, which is on the right on entering, is rather dark, and has a low ceiling. One notices the wide, open fireplace where the white-bearded old man would sit in winter days, and the lattice-paned windows through which in summer-time came the humming of bees and the scent of the flowers growing in the old-fashioned garden. The pleasant indications of his surroundings must have been a great solace to the blind old man. In these simple surroundings one must picture Milton dictating his stately verse, with his thoughts concentrated on the serried ranks of the hosts of heaven.

Milton came to Chalfont in 1665, in order to escape from the plague. His eldest daughter was at that time about seventeen years of age, and as she and her sisters are supposed to have remained with their father until about 1670, it is probable that they came to Chalfont with him.

The church of Chalfont St. Giles has a Norman font, and there are other traces of Norman work in the bases of the pillars and elsewhere. The south wall of the nave and the north chapel are specially interesting on account of their frescoes.



WESTERHAM

THE HOME OF GENERAL WOLFE

How to get there.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Westerham. Distance from London.—25 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 3s. 10d. 2s. 5d. 2s. 0d. Return 6s. 8d. 4s. 10d. 4s. 0d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The King's Arms," "The Bull," "The George and Dragon," etc.

Westerham as a small country town is not very remarkable in itself, although not devoid of interest, but as containing the birthplace of General Wolfe it becomes a place worthy of a pilgrimage. Colonel and Mrs. Wolfe, the parents of the hero of Quebec, had just come to Westerham, and occupied the vicarage at the time of the birth of their son James in 1727. This, being previous to 1752, was during the old style, when the year began on March 25. The day was December 22, now represented by January 2. Colonel Wolfe's infant was christened in Westerham Church by the vicar, the Rev. George Lewis; but although born at the vicarage, James's parents must have moved into the house now known as Quebec House almost immediately afterwards, for practically the whole of the first twelve years of the boy's life were spent in the fine old Tudor house which is still standing to-day. The vicarage is also to be seen, and though much altered at the back, the front portion, containing the actual room in which Wolfe was born, is the same as in the past. It has a three-light window towards the front, and two small windows in the gable at the side. Quebec House is near the vicarage. It does not bear its name upon it, but it will be pointed out on inquiry. The front is a most disappointing stucco affair, but this merely hides the beautiful Elizabethan gables which originally adorned the house from every point of view. Two private tenants now occupy the house, but the interior is on the whole very little altered since little James Wolfe played hide-and-seek in the old passages and rooms. Squerryes Court, the seat of Lieut.-Colonel C.A.M. Warde, J.P., is the local storehouse of Wolfe relics. Numbers of letters, portraits, and other interesting objects are all carefully preserved there. Young Wolfe was constantly at Squerryes, and the spot in the park where he received his first commission is marked by a stone cenotaph.



GUILDFORD, SURREY

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway. Nearest Station.—Guildford. Distance from London.—29-3/4 miles. Average Time.—Varies from 50 minutes to 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 0d. 3s. 2d. 2s. 6d. Return 8s. 9d. 5s. 6d. 5s. 0d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Angel," "White Lion," "Castle," etc. Alternative Route.—South-Eastern and Chatham Railway from Charing Cross Station, and other South-Eastern and Chatham Railway termini.

Guildford High Street is without doubt one of the most picturesque in England. When one stands beneath the shadow of the quaint seventeenth-century town hall, with its great clock projecting half-way across the street towards the Corn Exchange, with its classic stone portico, a most charming picture is spread before one. The steep street dropping down to the river Wey, with the great green slopes of the Hog's Back rising immediately beyond, framed in with quaint gabled fronts and projecting windows. The castle, though very much in ruins, still possesses its huge square keep standing upon an artificial mound. Both the keep and the other portions of the fortress were probably built in the reign of Henry II. Those who are endeavouring to read the history of the castle should bear in mind that in 1623 it was converted into a private dwelling-house, and this accounts for the red brick mullions in the upper windows of the keep. From the highest portion of the walls there is an exceedingly pretty view up the winding course of the Wey. Abbot's Hospital, at the top of the High Street, was built in 1619. It is an exceedingly picturesque old structure of red brick, with conspicuously fine chimney-stacks. The buildings enclose a beautiful courtyard full of the richest architectural detail. The dining-hall is oak-panelled almost to the ceiling, and contains oak tables, benches, and stools. The chapel in the north-east corner contains an alms-box and a "Vinegar" Bible, and two of the windows are remarkable for their fine old glass.

