Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 3 - "Chitral" to "Cincinnati"
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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally printed in subscript.

(2) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective paragraphs.

(3) Letters topped by Macron are represented as x.

(4) Letters topped by Breve are represented as x.

(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

Article CHOPIN, FREDERIC FRANCOIS: "which excited the wondering enthusiasn of Robert Schumann." 'enthusiasn' amended to 'enthusiasm'.

Article CHRISTIANITY: "only in Alexandria was there a genuine effort make to solve the fundamental problems of God." 'make' amended to 'made'.

Article CHURCH HISTORY: "This enlargement of the bishop's parish and multiplication of the chuches under his care led to a change in the functions of the presbyterate." 'chuches' amended to 'churches'.

Article CIBORIUM: "and in the Western Church the canopy was known as a 'baldaquin,' Ital. baldacchino, from Baldacco, the Itilian name of Bagdad." 'Itilian' amended to 'Italian'.

Article CICERO: "In the war between Marius and Sulla has sympathies were with Sulla, but he did not take up arms" 'has' amended to 'his'.





Chitral to Cincinnati



CHITRAL, a native state in the North-West Frontier Province of India. The state of Chitral (see also HINDU KUSH) is somewhat larger than Wales, and supports a population of about 35,000 rough, hardy hillmen. Previous estimates put the number far higher, but as the Mehtar assesses his fighting strength at 8000 only, this number is probably not far wrong. Both the state and its capital are called Chitral, the latter being situated about 47 m. from the main watershed of the range of the Hindu Kush, which divides the waters flowing down to India from those which take their way into the Oxus. Chitral is an important state because of its situation at the extremity of the country over which the government of India exerts its influence, and for some years before 1895 it had been the object of the policy of the government of India to control the external affairs of Chitral in a direction friendly to British interests, to secure an effective guardianship over its northern passes, and to keep watch over what goes on beyond these passes. This policy resulted in a British agency being established at Gilgit (Kashmir territory), with a subordinate agency in Chitral, the latter being usually stationed at Mastuj (65 m. nearer to Gilgit than the Chitral capital), and occasional visits being paid to the capital. Chitral can be reached either by the long circuitous route from Gilgit, involving 200 m. of hill roads and the passage of the Shandur pass (12,250 ft.), or (more directly) from the Peshawar frontier at Malakand by 100 m. of route through the independent territories of Swat and Bajour, involving the passage of the Lowarai (10,450 ft). It is held by a small force as a British outpost.

The district of Chitral is called Kashgar (or Kashkar) by the people of the country; and as it was under Chinese domination in the middle of the 18th century, and was regarded as a Buddhist centre of some importance by the Chinese pilgrims in the early centuries of our era, it is possible that it then existed as an outlying district of the Kashgar province of Chinese Turkestan, where Buddhism once flourished in cities that have been long since buried beneath the sand-waves of the Takla Makan. The aboriginal population of the Chitral valley is probably to be recognized in the people called Kho (speaking a language called Khowar), who form the majority of its inhabitants. Upon the Kho a people called Ronas have been superimposed. The Ronas, who form the chief caste and fighting race of the Chitral districts, originally came from the north, but they have adopted the language and fashions of the conquered Chitrali.

The town of Chitral (pop. in 1901, 8128), is chiefly famous for a siege which it sustained in the spring of 1895. Owing to complications arising from the demarcation of the boundary of Afghanistan which was being carried out at that time, and the ambitious projects of Umra Khan, chief of Jandol, which was a tool in the hands of Sher Afzul, a political refugee from Chitral supported by the amir at Kabul, the mehtar (or ruler) of Chitral was murdered, and a small British and Sikh garrison subsequently besieged in the fort. A large force of Afghan troops was at that time in the Chitral river valley to the south of Chitral, nominally holding the Kafirs in check during the progress of boundary demarcation. It is considered probable that some of them assisted the Chitralis in the siege. The position of the political agent Dr Robertson (afterwards Sir George Robertson) and his military force of 543 men (of whom 137 were non-combatants) was at one time critical. Two forces were organized for the relief. One was under Sir R. Low, with 15,000 men, who advanced by way of the Malakand pass, the Swat river and Dir. The other, which was the first to reach Chitral, was under Colonel Kelly, commanding the 32nd Pioneers, who was placed in command of all the troops in the Gilgit district, numbering about 600 all told, with two guns, and instructed to advance by the Shandur pass and Mastuj. This force encountered great difficulties owing to the deep snow on the pass (12,230 ft. high), but it easily defeated the Chitrali force opposed to it and relieved Chitral on the 20th of April, the siege having begun on the 4th of March. Sher Afzul, who had joined Umra Khan, surrendered, and eventually Chitral was restored to British political control as a dependency of Kashmir. During Lord Curzon's vice-royalty the British troops were concentrated at the extreme southern end of the Chitral country at Kila Drosh and the force was reduced, while the posts vacated and all outlying posts were handed over to levies raised for the purpose from the Chitralis themselves. The troops in Swat were also concentrated at Chakdara and reduced in strength. The mehtar, Shuja-ul-Mulk, who was installed in September 1895, visited the Delhi durbar in January 1903.

See Sir George Robertson, Chitral (1898). (T. H. H.*)

CHITTAGONG, a seaport of British India, giving its name to a district and two divisions of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It is situated on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river, about 12 m. from its mouth. It is the terminus of the Assam-Bengal railway. The municipal area covers about 9 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 22,140. The sea-borne exports consist chiefly of jute, other items being tea, raw cotton, rice and hides. There is also a large trade by country boats, bringing chiefly cotton, rice, spices, sugar and tobacco. Since October 1905 Chittagong has become the chief port of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

The DISTRICT OF CHITTAGONG is situated at the north-east corner of the province, occupying a strip of coast and hills between the sea and the mountains of Burma. Its area is 2492 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 1,353,250, showing an increase of 5% in the decade. A few unimportant ranges rise within the north-eastern portion, the highest hill being the sacred Sitakund, 1155 ft. high. The principal rivers are the Karnaphuli, on which Chittagong town is situated, navigable by sea-going ships as far as Chittagong port, and by large trading boats for a considerable distance higher up, and the Halda and the Sangu, which are also navigable by large boats. The wild animals are tigers, elephants, rhinoceros, leopards and deer. The climate is comparatively cool, owing to the sea breeze which prevails during the day; but for the same reason, the atmosphere is very moist, with heavy dews at night and fogs. Chittagong was ceded to the East India Company by Nawab Mir Kasim in 1760. The northern portion of the district is traversed by the Assam-Bengal railway. Tea cultivation is moderately successful.

The CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS formed an independent district from 1860 to 1891, were then reduced to the status of a sub-division, but were again created a district in 1900. They occupy the ranges between Chittagong proper and the south Lushai hills. The area covers 5138 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 124,762, showing an increase of 16% in the decade. The inhabitants, who are either Arakanese or aboriginal tribes, are almost all Buddhists. The headquarters are at Rangamati, which was wrecked by the cyclone of October 1897.

The DIVISION OF CHITTAGONG lies at the north-east corner of the Bay of Bengal, extending northward along the left bank of the Meghna. It consists of the districts of Chittagong, the Hill Tracts, Noakhali and Tippera. Its area covers 11,773 sq. m.; the population in 1901 was 4,737,731.

CHITTUR, a town of British India, in the North Arcot district of Madras, with a station on the South Indian railway. Pop. (1901) 10,893. Formerly a military cantonment, it is now only the civil headquarters of the district. It has an English church, mission chapel, and Roman Catholic chapel, a high school, and several literary institutes.

CHITTY, SIR JOSEPH WILLIAM (1828-1899), English judge, was born in London. He was the second son of Thomas Chitty (himself son and brother of well-known lawyers), a celebrated special pleader and writer of legal text-books, in whose pupil-room many distinguished lawyers began their legal education. Joseph Chitty was educated at Eton and Balliol, Oxford, gaining a first-class in Literae Humaniores in 1851, and being afterwards elected to a fellowship at Exeter College. His principal distinctions during his school and college career had been earned in athletics, and he came to London as a man who had stroked the Oxford boat and captained the Oxford cricket eleven. He became a member of Lincoln's Inn in 1851, was called to the bar in 1856, and made a queen's counsel in 1874, electing to practise as such in the court in which Sir George Jessel, master of the rolls, presided. Chitty was highly successful in his method of dealing with a very masterful if exceedingly able judge, and soon his practice became very large. In 1880 he entered the house of commons as liberal member for Oxford (city). His parliamentary career was short, for in 1881 the Judicature Act required that the master of the rolls should cease to sit regularly as a judge of first instance, and Chitty was selected to fill the vacancy thus created in the chancery division. Sir Joseph Chitty was for sixteen years a popular judge, in the best meaning of the phrase, being noted for his courtesy, geniality, patience and scrupulous fairness, as well as for his legal attainments, and being much respected and liked by those practising before him, in spite of a habit of interrupting counsel, possibly acquired through the example of Sir George Jessel. In 1897, on the retirement of Sir Edward Kay, L.J., he was promoted to the court of appeal. There he more than sustained—in fact, he appreciably increased—his reputation as a lawyer and a judge, proving himself to possess considerable knowledge of the common law as well as of equity. He died in London on the 15th of February 1899. He married in 1858 Clara Jessie, daughter of Chief Baron Pollock, and left children who could thus claim descent from two of the best-known English legal families of the 19th century.

See E. Manson, Builders of our Law (1904).

