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Young's Demonstrative Translation of Scientific Secrets
by Daniel Young
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Transcriber's Comments

This is an adaption of the electronic transcription made by Paul Hubbs and Bob Gravonic. Using microfiche of the original (Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions no. 42355) as a copy-text, I've made corrections and added a considerable amount of material. Irregular spellings in the original have been retained. Explanatory remarks regarding numbering are enclosed in square brackets.



Young's Demonstrative Translation of Scientific Secrets;

or

A Collection of Above 500 Useful Receipts on a Variety of Subjects.

Printed by Rowsell & Ellis, Toronto, 1861.



INTRODUCTION

The object of the present work is clearly announced in its title. It is to collect within a small compass the instructions of experimental knowledge upon a great variety of subjects which relate to the present interests of man. It contains above five hundred genuine and practical receipts, which have been compiled by the publisher with extreme difficulty and expense. A reference to the list of subjects which the work contains, will show that the publisher's researches have been extensive, while a comparison of the work with others of the same general character evinces patient labour, and cannot fail to give it pre-eminence. While the track pursued is not new, it is more thorough, and more easily followed than that marked out by any previous compiler known to myself. The work contains not merely the outlines on the subjects to which it refers, but, what appears to my own mind one of its excellences, the full and clear explanations of these subjects. To all classes of people, without exception, the work is of great value. It is fit, on every account, that the publisher should be encouraged in this production. The work is worthy the acceptance of all, and one which every man may prize.



1. ORIENTAL PAINTING

Any bunch of roses or flowers, or anything of the kind that you admire, take the pattern of by placing them against a light of window glass, then lay a piece of white paper over them, and through the latter you will see the roses, &c. Now with a lead pencil take the pattern of the roses, &c., on the paper; when you have them all marked, cut then out with a scissors, so that you have a complete pattern of them. Now take a piece of glass, whatever size your pattern requires, stick the pattern on it with wafers, then paint the glass all over, except where the pattern covers, with black paint, composed of refined lampblack, black enamel, copel varnish and turpentine, mixed. Now let this dry, then take off your patterns and paint your roses, flowers, &c., with tube paints, mixed with demar varnish, so that your roses, &c., may be, in a manner, transparent. Paint your large roses red, some of the smaller ones yellow, or any colour to suit your taste. Paint one side of the leaves a darker shade of green than the other, which will make the picture appear as though the sun was shining on it. When this painting is dry, take silver or gold foil, (gold is best,) wrinkle it up in your hand then nearly straighten it, and cover the back of the glass all over with it; over the large roses let the wrinkles be larger, over the small ones smaller, &c.; then lay a piece of stiff paper, the size of the glass, over the foil, and a piece of very thin board again over this; have it framed in this manner and it is completed. You now have one of the richest of paintings, which is commonly taught at a cost of $5. You may buy all you require for this painting at the druggist's.

2. TRANSFER PAINTING ON GLASS

This is for transferring any picture plate you please to glass, to be framed. First give the glass a coat of demar varnish; let it remain for eight hours, or until dry; at this time have your picture thoroughly soaked in warm water; then give the glass another coat of demar varnish, and take the picture out of the water; then let it and the glass remain for twenty minutes, by which time the water will be struck in from the face of the picture, after which you will place the front of the picture on the varnished glass, (avoiding wrinkles and spots of water,) press it well on until every part is stuck fast, then carefully rub the paper all away to a mere film; give the glass then, over this film, another coat of demar varnish, which will make the film transparent; let it dry; then place the glass, with the varnished side towards you, between you and the light, and you will see the outlines of the picture quite distinctly; you may then paint on the back with tube paints, mixed with a little demar varnish to assist in drying, to suit your taste. For instance, if the picture is that of a lady, you may paint the dress red, the shawl or cape, as it may be, blue, the face flesh colour, (which colour may be made by mixing a little red with white,) the bonnet scarlet, the shoes black; if trees, have them green, &c. All you want for this painting you may also buy at the druggist's. This painting is very simple and elegant, it is commonly taught at a cost of $3. Try it, you cannot fail.

3. TRANSFER VARNISH

Take of Canada balsam 3 drachms; gum sandric 3 drachms; spirits of wine 1/2 pint. Dissolve the balsam and gum in the spirits of wine and it is ready for use.

4. WHITE SPIRIT VARNISH—THE VERY BEST.

Take of gum sandrack 4 ounces; mastic 1 ounce; Elmi rosin 1/2 ounce; Venice turpentine 1 ounce; alcohol 15 ounces. Digest in a bottle, frequently shaking, till the gums are dissolved, and it is ready for use.

5. TRANSFER PAINTING ON WOOD

By this you may transfer any picture you please from paper to a cutter back, or any other substance you please. Give the board three coats of white spirit varnish, receipt No. 4; damp the back of the print with strong vinegar; give the front a very heavy coat of the transfer varnish, receipt No. 3; then press it on the board, avoiding creases; when perfectly dry and fast, rub the paper away; the print is indelibly fixed; then varnish it over as you would any other painting. This receipt has been commonly sold for $5.

6. ELECTRO GOLD PLATING—NEW METHOD

Take 100 grams of laminated gold, mixed with 20 grams of hydrochloric acid; 10 grams of nitric acid; the liquid thus composed is placed over a moderate fire, and stirred constantly until the gold passes into the state of chlorine; it is then allowed to cool. A second liquid is formed by dissolving 60 grams of cyanide of potassium in 80 grams of distilled waters; the two liquids are mixed together in a decanter and stirred for 20 minutes, and then filtered. Finally 100 grams of whiting, dry and sifted, are mixed with 5 grams of pulverised supertartrate of potass; this new powder is dissolved in a portion of the above described liquid, in sufficient quantity to form a paste of the proper consistency to be spread with a pencil on the article or part to be gilded. The superabundant powder is then removed by washing and the article is beautifully gilded with a heavy or light coat, according to the quantity of paste used. Grams belong to French weights, four grams are a little more than one drachm.

7. ELECTRO SILVERING—NEW METHOD

10 grams of nitrate of silver are dissolved in 50 grams of distilled water; then 25 grams of cyanide of potassium in 50 grams of distilled water; the two liquids are mixed in a decanter, and stirred for 10 minutes; it is then filtered. Finally, 100 grams of sifted whiting are mixed with 10 grams of pulverised supertartrate of potass and one gram of mercury. This powder and dissolving liquid are used in the same manner as in the above method of gold plating. These excellent methods of silvering and gilding were discovered in June 1860, by the great French chemist Baldooshong of Paris France. It is far superior to any other method ever discovered, and will eventually take the place of all.

8. ELECTRO GOLD PLATING—USUAL METHOD

Take a $2 50c. piece of gold, and put it into a mixture of 1 ounce of nitric and 4 ounces of muriatic acids, (glass vessels only are to be used in this work,) when it is all cut dissolve 1/2 an ounce of sulphate of potash in one pint of pure rain water, and mix the gold solution, stirring well; then let stand and the gold will be thrown down; then pour off the acid fluid, and wash the gold in two or three waters, or until no acid is tasted by touching the tongue to the gold. Now dissolve one ounce of cyanuret of potassium in one pint of pure rain water, to which add the gold, and it is ready to use. Clear the article to be plated from all dirt and grease with whiting and a good brush; if there are cracks it may be necessary to put the article in a solution of caustic potash. At all events every particle of dirt and grease must be removed; then suspend the article in the cyanuret of gold solution, with a small strip of zinc cut about the width of a common knitting needle, hooking the top over a stick which will reach across the top of the vessel or bottle holding the solution. If the zinc is too large the deposit will be made so fast that it will scale off. The slower the plating goes on the better, and this is arranged by the size if the zinc used. When not using the plating fluid keep it well corked and it is always ready to use, bearing in mind that it is poison as arsenic, and must be put high out of the way of children, and labelled poison, although you need have no fear using it; yet accidents might arise if its nature were not known.

9. ELECTRO SILVERING—USUAL METHOD

This is done every way the same as gold plating (using coin) except that rock salt is used instead of the cyanuret of potassium to hold the silver in solution for use, and when it is of the proper strength of salt it has a thick curdy appearance, or you can add salt until the silver will deposit on the article to be plated, which is all that is required. No hesitation need be felt in trying these receipts, as they are obtained from a genuine source, and are in every day use.

10. GOLD PLATING FLUID

Warm six ounces of pure rain water, and dissolve in it 2 ounces of cyanide of potassium, then add a 1/4 ounce oxide of gold; the solution will at first be yellowish, but will soon subside to white; then half fill a bottle with whiting, fill it up with this solution and shake it well; you may now take a piece of old cotton, wet it with the solution, rub it well over brass, copper, &c., and it is nicely washed with gold.

11. SILVER PLATING FLUID

Dissolve one ounce of nitrate of silver, in crystal, in 12 ounces of soft water; then dissolve in the water two ounces of cyanuret of potash; shake the whole together and let it stand until it becomes clear. Have ready some 1/2 ounce vials, and fill them half full of whiting, then fill up the bottles and it is ready for use. The whiting does not increase the coating powder—it only helps to clear the articles and save the silver fluid by half filling the bottles. The above quantity of materials will cost about $1.62c., so that the fluid will be about 3 cents a bottle. It is used in the same way as the gold plating fluid.

12. QUICKSILVER PLATING FLUID

Take of quicksilver one ounce, one ounce nitric acid, one ten cent piece, rain water 1/2 pint to a pint, put the three first articles into a tumbler together; let them stand until dissolved, occasionally stirring, then add the water, and it is ready for use. This is used in the same way as the silver and gold plating fluid.

13. TO GILD STEEL

Pour some of the ethereal solution of gold into a wine-glass, and dip into it the blade of a new penknife, lancet, razor, &c., withdraw the instrument and allow the ether to evaporate, the blade will then be found to be covered with a beautiful coat of gold; the blade may be moistened with a clean rag or a small piece of very dry sponge dipped into the ether, and the same effect will be produced.

14. TO GILD COPPER, BRASS, &c.—BY AN AMALGAM

The gilding of these inferior metals and alloys of them is effected by the assistance of mercury with which the gold is amalgamated. The mercury is evaporated while the gold is fixed by the application of heat, the whole is then burnished of left mat in the whole or in part, according as required.