The Angel Hotel in the High Street is built over a thirteenth-century crypt and contains much panelling.

The old stone grammar school in Spital Street was founded by Edward VI. St. Mary's Church, in the centre of the town, has a painted roof to one of its chapels and some Saxon features.



GAD'S HILL

THE HOME OF CHARLES DICKENS

How to get there.—Train from Victoria or Holborn Viaduct. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Rochester. (Gad's Hill lies 1-1/2 miles from Rochester). Distance from London.—31 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1 and 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 4d. 3s. 4d. 2s. 8d. Return 9s. 4d. 6s. 8d. 5s. 4d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—At Rochester—"King's Head Hotel," "Royal Victoria Hotel," "Bull Hotel," "Royal Crown Hotel," etc. Alternative Route.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.

Mr. Latham, the present occupier, kindly admits visitors on Wednesday afternoons.

Lovers of Charles Dickens naturally have a pleasure in seeing the places near Rochester so familiar to them through his works. A mile and a half from this ancient city with its cathedral and castle is Gad's Hill Place, where the great author resided from 1856 till the day of his death in 1870. When Dickens was a small boy the house had always a curious interest for him, for he thought it the most beautiful house he had ever seen. His father, then living in Rochester, used to bring him to look at it, and used to tell the little fellow that if he grew up to be a clever man he might own that or another such house. Gad's Hill Place is a comfortable old-fashioned house, built, it is said, about 1775. Facing it is a shrubbery containing huge cedars. This was connected with the grounds opposite by an underground passage still existing, and here Dickens erected a chalet given to him by his friend Mr. Fechter, in which he worked till the time of his sudden death. Gad's Hill had a peculiar fascination for Dickens, for it was on the highway there that he obtained his wonderful insight into the character and manners of the various tramps and showmen he portrays in his books.

Dickens liked nothing better than taking his friends over this district. He thought the seven miles between Rochester and Maidstone one of the most beautiful walks in England. Dickens would compress into infinitely few days an enormous amount of sight-seeing and country enjoyment: castles, cathedrals, lunches and picnics among cherry orchards and hop-gardens.



IGHTHAM MOTE, KENT

How to get there.—Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and Ludgate Hill. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Wrotham (2 miles from Ightham Mote). Distance from London.—31 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 1d. 3s. 2d. 2s. 6d. Return 8s. 11d. 6s. 4d. 5s. 0d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The George and the Dragon," Ightham. Alternative Route.—None.

In a lovely green hollow, surrounded by splendid old trees and velvet turf, stands Ightham Mote, a gem among old English moated manor-houses. It is the home of Mr. J.C. Colyer-Fergusson, who allows the public to see the house and grounds on Fridays, between 11 and 1, and 2 and 6. A charge of 6d. is made.

Crossing a bridge over the moat, one enters the courtyard of the house through the great Tudor gate illustrated here. Standing in this courtyard one can scarcely imagine anything more beautiful and picturesque. The great square battlemented tower, through which one has just passed, is pierced with leaded windows, and its weather-beaten old walls are relieved by all sorts of creepers, which have been allowed to adorn without destroying the rich detail of stone and half-timber work. Those who find pleasure in gazing on architectural picturesqueness can satisfy themselves in the richness of colour and detail revealed in this beautiful courtyard. The crypt with its fine groined roof, the chapel which dates from 1520, the drawing-room with its two hundred years old Chinese wall-paper—believed to be one of the earliest occasions when wall-papers were used in this country—and many other interesting features are shown to visitors.

The original Ightham Mote seems to have been built in 1180 by Sir Ivo de Haut. The Hall, it is known, was built by Sir Thomas Cawne in 1340. Richard de Haut, who owned the place later on, was beheaded in 1484 at Pontefract. His estate was confiscated and came into the hands of Sir Robert Brackenbury, governor of the Tower, who lost his life at the battle of Bosworth. However, during the reign of Henry VII., Ightham once more came into the possession of the de Hauts; and it should be mentioned that throughout the seven centuries of its existence the house has always been inhabited.