CHIUSI (anc. Clusium), a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Siena, 55 m. S.E. by rail from the town of Siena, and 26 m. N.N.W. of Orvieto. Pop. (1901) 6011. It is situated on a hill 1305 ft. above sea-level, and is surrounded by medieval walls, in which, in places, fragments of the Etruscan wall are incorporated. The cathedral of S. Mustiola is a basilica with a nave and two aisles, with eighteen columns of different kinds of marble, from ancient buildings. It has been restored and decorated with frescoes in modern times. The campanile belongs to the 13th century. The place was devastated by malaria in the middle ages, and did not recover until the Chiana valley was drained in the 18th century. For the catacombs see CLUSIUM.

CHIVALRY (O. Fr. chevalerie, from Late Lat. caballerius), the knightly class of feudal times, possessing its own code of rules, moral and social (see KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY). The primary sense in the middle ages is "knights" or "fully armed and mounted fighting men." Thence the term came to mean that gallantry in battle and high sense of honour in general expected of knights. Thus "to do chivalry" was a medieval phrase for "to act the knight." Lastly, the word came to be used in its present very general sense of "courtesy." In English law chivalry meant the tenure of land by knights' service. It was a service due to the crown, usually forty days' military attendance annually. The Court of Chivalry was a court instituted by Edward III., of which the lord high constable and earl marshal of England were joint judges. When both sat the court had summary criminal jurisdiction as regards all offences committed by knights, and generally as to military matters. When the earl marshal alone presided, it was a court of honour deciding as to precedence, coats of arms, &c. This court sat for the last time in 1737. The heraldic side of its duties are now vested in the earl marshal as head of the Heralds' College.

CHIVASSO, a town and episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Turin, 18 m. N.E. by rail from the town of Turin, 600 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 4169 (town), 9804 (commune). It is situated on the left bank of the Po, near the influx of the Orco. The cathedral is of the 15th century with a fine facade ornamented with statues in terra-cotta. It was an important fortress in the middle ages, and until 1804, when the French dismantled it. One tower only of the old castle of the marquesses of Monferrato, who possessed the town from 1164 to 1435, remains. Chivasso is on the main line from Turin to Milan, and is the junction of branches for Aosta and Casale Monferrato.

CHIVE (Allium Schoenoprasum), a hardy perennial plant, with small narrow bulbs tufted on short root-stocks and long cylindrical hollow leaves. It is found in the north of England and in Cornwall, and growing in rocky pastures throughout temperate and northern Europe and Asiatic Russia, and also in the mountain districts of southern Europe. It is cultivated for the sake of its leaves, which are used in salads and soups as a substitute for young onions. It will grow in any good soil, and is propagated by dividing the roots into small clumps in spring or autumn; these are planted from 8 to 12 in. apart and soon form large tufts. The leaves should be cut frequently so as to obtain them tender and succulent.

CHLOPICKI, GREGORZ JOZEF (1772-1854), Polish general, was born in March 1772 in Podolia. He was educated at the school of the Basilians at Szarogrod, from which in 1787 he ran away in order to enlist as a volunteer in the Polish army. He was present at all the engagements fought during 1792-1794, especially distinguishing himself at the battle of Raclawice, when he was General Rymkiewicz's adjutant. On the formation of the Italian legion he joined the second battalion as major, and was publicly complimented by General Oudinot for his extraordinary valour at the storming of Peschiera. He also distinguished himself at the battles of Modena, Busano, Casabianca and Ponto. In 1807 he commanded the first Vistulan regiment, and rendered good service at the battles of Eylau and Friedland. In Spain he obtained the legion of honour and the rank of a French baron for his heroism at the battle of Epila and the storming of Saragossa, and in 1809 was promoted to be general of brigade. In 1812 he accompanied the Grande Armee to Russia, was seriously wounded at Smolensk, and on the reconstruction of the Polish army in 1813 was made a general of division. On his return to Poland in 1814, he entered the Russian army with the rank of a general officer, but a personal insult from the grand duke Constantine resulted in his retiring into private life. He held aloof at first from the Polish national rising of 1830, but at the general request of his countrymen accepted the dictatorship on the 5th of December 1830; on the 23rd of January 1831, however, he resigned in order to fight as a common soldier. At Wavre (Feb. 19) and at Grochow (Feb. 20) he displayed all his old bravery, but was so seriously wounded at the battle of Olszyna that he had to be conveyed to Cracow, near which city he lived in complete retirement till his death in 1854.

See Jozef Maczynski, Life and Death of Joseph Chlopicki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1858); Ignacy Pradzynski, The Four Last Polish Commanders (Pol.) (Posen, 1865).

CHLORAL, or TRICHLORACETALDEHYDE, CCl3.CHO, a substance discovered by J. von Liebig in 1832 (Ann., 1832, 1, p. 189) and further studied by J.B.A. Dumas and Staedeler. It is a heavy, oily and colourless liquid, of specific gravity 1.541 at 0 deg. C., and boiling-point 97.7 deg. C. It has a greasy, somewhat bitter taste, and gives off a vapour at ordinary temperature which has a pungent odour and an irritating effect on the eyes. The word chloral is derived from the first syllables of chlorine and alcohol, the names of the substances employed for its preparation. Chloral is soluble in alcohol and ether, in less than its own weight of water, and in four times its weight of chloroform; it absorbs chlorine, and dissolves bromine, iodine, phosphorus and sulphur. Chloral deliquesces in the air, and is converted by water into a hydrate, with evolution of heat; it combines with alcohols and mercaptans. An ammoniacal solution of silver nitrate is reduced by chloral; and nascent hydrogen converts it into aldehyde. By means of phosphorus pentachloride, chlorine can be substituted for the oxygen of chloral, the body CCl3.CCl2H being produced; an analogous compound, CCl3.C(C6H5)2H, is obtained by treating chloral with benzene and sulphuric acid. With an alkali, chloral gives chloroform (q.v.) and a formate; oxidizing agents give trichloracetic acid, CCl3.CO(OH). When kept for some days, as also when placed in contact with sulphuric acid or a very small quantity of water, chloral undergoes spontaneous change into the polymeride metachloral (C2Cl3OH)3, a white porcellaneous body, slowly volatile in the air, and reconverted into chloral without melting at 180 deg. C. Chloral unites directly with hydrocyanic acid to form [beta]-trichloracetonitrile, CCl3.CH(OH)CN, and with hydroxylamine it forms chlorglyoxime, C2H3ClN2O2.

Chloral is prepared by passing dry chlorine into absolute alcohol; the latter must be cooled at first, but towards the end of the operation has to be heated nearly to boiling. The alcohol is converted finally into a syrupy fluid, from which chloral is procured by treatment with sulphuric acid (see P. Fritsch, Ann., 1894, pp. 279, 288). The crude chloral is distilled over lime, and is purified by further treatment with sulphuric acid, and by redistillation. A mixture of starch or sugar with manganese peroxide and hydrochloric acid may be employed instead of alcohol and chlorine for the manufacture of chloral (A. Staedeler, Ann. Ch. Pharm., 1847, 61, p. 101). An isomer of chloral, parachloralide, is made by passing excess of dry chlorine into absolute methyl alcohol.

Chloral hydrate, CCl3.CH(OH)2, forms oblique, often very short, rhombic prisms. The crystals are perfectly transparent, only slightly odorous, free from powder, and dry to the touch, and do not become white by exposure. The melting-point of pure chloral hydrate is 57 deg., the boiling-point 96-98 deg. C. When heated with sulphuric acid it is converted into anhydrous chloral and chloralide, C6H2Cl6O3. When mixed with water, chloral hydrate causes a considerable degree of cold; and, as with camphor, small fragments of it placed on the surface of water exhibit gyratory movements. Chloral hydrate does not restore the colour to a solution of fuchsine which has been decolorized by sulphurous acid, and so one must assume that the water present is combined in the molecular condition (V. Meyer, Ber., 1880, 13, p. 2343). Chloral may be estimated by distilling the hydrate with milk of lime and measuring the volume of chloroform produced (C.H. Wood, Pharm. Journ., (3) 1, p. 703), or by hydrolysis with a known volume of standard alkali and back titration with standard acid (V. Meyer, Ber., 1873, 6, p. 600). Chloral hydrate has the property of checking the decomposition of a great number of albuminous substances, such as milk and meat; and a mixture of it with glycerin, according to J. Personne, is suitable for the preservation of anatomical preparations. When heated with concentrated glycerin to a temperature of 110 deg. to 230 deg. C, chloral hydrate yields chloroform, CHCl3, and allyl formate, HCO(OC3H5).

Pharmacology and Therapeutics.—The breaking up of chloral hydrate, in the presence of alkalis, with the production of chloroform and formates, led Liebreich to the conjecture that a similar decomposition might be produced in the blood; and hence his introduction of the drug, in 1869, as an anaesthetic and hypnotic. It is now known, however, that the drug circulates in the blood unchanged, and is excreted in the form of urochloralic acid. The dose is from five to twenty grains or somewhat more, and it is often given in the form of the pharmacopoeial Syrupus Chloral, which contains ten grains of chloral hydrate to the fluid drachm. Chloral hydrate must be well diluted when given by the mouth, as otherwise it may cause considerable gastro-intestinal irritation. In large doses chloral hydrate is a depressant to the circulation and the respiration, and also lowers the temperature. In the above doses the drug is a powerful and safe hypnotic, acting directly on the brain, and producing no preliminary stage of excitement. Very soon—perhaps twenty minutes—after taking such a dose, the patient falls into a sleep which lasts several hours, and is not distinguishable from natural sleep. When he wakes, it is without disagreeable after-symptoms, but with a feeling of natural refreshment. The pupils are always contracted under its influence, except in large doses. There is also rapidly induced a depression of the anterior horns of grey matter in the spinal cord, and as the symptoms of strychnine poisoning are due to violent stimulation of these areas, chloral hydrate is a valuable antidote in such cases. It should not be hypodermically injected. Its disadvantages are that it is powerless when there is pain, resembling in this feature nearly all hypnotics except opium (morphine) and hyoscin. Its action on the gastro-intestinal canal and on the respiratory and circulatory systems renders its use inadvisable when disease of these organs is present. Its action on the spinal cord has been employed with success in cases of tetanus, whooping-cough, urinary incontinence, and strychnine poisoning. In the latter case twenty grains in "normal saline" solution may be directly injected into a subcutaneous vein, but not into the subcutaneous tissues.