15. GILDING GLASS AND PORCELAIN

Dissolve in boiling linseed oil an equal weight either of copal or amber, and add as much oil of turpentine as will enable you to apply the compound or size thus formed as thin as possible to the parts of the glass intended to be gilt; the glass is to be placed in a stove till it is so warm as almost to burn the fingers when handled. At this temperature the size becomes adhesive, and a piece of leaf gold applied in the usual way will immediately stick. Sweep off the superfluous portions of the leaf, and when quite cold it may be burnished, taking care to interpose a piece of india paper between the gold and the burnisher. It sometimes happens when the varnish is not very good that by repeated washing the gold wears off; on this account the practice of burning it in is sometimes had recourse to; for this purpose some gold powder is ground with borax, and in this state applied to the clean surface of the glass by a camel hair pencil; when quite dry the glass is put into a stove, heated to about the temperature of an annealing oven, the gum burns off; and the borax, by vitrifying, cements the gold with great firmness to the glass, after which it may be burnished.

The gilding upon porcelain is in like manner fixed by heat and the use of borax, and this kind of ware, being neither transparent nor liable to soften, and thus to be injured in its form in a low red heat, is free from the risk and injury which the finer and more fusible kinds of glass are apt to sustain from such treatment. Porcelain and other wares may be platinized, silvered, tinned, or bronzed, in a similar manner.

16. GILDING THE EDGES OF PAPER

The edges of the leaves of books and letter paper are gilded whilst in a horizontal position in the bookbinder's press or some arrangement of the same nature, by first applying a composition formed of four parts of Armenian-bole and one of candied sugar, ground together with water to a proper consistence, and laid on by a brush with the white of an egg. This coating, when nearly dry is smoothed by the burnisher, it is then slightly moistened by a sponge dipped in clean water and squeezed in the hand; the gold leaf is now taken up on a piece of cotton from the leathern cushion and applied on the moistened surface; when dry it is to be burnished by rubbing the burnisher over it repeatedly from end to end, taking care not to wound the surface by the point.

17. PROFESSOR WORTS' AMALGAM FOR SILVERING

This is the only means yet discovered for silvering iron directly, yet it is not so lasting as some of the other processes. Take quicksilver and the metal potassium, equal parts by volume, put them together in a tumbler, and if both metals be good there will be a brisk ebullition, which continues until an amalgam of the two is formed, then add as much quicksilver as there is of the amalgam; let it work till thoroughly mixed, and it is ready for use. This amalgam you may apply with a cloth to any metal, even iron, though it be a rusty bar, and you have it neatly silvered over.

18. FOR COPPERING IRON

This is the latest method, and that now in use. To a solution of sulphate of copper, add a solution of ferrocyanide of pottasium, so long as a precipitate continues to be formed. This is allowed to settle, and the clear liquor being decanted the vessel is filled with water, and when the precipitate settles the liquor is again decanted, and continue to repeat these washings until the sulphate of potash is washed quite out; this is known by adding a little chloride of barium to a small quantity of the washings, and when there is no white precipitate formed by the test, the precipitate is sufficiently washed. A solution of cyanide of potassium is now added to this precipitate until it is dissolved, during which process the solution becomes warm by the chemical re-action which takes place. The solution is filtered, and allowed to repose all night. If the solution of cyanide of potassium that is used is strong, the greater portion of the ferrocyanide of potassium crystalises in the solution, and may be collected and preserved for use again. If the solution of cyanide of potassium used to dissolve the precipitate is dilute, it will be necessary to condense the liquor by evaporation to obtain the yellow prussiate in crystals. The remaining solution is the coppering solution; should it not be convenient to separate the yellow prussiate by crystallization, the presence of that salt in the solution does not deteriorate it nor interfere with its power of depositing copper.

19. PECULIARITIES IN WORKING CYANIDE OF COPPER SOLUTION

The true composition of the salts thus formed by copper and cyanide of potassium has not yet been determined, but their relations to the battery and electrolyzation are peculiar. The solution must be worked at a heat not less than from 150 to 200 degrees Farenheit (that is not quite as hot a boiling water, which is 212 degrees Farenheit.) All other solutions we have tried follow the laws, that if the electricity is so strong as to cause gas to be evolved at the electrode, the metal will be deposited in a sandy or powdered state, but the solution of cyanide of copper and potassium is an exception to these laws, as there is no reguline deposit obtained unless gas is freely evolved from the surface of the article upon which the deposit is taking place. As this solution is used hot, a considerable evaporation takes place, which requires that additions be made to the solution from time to time. If water alone be used for this purpose it will precipitate a great quantity of the copper as a white powder, but this is prevented by dissolving a little cyanide of potassium in the water at the rate of 4 ounces to the gallon. The vessels used in factories for this solution are generally of copper, which are heated over a flue or in a sand-bath, the vessel itself serving as the positive electrode of the battery; but any vessel will suit if a copper electrode is employed when the vessel is not of copper.

20. PREPARATION OF IRON FOR COATING WITH COPPER

When it is required to cover an iron article with copper, it is first steeped in hot caustic potash or soda to remove any grease or oil. Being washed from that it is placed for a short time in diluted sulphuric acid, consisting of about one part acid to 16 parts of water, which removes any oxide that may exist. It is then washed in water and scoured with sand till the surface is perfectly clean, and finally attached to the battery and immersed in the cyanide solution. All this must be done with despatch so as to prevent the iron combining with oxygen. An immersion of five minutes duration in the cyanide solution is sufficient to deposit upon the iron a film of copper, but it is necessary to the complete protection of the iron that it should have a considerably thick coating, and as the cyanide process is expensive, it is preferable when the iron has received a film of copper by the cyanide solution, to take it out, wash it in water, and attach to it a simple cell or weak battery, and put it into a solution of sulphate of copper. If there is any part not sufficiently covered with copper by the cyanide solution, the sulphate will make these parts of a dark colour, which a touch of the finger will remove. When such is the case, the article must be taken out, scoured, and put again into the cyanide solution till perfectly covered. A little practice will render this very easy. The sulphate solution for covering iron should be prepared by adding it by degrees a little caustic potash, so long as the precipitate formed is re-dissolved. This neutralizes a great portion of the sulphuric acid, and thus the iron is not so readily acted upon. When the iron is thus coppered, proceed to silver it in the manner recommended for silvering according to receipt No. 9; or if you want to put a very heavy coating of silver on it, make use of a strong battery.

21. SOLDERING FLUID

For mending articles of tin, iron, zinc, copper, and almost all other metals. Take 2 fl. ounces of muriatic acid, add zinc till bubbles cease to rise, add 1/2 a teaspoonful of sal-ammoniac and 2 ounces of water. Damp the part you wish to solder with this fluid, lay on a small piece of lead, and with a piece of hot iron or soldering iron solder the part.

22. SOLDER FOR TIN

Take of pewter 4 parts, tin 1 part, bismuth 1 part; melt them together. Resin is used with this solder.

23. COLD METHOD OF SILVERING IRON WITH SILVER-PLATE

Polish the iron toy wish to silver, then damp it over with soldering fluid (receipt No. 21) When this is done give it a coat of No. 22 solder. This is done by laying a piece of cold solder on the iron, and spreading it over with a heated soldering iron, when by this means you get the iron nicely plated with solder, then lay on your silver-plate evenly, and gently rub it over with the heated soldering iron, and it will become firmly united with the solder as the solder is with the iron, so that you have the iron beautifully plated with silver with very little cost or trouble.

24. HOT METHOD OF SILVERING IRON WITH SILVER-PLATE

First polish the iron you wish to silver, wet it well over with No. 21 soldering fluid; then having procured that kind of silver-plate which is tin on one side and silver on the other, place it evenly on, with the tined side next to the iron, then place it on the fire until the silver-plate melts down, then at once take it from the fire, and it will be firmly attached to the iron, and will be excellent plate; yet No. 23, the cold method, is to be preferred in most cases.

25. SILVERING LOOKING-GLASSES WITH QUICKSILVER

Take a piece of marble or some other substance very smooth, true, and level, lay on this the glass you wish to silver, then make a ridge of putty on the marble against the edge of the glass all round it, so that you can pour quicksilver on the glass until it is all covered over, and will be prevented from running off by the ridge of putty; an inch or two, or three outside this ridge make another of putty; then cover the quicksilver on the glass all over with tin-foil, and press it firmly but cautiously against the glass until you have squeezed out all the quicksilver you can. While you press this, you may remove part of the first ridge of putty to give the quicksilver a chance of escape. When it is well pressed against the glass there will be an amalgam formed of the tin-foil and the quicksilver that is left, which will firmly adhere to the glass. By this means you have a very beautiful and cheap looking-glass; the quicksilver that escapes, being saved by the second ridge of putty, may be used again.

26. SILVERING LOOKING-GLASSES WITH PURE SILVER

Prepare a mixture of 3 grains of ammonia, 60 grains of nitrate of silver, 90 minims of spirits of wine, 90 minims of water; when the nitrate of silver is dissolved, filter the liquid and add a small quantity of sugar (15 grains) dissolved in 1-1/2 oz. of water, and 1 1/2 oz. of spirits of wine. Put the glass into this mixture, having one side covered with varnish, gum, or some substance to prevent the silver being attached to it. Let it remain for a few days and you have a most elegant looking-glass, yet it is far more costly than the quicksilver.

27. PATENT BURNING FLUID

To 1 gallon of 95 per cent. alcohol, add 1 quart of camphene oil; mix and shake well, and if transparent it is fit for use, if not, add sufficient alcohol, shaking it well, to bring it to the natural colour of the alcohol. It may be coloured to suit the fancy by adding a little tincture of golden seal, or any other colouring drug. This receipt has been sold for $10.

28. BURNING FLUID

Take 4 quarts alcohol, and 1 quart spirits of turpentine; mix well together, and it is ready for use.