PENSHURST

How to get there.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Penshurst. Distance from London.—32 miles. Average Time.—1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 0d. 3s. 3d. 2s. 6d. Return 8s. 8d. 6s. 2d. 4s. 7d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Leicester Arms Hotel."

The pleasant little village of Penshurst, situated 6 miles north-west from Tunbridge Wells, is renowned for the beautiful fourteenth-century mansion known as Penshurst Place. From Norman times a house has occupied the site, but the present building did not come into existence until 1349, when Sir John de Poultenay, who was four times Lord Mayor of London, built the present historic seat. Having come into the possession of the Crown, the estate was given by Edward VI. to Sir William Sidney, who had fought at Flodden Field. The unfortunate young King Edward died in the arms of Sir William's son Henry, whose grief was so excessive that he retired to Penshurst and lived there in seclusion. Sir Henry Sidney had three children, one of whom being Sir Philip Sidney, the type of a most gallant knight and perfect gentleman. It was at Penshurst that Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip's friend, wrote his first work, the Shepherd's Calendar, and though Sidney did not actually write his famous poem Arcadia in his beautiful Kentish home, its scenery must have suggested many of the descriptions. Algernon Sidney, who was illegally put to death through Judge Jeffreys, was the nephew of Sir Philip, and he is supposed to be buried in Penshurst Church, though no monument remains. The present owner of Penshurst is Lord De Lisle and Dudley (Sir Philip Charles Sidney (died 1851) was given the peerage in 1835), who allows visitors to view the historic mansion on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 3 P.M. to 6 P.M. (admission 1s.). The great feature of the house is the baronial hall, built in 1341, which has a hearth in the centre of the room. The Queen's drawing-room, said to have been furnished by Queen Elizabeth, contains some interesting Tudor furniture, and the satin tapestry which adorns the walls is also believed to be the work of the virgin queen and her maidens. There are many valuable and interesting portraits of the famous members of the Sidney family. In the beautiful grounds of Penshurst is an oak tree, planted, says tradition, at the time of Sir Philip Sidney's birth.



ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT AND MARAZION

How to get there.—Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly. Nearest Station.—Marazion. Distance from London.—324-3/4 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 8-1/2 to 11-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 50s. 2d. 31s. 6d. 25s. 1d. Return 87s. 10d. 55s. 0d. 50s. 2d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Godolphin Hotel," "Marazion Hotel," etc.

Marazion, the nearest town to St. Michael's Mount, is situated on the eastern side of Mount's Bay, and was in the Middle Ages a place of some importance, being the headquarters of the pilgrims to St. Michael's Mount. Marazion is connected with St. Michael's Mount by a causeway 120 feet in width, formed of rocks and pebbles, and passable only at low tide for three or four hours.

The mount itself is a remarkable granite rock, about a mile in circumference and 250 feet high. It was referred to by Ptolemy, and is supposed to have been the island Iclis of the Greeks, noticed by Diodorus Siculus as the place near the promontory of Belerium to which the tin, when refined, was brought by the Britons to be exchanged with the Phoenician merchants. Its British name was equivalent to "the grey rock in the woods," a traditional name, apparently confirmed by the discovery of a submarine forest extending for some miles round the base of the mount. The beauty of the spot caused it to be selected by the ancient Britons as a favourite resort for worship, and shortly after the introduction of Christianity it became a place of pilgrimage, and was visited in the fifth century by St. Kelna, a British princess, who founded a hermitage there. Some sort of military defences protected the mount at a very early date, for Edward the Confessor's charter in 1047 to the Benedictine monks, whom he settled here, especially mentions its castella and other buildings.

In Charles II.'s reign the estate was purchased from the Basset family by the St. Aubyns, who still remain its owners. In the castle itself, which crowns the mount, the chief feature is the old hall, now known as the "Chevy Chase" room, from its being adorned with carvings of various field sports. There is some fine old furniture and good pictures. Visitors are allowed to see the principal rooms of the castle when the family are from home, and at all times to see the quaint old Gothic chapel. There is a small fishing village with a pier and harbour at the foot of the rock.



ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL

How to get there.—Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, or St. Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Rochester. Distance from London.—33 miles. Average Time.—1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 4d. 3s. 4d. 2s. 8d. Return 9s. 4d. 6s. 3d. 5s. 4d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"King's Head Hotel," "Royal Victoria," "Bull Hotel," "Royal Crown Hotel," etc.

Rochester, a most picturesque old town on the river Medway, has been a place of importance from the earliest times. The cathedral, which is not very impressive externally, and is much surrounded by houses, is best seen from the castle. It was the first church built after Augustine settled in Canterbury, but of this building no trace now remains except some foundations. The Norman Bishop Gundulf in 1080 built a large portion of the Norman work of the present cathedral. In 1201 it was largely rebuilt by money obtained from thank-offerings for miracles wrought by St. William, a baker of Perth, who was murdered near Rochester on his way to Canterbury, and buried in the cathedral. The Norman castle, standing on the banks of the river, was built by Bishop Gundulf, and though it is now in ruins, the interior having been destroyed for its timber, the walls remain firm. The castle was besieged by William Rufus and Simon de Montfort, and on both occasions suffered considerable damage. One of the many interesting buildings in the High Street is the three-gabled house of Watts's Charity, which has become famous from Dickens's Christmas story of The Seven Poor Travellers. According to the inscription above the doorway, Richard Watts in 1579 founded this "Charity for Six Poor Travellers, who not being Rogues or Proctors, may receive gratis for one night, Lodging, Entertainment, and Fourpence each." Restoration House, an old red-brick mansion on the Maidstone Road, is so named from the visit of Charles II. on his way to London in 1660. To all admirers of Charles Dickens, Rochester is full of memories (see Index, Gad's Hill). Not only did Dickens make Rochester the scene of his last unfinished work, Edwin Drood, but he made many allusions to it elsewhere. Mr. Jingle, for instance, in the Pickwick Papers says, "Ah! fine place, glorious pile—frowning walls—tottering arches—dark nooks—crumbling staircases—old cathedral too—earthy smell—pilgrims' feet worn away the old steps."



TUNBRIDGE WELLS

How to get there.—Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—Tunbridge Wells. Distance from London.—34-1/2 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 10d. 3s. 8d. 2s. 8-1/2d. Return 10s. 0d. 7s. 4d. 5s. 5d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Spa Hotel," "The Swan Hotel," "Castle Hotel," "Carlton Hotel," etc. Alternative Route.—Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and St. Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.

At the same time that Epsom began to become known as a watering-place, Tunbridge Wells was rapidly growing into a famous inland resort. The wells were discovered by Lord North in 1606, while he was staying at Eridge, and in a few years Tunbridge Wells became the resort of the monied and leisured classes of London and other parts of the kingdom. From that time to this the town has been one of the most popular of England's inland watering-places.

The Tunbridge Wells of to-day is a charming and picturesque town. "The Pantiles," with its row of stately limes in the centre and the colonnade in front of its shops, is unique among English towns. Readers of Thackeray's Virginians will remember his description of the scene on the Pantiles in the time of powdered wigs, silver buckles, and the fearful and wonderful "hoop."

At the end of the Pantiles is the red brick church of King-Charles-the-Martyr, the only one with any claim to antiquity in the town; the rest are all quite modern.

Walks and excursions around Tunbridge Wells are numerous. The common, with its mixture of springy turf, golden gorse, with here and there a bold group of rocks, is one of the most beautiful in the home counties, and in whatever direction one wanders there are long views over far-stretching wooded hills and dales.

Rusthall Common, about a mile from the town, though somewhat smaller than that of Tunbridge Wells, commands more extensive views.

One great feature of interest at Rusthall Common is the group of rocks, of which the largest, the Toad Rock, bears a most singular resemblance to the reptile from which it is named. The High Rocks, situated further on, and just in the county of Sussex, are also very remarkable, rising from 30 to 60 feet in height.