Toxicology.—In cases of acute poisoning by chloral hydrate, the symptoms may be summarized as those of profound coma. The treatment is to give a stimulant emetic such as mustard; to keep up the temperature by hot bottles, &c.; to prevent or disturb the patient's morbid sleep by the injection of hot strong coffee into the rectum; and by shouting, flipping with towels, &c.; to use artificial respiration in extreme cases; and to inject strychnine. Strychnine is much less likely, however, to save life after poisoning by chloral hydrate, than chloral hydrate is to save life in poisoning by strychnine.

Chronic poisoning by chloral is a most pernicious drug-habit. The vice is easily and very rapidly acquired. The victim is usually excited and loquacious. He is easily fatigued and suffers from attacks of easily induced syncope. There are signs of gastro-intestinal irritation, and a tendency to cutaneous eruptions of an erythematous type. The patient may succumb to a dose only slightly larger than usual. The treatment is on general principles, there being no specific remedy. The patient must be persuaded to put himself under restraint, and the drug must be stopped at once and entirely.

CHLORATES, the metallic salts of chloric acid; they are all solids, soluble in water, the least soluble being the potassium salt. They may be prepared by dissolving or suspending a metallic oxide or hydroxide in water and saturating the solution with chlorine; by double decomposition; or by neutralizing a solution of chloric acid by a metallic oxide, hydroxide or carbonate. They are all decomposed on heating, with evolution of oxygen; and in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid with liberation of chlorine peroxide. The most important is potassium chlorate, KClO3, which was obtained in 1786 by C.L. Berthollet by the action of chlorine on caustic potash, and this method was at first used for its manufacture. The modern process consists in the electrolysis of a hot solution of potassium chloride, or, preferably, the formation of sodium chlorate by the electrolytic method and its subsequent decomposition by potassium chloride. (See ALKALI MANUFACTURE.) Potassium chlorate crystallizes in large white tablets, of a bright lustre. It melts without decomposition, and begins to give off oxygen at about 370 deg. C. According to F.L. Teed (Proc. Chem. Soc., 1886, p. 141), the decomposition of potassium chlorate by heat is not at all simple, the quantities of chloride and perchlorate produced depending on the temperature. A very gentle heating gives decomposition approximating to the equation of 22KClO3 = 14KClO4 + 8KCl + 5O2, whilst on a more rapid heating the quantities correspond more nearly to 10KClO3 = 6KClO4 + 4KCl + 3O2. The decomposition is rendered more easy and regular by mixing the salt with powdered manganese dioxide. The salt finds application in the preparation of oxygen, in the manufacture of matches, for pyrotechnic purposes, and in medicine. Sodium chlorate, NaClO3, is prepared by the electrolytic process; by passing chlorine into milk of lime and decomposing the calcium chlorate formed by sodium sulphate; or by the action of chlorine on sodium carbonate at low temperature (not above 35 deg. C). It is much more soluble in water than the potassium salt.

Potassium chlorate is very valuable in medicine. Given in large doses it causes rapid and characteristic poisoning, with alterations in the blood and rapid degeneration of nearly all the internal organs; but in small doses—5 to 15 grains—it partly undergoes reduction in the blood and tissues, the chloride being formed and oxygen being supplied to the body-cells in nascent form. Its special uses are in ulceration of the mouth or tongue (ulcerative stomatitis), tonsillitis and pharyngitis. For these conditions it is administered in the form of a lozenge, but may also be swallowed in solution, as it is excreted by the saliva and so reaches the diseased surface. Its remarkable efficacy in healing ulcers of the mouth—for which it is the specific—has been ascribed to a decomposition effected by the carbonic acid which is given off from these ulcers. This releases chloric acid, which, being an extremely powerful antiseptic, kills the bacteria to which the ulcers are due.

CHLORINE (symbol Cl), atomic weight 35.46 (O = 16), a gaseous chemical element of the halogen group, taking its name from the colour, greenish-yellow (Gr. [Greek: chloros]). It was discovered in 1774 by Scheele, who called it dephlogisticated muriatic acid; about 1785, C.L. Berthollet, regarding it as being a compound of hydrochloric acid and oxygen, termed it oxygenized muriatic acid. This view was generally held until about 1810-1811, when Sir H. Davy showed definitely that it was an element, and gave it the name which it now bears.

Chlorine is never found in nature in the uncombined condition, but in combination with the alkali metals it occurs widely distributed in the form of rock-salt (sodium chloride); as sylvine and carnallite, at Stassfuert; and to a smaller extent in various other minerals such as matlockite and horn-mercury. In the form of alkaline chlorides it is found in sea-water and various spring waters, and in the tissues of animals and plants; while, as hydrochloric acid it is found in volcanic gases.

The preparation of chlorine, both on the small scale and commercially, depends on the oxidation of hydrochloric acid; the usual oxidizing agent is manganese dioxide, which, when heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid, forms manganese chloride, water and chlorine:—MnO2 + 4HCl = MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2. The manganese dioxide may be replaced by various other substances, such as red lead, lead dioxide, potassium bichromate, and potassium permanganate. Instead of heating hydrochloric acid with manganese dioxide, use is frequently made of a mixture of common salt and manganese dioxide, to which concentrated sulphuric acid is added and the mixture is then heated:—MnO2 + 2NaCl + 3H2SO4 = MnSO4 + 2NaHSO4 + 2H2O + Cl2. Chlorine may also be obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on bleaching powder.

Owing to the enormous quantities of chlorine required for various industrial purposes, many processes have been devised, either for the recovery of the manganese from the crude manganese chloride of the chlorine stills, so that it can be again utilized, or for the purpose of preparing chlorine without the necessity of using manganese in any form (see ALKALI MANUFACTURE).

Owing to the reduction in the supply of available hydrochloric acid (on account of the increasing use of the "ammonia-soda" process in place of the "Leblanc" process for the manufacture of soda) Weldon tried to adapt the former to the production of chlorine or hydrochloric acid. His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid. One day before him E. Solvay had patented the same process, but neither of them was able to make the method a commercial success. However, in conjunction with Pechiney, of Salindres (near Alais, France), the Weldon-Pechiney process was worked out. The residual magnesium chloride of the ammonia-soda process is evaporated until it ceases to give off hydrochloric acid, and is then mixed with more magnesia: the magnesium oxychloride formed is broken into small pieces and heated in a current of air, when it gives up its chlorine, partly in the uncombined condition and partly in the form of hydrochloric acid, and leaves a residue of magnesia, which can again be utilized for the decomposition of more ammonium chloride (W. Weldon, Journ. of Soc. of Chem. Industry, 1884, p. 387). Greater success attended the efforts of Ludwig Mond, of the firm of Brunner, Mond & Co. In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks. These cylinders are filled with pills, made of a mixture of magnesia, potassium chloride and fireclay, the object of the potassium chloride being to prevent any formation of hydrochloric acid, which might occur if the magnesia was not perfectly dry. At 300 deg. C. the ammonium chloride is decomposed by the magnesia, with the formation of magnesium chloride and ammonia. The mixture is now heated to 600 deg. C. in a current of hot dry gas, containing no free oxygen (the gas from the carbonating plant being used), and then a current of air at the same temperature is passed in. Decomposition takes place and the issuing gas contains 18-20% of chlorine. This percentage drops gradually, and when it is reduced to about 3% the temperature of the apparatus is lowered, by the admission of air, to about 350 deg. C., and the air stream containing the small percentage of chlorine is led off to a second cylinder of pills, which have just been treated with ammonium chloride vapour and are ready for the hot air current. With four cylinders the process is continuous (L. Mond, British Assoc. Reports, 1896, p. 734).

More recently, owing to the production of caustic soda by electrolytic methods, much chlorine has consequently been produced in the same manner (see ALKALI MANUFACTURE).

Chlorine is a gas of a greenish-yellow colour, and possesses a characteristic unpleasant and suffocating smell. It can be liquefied at -34 deg. C. under atmospheric pressure, and at -102 deg. C. it solidifies and crystallizes. Its specific heat at constant pressure is 0.1155, and at constant volume 0.08731 (A. Strecker, Wied. Ann., 1877 [2], 13, p. 20); and its refractive index 1.000772, whilst in the liquid condition the refractive index is 1.367. The density is 2.4885 (air = 1) (Treadwell and Christie, Zeit. anorg. Chem., 1905, 47, p. 446). Its critical temperature is 146 deg. C. Liquid and solid chlorine are both yellow in colour. The gas must be collected either by downward displacement, since it is soluble in water and also attacks mercury; or over a saturated salt solution, in which it is only slightly soluble. At ordinary temperatures it unites directly with many other elements; thus with hydrogen, combination takes place in direct sunlight with explosive violence; arsenic, antimony, thin copper foil and phosphorus take fire in an atmosphere of chlorine, forming the corresponding chlorides. Many compounds containing hydrogen are readily decomposed by the gas; for example, a piece of paper dipped in turpentine inflames in an atmosphere of chlorine, producing hydrochloric acid and a copious deposit of soot; a lighted taper burns in chlorine with a dull smoky flame. The solution of chlorine in water, when freshly prepared, possesses a yellow colour, but on keeping becomes colourless, on account of its decomposition into hydrochloric acid and oxygen. It is on this property that its bleaching and disinfecting power depends (see BLEACHING). Water saturated with chlorine at 0 deg. C. deposits crystals of a hydrate Cl2.8H2O, which is readily decomposed at a higher temperature into its constituents. Chlorine hydrate has an historical importance, as by sealing it up in a bent tube, and heating the end containing the hydrate, whilst the other limb of the tube was enclosed in a freezing mixture, M. Faraday was first able to obtain liquid chlorine.