29. NON-EXPLOSIVE BURNING FLUID

Take 1 gallon 44 proof alcohol, 1 quart camphene, 3 oz. of alum pulverized, 1/2 oz. camphor gum, 65 drops cuicuma; mix all together and let it stand 12 hours, and it is ready for use.

30. VINEGAR IN THREE DAYS WITHOUT DRUGS

Take 2 barrels and saw one of them in two in the centre, and put one-half on the top, and the other at the bottom of the whole barrel, (or you may use three whole barrels if you like.) The middle barrel is to be filled with maple, beech, of baswood shavings, which are to be planed from the edge of boards only two or three feet long, which allows the shavings to roll, and prevents them from packing tight, and also allows air to circulate through them, which is admitted through a number of inch holes, which are to be made near the bottom of the barrel and just above the faucet, which lets the vinegar run into the tub below. The top tub has its bottom pierced with small bit holes, having several threads of twine hanging in them to conduct the vinegar evenly over the top of the shavings in the middle of the barrel. Air must be permitted to pass out between the top tub and barrel, which comes in at the holes in the bottom. The shavings which fill the barrel must be soaked three or four days in good vinegar before they are put in. When thus arranged, for every gallon of water use 1/2 lb. of sugar; (that you get from molasses barrels does vary well.) If you wish to make vinegar from whiskey, put in 4 gallons of water to 1 gallon of whiskey; and if from cider, put in one-third water, and fill the top tub with this fluid, putting 1 pint good yeast to each barrel making; and have the holes with threads or twine so arranged that it will run through every twelve hours; and dip or pump up with a wooden pump every night or morning, and three days will make good substantial vinegar, which will keep and also improve by age. Some use only 1 gallon of whiskey to 7 gallons of water. This accounts for so much poor vinegar. Make good vinegar, it will pay you. If a few gallons of water is made boiling hot so as to warm the whole of a gentle warmth, it will make faster than if used cold. This must be done in cool weather, and the room also should be kept warm. For families, small kegs will do, but for manufacturers large casks are best. Many make vinegar by just putting fluid into the barrels of shavings, soaked as directed above, and do not let it run through, but let it stand in the shavings till sour; but it does not work fast enough for manufacturers. It will do where only a small amount is needed, keeping the same strength of fluid as for the other plan, which is best. Two or three years ago, this receipt was sold for from $50 to $150. If vinegar is made from whiskey, it will have a more beautiful colour if 5 or 6 lbs. of sugar is put into each barrel, of course keeping the same proportions of water as though only one kind was used. The shavings will last the whole season.

31. CUBA HONEY

Good brown sugar 11 lbs., water 1 quart, old bee honey in the comb 2 lbs., cream tartar 50 grains, gum arabic 1 oz., oil of peppermint 5 drops, oil of rose 2 drops, mix and boil two or three minutes and remove from the fire, have ready strained one quart of water, in which a table-spoonful of pulverized slippery elm bark has stood sufficiently long to make it ropy and thick life honey, mix this into the kettle with egg well beat up, skim well in a few minutes, and when a little cool, add two pounds of nice strained bees' honey, and then strain the whole, and you will have not only an article which looks and tastes like honey, but which possesses all its medicinal properties. It has been shipped in large quantities under the name of Cuba honey. It will keep fresh and nice for any length of time if properly covered.

32. EXCELLENT HONEY

Take 5 lbs. of good common sugar, two pounds of water, gradually bring to a boil, skimming well, when cool, add 1 lb. bees' honey, and 4 drops of peppermint. If you desire a better article use white sugar and 1/2 lb. less water, and one half pound more honey.

33. GUNPOWDER

Take pulverized saltpetre, moisten it, and subject it to the action of a slow fire until completely dried and granulated, of this take 75 parts, purified sugar 12 and a-half parts, moisten and grind together till completely blended, which will require several hours, pulverize on heaters till dried.

34. EXCELLENT MATCHES

The ends of the tapers or wood should be very dry, and then dipped in hot melted sulphur and laid aside to dry; then take 4 parts of glue, dissolve it and while hot add one part of phosphorus, and stir in a few spoonsful of fine whiting to bring to the proper thickness. This preparation should be kept hot by being suspended over a lamp, while dipping the wood or tapers. Colour the mixture by adding a little vermillion, lamp black or prussian blue; be careful not to ignite the compound while dipping.

35. FIRE AND WATER-PROOF CEMENT

To half a pint of milk add half a pint of vinegar to curdle it; then separate the curd from the whey, and mix the whey with 4 or 5 eggs; beating the whole well together; when it is well mixed, add a little quick-lime through a sieve, until it has acquired the consistence of a thick paste. This is a prime article for cementing marble, in or out of the weather. It is excellent for broken vessels, &c.

36. FRENCH CHEMICAL SOAP

Take 5 lbs. castile soap, cut fine, 1 pint alcohol, 1 pint soft water, 2 ounces aquafortis (if for black cloth 1/2 ounce of lampblack,) 2 ounces saltpetre, 3 ounces potash, 1 ounce camphor, 4 ounces cinnamon in powder. Fist dissolve the soap, potash, and saltpetre by boiling, then add all the other articles, and continue to stir until it cools, then pour it into a box, let it stand 24 hours, and cut it into cakes. It is used for taking grease, stains, and paints from cloth, wood, &c. This receipt has frequently sold for $10.

37. BLACK INK WITHOUT SEDIMENT

This ink is not injured by frost—is a beautiful article, and only costs 5 cents. per gallon, and is sold for from $1 to $3. Take 1 lb. logwood, 1 gallon soft water, simmer in an iron vessel for one hour, then dissolve in a little hot water 24 grains bychromate of potash, and 12 grains prussiate of potash, and stir into the liquid while over the fire, then take it off and strain it through fine cloth. This ink is a jet black flows freely from the pen and will stand the test of oexylic acid.

38. INDELIBLE INK

1 inch of the stick of the nitrate of silver dissolved in a little water, and stirred into each gallon of the above, makes first rate indelible ink for cloth. Judge what indelible ink costs.

39. INDELIBLE INK

Nitrate of silver 1-1/2 oz., dissolved in liquor ammonia fortisine 5-1/2 oz., orchil for colouring 3/4 oz., gum mucilage 12 oz., mix the two latter, then mix them with the two former, and it is ready to use.

40. WRITING FLUID OR BLACK COPYING INK

Take two gallons of rain water and put into it gum arabic 1/4 lb., brown sugar 1/4 lb., clean copperas 1/4 lb., powdered nut galls 3/4 lb., mix and shake occasionally for ten days and strain. If needed sooner, let it stand in an iron kettle until the strength is obtained. This ink can be depended on for deeds or records, which you may want someone to read hundreds of years to come. Oexylic acid 1/4 oz., was formerly put in, but as it destroys the steel pens, and does just as well without it—it is now never used.

41. BEST INK POWDER

This is formed of the dry ingredients for ink, powdered and mixed. Take powdered galls one pound, powdered green vitriol half a pound, powdered gum 4 ounces, mix all together, put it up into 2 ounce packages, each of which will make a pint if ink.

42. BEST RED INK

Take of best carmine (nakarot) 2 grains, rain water 1/2 ounce, water of ammonia 20 drops, add a little gum arabic, and it is in a few minutes ready for use.

43. YELLOW INK

Dissolve alum in saffron water to whatever shade of yellow you please. It makes a beautiful ink.

44. BLUE INK

Take Prussian blue, and oexylic acid, in equal parts, powder finely, and add soft water to bring it to a soft paste, and let it stand for a few days, then add soft water to the desired shade of colour; add a little gum arabic to prevent spreading.

45. GOLDEN INK

Take some white gum arabic, reduce it to an impalpable powder in a brass mortar, dissolve it in strong brandy, and add a little common water to render it more liquid, provide some gold in a shell, which must be detached in order to reduce it to a powder, when this is done moisten it with the gum solution, and stir the whole with a small hair brush, or your finger, then leave it for a night that the gold may be better dissolved. If the composition becomes dry during the night, dilute it with more gum water in which a little saffron has been infused, but take care that the gold solution be sufficiently liquid to flow freely in a pen; when the writing is dry polish it with a dry tooth.

46. WHITE INK FOR WRITING ON BLACK PAPER

Having carefully washed some egg shells remove the internal skin and grind them on a piece of porphyry, then put the powder in a small vessel of pure water, and when it has settled at the bottom, draw off the water and dry the powder in the sun. This powder must be preserved in a bottle; when you want to use it put a small quantity of gum ammoniac into distilled vinegar, and leave it to dissolve during the night, next morning the solution will appear exceedingly white, and if you then strain it through a piece of linen cloth, and add to it the powder of egg shells in sufficient quantity, you will obtain a very white ink.

47. SECRET INK FOR YOUNG LADIES AND GENTS

Take a drachm of clean rain water, put into it, in a clean vial, 10 or 12 drops of pure, clean sulphuric acid, and it is ready for use; write with this using a clean quill pen on letter paper, and when dry you can see no mark at all, then hold it to a strong heat and the writing becomes as black as jet. If you want to write to a young lady or gentleman, as the case may be, and fearing that the letter might be opened before she or he gets it, write with common black ink something of no importance, then between the lines write what you want to say with the secret ink. The person to whom you are writing must understand the scheme so that she or he may hold it to the heat and thereby make the writing visible.

48. CIDER WITHOUT APPLES

To each gallon of cold water put 1 lb. common sugar, 1/2 ounce of tartaric acid, one tablespoonful of yeast, shake well, make in an evening and it will be fit for use next day. I make in a keg a few gallons at a time, leaving a few quarts to make into next time, not using yeast again until the keg needs rinsing. If it gets a little sour, make a little more into it or put as much water with it as there is cider and put it with the vinegar. If it is desired to bottle this cider by manufacturers of small drinks, you will proceed as follows: put in a barrel 5 gallons of hot water, 30 lbs. of brown sugar, 3/4 lb. of tartaric acid, 25 gallons of cold water, 3 pints of hop or brewer's yeast, work into paste with 3/4 lb. of flower, and one pint water will be required in making this paste; put all together in a barrel which it will fill and let it work 24 hours, the yeast running out at the bung all the time by putting in a little occasionally to keep it full; then bottle, putting in two or three broken raisins to each bottle, and it will nearly equal champagne.