THE QUINTAIN POST AT OFFHAM AND MALLING ABBEY

How to get there.—Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, Ludgate Hill, or St. Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. Nearest Station.—West Malling (1 mile from Offham). Distance from London.—36 miles. Average Time.—1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 5s. 11d. 3s. 9d. 2s. 11-1/2d. Return 10s. 4d. 7s. 6d. 3s. 11d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"George Hotel" at West Malling. Alternative Route.—None.

On the green at Offham, an out-of-the-way Kentish village, stands the only quintain post in England. It consists of a tall white post, having a spike at the top, upon which revolves a cross-bar. This portion, which turns on the spike, has a fairly broad square end covered with small holes, while at the opposite end hangs a billet of wood.

The pastime consisted in riding on horseback at the broad end and aiming a lance at one of the holes. The rider had to duck his head at the same instant, in order to save himself from the billet which swung round immediately the lance-point caught the opposite end. Only those who were very agile saved themselves from a nasty blow. Instead of a billet, a bag containing sand or mould would sometimes be suspended on the cross-bar. This would swing round with sufficient force to unseat the rider.

This quintain post is undoubtedly one of the most interesting survivals of the pastimes of the "good old days." The owners of the adjoining house have been required to keep the quintain post in a good state of repair, and it is doubtless to this stipulation in the title-deeds of the property that we owe the existence of this unique relic.

The ruins of Malling Abbey, now the property of an Anglican sisterhood, are extremely interesting. The abbey was founded in 1090, and was given to the nun Avicia by the famous Gundulf of Rochester. The keep of St. Leonard, not far from the abbey, was also built by Gundulf, who is responsible for the White Tower of the Tower of London. This St. Leonard's Tower is said to be of earlier character than any keep in Normandy. Permission to see the ruins must be obtained from the abbess or chaplain, and visitors are expected to give a small contribution towards the restoration fund.



EVERSLEY

THE HOME OF CHARLES KINGSLEY

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway. Nearest Stations.—Wokingham, 5 miles; Winchfield, 7 miles. Distance from London.—Wokingham, 36-1/2 miles; Winchfield, 39 miles. Average Time.—Wokingham, 2 hours; Winchfield, 1-1/2 hours.

Fares.— Single. Return. 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Wokingham 5s. 6d. 3s. 9d. 3s. 0d. 9s. 0d. 6s. 6d. 6s. 0d. Winchfield 6s. 6d. 4s. 0d. 3s. 3d. 11s. 6d. 7s. 2d. 6s. 6d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—Small village inn at Eversley. "George Hotel" at Odiham, 2 miles from Winchfield Station; very old and picturesque. Alternative route.—Train to Wellington College. S.E. and C. Rly.

The drive from Winchfield (7 miles) is chiefly across beautiful heathery commons; from Wokingham the road is more enclosed with hedges. Eversley Church and rectory stand almost alone, save for a farmhouse and barns, being nearly a mile from the other portions of the village. The church is very picturesquely situated on sloping ground, an avenue of yews leading from the lych gate to the porch. Inside, the building has suffered a good deal from restoration, but the pulpit from which Kingsley preached his stirring sermons remains unaltered. The rectory is a very old building which has been modernised on the side fronting on the road. On the lawn stands the group of glorious Scotch firs which Kingsley was never tired of watching. Their boughs sweep downwards and almost touch the grass, and their great red trunks are a strong contrast to the dense green of the surrounding foliage.

In one of the sitting-rooms is a set of drawers in which Kingsley kept a collection of fossils. His grave is on the side of the church yard nearest the overshadowing branches of the Scotch firs. The Runic cross of white marble is a beautiful one. The head is ornamented with a spray of passion flower and bears upon it the words "God is Love." On the base are the words "Amavimus, amamus, amabimus."

The neighbouring district of Bramshill has still the little thatched cottage where Kingsley used to conduct a little simple service on Sunday afternoons. The whole of the country surrounding Bramshill Park is closely covered with self-sown firs, and the commons interspersed among the forest lands are covered with heather and gorse. This was the country Kingsley loved, whether he was riding over it with the local pack of foxhounds or on a visit to one of his parishioners.