Chlorine is used commercially for the extraction of gold (q.v.) and for the manufacture of "bleaching powder" and of chlorates. It also finds an extensive use in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent, as well as for the preparation of addition compounds. For purposes of substitution, the free element as a rule only works slowly on saturated compounds, but the reaction may be accelerated by the action of sunlight or on warming, or by using a "carrier." In these latter cases the reaction may proceed in different directions; thus, with the aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine in the cold or in the presence of a carrier substitutes in the benzene nucleus, but in the presence of sunlight or on warming, substitution takes place in the side chain. Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.

The atomic weight of chlorine was determined by J. Berzelius and by F. Penny (Phil, Trans., 1839, 13). J.S. Stas, from the synthesis of silver chloride, obtained the value 35.457 (O = 16), and C. Marignac found the value 34.462. More recent determinations are: H.B. Dixon and E.C. Edgar (Phil. Trans., 1905); T.W. Richards and G. Jones (Abst. J.C.S., 1907); W.A. Noyes and H.C. Weber (ibid., 1908), and Edgar (ibid., 1908).

Hydrochloric Acid.—Chlorine combines with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid, HCl, the only known compound of these two elements. The acid itself was first obtained by J.R. Glauber in about 1648, but J. Priestley in 1772 was the first to isolate it in the gaseous condition, and Sir H. Davy in 1810 showed that it contained hydrogen and chlorine only, as up to that time it was considered to contain oxygen. It may be prepared by the direct union of its constituents (see Burgess and Chapman, J.C.S., 1906, 89, p. 1399), but on the large scale and also for the preparation of small quantities it is made by the decomposition of salt by means of concentrated sulphuric acid, NaCl+H2SO4=NaHSO4+HCl. It is chiefly obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of soda-ash by the Leblanc process (see ALKALI MANUFACTURE). The commercial acid is usually yellow in colour and contains many impurities, such as traces of arsenic, sulphuric acid, chlorine, ferric chloride and sulphurous acid; but these do not interfere with its application to the preparation of bleaching powder, in which it is chiefly consumed. Without further purification it is also used for "souring" in bleaching, and in tin and lead soldering.

It is a colourless gas, which can be condensed by cold and pressure to a liquid boiling at -83.7 deg. C., and can also be solidified, the solid melting at -112.5 deg. C. (K. Olszewski). Its critical temperature is 52.3 deg. C., and its critical pressure is 86 atmos. The gas fumes strongly in moist air, and it is rapidly dissolved by water, one volume of water at 0 deg. C. absorbing 503 volumes of the gas. The gas does not obey Henry's law, that is, its solubility in water is not proportional to its pressure. It is one of the "strong" acids, being ionized to the extent of about 91.4% in decinormal solution. The strongest aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid at 15 deg. C. contains 42.9% of the acid, and has a specific gravity of 1.212. Perfectly dry hydrochloric acid gas has no action on metals, but in aqueous solution it dissolves many of them with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides.

The salts of hydrochloric acid, known as chlorides, can, in most cases, be prepared by dissolving either the metal, its hydroxide, oxide, or carbonate in the acid; or by heating the metal in a current of chlorine, or by precipitation. The majority of the metallic chlorides are solids (stannic chloride, titanic chloride and antimony pentachloride are liquids) which readily volatilize on heating. Many are readily soluble in water, the chief exceptions being silver chloride, mercurous chloride, cuprous chloride and palladious chloride which are insoluble in water, and thallous chloride and lead chloride which are only slightly soluble in cold water, but are readily soluble in hot water. Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions. All the metallic chlorides, with the exception of those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, are reduced either to the metallic condition or to that of a lower chloride on heating in a current of hydrogen; most are decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid. They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively. Some metallic chlorides readily form double chlorides, the most important of these double salts being the platinochlorides of the alkali metals. The chlorides of the non-metallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boiling-point, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water. Hydrochloric acid and its metallic salts can be recognized by the formation of insoluble silver chloride, on adding silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, and also by the formation of chromium oxychloride (see above). Chlorides can be estimated quantitatively by conversion into silver chloride, or if in the form of alkaline chlorides (in the absence of other metals, and of any free acids) by titration with standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as an indicator.

Chlorine and oxygen do not combine directly, but compounds can be obtained indirectly. Three oxides are known: chlorine monoxide, Cl2O, chlorine peroxide, ClO2, and chlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7.

Chlorine monoxide results on passing chlorine over dry precipitated mercuric oxide. It is a pale yellow gas which can be condensed, on cooling, to a dark-coloured liquid boiling at 5 deg. C. (under a pressure of 737.9 mm.). It is extremely unstable, decomposing with extreme violence on the slightest shock or disturbance, or on exposure to sunlight. It is readily soluble in water, with which it combines to form hypochlorous acid. Sulphur, phosphorus, carbon compounds, and the alkali metals react violently with the gas, taking fire with explosive decomposition. A.J. Balard determined the volume composition of the gas by decomposition over mercury on gentle warming, followed by the absorption of the chlorine produced with potassium hydroxide, and then measured the residual oxygen.

Chlorine peroxide was first obtained by Sir H. Davy in 1815 by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on potassium chlorate. As this oxide is a dangerous explosive, great care must be taken in its preparation; the chlorate is finely powdered and added in the cold, in small quantities at a time, to the acid contained in a retort. After solution the retort is gently heated by warm water when the gas is liberated:—3KClO3 + 2H2SO4 = KClO4 + 2KHSO4 + H2O + ClO2. A mixture of chlorine peroxide and chlorine is obtained by the action of hydrochloric acid on potassium chlorate, and similarly, on warming a mixture of potassium chlorate and oxalic acid to 70 deg. C. on the water bath, a mixture of chlorine peroxide and carbon dioxide is obtained. Chlorine peroxide must be collected by displacement, as it is soluble in water and readily attacks mercury. It is a heavy gas of a deep yellow colour and possesses an unpleasant smell. It can be liquefied, the liquid boiling at 9.9 deg. C., and on further cooling it solidifies at -79 deg. C. It is very explosive, being resolved into its constituents by influence of light, on warming, or on application of shock. It is a very powerful oxidant; a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar in about equal proportions spontaneously inflames when touched with a rod moistened with concentrated sulphuric acid, the chlorine peroxide liberated setting fire to the sugar, which goes on burning. Similarly, phosphorus can be burned under water by covering it with a little potassium chlorate and running in a thin stream of concentrated sulphuric acid (see papers by Bray, Zeit. phys. Chem., 1906, et seq.).

Chlorine heptoxide was obtained by A. Michael by slowly adding perchloric acid to phosphoric oxide below -10 deg. C.; the mixture is allowed to stand for a day and then gently warmed, when the oxide distils over as a colourless very volatile oil of boiling-point 82 deg. C. It turns to a greenish-yellow colour in two or three days and gives off a greenish gas; it explodes violently on percussion or in contact with a flame, and is gradually converted into perchloric acid by the action of water. On the addition of iodine to this oxide, chlorine is liberated and a white substance is produced, which decomposes, on heating to 380 deg. C, into iodine and oxygen; bromine is without action (see A. Michael, Amer. Chem. Jour., 1900, vol. 23; 1901, vol. 25).

Several oxy-acids of chlorine are known, namely, hypochlorous acid, HClO, chlorous acid, HClO2 (in the form of its salts), chloric acid, HClO3, and perchloric acid, HClO4. Hypochlorous acid is formed when chlorine monoxide dissolves in water, and can be prepared (in dilute solution) by passing chlorine through water containing precipitated mercuric oxide in suspension. Precipitated calcium carbonate may be used in place of the mercuric oxide, or a hypochlorite may be decomposed by a dilute mineral acid and the resulting solution distilled. For this purpose a filtered solution of bleaching-powder and a very dilute solution of nitric acid may be employed. The acid is only known in aqueous solution, and only dilute solutions can be distilled without decomposition. The solution has a pale yellow colour, and is a strong oxidizing and bleaching agent; it is readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid, with evolution of oxygen. The salts of this acid are known as hypochlorites, and like the acid itself are very unstable, so that it is almost impossible to obtain them pure. A solution of sodium hypochlorite (Eau de Javel), which can be prepared by passing chlorine into a cold aqueous solution of caustic soda, has been extensively used for bleaching purposes. One of the most important derivatives of hypochlorous acid is bleaching powder. Sodium hypochlorite can be prepared by the electrolysis of brine solution in the presence of carbon electrodes, having no diaphragm in the electrolytic cell, and mixing the anode and cathode products by agitating the liquid. The temperature should be kept at about 15 deg. C., and the concentration of the hypochlorite produced must not be allowed to become too great, in order to prevent reduction taking place at the cathode.

Chlorous acid is not known in the pure condition; but its sodium salt is prepared by the action of sodium peroxide on a solution of chlorine peroxide: 2ClO2 + Na2O2 = 2NaClO2 + O2. The silver and lead salts are unstable, being decomposed with explosive violence at 100 deg. C. On adding a caustic alkali solution to one of chlorine peroxide, a mixture of a chlorite and a chlorate is obtained.