49. SPRUCE OR AROMATIC BEER

Take 3 gallons of water, 2-1/2 pints molasses, 3 eggs well beaten, 1 gill yeast, put into two quarts of the water boiling hot, put in 50 drops of any oil you wish the flavour of, or mix one ounce each, oil sarsafras, spruce, and wintergreen; then use the 50 drops. For ginger flavour take 2 ounces ginger root bruised and a few hops, and boil for 30 minutes in one gallon of the water, strain and mix all; let it stand 2 hours and bottle, using yeast, of course, as before.

50. LEMON BEER

To make 20 gallons, boil 6 ounces of ginger root bruised, 1/4 lb. cream-tartar for 20 or 30 minutes in 2 or 3 gallons of water; this will be strained into 13 lbs. of coffer sugar on which you have put 1 oz. oil of lemon and six good lemons all squeezed up together, having warm water enough to make the whole 20 gallons, just so you can hold your hand in it without burning, or some 70 degrees of heat; put in 1-1/2 pint hops or brewer's yeast worked into paste as for cider, with 5 or 6 oz. of flower; let it work over night, then strain and bottle for use. This will keep a number of days.

51. PHILADELPHIA BEER

Take 30 gallons of water, brown sugar 20 lbs., ginger root bruised 1/4 lb., cream tartar 1-1/4 lb., carbonate of soda 3 ounces, oil of lemon 1 teaspoonful, put in a little alcohol, the white of 10 eggs well beaten, hops 2 ounces, yeast one quart. The ginger root and hops should be boiled for 20 or 30 minutes in enough of the water to make all milk warm; then strain into the rest, and the yeast added and allowed to work itself clear as the cider and bottled.

52. SILVER TOP DRINK

Take of water 3 quarts, white sugar 4 lbs., oil of lemons one teaspoonful, white of 5 eggs, beaten with one teaspoonful of flour; boil to form syrum, then divide into equal parts, and to one add 3 ounces of tartaric acid, and to the other part 4 oz. of carbonate of soda, then take two thirds of a glass of water, and put in a spoonful of each of the syrups, more or less, according to the size of the glass.

53. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SODA DRINKS

In getting up any of the soda drinks which are spoken of hereafter it will be preferable to put about 4 oz. of carbonate (sometimes called supercarbonate) of soda into one pint of water, and shake when you wish to make a glass of soda, and pour from this into the glass until if foams well instead of using dry soda as directed.

54. IMPERIAL CREAM NECTAR

Part 1st.—Take 1 gallon water, 6 lbs. loaf sugar, 6 ounces tartaric acid, gum arabic 1 oz.

Part 2nd.—Take 4 teaspoonsful of flour, the whites of four eggs beat finely together, then add 1/2 pint of water. Heat the first part until it is blood warm, then put in the second, boil 3 minutes and it is done.

Directions.—To 3 tablespoonfuls of the syrup in a glass half or two thirds full of water add one third of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda made fine, stir well, and drink at your leisure.

55. A SUPERIOR GINGER BEER

Take of sugar 10 lbs., lemon juice 9 oz., honey 1/2 lb., bruised ginger root 11 oz., water 9 galls., yeast 3 pints, boil the ginger in the water until the strength is all extracted, which you may tell be tasting the root, then pour it into a tub, throwing the roots away, let it stand until nearly luke warm, then put in all the rest of the ingredients, stir well until all dissolved, cover it over with a cloth, and if it be in the evening, let it remain until next morning, then strain through cloth, and bottle it, and in a short time it will be fit for use. Some use less sugar, and some less lemon juice, to make it with less expense; but it is not so elegant a drink as this.

56. GINGER POP No. 1

Take of water 5-1/2 galls., ginger root bruised 3/4 lb., tartaric acid 1/2 oz., white sugar 2-1/4 lbs., the whites of 3 eggs well beat, a small teaspoonful of oil of lemon, yeast 1 gill; boil the root for 30 minutes in 1 gallon of the water, strain off, and put the oil in while hot, mix all well, make over night, in the morning skim, and bottle, keeping out sediment.

57. GINGER POP No. 2

Take best white Jamaica ginger root bruised 2 oz., water 6 quarts, boil 20 minutes and strain, then add cream tartar 1 oz., white sugar 1 lb.; put on the fire, then stir until all the sugar is dissolved; then put into an earthen jar, now put in tartaric acid 1/4 oz., and the rind of 1 lemon, let it stand until 70 degrees of Fahrenheit, or until you can bear your hand in it with comfort, then add two tablespoonsful of yeast, stir well, bottle for use, and tie the corks; make a few days before it is wanted for use.

58. YEAST

Take a good single handful of hops, and boil for 20 minutes in 3 pints of water, then strain, and stir in a teacupful of flour, a tablespoonful of sugar, and a teaspoonful of salt; when a little cool put in 1 gill of brewer's yeast, and after four or five hours cover up, and stand in a cool place for use; make again from this unless you let it get sour.

59. SODA SYRUPS

Take of loaf or crushed sugar 8 lbs., pure water 1 gall., gum arabic 1 oz., mix in a brass or copper kettle, boil until the gum is dissolved, then skim and strain through white flannel, after which add tartaric acid 5-1/2 oz., dissolved in hot water. To flavour use extract of lemon, orange, rose, sarsaparilla, strawberry, &c., 1/2 oz., or to your taste. If you use the juice of lemon, add 1-1/2 lbs., of sugar to a pint; you do not need any tartaric acid with it; now use 2 or 3 tablespoonsful of syrup to 3/4 of a tumbler of water, and 1/3 teaspoonsful of supercarbonate of soda made fine, stir well and be ready to drink; the gum arabic, however, holds the carbonic acid so it will not fly off so readily as common soda. For soda fountains, 1 oz., of supercarbonate of soda is used to 1 gallon of water. for charged fountains no acids are needed in the syrups.

60. MINERAL WATER

Epsom salts 1 oz., cream tartar 1/2 oz., tartaric acid 1/4 oz., loaf sugar 1 lb., oil of birch 20 drops; put 1 quart boiling water on all these articles, and add 3 quarts of cold water to 2 tablespoonsful of yeast; let it work 2 hours and then bottle.

61. IMPROVED ENGLISH STRONG BEER

If you have malt use it, if not, take 1 peck of barley, and put it into a stove oven, and steam the moisture from them, grind coarsely, and pour into them 3-1/2 gallons of water, at 170 or 172 degrees. (If you use malt it does not need quite so much water, as it does not absorb so much as the other. The tub should have a false bottom with many gimblet holes to keep back the grain.) Stir them well and let stand 3 hours and draw off, put on 7 gallons more water at 180 or 182 degrees, stir well, let stand 2 hours and draw off, then put 1 gallon or 2 of cold water, stir well and draw off; you should have about 5 or 6 gallons; mix 6 lbs., coarse brown sugar in equal amount of water, add 4 oz. of good hops, boil for 1-1/2 hour; you should have from 8 to 10 gallons when boiled; when cooled to 80 degrees, put in a teacupful of good yeast and let it work 18 hours covered with a sack. Use sound iron-hooped kegs, or porter bottles, bung or cork tight, and in two weeks it will be good sound beer, nearly equal in strength to London porter, or good ale, and will keep a long time.

62. SANGAREE

Take wine, ale, or porter, 1/3, and 2/3 water, hot, or cold, according to the season of the year, loaf sugar to the taste with nutmeg.

63. GINGER WINE

Put 1 oz. good ginger root bruised in 1 quart of 95 per cent. alcohol, let it stand 9 days, and strain, add 4 quarts of water, and 1 lb. of white sugar, dissolved in hot water, 1 pint port wine to this quantity, for what you retail at your own bar makes it far better; colour with tincture of saunders to suit; drink freely of this hot on going to bed, when you have a bad cold, and in the morning you will bless ginger wine.

64. HOP BEER

Take of hops 6 oz., molasses 5 quarts, boil the hops in water till the strength is out, strain them into a 30 gallon barrel, add the molasses and a teacupful of yeast, and fill up with water, shake it well and leave the bung out until fermented, which will be in about 24 hours; bung up, and it will be fit for use in about 3 days. A most excellent summer drink, smaller quantities in proportion.

65. USQUEBAUGH OR IRISH WHISKEY

Best brandy 1 gallon, stoned raisins 1 lb., cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and cardamom, each 1 oz., crushed in a mortar, saffron 1/2 oz., or the rind of 1 Seville orange, and a little sugar candy; shake these well, and it is ready for use in 14 days.

66. ICE CREAM

Add a little rich sweet cream, and 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar to each quart of cream or milk; if you cannot get cream the best imitation is to boil a soft custard; 6 eggs to each quart of milk, (eggs well beaten); or another way, boil a quart of milk, and stir into it, while boiling, a tablespoonful of arrow-root, wet with cold milk, then cool stir in the yolk of one egg, to give a rich colour; five minutes boiling is enough for either plan; put the sugar in after they cool, keep the same proportions for any amount desired. The juice of strawberries, or raspberries, give a beautiful colour and flavour to ice creams; or about 1/2 oz. of the essence or extracts to a gallon, or to suit the taste. Have your ice well broken, add 1 quart of salt to a bucket of ice, then place in this the vessel containing your cream, and about one half hour's constant stirring and occasional scraping down and beating together will freeze it.

67. CHICAGO ICE CREAM

Irish moss soaked in warm water about an hour, and rinsed well to clear it of a certain foreign taste, then steep it in milk, keeping it just at the point of boiling or simmering for an hour, or until a rich yellow colour is given to the milk, without cream or eggs; 1 or 1-1/2 oz. of moss is enough for a gallon of cream, and this will do to steep twice. Sweeten and flavour as other cream.

68. CREAM SODA

Loaf sugar 10 lb., water 3 gills, mix, and warm gradually, so as not to burn, good rich cream 2 quarts, extract vanilla 1-1/2 oz., extract nutmeg 1/4 oz., and tartaric acid 4 oz.; just bring to a boiling heat; for if you cook it any length of time it will crystallize. Use 4 or 5 spoonsful of this syrup instead of 3, as in other syrups; put 1/3 teaspoonful of soda to a glass, if used without fountain. For charged fountains no acid is used.