FARNHAM, SURREY

THE HOME OF WILLIAM COBBETT

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway. Nearest Station.—Farnham. Distance from London.—37-3/4 miles. Average Time.—1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 6s. 3d. 4s. 0d. 3s. 1-1/2d. Return 10s. 0d. 7s. 0d. 6s. 3d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"The Bush," "The Railway Hotel," "The Lion and Lamb," etc. Alternative Route.—None.

In 1762 William Cobbett, one of the great writers and reformers of the eighteenth century, was born at Farnham, in Surrey. The house is still standing, and is now known as the "Jolly Farmer" Inn. Cobbett gives a very clear account of his early years at Farnham, and some of his youthful escapades are very amusing. One game which he and two of his brothers were never tired of playing was that of rolling each other like barrels down the very steep sandy hill which one may see rising sharply from the back of the "Jolly Farmer." Cobbett left Farnham for London when he was twenty-one, but often revisited his native town in later years. When he died, in 1835, he was buried in Farnham churchyard. The grave faces the porch on the north side of the church. The Rev. Augustus Toplady, who wrote the universally known hymn "Rock of Ages," was born in a little house in West Street, Farnham, which was rebuilt some years ago.

Overlooking the town from the hills to the north is Farnham Castle, the historic seat of the Bishops of Winchester for many generations past. A portion of the buildings, including the keep, are of Norman origin, the rest having been chiefly built by Bishop Fox in the early part of the sixteenth century. During the Parliamentary war Farnham Castle was for some time the headquarters of the Roundhead army operating in this part of the country, Sir William Waller having overcome the garrison placed there by the High Sheriff of Surrey.

Vernon House, in West Street, is notable by reason of the visit paid to it by Charles I. when on his way to London as a prisoner in the hands of the Parliamentary troops. The silk cap which King Charles presented to his host is still preserved in the house by the present owner, a descendant of the Vernon family.



HINDHEAD, SURREY

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Haslemere. Distance from London.—43 miles. Average Time.—1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 7s. 2d. 4s. 6d. 3s. 7d. Return 12s. 6d. 8s. 0d. 6s. 8d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Old Swan Hotel," "The Hindhead Beacon," "White Horn Hotel," Haslemere. "Hindhead Hotel," "Royal Anchor Hotel," Liphook, etc.

The Hindhead district, not long ago one of the wildest in the home counties, has of late been much encroached upon by the erection of modern villas and houses. A few years back there was scarcely a vestige of human habitation to be seen from the road skirting the "Devil's Punchbowl," or the descent on the other side, but since the time Professor Tyndall built his house there, the aspect of the country has been in places considerably changed.

From Haslemere Station one may take a direct road to the Hindhead summit, but the most interesting route is through Shottermill, about a mile distant (see p. 64). From here an easy walk takes one into the main Portsmouth road close to the Seven Thorns Inn, where there is a long ascent to the summit of Hindhead, with its inn, the Royal Huts Hotel. Close by is the village of Grayshott, now fast growing into a place of considerable residential importance. Following the road Londonwards, one arrives in a few hundred yards at the very highest point of the road over Hindhead, after which it drops gently, skirting the magnificent hollow known as the "Devil's Punchbowl." On the left-hand side, in the loneliest part of the road, is the gruesome tombstone which marks the spot where an unknown sailor was murdered and robbed while tramping from Portsmouth to London. This stone and its surroundings, it will be remembered, are mentioned in Nicholas Nickleby, in the account of the walk of Nicholas and Smike from London to Portsmouth. Close by, on the opposite side of the road, there is a rough sandy track—once the old coach road—which leads up to the stone cross on the extreme summit of the Hindhead—900 feet above sea-level—where the murderers of the sailor were executed, and hung in chains. The view from this point, aptly named Gibbet Hill, is quite magnificent for Surrey.

On the northern slope of Blackdown—the high ridge of hills towards the south-east—is Aldworth House, where Tennyson resided in his latter years.