Chloric acid was discovered in 1786 by C.L. Berthollet, and is best prepared by decomposing barium chlorate with the calculated amount of dilute sulphuric acid. The aqueous solution can be concentrated in vacuo over sulphuric acid until it contains 40% of chloric acid. Further concentration leads to decomposition, with evolution of oxygen and formation of perchloric acid. The concentrated solution is a powerful oxidizing agent; organic matter being oxidized so rapidly that it frequently inflames. Hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphurous acid are rapidly oxidized by chloric acid. J.S. Stas determined its composition by the analysis of pure silver chlorate. The salts of this acid are known as chlorates (q.v.).

Perchloric acid is best prepared by distilling potassium perchlorate with concentrated sulphuric acid. According to Sir H. Roscoe, pure perchloric acid distils over at first, but if the distillation be continued a white crystalline mass of hydrated perchloric acid, HClO4.H2O, passes over; this is due to the decomposition of some of the acid into water and lower oxides of chlorine, the water produced then combining with the pure acid to produce the hydrated form. This solid, on redistillation, gives the pure acid, which is a liquid boiling at 39 deg. C. (under a pressure of 56 mm.) and of specific gravity 1.764 (22/4) deg.. The crystalline hydrate melts at 50 deg. C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution. It is a very powerful oxidizing agent; wood and paper in contact with the acid inflame with explosive violence. In contact with the skin it produces painful wounds. It may be distinguished from chloric acid by the fact that it does not give chlorine peroxide when treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, and that it is not reduced by sulphurous acid. The salts of the acid are known as the perchlorates, and are all soluble in water; the potassium and rubidium salts, however, are only soluble to a slight extent. Potassium perchlorate, KClO4, can be obtained by carefully heating the chlorate until it first melts and then nearly all solidifies again. The fused mass is then extracted with water to remove potassium chloride, and warmed with hydrochloric acid to remove unaltered chlorate, and finally extracted with water again, when a residue of practically pure perchlorate is obtained. The alkaline perchlorates are isomorphous with the permanganates.

CHLORITE, a group of green micaceous minerals which are hydrous silicates of aluminium, magnesium and ferrous iron. The name was given by A.G. Werner in 1798, from [Greek: chloritis], "a green stone." Several species and many rather ill-defined varieties have been described, but they are difficult to recognize. Like the micas, the chlorites (or "hydromicas") are monoclinic in crystallization and have a perfect cleavage parallel to the flat face of the scales and plates. The cleavage is, however, not quite so prominent as in the micas, and the cleavage flakes though pliable are not elastic. The chlorites usually occur as salt (H=2-3) scaly aggregates of a dark-green colour. They vary in specific gravity between 2.6 and 3.0, according to the amount of iron present. Well-developed crystals are met with only in the species clinochlore and penninite; those of the former are six-sided plates and are optically biaxial, whilst those of the latter have the form of acute rhombohedra and are usually optically uniaxial. The species prochlorite and corundophilite also occur as more or less distinct six-sided plates. These four better crystallized species are grouped together by G. Tschermak as orthochlorites, the finely scaly and indistinctly fibrous forms being grouped by the same author as leptochlorites.

Chemically, the chlorites are distinguished from the micas by the presence of a considerable amount of water (about 13%) and by not containing alkalis; from the soft, scaly, mineral talc they differ in containing aluminium (about 20%) as an essential constituent. The magnesia (up to 36%) is often in part replaced by ferrous oxide (up to 30%), and the alumina to a lesser extent by ferric oxide; alumina may also be partly replaced by chromic oxide, as in the rose-red varieties kaemmererite and kotschubeite. The composition of both clinochlore and penninite is approximately expressed by the formula H8(Mg,Fe)5Al2Si3O18, and the formulae of prochlorite and corundophilite are H40(Mg,Fe)23Al14Si13O90 and H20(Mg,Fe)20Al8Si6O45 respectively. The variation in composition of these orthochlorites is explained by G. Tschermak by assuming them to be isomorphous mixtures of H4Mg3Si2O9 (the serpentine molecule) and H4Mg3Al2SiO9 (which is approximately the composition of the chlorite amesite). The leptochlorites are still more complex, and the intermixture of other fundamental molecules has to be assumed; the species recognized by Dana are daphnite, cronstedtite, thuringite, stilpnomelane, strigovite, diabantite, aphrosiderite, delessite and rumpfite.

The chlorites usually occur as alteration products of other minerals, such as pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, garnet, &c., often occurring as pseudomorphs after these, or as earthy material filling cavities in igneous rocks composed of these minerals. Many altered igneous rocks owe their green colour to the presence of secondary chlorite. Chlorite is also an important constituent of many schistose rocks and phyllites, and of chlorite-schist it is the only essential constituent. Well-crystallized specimens of the species clinochlore are found with crystals of garnet in cavities in chlorite-schist at Achmatovsk near Zlatoust, in the Urals, and at the Ala valley near Turin, Piedmont; also as large plates at West Chester in Pennsylvania and at other American localities. Crystals of penninite are found in serpentine at Zermatt in Switzerland and in the green schists of the Zillerthal in Tirol.

Closely allied to the chlorites is another group of micaceous minerals known as the vermiculites, which have resulted by the alteration of the micas, particularly biotite and phlogopite. The name is from the Latin vermiculor, "to breed worms," because when heated before the blowpipe these minerals exfoliate into long worm-like threads. They have the same chemical constituents as the chlorites, but the composition is variable and indefinite, varying with that of the original mineral and the extent of its alteration. Several indistinct varieties have been named, the most important of which is jeffersonite. (L. J. S.)

CHLOROFORM (trichlor-methane), CHCl3, a valuable anaesthetic, a colourless liquid, possessing an agreeable smell and a pleasant taste. It may be prepared by the action of bleaching powder on many carbon compounds, such, for example, as ethyl alcohol and acetone (E. Soubeiran, Ann. chim. phys., 1831 [2], 48, p. 131; J.v. Liebig, Ann., 1832, I, p. 199), by heating chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CCl3CHO + NaHO = CHCl3 + NaHCO2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with ammonia (J. Dumas, Ann., 1839, 32, p. 113). In the preparation of chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is first oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed. Chloroform solidifies in the cold and then melts at -62 deg. C.; it boils at 61.2 deg. C., and has a specific gravity 1.52637 (0 deg./4 deg.) (T.E. Thorpe). It is an exceedingly good solvent, especially for fats, alkaloids and iodine. It is not inflammable. The vapour of chloroform when passed through a red-hot tube yields hexachlorbenzene C6Cl6, perchlorethane C2Cl6, and some perchlorethylene C2Cl4 (W. Ramsay and S. Young, Jahresberichte, 1886, p. 628). Chromic acid converts it into phosgene (carbonyl chloride, COCl2). It reacts with sodium ethylate to form ortho-formic ester, CH(OC2H5)3, and when heated with aqueous ammonia for some hours at 200-220 deg. C. gives carbon monoxide and ammonium formate, 2CHCl3 + 7NH3 + 3H2O = NH4.HCO2 + CO + 6NH4Cl (G. Andre, Jahresb., 1886, p. 627). When digested with phenols and caustic soda it forms oxyaldehydes (K. Reimer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 423); and when heated with alcoholic potash it is converted into potassium formate, CHCl3 + 4KHO = KHCO2 + 3KCl + 2H2O. It combines with acetoacetic ester to form the aromatic compound meta-oxyuvitic acid, C6H2.CH3.OH.(COOH)2. A hydrate, of composition CHCl3.18H2O, has been described (G. Chancel, Fresenius Zeitschrift f. anal. Chemie, 1886, 25, p. 118); it forms hexagonal crystals which melt at 1.6 deg. C.

Chloroform may be readily detected by the production of an isonitrile when it is heated with alcoholic potash and a primary amine; thus with aniline, phenyl isocyanide (recognized by its nauseating smell) is produced,

CHCl3 + C6H5NH2 + 3KHO = C6H5NC + 3KCl + 3H2O.

For the action and use of chloroform as an anaesthetic, see ANAESTHESIA. Chloroform may be given internally in doses of from one to five drops. The British Pharmacopoeia contains a watery solution—the Aqua Chloroformi—which is useful in disguising the taste of nauseous drugs; a liniment which consists of equal parts of camphor liniment and chloroform, and is a useful counter-irritant; the Spiritus Chloroformi (erroneously known as "chloric ether"), which is a useful anodyne in doses of from five to forty drops; and the Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, which is the equivalent of a proprietary drug called chlorodyne. This tincture contains chloroform, morphine and prussic acid, and must be used with the greatest care.

Externally chloroform is an antiseptic, a local anaesthetic if allowed to evaporate, and a rubefacient, causing the vessels of the skin to dilate, if rubbed in. Its action on the stomach is practically identical with that of alcohol (q.v.), though in very much smaller doses. The uses of chloroform which fall to be mentioned here are:—as a counter-irritant; as a local anaesthetic for toothache due to caries, it being applied on a cotton-wool plug which is inserted into the carious cavity; as an antispasmodic in tetanus and hydrophobia; and as the best and most immediate and effective antidote in cases of strychnine poisoning.

CHLOROPHYLL (from Gr. [Greek: chloros], green, [Greek: phyllon], a leaf), the green colouring matter of leaves. It is universally present in growing vegetable cells. The pigment of leaves is a complex mixture of substances; of these one is green, and to this the name, originally given in 1817 by Pelletier and Caventou, is sometimes restricted; xanthophyll (Gr. [Greek: xanthos], yellow) is dark brown; carotin is copper-coloured. Chlorophyll is related chemically to the proteids; a decomposition product, phylloporphyrin, being very closely related to haematoporphyrin, which is a decomposition product of haemoglobin, the red colouring matter of the blood. Chlorophyll is neutral in reaction, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, &c, the solutions exhibiting a green colour and a vivid red fluorescence. Magnesium is a necessary constituent. (See S.B. Schryver, Science Progress, 1909, 3, p. 425.)