69. LEMON SYRUP

Take of the juice of lemons one pint, white sugar one and a half pound, and a little of the peel. Mix and boil a few minutes, strain, and when a little cool, bottle, and cork, for use.

70. ORANGE AND RASPBERRY SYRUPS

Take of the juice of either, as the case may be, one pint; white sugar one and a half pound. If it be orange a little of the peel; tartaric acid 4 oz. Mix and boil a few minutes; strain, and when a little cool, bottle and cork for use. When to be drank, mix three or four tablespoonsful of syrup with three quarters of a glass of water, and add a teaspoonful of soda. If water be added to the syrup it will not keep well.

71. PURE WINE

Take three pounds of nice raisins free of stems, cut each one in two or three pieces, put them into a stone jug with one gallon pure soft water, let them stand two weeks uncovered, shaking occasionally (put in a warm place in winter,) strain through three or four thicknesses of woollen, or filter; colour with burned sugar; bottle and cork for use. For saloon purposes, add one pint of good brandy. The more raisins the better the wine, not exceeding 5 lbs.

72. PURE WINE VINEGAR

This is made by putting the same quantity of water on the above raisins, after the wine is poured off, as at first for making wine, and standing the same length of time, in the same way.

73. PORT WINE

Take 42 gallons of worked cider, 12 gallons of good port wine, 3 gallons good brandy, 6 gallons pure spirits. Mix together. Elder-berries and sloes, or fruit of the black hawes, make a fine purple colour for wines.

74. CHAMPAGNE WINE

Take of good cider (crab-apple cider is best) seven gallons, best fourth proof brandy one quart, genuine champagne wine five quarts, milk one gill, bitartrate of potash 2 oz. Mix and let it stand a short time; bottle while fermenting. This makes an excellent imitation of champagne with age.

75. CURRANT AND OTHER FRUIT WINES

For currant, cherry, raspberry, elderberry, strawberry, whortleberry, and wild grape wines, any one can be used alone, or in combination of several of the different kinds; to make a variety of flavours, or suit persons who have some and not the other kinds of fruits, to every gallon of expressed juice, add 2 galls. of soft water, put in 6 or 8 lbs. of brown sugar, and 1-1/2 oz. of cream of tartar, have them dissolved; put 1 quart of brandy to every 6 galls. Some prefer it without brandy. After fermentation, take 4 oz. isinglass, dissolved in a pint of the wine, put to each barrel, and it will refine and clear it; then it must be drawn off into clear casks, or bottled, which is far the best. Give these wines age and they are most delicious.

76. DINNER WINE OR ENGLISH PATENT WINE

From garden rhubarb, which will not lend to intemperance. An agreeable and healthy wine is very frequently made from the expressed juice of the garden rhubarb. To each gallon of juice add 1 gallon of soft water, in which 7 lbs. of brown sugar have been dissolved; fill a keg or barrel with this proportion, leaving the bung out, and keep it filled with sweetened water as it works off until clear. Any other vegetable extract may be added, if this flavour is not liked. Then bung down, or bottle, as you desire. These stalks will furnish about 3/4 their weight in juice; fine and settle with isinglass, as in the fruit wines. This has been patented in England.

77. VARIOUS WINES

Take 28 gallons of clarified cider; 1 gallon good brandy, 1 lb. crude tartar, (this is what is deposited by grape wines) 5 gallons of any wine you wish to represent, 1 pint of sweet milk to settle it; draw off in 24 or 36 hours after thoroughly mixing.

78. BLACKBERRY AND STRAWBERRY WINES

These are made by taking the above wine when made with port wine; and for every 10 gallons, form 4 to 6 quarts of the fresh fruit, bruised and strained, are added, and let it stand till the flavour is extracted; more or less may be used to suit the tastes of different persons. In bottling any of those wines 3 or four broken raisins put into each bottle will add to their richness and flavour.

79. FRENCH BRANDY

Take of pure spirit 1 gallon, best French brandy, or any kind you wish to imitate, even Otard, 1 quart; loaf sugar 2 oz., sweet spirits of nitre 1/2 oz., a few drops of tincture of catechu, or oak bark, to roughen the taste if desired; colour to suit your taste, and bottle.

80. BRANDY FROM OIL COGNAC

Take of pure spirits 10 gallons, New England rum 2 quarts, or Jamaica rum 1 quart, and oil cognac from 30 to 40 drops, put in half a pint of alcohol, colour with tincture of kino, or burned sugar, which is generally preferred. Mix well and bottle.

81. PALE BRANDY

This is made as the French brandy, using pale instead of the French, and using 1 oz. of tincture of kino for colour, only for 5 gallons.

82. CHERRY BRANDY

To every 10 gallons of brandy add 3 quarts of wild black cherries, stones and all bruised, and crushed sugar 2 lbs. Let it stand until the strength and flavour is obtained, and draw from it as wanted for use. Never attempt to use oil of bitter almonds for this purpose, instead of the cherries, for it is a most deadly poison.

83. BLACKBERRY BRANDY

Take of brandy 10 gallons, nice rich blackberries mashed from 4 to 6 quarts, according to the degree of flavour you wish. Mix and add a little sugar to overcome the acidity of the berries, according to their ripeness will the amount vary from one to 4 oz. to each gallon.

84. STRAWBERRY BRANDY

This is made as the above, using very nice ripe strawberries, and only about half the quantity of sugar.

[There are no entries for receipts 85, 86 and 87 in the original.]

88. HOLLAND GIN

Take of pure spirits 1 gallon, best Holland gin, schnapps, or any kind desired, 1 quart, oil of juniper 2 scruples, oil of anise 1/4 oz.; mix all well together.

89. COLOURING

Take of white sugar 1 lb., put it into an earthen kettle, moisten a little, let boil, and burn red, black and thick, remove from the fire and put in a little hot water to keep it from hardening as it cools. Use this to colour any liquors, needing colour, to your taste, or as near the colour of the liquor you imitate as you can. Tincture of kino is a good colour, and is made by dissolving 1 oz. of kino in a pint of alcohol. For a cherry red use tincture of saffron; for light amber to deep brown use sugar colouring; for brandy colour, sugar; for red use beet root or saunders; for port wine colour use extract of rhatany.

90. TO KEEP SWEET AND SWEETEN SOUR CIDER

To keep cider sweet take a keg, put several holes in the bottom of it, and a piece of woollen cloth at the bottom, then fill with pure sand closely packed, then pass your cider through this, and put up in clean barrels that have had a piece of cotton or linen cloth 2 by 6 inches, dipped in sulphur, and burned in them, then keep in a cool place and add 1/2 lb. of white mustard seed to each barrel. If cider is souring, about 1 quart of hickory ashes, (or a little more of other hard wood ashes), stirred into each barrel, will sweeten and clarify it, nearly equal to rectifying; but if it is not rectified it must be racked off to get clear of pomace, for while this is in it, it will remain sour. Oil or whiskey barrels are best to put up cider in, or 1/2 pint of sweet oil, or a gallon of whiskey, or both may be added to a barrel with decidedly good effects. Isinglass 4 oz. to each barrel helps to clarify and settle cider that is not going to be rectified.

91. SCHRUB

Take of lemon juice 1 pint, white sugar 2 pints, rum 3 pints, water 4 pints; mix and colour ready for use.

92. STOUGHTON BITTERS

Take of gentian 4 oz., orange peel 4 oz., columbo 4 oz., chamomile flowers 4 oz., quassia 4 oz., burned sugar 1 lb., whiskey 2-1/2 galls., water 2-1/2 galls,; mix and let stand one week, then bottle the clear liquor.

93. TO IMPROVE THE FLAVOUR OF NEW WHISKEY

Take of whiskey 1 gall., add tea 4 oz., allspice 4 oz., caraway seed 4 oz., cinnamon 2 oz., shake occasionally for a week and use one pint to a barrel. Keep this mixture in a jug.

94. CHERRY BOUNCE OR BRANDY

Take 10 galls. of good whiskey, put into it from 4 to 6 quarts of wild black cherries with the stones broken, common almonds shelled 1 lb., white sugar 1-1/2 lb., cinnamon 1/2 oz., nutmeg 1/2 oz., all bruised. Let stand 12 or 13 days and draw off; this, with the addition of 2 galls. of brandy, make very nice cherry brandy.

95. MONONGAHALE

Take of good common whiskey 36 gall., dried peaches 2 quarts, rye, burned and ground as coffee, 1 quart, cinnamon, cloves, and allspice, bruised, of each 1 oz., loaf sugar 5 lbs., sweet spirits of nitre 2 oz., put all these articles into 4 galls. of pure spirits, and shake every day for a week, then draw off through a woollen cloth, and add the whole to the 36 galls. of whiskey.

96. RYE WHISKEY

Take of dried peaches 1/2 a peck, put them into a pan in a stove, scorch a little, not to burn however, then bruise, and place in a woollen (pointed) bag, and leach good common whiskey over them twice, having the barrel up so as to hang the bag under the faucet and draw slowly over them; this is for a barrel. Add 10 or 12 drops of aqua ammonia to each barrel, after leaching through the peaches; with age this is nearly, if not quite, equal to whiskey made from rye.

97. STOMACH BITTERS

Take of gentian root 6 oz., orange peel 10 oz., cinnamon 1 oz., anise seed 2 oz., coriander seed 2 oz., cardamom seed 1/2 oz., Peruvian bark, unground, 2 oz., bruise all the articles and add of gum kino 1 oz., and put them into 2 quarts of alcohol, and two quarts of pure spirits or good whiskey; shake occasionally for 10 or 12 days, and strain or filter through several thicknesses of woollen. Half a pint of this may be added to a gallon of whiskey, more or less, as desired, and you have an article as good, or better, and more healthy than that for which you will pay three times as much; or you may use it the same as stoughton, to which it is preferred.