SHOTTERMILL

THE HOME OF GEORGE ELIOT

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo Station. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Haslemere (1 mile by road from Shottermill village). Distance from London.—43 miles. Average Time.—From 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 7s. 2d. 4s. 6d. 3s. 7d. Return 12s. 6d. 8s. 0d. 6s. 8d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—At Haslemere—"White Horse Hotel," "Swan Hotel," etc. "Oakland's Mansion Private Hotel."

This lovely little village, on the slopes of Hindhead, with its breezy uplands, its hills covered with Scotch firs and its undulating tracts of land, so beautiful in the autumn with the glorious purple heather, was much beloved by George Eliot, known to the whole world as the writer of Adam Bede and the Mill on the Floss. In 1871, while Middlemarch was appearing in parts, George Eliot, who as Mr. Lewes said, "never seemed at home except under a broad sweep of sky," spent part of the spring and summer at Brookbank,—an old-fashioned gabled cottage in the village (close to the church) with delightful lattice-paned windows,—belonging to a Mrs. Gilchrist. At this time George Eliot was in a delicate state of health and scarcely equal to finishing her new story. One cannot call it a novel, for it had no plot. It was simply a remarkable picture of provincial life in the first half of the nineteenth century. George Eliot greatly enjoyed her quiet life at Shottermill, although many of her friends thought it incomprehensible that she could endure such a secluded life. One can scarcely read her graphic description of the sweet beauty of a Warwickshire lane, with its hedgerows all radiant in summer beauty, without feeling how much this remarkable woman loved it all, and in some degree one may understand how restful were the village surroundings. They led a most uneventful life, but occasionally would pay a visit to Tennyson, whose house at Aldworth was only 3 miles off. George Eliot rarely went out in the daytime, but sometimes she would go to see some cottagers and have a chat with them. A farmer's wife was greatly astonished at her knowledge of butter-making, and of the growth of fruit and vegetables, little imagining that in her early days, after her mother's death, the great authoress had managed the dairy in her own home at Griff House.



PENN'S CHAPEL AT THAKEHAM, SUSSEX

How to get there.—Train from Victoria or London Bridge. L.B. and S.C. Railway. Nearest Station.—Billingshurst (3 miles from Thakeham). Distance from London.—44 miles. Average Time.—1-1/2 to 2-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 7s. 2d. 4s. 8d. 3s. 6-1/2d. Return 11s. 5d. 8s. 2d. 7s. 1d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—None at Thakeham. "King's Arms" at Billingshurst.

The little chapel where the great William Penn used to worship when he lived at the old mansion of Warminghurst is so entirely buried in the country that one must make careful inquiries in order to find one's way to it from Billingshurst. When one reaches the cottage at last, one finds a gate right across the road, for beyond it the lane gradually deteriorates to a mere grassy track between hedges. Locally this Thakeham meeting-house is known as the "Blue Idol," a name not altogether explained when one discovers that for a long period the interior of the chapel had blue-washed walls.

As one may see from the drawing given here, it is an exceedingly quaint old building, the portion shown being used as a meeting-house, the other half being a cottage occupied by the family who act as caretakers. The cream-washed walls are broken up by the richly mellowed half-timber work, and above is the roof of grey green Horsham slabs splashed over with bright orange lichen.

Inside there are the very old oaken settles as well as less ancient ones. The timber framing shows on the walls and roof, here, as on the exterior, and the general quaintness of the place is enhanced by the old stone-flagged floor. Of William Penn's house at Warminghurst no traces whatever remain, but this only helps to increase the interest in the little chapel which has remained entirely unaltered for over two centuries. Penn, who bought the house in 1682, probably chose its site on account of its remoteness, for those were the days when their meetings were at any moment liable to interruption—when the members of the congregation met together knowing well that discovery meant imprisonment. In the quaint little meeting-house it is easy to feel the spirit of the Quakers, and one may almost imagine that one hears outside the rumble of the wheels of the heavy ox-waggon in which Penn drove over from Warminghurst Place.



CHAWTON THE HOME OF JANE AUSTEN

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Alton (1 mile from Chawton). Distance from London.—46-1/2 miles. Average Time.—Varies between 1-3/4 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 7s. 9d. 5s. 0d. 3s. 10-1/2d. Return 13s. 6d. 8s. 8d. 7s. 9d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—At Alton—"Swan Hotel," "Crown Hotel," etc.