CHLOROSIS (Gr. [Greek: chloros], pale green), the botanical term for loss of colour in a plant-organ, a sign of disease; also in medicine, a form of anaemia (see BLOOD: Pathology).

CHLORPICRIN (Nitrochloroform), C.NO2.Cl3, the product of the distillation of many nitro compounds (picric acid, nitromethane, &c.) with bleaching powder; it can also be prepared by the action of concentrated nitric acid on chloral or chloroform. A. W. von Hofmann (Annalen, 1866, 139, p. 111) mixed 10 parts of bleaching powder into a paste with cold water and added a solution (saturated at 30 deg. C.) of 1 part of picric acid. A violent reaction is set up and the chlorpicrin distils over, generally without the necessity for any external heating. It is a colourless liquid of boiling-point 112 deg. C., and of specific gravity 1.692. It is almost insoluble in water, but is readily soluble in alcohol; it has a sharp smell, and its vapour affects the eyes very powerfully. Iron filings and acetic acid reduce it to trimethylamine, whilst alcoholic ammonia converts it into guanidine, HN:C(NH2)2, and sodium ethylate into ortho-carbonic ester, C(OC2H5)4. The corresponding brompicrin is also known.

CHMIELNICKI, BOGDAN (c. 1593-1657), hetman of the Cossacks, son of Michael Chmielnicki, was born at Subatow, near Chigirin in the Ukraine, an estate given to the elder Chmielnicki for his lifelong services to the Polish crown. Bogdan, after learning to read and write, a rare accomplishment in those days, entered the Cossack ranks, was dangerously wounded and taken prisoner in his first battle against the Turks, and found leisure during his two years' captivity at Constantinople to acquire the rudiments of Turkish and French. On returning to the Ukraine he settled down quietly on his paternal estate, and in all probability history would never have known his name if the intolerable persecution of a neighbouring Polish squire, who stole his hayricks and flogged his infant son to death, had not converted the thrifty and acquisitive Cossack husbandman into one of the most striking and sinister figures of modern times. Failing to get redress nearer home, he determined to seek for justice at Warsaw, whither he had been summoned with other Cossack delegates to assist Wladislaus IV. in his long-projected war against the Turks. The king, perceiving him to be a man of some education and intelligence, appointed him pisarz or secretary of the registered Cossacks, and he subsequently served under Koniecpolski in the Ukraine campaign of 1646. His hopes of distinction were, however, cut short by a decree of the Polish diet, which, in order to vex the king, refused to sanction the continuance of the war. Chmielnicki, now doubly hateful to the Poles as being both a royalist and a Cossack, was again maltreated and chicaned, and only escaped from gaol by bribing his gaolers. Thirsting for vengeance, he fled to the Cossack settlements on the Lower Dnieper and thence sent messages to the khan of the Crimea, urging a simultaneous invasion of Poland by the Tatars and the Cossacks (1647).

On the 11th of April 1648, at an assembly of the Zaporozhians (see POLAND: History), he openly declared his intention of proceeding against the Poles, and was elected ataman by acclamation. At Zheltnaya Vodui (Yellow Waters) in the Ukraine he annihilated, on the 19th of May, a detached Polish army corps after three days' desperate fighting, and on the 26th routed the main Polish army under the grand hetman, Stephen Potocki, at Kruta Balka (Hard Plank), near the river Korsun. The immediate consequence of these victories was the outbreak of a "serfs' fury." Throughout the Ukraine the Polish gentry were hunted down, flayed and burnt alive, blinded and sawn asunder. Every manor-house was reduced to ashes. Every Uniat and Catholic priest was hung up before his own altar, along with a Jew and a hog. The panic-stricken inhabitants fled to the nearest strongholds, and soon the rebels were swarming all over the palatinates of Volhynia and Podolia. But the ataman was as crafty as he was cruel. Disagreeably awakened to the insecurity of his position by the refusal of the tsar and the sultan to accept him as a vassal, he feigned to resume negotiations with the Poles in order to gain time, dismissed the Polish commissioners in the summer of 1648 with impossible conditions, and on the 23rd of September, after a contest of three days, utterly routed the Polish chivalry, 40,000 strong, at Pildawa, where the Cossacks are said to have reaped an immense booty after the fight was over. All Poland now lay at his feet, and the road to the defenceless capital was open before him; but he wasted the precious months in vain before the fortress of Zamosc, and was then persuaded by the new king of Poland, John Casimir, to consent to a suspension of hostilities. In June 1649, arrayed in cloth-of-gold and mounted on a white charger, Chmielnicki made his triumphal entry into Kiev, where he was hailed as the Maccabaeus of the Orthodox faith, and permitted the committal of unspeakable atrocities on the Jews and Roman Catholics. At the ensuing peace congress at Pereyaslavl he demanded terms so extravagant that the Polish commissioners dared not listen to them. In 1649, therefore, the war was resumed. A bloody battle ensued near Zborow, on the banks of the Strypa, when only the personal valour of the Polish king, the superiority of the Polish artillery, and the defection of Chmielnicki's allies the Tatars enabled the royal forces to hold their own. Peace was then patched up by the compact of Zborow (August 21, 1649), whereby Chmielnicki was virtually recognized as a semi-independent prince.

For the next eighteen months he was the absolute master of the Ukraine, which he divided into sixteen provinces, made his native place Chigirin the Cossack capital, and entered into direct relations with foreign powers. Poland and Muscovy competed for his alliance, and in his more exalted moods he meditated an Orthodox crusade against the Turk at the head of the northern Slavs. But he was no statesman, and his difficulties proved overwhelming. Instinct told him that his old ally the khan of the Crimea was unreliable, and that the tsar of Muscovy was his natural protector, yet he could not make up his mind to abandon the one or turn to the other. His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia, which Poland regarded as her vassal, led to the outbreak in 1651 of a third war between subject and suzerain, which speedily assumed the dignity and the dimensions of a crusade. Chmielnicki was now regarded not merely as a Cossack rebel, but as the arch-enemy of Catholicism in eastern Europe, and the pope granted a plenary absolution to all who took up arms against him. But Bogdan himself was not without ecclesiastical sanction. The archbishop of Corinth girded him with a sword which had lain upon the Holy Sepulchre, and the metropolitan of Kiev absolved him from all his sins, without the usual preliminary of confession, before he rode forth to battle. But fortune, so long his friend, now deserted him, and at Beresteczko (July 1, 1651) the Cossack ataman was defeated for the first time. But even now his power was far from broken. In 1652 he openly interfered in the affairs of Transylvania and Walachia, and assumed the high-sounding title of "guardian of the Ottoman Porte." In 1653 Poland made a supreme effort, the diet voted 17,000,000 gulden in subsidies, and John Casimir led an army of 60,000 men into the Ukraine and defeated the arch-rebel at Zranta, whereupon Chmielnicki took the oath of allegiance to the tsar (compact of Pereyaslavl, February 19, 1654), and all hope of an independent Cossack state was at an end. He died on the 7th of August 1657. With all his native ability, Chmielnicki was but an eminent savage. He was the creature of every passing mood or whim, incapable of cool and steady judgment or of the slightest self-control—an incalculable weather-cock, blindly obsequious to every blast of passion. He could destroy, but he could not create, and other people benefited by his exploits.

See P. Kulish, On the Defection of Malo-Russia from Poland (Rus.) (Moscow, 1890); S.M. Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.) (Moscow, 1857, &c.), vol. x.; Robert Nisbet Bain, The First Romanovs, chaps. 3-4 (London, 1905). (R. N. B.)

CHOATE, JOSEPH HODGES (1832- ), American lawyer and diplomat, was born at Salem, Massachusetts, on the 24th of January 1832. He was the son of Dr George Choate, a physician of considerable note, and was a nephew of Rufus Choate. After graduating at Harvard College in 1852 and at the law school of Harvard University in 1854, he was admitted first to the Massachusetts (1855) and then (1856) to the New York bar, and entered the law office of Scudder & Carter in New York City. His success in his profession was immediate, and in 1860 he became junior partner in the firm of Evarts, Southmayd & Choate, the senior partner in which was William M. Evarts. This firm and its successor, that of Evarts, Choate & Beaman, remained for many years among the leading law firms of New York and of the country, the activities of both being national rather than local. During these busy years Mr Choate was associated with many of the most famous litigations in American legal history, including the Tilden, A.T. Stewart, and Stanford will cases, the Kansas prohibition cases, the Chinese exclusion cases, the Maynard election returns case, and the Income Tax Suit. In 1871 he became a member of the "Committee of Seventy" in New York City, which was instrumental in breaking up the "Tweed Ring," and later assisted in the prosecution of the indicted officials. In the retrial of the General Fitz John Porter case he obtained a reversal of the decision of the original court-martial. His greatest reputation was won perhaps in cross-examination. In politics he allied himself with the Republican party on its organization, being a frequent speaker in presidential campaigns, beginning with that of 1856. He never held political office, although he was a candidate for the Republican senatorial nomination against Senator Thomas C. Platt in 1897. In 1894 he was president of the New York state constitutional convention. He was appointed, by President McKinley, ambassador to Great Britain to succeed John Hay in 1899, and remained in this position until the spring of 1905. In England he won great personal popularity, and accomplished much in fostering the good relations of the two great English-speaking powers. He was one of the representatives of the United States at the second Peace Congress at the Hague in 1907.

Several of his notable public addresses have been published. The Choate Story Book (New York, 1903) contains a few of his addresses and after-dinner speeches, and is prefaced by a brief biographical sketch.