98. PEPPERMINT CORDIAL

Take of good whiskey 10 galls., water 10 galls., white sugar 10 lbs., oil of peppermint 1 oz., flour 1 oz., burned sugar 1/2 lb. to colour, alcohol 1 pint; put the oil of peppermint in the alcohol, then with this work the flour well, add the burned sugar, work again, and mix all the ingredients together; let them stand a week and they are ready for use. If you wish a different flavour from that of oil of peppermint use any other oil of which you desire the flavour.

99. ST. CROIX RUM

Take of pure spirits 28 galls., of pure St. Croix run 3 galls., sal-ammonia (cut in alcohol) 1 OZ., sweet spirits of nitre 6 ozs., mix all together and let stand for 24 hours, occasionally shaking, and it is ready for use.

100. LEMONADE

Take of fresh lemon juice 4 oz., fresh lemon peel 1/2 oz., white sugar 4 oz., boiling water 3 pints; mix all together; let them stand till cool, and then strain off for use; if you wish you can cool at once with ice. Where this is used as a cooling drink in fevers a little sweet spirits of nitre may be added.

101. A BRILLIANT WHITEWASH

This bears a gloss like ivory, and will not rub off. Take of clean unslacked lime 5 or 6 quarts, slack with hot water in a tub, cover to keep in the steam; when ready, pass it through a fine sieve, and add 1/4 lb. of whiting, 1 lb. of good sugar pulverized, and 3 pints of rice flour, first made into a thin paste; boil this mixture well, then dissolve 1 lb. of clean glue in water, and add it to the mixture, and apply while warm with a whitewash brush, except when particular neatness is required you may then use a paint brush; in both cases put it on warm. You may add colouring matter to give it any shade you please.

102. CHANGING VARNISHES

Varnishes of this description are call changing because, when applied to metals such as copper, brass, or tin or silver foil, they give them a more agreeable colour; indeed, the common metals, when coated with them acquired a lustre approaching to that of the precious metals, and hence these varnishes are much employed in manufacturing imitations of gold and silver. Put four ounces of the best gum gamboge into 32 ozs. of spirits of turpentine, 4 ozs. of dragon's blood into the same quantity of spirits of turpentine as the gamboge, and 1 oz. of anatto into 8 ozs. of the same spirits. The three mixtures being made in different vessels, they should then be kept for about a fortnight in a warm place, and as much exposed to the sun a possible; at the end of that time they will be fit for use; and you can procure any tints you wish by making a composition from them, with such proportions of each liquor as practice and the nature of the colour you are desirous of obtaining will point out. Changing varnishes may likewise be employed, with very good effect, for furniture, such as picture frames, &c.—See Lackers.

103. GOLD LACKER OR VARNISH

In using the changing varnish or any of these lackers, for picture frames for instance, lay them over with tin or silver leaf, by means of plaster of Paris glue, or cement of some kind, that the foil may be perfectly adherent to the wood, then apply your varnish; apply as many coats as may suit your taste, and if it be the gold lacker you use it has the appearance of being laid with gold leaf, and if the pale brass lacker, of being laid with brass, &c., and if you use the changing varnish you may make it just what colour you wish, by mixing the three materials in different proportions. For making gold lacker, put into a clean 4 gallon tin 1 lb. ground turmeric, 1-1/2 oz. powdered gamboge, 3-1/2 lbs. powdered gum sandrack, 3/4 lb. shellac, and 2 galls. spirits of wine; after being dissolved and strained add 1 pint of turpentine varnish, receipt No. 112, well mixed, and it is ready for use.

104. RED SPIRIT LACKER

Take 2 galls. spirits of wine, 1 lb. dragon's blood, 3 lbs. Spanish annatto, 3-1/2 lbs. gum sandrack, 2 pints turpentine. Made exactly as the gold lacker.

105. PALE BRASS LACKER

Take 2 galls. spirits of wine, 3 ozs. cape aloes, cut small, 1 lb. fine pale shellac, 1 oz. gamboge, cut small, no turpentine. Varnish made exactly as before, but observe, that those who make lackers frequently want some paler and some darker and sometimes inclining more to the particular tint of certain of the component ingredients; therefore if a 4 oz. vial of a strong solution of each ingredient be prepared, a lacker of any tint can be prepared at any time as by changing varnish.

106. DEMAR VARNISH

This is a fine clear varnish, being harder and less coloured than mastic, while it is as soluble, and may be had at one-tenth the price. Put 6 oz. of gum demar in a bottle with 10 ozs. of spirits of turpentine, and put into another bottle 6 ozs. of gum demar, with 16 ozs. alcohol, when they are dissolved put them together, and you have an excellent cheap varnish which dries quickly and is very clear.

107. COPAL VARNISH

Take 1 oz. of copal, and 1/2 oz. of shellac, powder them well and put them into a bottle or jar containing 1 quart of spirits of wine; place the mixture in a warm place and shake it occasionally, till you see that the gums are completely dissolved, and when strained the varnish is fit for use.

108. WHITE HARD VARNISH

Take 1 lb. of mastic, 4 oz. of gum anima; and 5 lbs. of gum sandrack, put them all together to dissolve, into a vessel containing 2 oz. of rectified spirits of wine, which should be kept in a warm place and frequently shaken till all the gums are quite dissolved; then strain the mixture through a lawn sieve, and it will be fit for use.

109. CRYSTAL VARNISH

Procure a bottle of Canada balsam, which can be had at any druggist's; draw out he cork and set the bottle of balsam at a little distance from the fire, turning it round several times, until the heat has thinned it; then have something that will hold as much as double the quantity of balsam; carry the balsam from the fire, and, while fluid mix it with the same quantity of good turpentine, and shake them together until they are well incorporated. In a few days the varnish is fit for use, particularly if it is poured into a half gallon glass or stone bottle, and kept in a gentle warmth. This varnish is used for maps, prints, charts, drawings, paper, ornaments, &c.

110. BLACK VARNISH FOR OLD STRAW OR CHIP HATS

Take a 1/2 oz. of the best black sealing wax, pound it well, and put it into a 4 oz. vial, containing 2 ozs. of rectified spirits of wine; place it in a sand-bath or near a moderate fire till the wax is dissolved, then lay it on warm, with a fine soft hairbrush, before a fire or in the sun. It gives a good stiffness to old straw hats, and a beautiful gloss equal to new. It likewise resists wet.

111. VARNISH FOR VIOLINS &c.

Take 1 gallon of rectified spirits of wine, 12 ozs. of mastic, and 1 pint of turpentine varnish; put them altogether in a tin can, and keep it in a very warm place, shaking it occasionally till it is perfectly dissolved; then strain it, and it is fit for use. If you find it necessary, you may dilute it with turpentine varnish. This varnish is also very useful for furniture of plumtree, mahogany, or rosewood.

112. TURPENTINE VARNISH

Take 5 lbs. of clear good resin, pound it well, and put it into 1 gallon of oil of turpentine; boil the mixture over a stove till the resin is perfectly dissolved, and when cool, it will be fit for use.

113. IRON WORK BLACK OR BLACK VARNISH FOR IRON

Put 48 lbs. asphaltum into an iron pot, and boil for four hours; during the first two hours, introduce 7 lbs. litharge, 3 lbs. dried copperas, and 10 gallons boiled oil; add 1/8 lb. run of dark gum, with 2 gallons hot oil; after pouring the oil and gum, continue the boiling two hours, or until it will roll into hard pills like Japan; when cool, thin it off with three gallons of turpentine, or until it is of proper consistence. This varnish is intended principally for the iron work of coaches and other carriages.

114. VARNISH FOR HARNESS

Take 1/2 lb. of india rubber, 1 gallon of spirits of turpentine; dissolve enough to make it into a jelly by keeping it almost new milk warm; then take equal quantities of good linseed oil, (in a hot state,) and the above mixture, incorporate them well on a slow fire, and it is fit for use.

115. QUICK DRYING HARNESS BLACKING VARNISH

Break 1/2 cake (which is about 1 ounce) of white wax into an earthen pan, and just cover it with oil of turpentine; place a board over the pan to keep out the air; let it stand for 24 hours or until formed into a paste; then in another pan, mix 1 lb. of best ivory black with neatsfoot oil, until it assumes a thick consistency; then mix the contents of both pans together. It may be reduced with spirits of turpentine. Bottle, and it is fit for use.

116. OIL PASTE BLACKING

Take oil vitriol, 2 ozs., tanners oil, 5 ozs., ivory black, 2 lbs., molasses, 5 ozs; mix the oil and vitriol together, let it stand a day, then add the ivory black, the molasses, and the white of an egg; mix well, and it is ready for use.

117. WATER PROOF OIL OR PASTE BLACKING

Take 1 pint of camphene, and put into it all the india rubber it will dissolve, 1 pint currier's oil, 7 lbs. tallow, and 2 ozs. of lampblack; mix thoroughly by heat. This is a nice thing for old harness and carriage tops, as well as for boots and shoes.

118. BEST VARNISH BLACKING EXTANT

Take of alcohol, 1 gallon; white turpentine, 1-1/2 lbs.; gum shellac 1-1/2 lbs.; venice turpentine, 1 gill; let these stand in a jug in the sun, or by a stove, until the gums are dissolved; then add sweet oil, 1 gill; lampblack, 2 oz., and you have a varnish that will not crack when the harness is twisted like the old shellac varnish. It is good also for boots and shoes, looking well, and turns water.

119. ASPHALTUM OR WALNUT STAIN

Take of asphaltum, 2 lbs.; boiled linseed oil, 1/2 pint; spirits of turpentine, 1 gallon; mix the two first in an iron pot, boil slowly until the asphaltum is melted, then take it some distance from the fire, cool a little, and add the turpentine (avoiding ignition) before it cools too much, and it is finished.

120. POLISH FOR OLD FURNITURE

Take 1 pint best spirits of wine, 1 pint raw linseed oil, 1 pint spirits of turpentine; mix all three together, and shake well before use. Apply with a rubber of cotton wool covered with a piece of clean old white cotton cloth. Apply slightly and you will be astonished at the effect. Old furniture that is scratched, soiled, or stained, if the wood is not torn up, being polished with this, has the appearance of new.