Situated about a mile from Alton Station, on the main line of the South-Western Railway, is the little village of Chawton, the residence of Jane Austen at the time when she was producing her best literary work. A walk along the main Winchester road brings one to the charming old-world place, and, keeping on past the thatched cottages of the village, one reaches a small brick house on the right-hand side, near a pond, just before the road divides for Winchester and Gosport. This building, which is now tenanted by a workman's club, was Chawton Cottage, where Jane Austen spent some of the brightest days of her life, and wrote her most successful novels, books which are more highly appreciated at the present day than they were during the lifetime of the authoress.

Her father was rector of Steventon, another Hampshire village, at which place his daughter was born in 1775, and where her early days were spent. Jane Austen's novels are remarkable for the truthfulness and charm with which they reproduce the everyday life of the upper middle classes in England in her time, and for delicate and yet distinct insight into every variety of the human character. Miss Austen's first four novels, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma, were published anonymously.

A short distance along the Gosport road is Chawton Park, a remarkably fine Elizabethan mansion, occupied in Miss Austen's time by Edward Knight, the lord of the manor. This country seat, which is not accessible to visitors, was most probably the original of Mansfield Park, and in the little church close by are several monuments to the Knight family. Miss Austen died at Winchester on July 24, 1817, and is buried in the cathedral. The brass to her memory is in the north aisle.

Within easy walking distance is Gilbert White's home at Selborne, which is treated under a separate heading (p. 70).



SELBORNE

THE HOME OF GILBERT WHITE

How to get there.—Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway. Nearest Station.—Alton (4 miles from Selborne). Distance from London.—46-1/2 miles. East Tisted, 2 miles from Selborne, shortly to be available. Average Time.—1-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 7s. 9d. 5s. 0d. 3s. 10-1/2d. Return 13s. 6d. 8s. 8d. 7s. 9d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—At Alton—"Swan Hotel," "Crown Hotel," etc.

Selborne, the birthplace of the famous naturalist, Gilbert White, is situated in the extreme eastern corner of the county of Hampshire. A vast chalk hill rises some 300 feet above the south-western side of the village, part of which is covered with an extensive beech wood, called "The Hanger," and a down or sheep-walk. This down is a beautiful park-like spot, with a delightful woodland, now bounded by the Sussex Downs. The village lies at the foot of the chalk hill parallel with the Hanger, and contains only one straggling street, nearly a mile in length, a small rivulet rising at each end. The stream at the north-western end often fails, but the other, known as the "Well-Head," is a fine spring, seldom influenced by drought. Wolmer Forest, near by, is famed for its timber. In the centre of the village, on a piece of ground commonly known as "The Plestor," there stood, until the fearful storm of 1703, a colossal oak tree, with a short body and enormous horizontally spreading arms. The stone steps, with seats above them, surrounding the tree, formed a favourite resort for both old and young during summer evenings. This oak, together with an equally large elm tree, are mentioned by White.

Gilbert White was born in 1720. He began his education at Basingstoke, from whence he proceeded in 1739 to Oriel College, Oxford, and finally became one of the senior proctors of the university in 1752. On his father's death, White became the occupier of his house in Selborne known as "The Wakes," and afterwards became curate of the parish. He never married, but lived a happy and uneventful life, wrapped up in the wonderfully exact observations of nature which were the basis of his numerous letters forming The Natural History of Selborne. His final resting-place is unobtrusively marked by a simple grey stone bearing the initials "G.W.," a monument entirely in keeping with Gilbert White's quiet and retiring nature and refreshingly simple style of writing.



ELSTOW

THE HOME OF JOHN BUNYAN

How to get there.—Through train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway. Nearest Station.—Bedford (1 mile from Elstow). Distance from London.—50 miles. Average Time.—An hour.

1st 2nd 3rd Fares.—Single 6s. 7d. ... 3s. 11-1/2d. Return 13s. 2d. ... 7s. 11d.

Accommodation Obtainable.—"Embankment Hotel," "Lion Hotel," "Swan Hotel," etc., at Bedford. Alternative Route.—Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

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