CHOATE, RUFUS (1799-1859), American lawyer and orator, was born at Ipswich, Massachusetts, on the 1st of October 1799, the descendant of a family which settled in Massachusetts in 1667. As a child he was remarkably precocious; at six he is said to have been able to repeat large parts of the Bible and of Pilgrim's Progress by heart. He graduated as valedictorian of his class at Dartmouth College in 1819, was a tutor there in 1819-1820, spent a year in the law school of Harvard University, and studied for a like period at Washington, in the office of William Wirt, then attorney-general of the United States. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1823 and practised at what was later South Danvers (now Peabody) for five years, during which time he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1825-1826) and in the state senate (1827). In 1828 he removed to Salem, where his successful conduct of several important law-suits brought him prominently into public notice. In 1830 he was elected to Congress as a Whig from the Salem district, defeating the Jacksonian candidate for re-election, B.W. Crowninshield (1772-1851), a former secretary of the navy, and in 1832 he was re-elected. His career in Congress was marked by a notable speech in defence of a protective tariff. In 1834, before the completion of his second term, he resigned and established himself in the practice of law in Boston. Already his fame as a speaker had spread beyond New England, and he was much sought after as an orator for public occasions. For several years he devoted himself unremittingly to his profession, but in 1841 succeeded Daniel Webster in the United States Senate. Shortly afterwards he delivered one of his most eloquent addresses at the memorial services for President Harrison in Faneuil Hall, Boston. In the Senate he made a series of brilliant speeches on the tariff, the Oregon boundary, in favour of the Fiscal Bank Act, and in opposition to the annexation of Texas. On Webster's re-election to the Senate, Choate resumed (1845) his law practice, which no amount of urging could ever persuade him to abandon for public office, save for a short term as attorney-general of Massachusetts in 1853-1854. In 1853 he was a member of the state constitutional convention. He was a faithful supporter of Webster's policy as declared in the latter's famous "Seventh of March Speech" (1850) and laboured to secure for him the presidential nomination at the Whig national convention in 1852. In 1856 he refused to follow most of his former Whig associates into the Republican party and gave his support to James Buchanan, whom he considered the representative of a national instead of a sectional party. In July 1859 failing health led him to seek rest in a trip to Europe, but he died on the 13th of that month at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he had been put ashore when it was seen that he probably could not outlive the voyage across the Atlantic. Choate, besides being one of the ablest of American lawyers, was one of the most scholarly of American public men, and his numerous orations and addresses were remarkable for their pure style, their grace and elegance of form, and their wealth of classical allusion.

His Works (edited, with a memoir, by S.G. Brown) were published in 2 vols. at Boston in 1862. The Memoir was afterwards published separately (Boston, 1870). See also E.G. Parker's Reminiscences of Rufus Choate (New York, 1860); E.P. Whipple's Some Recollections of Rufus Choate (New York, 1879); and the Albany Law Review (1877-1878).

CHOBE, a large western affluent of the middle Zambezi (q.v.). The river was discovered by David Livingstone in 1851, and to him was known as the Chobe. It is also called the Linyante and the Kwando, the last name being that commonly used.

CHOCOLATE, a paste of the ground kernels of the cocoa bean, mixed with sugar, vanilla or other flavouring, made into a cake, which is used for the manufacture of various forms of sweetmeat, or in making the beverage, also known as "chocolate," obtained by dissolving cakes of chocolate in boiling water or milk (see COCOA). The word came into Eng. through the Fr. chocolat or Span. chocolate from the Mex. chocolatl. According to the New English Dictionary (quoting R. Simeon, Dict. de la langue Nahuatl), this was "an article of food made of ... the seeds of cacao and of the tree pochotl (Bombax ceiba)," and was etymologically distinct from the Mexican cacauatl, cacao, or cocoa.

CHOCTAWS, CHAHTAS, or CHACATOS (apparently a corruption of Span. chato, flattened), a tribe of North American Indians of Muskhogean stock. They are now settled in Oklahoma, but when first known to Europeans they occupied the district now forming the southern part of Mississippi and the western part of Alabama. On the settlement of Louisiana they formed an alliance with the French, and assisted them against the Natchez and Chickasaws; but by degrees they entered into friendly relations with the English, and at last, in 1786, recognized the supremacy of the United States by the treaty of Hopewell. Their emigration westward began about 1800, and the last remains of their original territory were ceded in 1830. In their new settlements the Choctaws continued to advance in prosperity till the outbreak of the Civil War, which considerably diminished the population and ruined a large part of their property. They sided with the Confederates, and their territory was occupied by Confederate troops; and accordingly at the close of the war they were regarded as having lost their rights. Part of their land they were forced to surrender to the government; their slaves were emancipated; and provision was claimed for them in the shape of either land or money. Since then they have considerably recovered their position. They long constituted a quasi-independent people under the title of the Choctaw nation, and were governed by a chief and a national council of forty members, according to a written constitution, dating in the main from 1838; they possessed a regular judicial system and employed trial by jury. Tribal government virtually ceased in 1906. The Choctaws number some 18,000. A few groups still linger in Mississippi and Louisiana. The Choctaw language has been reduced to writing, and brought to some degree of literary precision.

See INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN; Handbook of American Indians, ed. F.W. Hodge (Washington, 1907).

CHODKIEWICZ, JAN KAROL (1560-1621), Polish general, was the son of Hieronymus Chodkiewicz, castellan of Wilna. After being educated at the Wilna academy he went abroad to learn the science of war, fighting in the Spanish service under Alva, and also under Maurice of Nassau. In 1593 he married the wealthy Sophia Mielecka, by whom he had one son who predeceased him. His first military service at home was against the Cossack rising of Nalewajko as lieutenant to Zolkiewski, and he subsequently assisted Zamoyski in his victorious Moldavian campaign. Honours and dignities were now showered upon him. In 1599 he was appointed starosta of Samogitia, and in 1600 acting commander-in-chief of Lithuania. In the war against Sweden for the possession of Livonia he brilliantly distinguished himself, capturing fortress after fortress and repulsing the duke of Sudermania, afterwards Charles IX, from Riga. In 1604 he captured Dorpat, twice defeated the Swedish generals at Bialy Kamien, and was rewarded with the grand baton of Lithuania. Criminally neglected by the diet, which from sheer niggardliness turned a deaf ear to all his requests for reinforcements and for supplies and money to pay his soldiers, Chodkiewicz nevertheless more than held his own against the Swedes. His crowning achievement was the great victory of Kirkholm (Aug. 27th, 1605), when with barely 5000 men he annihilated a threefold larger Swedish army; for which feat he received letters of congratulation from the pope, all the Catholic potentates, of Europe, and even from the sultan of Turkey and the shah of Persia. Yet this great victory was absolutely fruitless, owing to the domestic dissensions which prevailed in Poland during the following five years. Chodkiewicz's own army, unpaid for years, abandoned him at last en masse in order to plunder the estates of their political opponents, leaving the grand hetman to carry on the war as best he could with a handful of mercenaries paid out of the pockets of himself and his friends. Chodkiewicz was one of the few magnates who remained loyal to the king, and after helping to defeat the rebels in Poland a fresh invasion of Livonia by the Swedes recalled him thither, and once more he relieved Riga besides capturing Pernau. Meanwhile the war with Muscovy broke out, and Chodkiewicz was sent against Moscow with an army of 2000 men—though if there had been a spark of true patriotism in Poland he could easily have marshalled 100,000. Moreover, the diet neglected to pay for the maintenance even of this paltry 2000, with the result that they mutinied and compelled their leader to retreat through the heart of Muscovy to Smolensk. Not till the crown prince Wladislaus arrived with tardy reinforcements did the war assume a different character, Chodkiewicz opening a new career of victory by taking the fortress of Drohobu in 1617. The Muscovite war had no sooner been ended by the treaty of Deulina than Chodkiewicz was hastily despatched southwards to defend the southern frontier against the Turks, who after the catastrophe of Cecora (see ZOLKIEWSKI) had high hopes of conquering Poland altogether. An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance. Here for a whole month the Polish hero held the sultan at bay, till the first fall of autumn snow compelled Osman to withdraw his diminished forces. But the victory was dearly purchased by Poland. A few days before the siege was raised the aged grand hetman died of exhaustion in the fortress (Sept. 24th, 1621).

See Adam Stanislaw Naruszewicz, Life of J.K. Chodkiewicz (Pol.; 4th ed., Cracow, 1857-1858); Lukasz Golebiowski, The Moral Side of J.K. Chodkiewicz as indicated by his Letters (Pol.; Warsaw, 1854). (R. N. B.)

CHODOWIECKI, DANIEL NICOLAS (1726-1801), German painter and engraver of Polish descent, was born at Danzig. Left an orphan at an early age, he devoted himself to the practice of miniature painting, the elements of which his father had taught him, as a means of support for himself and his mother. In 1743 he went to Berlin, where for some time he worked as clerk in an uncle's office, practising art, however, in his leisure moments, and gaining a sort of reputation as a painter of miniatures for snuff-boxes. The Berlin Academy, attracted by a small engraving of his, entrusted to him the illustration of its yearly almanac. After designing and engraving several subjects from the story of the Seven Years' War, Chodowiecki produced the famous "History of the Life of Jesus Christ," a set of admirably painted miniatures, which made him at once so popular that he laid aside all occupations save those of painting and engraving. Few books were published in Prussia for some years without plate or vignette by Chodowiecki. It is not surprising, therefore, that the catalogue of his works (Berlin, 1814) should include over 3000 items, of which, however, the picture of "Jean Calas and his Family" is the only one of any reputation. He became director of the Berlin Academy in 1797. The title of the German Hogarth, which he sometimes obtained, was the effect of an admiration rather imaginative than critical, and was disclaimed by Chodowiecki himself. The illustrator of Lavater's Essays on Physiognomy, the painter of the "Hunt the Slipper" in the Berlin museum, had indeed but one point in common with the great Englishman—the practice of representing actual life and manners. In this he showed skilful drawing and grouping, and considerable expressional power, but no tendency whatever to the use of the grotesque.