121. OIL TO MAKE THE HAIR GROW AND CURL

Take of olive oil 1/2 a pint, oils of rosemary and origanum, of each 1/8 of an oz. Mix well and apply rather freely.

122. BEST SHAVING SOAP

Take 4-1/2 lbs. white bar soap, 1 quart rain water, 1 gill of beef's gall, and 1 gill spirits of turpentine; cut the soap thin, and boil five minutes, stir while boiling, and colour with 1/2 oz. of vermillion; scent with oil of rose or almonds. 10 cents worth will positively make $6 worth of soap.

123. NEW YORK BARBERS' STAR HAIR OIL

Take of castor oil, 6-1/2 pints; alcohol, 1-1/2 pint; citronella and lavender oils, of each 2 ozs.; mix and shake well, and it is ready for use.

124. ROWLAND'S MACASSAR HAIR OIL

Take of sweet oil, 8 ozs.; cantharides and oil of lemon, of each 60 drops; alkanet sufficient to colour it.

125. ROSE HAIR OIL

Take 1 quart olive oil, 2-1/2 ozs. alcohol, 1-1/2 ozs. rose oil; after this tie 1 oz. of chipped alkanet root in 3 or 4 little muslin bags, and let them lie in the oil until a pretty red is manifested, then change them to other oil. do not press them.

126. BEAR'S OIL

Take of good sweet lard oil, 1 quart; bergamot, 1 ounce; mix well together.

127. OX MARROW FOR THE HAIR

Take of ox marrow, 4 ozs.; white wax, 1 oz.; nice fresh lard, 6 ozs; mix and melt; when cool, add 1-1/2 ozs. oil of bergamot, and mix well.

128. COLOGNE

Take oils of rosemary and lemon, of each, 1/4 oz.; oils of bergamot and lavender, of each, 1/8 oz.; oil of cinnamon, 8 drops; oils of cloves and rose, of each 15 drops; best alcohol, 2 quarts; mix and shake 2 or 3 times a day for a week. This will be better if deoderized, or cologne alcohol is used.

129. HARD SOAP

Take of soft soap, 12 lbs.; (that made of olive oil is best,) common salt, 9 lbs.; mix and boil for 2 hours, run it into bars, or as you want it, and you will have 7-1/2 lbs. of soap. Add a little resin when you melt it over. Scent with fragrant oil if you wish to do so.

130. BAR SOAP

Take of lime water 1 teacupful, spirits of turpentine 2 teaspoonsful, resin 1/2 lb., sal. soda 1-1/2 lbs., of bar shop soap 4 lbs.; melt and boil all together to a proper consistency, then pour into moulds.

131. CARVER'S POLISH

In a pint of spirits of wine dissolve 2 oz. of seed lac, and 2 oz. of resin. The principal use of this polish is for the carved parts of cabinet work, such as standards, pillars, claws, &c. It should be laid on warm, and it will be still better; but all moisture and dampness should be carefully avoided.

132. FRENCH POLISH

Take 1 oz. of shellac, 1/4 oz. of gum-arabic, and 1/4 oz. of gum copal; bruise them well, and sift them through a piece of muslin, then put them along with a pint of spirits of win into a closely corked vessel, place it in a very warm situation, and shake it frequently every day till the gums are dissolved, then strain through a piece of muslin, and keep it corked for use.

133. WATER-PROOF POLISH

Put 2 ozs. of gum benjamin, 1/4 oz. of gum sandrac, and 1/4 oz. of gum anima, into a pint of spirits of wine, in a closely stopped bottle, place the bottle either in a sand bath, or in hot water, till the gums are dissolved, then strain off the mixture, shake it up with a 1/4 of a gill of the best clear poppy oil, and put by for use.

134. FINISHING POLISH

Put 2 drachms of shellac, and 2 drachms of gum benjamin, into 1/2 pint of the very best rectified spirits of wine, in a bottle closely corked; keep the bottle in a warm place, and shake it frequently till the gums are dissolved, when cold shake up with it 2 teaspoonsful of the best clear poppy oil, and it will be fit for use. This polish may be applied with great advantage after any of those mentioned in the foregoing receipts have been used. It removes the defects existing in them, increasing their lustre and durability, and gives the surface a most brilliant appearance.

135. COMPOSITION USED IN WELDING CAST STEEL

Take of borax, 10 parts; sal-ammoniac, 1 part; grind or pound them roughly together, then fuse them in a metal pot over a close fire, taking care to continue the heat until all spume has disappeared from the surface, when the liquid appears clear, the composition is ready to be poured out to cool and concrete; afterward being ground to a fine powder. To use this composition, the steel to be welded is raised to a heat, which may be expressed by bright yellow, it is then dipped among the welding powder, and again placed in the fire until it attains the same degree of heat as before, it is then ready to be placed under the hammer.

136. COMPOSITION USED IN WELDING CAST IRON

Take good clear white course sand, 3 parts; refined solton, 1 part; fosterine, 1 part; rock salt 1 part; borax, 1 part; mix all together. Take 2 pieces of cast iron, heat them in a moderate charcoal fire, occasionally taking them out while heating, and dipping them into the composition, until they are of a proper heat to weld, then at once lay them on the anvil, and gently hammer them together, and if done carefully by one who understands welding iron, you will have them nicely welded together. One man prefers heating the metal, then cooling it in the water of common beans, and heating it again for welding.

137. CAST IRON CEMENT

Take of clean borings or turning of cast iron, 16 parts; of sal-ammoniac, 2 parts; and flour of sulphur, 1 part; mix them well together on a mortar, and keep them dry. When required for use, take 1 part of the mixture, and 20 parts of clean borings, mix thoroughly, and add a sufficient quantity of water. Note.—A little grindstone added improves the cement.

138. CASE HARDENING

This is the conversion of the surface of wrought iron into steel, for the purpose of adapting it to receive a polish, or to bear friction, &c. The best method in the world of effecting this is by heating the iron to cherry red in a close vessel, in contact with carbonacious material, and then plunging it into cold water. Bones, leather, hoofs, and horns of animals, are best for this purpose, after having been burnt or roasted, so that they can be pulverized. Soot is very frequently used; it answers, but not so well.

139. TO SOFTEN IRON OR STEEL

Either of the following simple methods will make iron or steel as soft as lead: 1. Anoint it all over with tallow, temper it in a gentle charcoal fire, and let it cool of itself. 2. Take a little clay, cover your iron with it, temper in a charcoal fire. 3. When the iron or steel is red hot, strew hellebore on it. 4. Quench the iron or steel in the juice, or water, of common beans.

140. SOLDER FOR LEAD

Melt 1 part of block tin, and when in a state of fusion, add 2 parts of lead; if a small quantity of this, when melted, is poured upon the table, there will, if it be good, arise little bright stars upon it. Resin should be used with this solder.

141. SOLDER FOR TIN

Take 4 parts of pewter, 1 of tin, and 1 of bismuth, melt them together, and run them into thin slips. Resin is also employed in using this solder.

142. SOLDER FOR IRON

The best solder for iron is good tough brass, with a little borax.

143. SOLDER FOR COPPER

Take of brass, 6 parts; zinc, 1 part; tin, 1 part; melt all together, mix well, and pour out to cool.

144. SOLDER FOR STEEL JOINTS

Silver, 19 parts; copper, 1 part; brass, 2 parts; melt all together.

145. HARD SOLDER

Fuse together 2 parts of copper, and 1 of zinc.

146. SOLDER FOR SILVER

Fuse together 5 parts of silver, and 1 part of brass.

147. GOLD SOLDER No. 1

Take of gold, 4 parts; silver, 3 parts; copper 1 part; and zinc, 1 part.

148. GOLD SOLDER No. 2

Take of gold, 3 parts; silver, 3 parts; copper, 1 part; zinc, 1/2 part.

149. GOLD SOLDER No. 3

Take of gold, 2 parts; silver, 3 parts; copper, 1 part; and zinc 1/2 a part.

The gold, silver, and copper must be fused in a crucible before the zinc is added, or else you cannot keep them in the vessel while heating. When all are completely fused, they must be well stirred, and run into bars. Solder No. 1 is for gold 16 carats and upwards; No. 2 is for that 14 carats fine; and No. 3 for lower qualities. If more zinc is added, it will fuse at a lower heat, but the colour is not so good.

150. MOCK GOLD

Fuse together 16 parts of copper, 7 of platinum, and 1 of zinc. When steel is alloyed with 1/500 part of platinum, or with 1/500 part of silver, it is rendered much harder, more malleable, and better adapted for all kinds of cutting instruments. Note.—In making alloys, care must be taken to have the more infusible metals melted first, and afterwards add the others.

151. BRITANNIA METAL

Take 4 parts of brass, and 4 parts of tin; when fused add 4 parts of metallic bismuth, and 4 parts of metallic antimony. This composition is added at discretion to metallic tin, according to the quality you wish to make.

152. BLANCHED COPPER

Melt together 8 parts of copper and a half part of arsenic.

153. COMMON PEWTER

Melt together 4 parts of tin and 1 part of lead.

154. BEST PEWTER

Melt together 100 parts of tin and 17 of antimony.

155. A METAL THAT EXPANDS IN COOLING

Melt together 9 parts of lead, 2 of antimony and one of bismuth. This metal is very useful in filling small defects in iron castings, &c.

156. QUEEN'S METAL

Melt together 9 parts of tin, 1 of antimony, 1 of bismuth, and 1 of lead.

157. IMITATION PLATINUM

This metal, or alloy, very closely resembles platinum. Melt together 8 parts of brass and 5 parts of zinc.

158. CHINESE WHITE COPPER

Melt together 40.4 parts of copper, 31.6 parts of nickel, 25.4 of zinc, and 2.6 of iron.

159. MANHEIM GOLD

Melt together 3 parts copper, 1 of zinc, and a little tin.

160. TOMBACK, OR RED BRASS

Melt together 8 parts of copper, and 1 part of zinc.

161. IMITATION GOLD

Take of platina 8 parts, of silver 4 parts, copper 12 parts, melt all together.

162. IMITATION SILVER

Take of block tin 100 parts, metallic antimony 8 parts, bismuth 1 part, and 4 parts of copper; melt all together.

163. TRUE IMITATION OF GOLD

Dr. Harmsteadt's imitation of gold, which is stated not only to resemble gold in colour, but also in specific gravity and ductility, consists of 16 parts of platinum, 7 parts of copper, and 1 of zinc, put in a crucible, covered with charcoal powder, and melted into a mass.

164. TRUE IMITATION OF SILVER

Imitation of pure silver, so perfect in its resemblance that no chemist living can tell it from pure virgin silver. It was obtained from a German chemist now dead; he used it for unlawful purposes to the amount of thousands, and yet the metal is so perfect that he was never discovered. It is all melted together in a crucible, here it is: 1/4 oz. of copper, 2 oz. of brass, 3 oz. of pure silver, 1 oz. of bismuth, 2 ozs. of saltpetre, 2 ozs. of common salt, 1 oz. of arsenic, and 1 oz. of potash.

165. MOULDS AND DIES

Take copper, zinc, and silver, in equal proportions, and melt them together, and mould into the forms you desire, and bring the same to a nearly white heat; now lay on the thing that you would take the impression of, and press it with sufficient force, and you will find that you have a perfect and beautiful impression. All of the above metals should be melted under a coat of powdered charcoal.

166. TO SOFTEN HORN

To 1 lb. of wood ashes, add 2 lbs. of quicklime; put them into a quart of water, let the whole boil till reduced to one third, then dip a feather in, and if, on drawing it out, the plume should come off, it is a proof that it is boiled enough, if not, let it boil a little longer; when it is settled filter it off, and in the liquor thus strained put in shavings of horn; let them soak for three days, and, first anointing your hands with oil, work the horn into a mass, and print or mould it into any shape you please.

167. TO MAKE MOULDS OF HORN

If you wish to take the impression of any coin, medal, &c., previously anoint it with oil, then lay the horn shavings over it in its softened state; when dry the impression will be sunk into the horn, and this will serve as a mould to reproduce, either by plaster of Paris, putty and glue, or isinglass and ground egg shells, the exact resemblance of the coin or medal.

168. TO CASE FIGURES IN IMITATION OF IVORY

Make isinglass and strong brandy into a paste, with powder of egg shells, very finely ground; you may give it what colour you please, but cast it warm into your mould, which you previously oil over; leave the figure in the mould till dry, and you will find, on taking it out, that it bears a very strong resemblance to ivory.

169. TRUE GOLD POWDER

Put some gold leaf, with a little honey or thick gum water, (whenever I speak of gum I mean gum arabic,) into an earthen mortar, and pound the mixture till the gold is reduced to very small particles; then wash out the honey or gum repeatedly with warm water, and the gold will be left behind in a state of powder, which, when dried, is fit for use.

170. TRUE GOLD POWDER

Another, and perhaps better method of preparing gold powder is to heat a prepared amalgam of gold in a clean open crucible, (an amalgam of any metal is formed by a mixture of quicksilver with that metal) continuing a very strong heat till all the mercury has evaporated, stirring the amalgam all the while with a glass rod; when the mercury has entirely left the gold, grind the remainder in a Wedgewood's mortar, with a little water, and when dried it will be fit for use. The subliming the mercury is, however, a process injurious to the health.

171. COLOUR HEIGHTENING COMPOSITIONS

For yellow gold, dissolve in water 6 ozs. of saltpetre, 2 ozs. of copperas, 1 oz. of white vitriol, and 1 oz. of alum. If wanted redder, add a small portion of blue vitriol.

172. FOR GREEN GOLD

Dissolve in water a mixture consisting of 1-1/2 oz. of saltpetre; vitriol and sal-ammoniac, 1-1/4 oz. of each, and 1 oz. verdigris.

173. FOR RED GOLD

Take 1-1/2 oz. of red ochre in fine powder, the same quantity of calcined verdigris, 1/2 oz. of calcined borax, and 4 oz. of melted yellow wax; the verdigris must be calcined, or else, by the heat applied in melting the wax, the vinegar becomes so concentrated as to corrode the surface, and make it appear speckled. These last three are colours for heightening compositions.

174. MOSAIC GOLD

Mosaic gold, or aurum mosaicum, is used for inferior articles. It is prepared in the following manner: 1 lb. of tin is melted in a crucible, and 1/2 lb. of purified quicksilver added to it; when this mixture is cold, it is reduced to powder, and ground with 1/2 lb. of sal-ammoniac, and 7 ozs. of flower of sulphur, till the whole is thoroughly mixed; they are then calcined in a mattrass, and the sublimation of the other ingredients leaves the tin converted into the aurum mosaicum, which is found at the bottom of the glass, like a mass of bright flakey gold powder. Should any black or discoloured particles appear, they must be removed. The sal-ammoniac used here must be very white and clear, and the mercury quite pure and unadulterated. When a shade of deeper red is required, it can easily be obtained by grinding a very small quantity of red lead along with the above materials.

175. DUTCH OR GERMAN GOLD

A gilding powder is sometimes made from Dutch gold, which is sold in books at a very low price. This is treated in the same way as the real gold leaf in making the true gold powder. It is necessary, when this inferior powder is used, to cover the gilding with a coat of clear varnish, otherwise it soon loses its metallic appearance. The same remark applies, though to a less degree, to Mosaic gilding.

176. COPPER POWDER

This is prepared by dissolving filings or slips of copper with nitrous acid in a receiver. When the acid is saturated, the slips are to be removed; or, if filings be employed, the solution is to be poured off from what remains undissolved; small bars are then put in, which will precipitate the copper from the saturated acid, in a powder of the peculiar appearance and colour of copper, and the liquid being poured from the powder, this is to be washed clean of the crystals by repeated levigations.

177. COMMON SIZE

The size used by painters for most sorts of common work is prepared by boiling in water pieces of parchment, and of the skins of animals and fins of fish, and evaporating the solution to a proper consistency. It only differs, however, from a solution of glue containing fewer foreign ingredients, and in not being so strong.

178. DR. JOHN'S VARNISH FOR PLASTER OF PARIS CASTS

Take of white soap and white wax, each half an ounce, of water two pints; boil them together for a short time in a clean vessel. This varnish is to be applied when cold, by means of a soft brush. It does not sink in, it readily dries, and its effect may be heightened by lightly using a silk pocket handkerchief.

179. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR BRONZING

This art is nothing but a species of painting, but far from being of the most delicate kind. The principal ingredients made use of in it are the true gold powder, the German gold, the aurum mosaicum, and copper powder, (all above described.) The choice of these powders is, of course, to be determined by the degree of brilliancy you wish to obtain. The powder is mixed with strong gum water or isinglass, and laid on with a brush or pencil; and when not so dry as to have still a certain clamminess, a piece of soft leather wrapped round the finger, is dipped in the powder and rubbed over the work; when the work has been all covered with the bronze, it must be left to dry, and any loose powder then cleared away by a hair pencil.

180. BRONZING IN WOOD

This may be effected by a process somewhat differing from the above, Prussian blue, patent yellow, raw amber, lamp-black, and pipe clay are ground separately with water on a stone, and as much of them as will make a good colour put into a small vessel three-fourths full of size. This mixture is found to succeed best on using about half as much more pipe clay as of any of the other ingredients. The wood being previously cleaned and smoothed, and coated with a mixture of clean size and lamp-black, receives a new coating with the above compound twice successively, having allowed the first to dry. Afterwards the bronze powder is to be laid on with a pencil, and the whole burnished or cleaned anew, observing to repair the parts which may be injured by this operation; next, the work must be coated over with a thin lather of castile soap, which will take off the glare of the burnishing, and afterwards be carefully rubbed with a woollen cloth. The superfluous powder may be rubbed off when dry.

181. IN BRONZING IRON

The subject should be heated to a greater degree than the hand can bear; and German gold, mixed with a small quantity of spirit of wine varnish, spread over it with a pencil; should the iron be already polished, you must heat it well and moisten it with a linen rag dipped in vinegar.

182. BRONZING CASTS OF PLASTER OF PARIS

There is a method of bronzing casts of plaster of Paris analogous to that which we have above given for bronzing wood, but it is not in much repute. Such figures may be beautifully varnished by means of Dr. John's varnish, receipt No. 178. Casts of plaster of Paris may be made by receipt No. 167.

183. SHELL-LAC VARNISH

Dissolve in an iron kettle, one part of pearl-ash in about 8 parts of water; add one part of shell-lac, and heat the whole to ebullition. When the lac is dissolved, cool the solution, and impregnate it with chlorine, till the lac is all precipitated. The precipitate is white, but its colour deepens by washing and consolidation; dissolved in alcohol, lac bleached by the above process yields a varnish which is as free from colour as any copal varnish.

184. CHLORINE FOR SHELL-LAC VARNISH

This may be formed by mixing intimately eight parts of common salt, and three parts of the black oxide of manganese in powder; put this mixture into a retort, then pour four parts of sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal weight of water, and afterwards allowed to cool upon the salt and manganese; the gas will then be immediately liberated, and the operation may be quickened by a moderate heat. A tube leading from the mouth of the retort must be passed into the resinous solution, where the gas will be absorbed, and the lac precipitated.

185. SHELL-LAC VARNISHES OF VARIOUS COLOURS

These may be made by using ant colour in fine powder with the varnish, in the following manner: rub up the colour with a little alcohol or spirits of turpentine till it becomes perfectly smooth, then put it into the cup with the varnish. Shell-lac varnish is the best spirit varnish we have, and may be made any colour by the above process.

186. GOLD OIL-COLOUR, OR SIZE

The English method of preparing the colour in size, which serves as the ground on which the gold is laid, is, to grind together some red oxide of lead with the thickest drying oil that can be procured, the older the better. To make it work freely, it is mixed, before being used, with a little oil of turpentine, till it is brought to a proper consistence. The above four receipts are used in japanning.

187. JAPANNING

If it be woodwork you are about to japan, it must be prepared with size, and some coarse material mixed with it to fill up and harden the grain of the wood, (such as may best suit the colour to be laid on,) which must be rubbed smooth with glass paper when dry. In cases of accident, it is seldom necessary to resize the damaged places, unless they are considerable.

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