His brother Gottfried (1728-1781) and son Wilhelm (1765-1803) painted and engraved after the style of Daniel, and sometimes co-operated with him.

CHOERILUS. (1) An Athenian tragic poet, who exhibited plays as early as 524 B.C. He was said to have competed with Aeschylus, Pratinas and even Sophocles. According to F.G. Welcker, however, the rival of Sophocles was a son of Choerilus, who bore the same name. Suidas states that Choerilus wrote 150 tragedies and gained the prize 13 times. His works are all lost; only Pausanias (i. 14) mentions a play by him entitled Alope (a mythological personage who was the subject of dramas by Euripides and Carcinus). His reputation as a writer of satyric dramas is attested in the well-known line

[Greek: enika men basileus en Choirilos en Saturois]

The Choerilean metre, mentioned by the Latin grammarians, is probably so called because the above line is the oldest extant specimen. Choerilus was also said to have introduced considerable improvements in theatrical masks and costumes.

See A. Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta (1889); F.G. Welcker, Die griechischen Tragoedien, pp. 18, 892.

(2) An epic poet of Samos, who flourished at the end of the 5th century B.C. After the fall of Athens he settled at the court of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, where he was the associate of Agathon, Melanippides, and Plato the comic poet. The only work that can with certainty be attributed to him is the [Greek: Perseis] or [Greek: Persika], a history of the struggle of the Greeks against Persia, the central point of which was the battle of Salamis. His importance consists in his having taken for his theme national and contemporary events in place of the deeds of old-time heroes. For this new departure he apologizes in the introductory verses (preserved in the scholiast on Aristotle, Rhetoric, iii. 14), where he says that, the subjects of epic poetry being all exhausted, it was necessary to strike out a new path. The story of his intimacy with Herodotus is probably due to the fact that he imitated him and had recourse to his history for the incidents of his poem. The Perseis was at first highly successful and was said to have been read, together with the Homeric poems, at the Panathenaea, but later critics reversed this favourable judgment. Aristotle (Topica, viii. 1) calls Choerilus's comparisons far-fetched and obscure, and the Alexandrians displaced him by Antimachus in the canon of epic poets. The fragments are artificial in tone.

G. Kinkel, Epicorum Graecorum Frag. i. (1877); for another view of his relations with Herodotus see Mueder in Klio (1907), 29-44.

(3) An epic poet of Iasus in Caria, who lived in the 4th century B.C. He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns as court-poet. He is well known from the passages in Horace (Epistles, ii. 1, 232; Ars Poetica, 357), according to which he received a piece of gold for every good verse he wrote in celebration of the glorious deeds of his master. The quality of his verses may be estimated from the remark attributed to Alexander, that he would rather be the Thersites of Homer than the Achilles of Choerilus. The epitaph on Sardanapalus, said to have been translated from the Chaldean (quoted in Athenaeus, viii. p. 336), is generally supposed to be by Choerilus.

See G. Kinkel, Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, i. (1877); A.F. Naeke, De Choerili Samii Aetate Vita et Poesi aliisque Choerilis (1817), where the above poets are carefully distinguished; and the articles in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencydopaedie, iii. 2 (1899).

CHOEROBOSCUS, GEORGIUS (c. A.D. 600), deacon and professor at the oecumenical school at Constantinople. He is also called chartophylax either as the holder of some ecclesiastical office or as superintendent of the university library. It is not known whether "Choeroboscus" (Gr. for "swineherd") is an allusion to his earlier occupation or an inherited family name. During his tenure of office he delivered a course of lectures on grammar, which has come down to us in the shape of notes taken by his pupils. He drew from the best authorities—Apollonius Dyscolus, Herodian, Orion, Theodosius of Alexandria. The lectures are written in simple style, but suffer from diffuseness. They were much used by Constantine Lascaris in his Greek grammar and by Urban of Belluno (end of 15th cent.). The chief work of Choeroboscus, which we have in its complete form, is the commentary on the canons of Theodosius on Declension and Conjugation. Mention may also be made of a treatise on orthography, of which a fragment (on Quantity) has been preserved; a tract on prosody; commentaries on Hephaestion and Dionysius Thrax; and grammatical notes on the Psalms.

See C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897); A. Hilgard, Grammatici Graeci, iv. (1889-1894), containing the text of the commentary on Theodosius, and a full account of the life and writings of Choeroboscus; L. Kohn in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencydopaedie, iii. 2 (1889); Reitzenstein, Etymologika, 190, n. 4.

CHOIR (O. Fr. cuer from Lat. chorus; pronounced quire, and until the end of the 17th century so spelt, the spelling being altered to agree with the Fr. choeur), the body of singers who perform the musical portion of the service in a church, or the place set apart for them. Any organized body of singers performing full part choral works or oratorios is also called a choir.

In English cathedrals the choir is composed of men (vicars-choral or lay clerks) and boys (choristers). They are divided into two sets, sitting on the north and south sides of the chancel respectively, called cantoris and decani, from being on the same side as the cantor (precentor) or the decanus (dean). This arrangement, together with the custom of vesting choirmen and choristers in surplices (traditional only in cathedrals and collegiate churches), has, since the middle of the 19th century, been adopted in a large number of parish and other churches. Surpliced choirs of women have occasionally been introduced, notably in America and the British colonies, but the practice has no warrant of traditional usage. In the Roman Catholic Church the choir plays a less conspicuous role than in the Church of England, its members not being regarded as ministers of the church, and non-Catholics are allowed to sing in it. The singers at Mass or other solemn services are usually placed in a gallery or some other inconspicuous place. The word "choir," indeed, formerly applied to all the clergy taking part in services of the church, and the restriction of the term to the singing men and boys, who were in their origin no more than the representatives (vicars) of the clergy, is a comparatively late development. The distinction between "choir services" (Mattins, Vespers, Compline, &c.)—consisting of prayers, lections, the singing of the psalms, &c.—and the service of the altar was sharply drawn in the middle ages, as in the modern Roman Church. "Choir vestments" (surplice, &c.) are those worn by the clergy at the former, as distinguished from those used at the Mass (see VESTMENTS). In England at the Reformation the choir services (Mattins, Evensong) replaced the Mass as the principal popular services, and, in general, only the choir vestments were retained in use. In the English cathedrals the members of the choir often retain privileges reminiscent of an earlier definite ecclesiastical status. At Wells, for instance, the vicars-choral form a corporation practically independent of the dean and chapter; they have their own lodgings inside the cathedral precincts (Vicars' Close) and they can only be dismissed by a vote of their own body. (W. A. P.)

In an architectural sense a "choir" is strictly that part of a church which is fitted up for the choir services, and is thus limited to the space between the choir screen and the presbytery. Some confusion has arisen owing to the term being employed by medieval writers to express the entire space enclosed for the performance of the principal services of the church, and therefore to include not only the choir proper, but the presbytery. In the case of a cruciform church the choir is sometimes situated under the central tower, or in the nave, and this is the case in Westminster Abbey, where it occupies four bays to the west of the transept. The choir is usually raised one step above the nave, and its sides are fitted up with seats or stalls, of which in large buildings there are usually two or three rows rising one behind the other.

In Romanesque churches there are eastern and western choirs, and in former times the term was given to chantries and subsidiary chapels, which were also called chancels. In the early Christian church the ambones where the gospels and epistles were read were placed one on either side of the choir and formed part of its enclosure, and this is the case in S. Clemente, S. Lorenzo and S. Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. In England the choir seems almost universally to have assembled at the eastern part of the church to recite the breviary services, whereas on the continent it was moved from one place to another according to convenience. In Spanish churches it occupies the nave of the church, and in the church of the Escorial in Spain was at the west end above the entrance vestibule. (R. P. S.)

CHOISEUL, CESAR, DUC DE (1602-1675), French marshal and diplomatist, generally known for the best part of his life as the marshal du Plessis-Praslin, came of the old French family of Choiseul, which arose in the valley of the Upper Marne in the 10th century and divided into many branches, three of the names of which, Hostel, Praslin and du Plessis, were borne, at one time or another, by the subject of this article. Entering the army at the age of fourteen as proprietary colonel of an infantry regiment, he shared in almost all the exploits of the French arms during the reign of Louis XIII. He took part in the siege of La Rochelle, assisted to defend the island of Re against the attacks of the English under the duke of Buckingham, and accompanied the French forces to Italy in 1629. In 1630 he was appointed ambassador at the court of the duke of Savoy, and was engaged in diplomatic and administrative work in Italy until 1635, when war was declared between France and Spain. In the war that followed Plessis-Praslin distinguished himself in various battles and sieges in Italy, including the action called the "Route de Quiers" and the celebrated four-cornered operations round Turin. In 1640 he was made governor of Turin, and in 1642 lieutenant-general, and after further service in Italy he was made a marshal of France (1645) and appointed second in command in Catalonia. During the first War of the Fronde, which broke out in 1649, he assisted Conde in the brief siege of Paris; and in the second war, remaining loyal to the queen regent and the court party, he won his greatest triumph in defeating Turenne and the allied Spaniards and rebels at Rethel (or Blanc-Champ) in 1650. He then held high office at the court of Louis XIV., became minister of state in 1652, and in November 1665 was created duc de Choiseul. He was concerned in some of the negotiations between Louis and Charles II. of England which led to the treaty of Dover, and died in Paris on the 23rd of December 1675.

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