Notes and Queries, Number 75, April 5, 1851
Author: Various
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"When found, make a note of."—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 75.] SATURDAY, APRIL 5. 1851. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

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NOTES:— Page

Two Chancellors, by Edward Foss 257

Illustrations of Chaucer, No. III. 258

Folk Lore:—Cure of Hooping Cough—Charms from Devonshire—Lent Lilies—Oak Webs, &c. 258

The Threnodia Carolina of Sir Thomas Herbert, by Bolton Corney 259

Minor Notes:—Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis—Moorfields in Charles II.'s Time—Derivation of Yankee—A Word to Literary Men 260


Poems of John Seguard of Norwich, by Sir F. Madden 261

Epitaph on the Countess of Pembroke 262

Minor Queries:—The Vellum-bound Junius—What is a Tye?—"Marriage is such a Rabble Rout"—Arms of Robert Nelson—Knebsend or Nebsend, co. York —Moore's Almanack—Archbishop Loftus—Matrix of Monastic Seal—Syriac Scriptures and Lexicon— Villiers Duke of Buckingham—Porci solidi-pedes— The Heywood Family—Was Charles II. ever in Wales?—Dog's Head in the Pot—"Poor Alinda's growing old" 262

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:—Who was the Author of "The Modest Enquiry, &c."?—William Penn's Family —Deal, Dover, and Harwich—Author of Broad Stone of Honour—Pope Joan—The Well o' the World's End—Sides and Angles—Meaning of Ratche —"Feast of Reason," &c.—Tu autem 264


Barons of Hugh Lupus 266

Edmund Prideaux and the First Post-office 266

Lady Jane of Westmoreland 268

Replies to Minor Queries:—Ulm Manuscript—Father Maximilian Hell—Meaning of "strained" as used by Shakspeare—Headings of Chapters in English Bibles 269


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 269

Books and Odd Volumes wanted 270

Notices to Correspondents 270

Advertisements 271

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Although neither your readers nor I are politicians enough to interfere in the changes proposed with reference to the office of Lord Chancellor, I doubt not that some of them, now the subject is on the tapis, may feel interested in a fact connected with it, which our ancient records disclose: namely, that on one occasion there were two chancellors acting at the same time for several months together, and both regularly appointed by the king.

It is an unique instance, occurring in the reign of Edward IV.: the two chancellors being Thomas Rotheram, Bishop of Lincoln, and John Alcock, Bishop of Rochester. The former received the Great Seal in May, 1474, in the fourteenth year of the reign, and without any doubt continued chancellor till the king's death; and yet, from April to September in the following year, the latter was also addressed by the same title. During that interval of five months, there are numerous writs of Privy Seal addressed by the king to both, in which each of them is styled "our chancellor."

This curious circumstance may be thus accounted for. King Edward had for some time been contemplating an invasion of France; and when his preparations were completed (about April), as he required his chancellor, Bishop Rotheram, to attend him on the expedition, it became necessary to provide some competent person to transact the business of the Chancery in his absence. On previous occasions of this nature, it had been usual to place the seal that was used in England, when the king was abroad, in the hands of the Master of the Rolls, or some other master in Chancery, with the title of Keeper: but, for some unexplained reason (perhaps because Bishop Alcock was a man whom the king delighted to honour), this prelate was dignified with the superior designation, although Bishop Rotheram still retained it. The voyage being delayed from April to July, during the whole of that period, each being in England, both acted in the same character; Privy Seals, as I have said, being sent to both, and bills in Chancery being addressed also to Bishop Alcock as chancellor. Rotheram was with the king in France as his chancellor, and is so described on opening the negotiation in August, which led to the discreditable peace by which Edward made himself a pensioner to the French king. No Privy Seals were addressed to Alcock after September 28; which may therefore be considered the close of this double chancellorship, and the date of Bishop Rotheram's return to England.

Who knows whether the discovery of this ancient authority may not suggest to our legislators the division of the title between two possessors {258} with distinct duties, in the same manner that two chief justices were substituted in the reign of Henry III. for one chief justiciary?

The immediate interest of this fact has prompted me to anticipate its appearance in the volumes of my work, which you have been kind enough to announce as being in the press.


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"Now flieth Venus in to Ciclinius tour. * * * * * * "Alas, and there hath she no socour, For she ne found ne sey no maner wight. * * * * * * "Wherefore her selven for to hide and save, Within the gate she fledde in to a cave. * * * * * * "Now God helpe sely Venus alone, But as God wold it happed for to be, That while the weping Venus made her mone, Ciclinius riding in his chirachee, Fro Venus Valanus might this palais see; And Venus he salveth and maketh chere, And her receiveth as his frende full dere." Complaint of Mars and Venus.

Having in my last communication (Vol. iii., p. 235.) shown cause for the alteration in the foregoing quotation of Ciclinius into Cyllenius, I shall now endeavour to interpret the line in Italics, which in its present shape is utterly without meaning.

Whatever word Valanus may be supposed to represent, whether a proper or a common name, still the construction of the whole line is evidently corrupt.

Taking Valanus, in the first place, as a proper name, the most probable original would be VALENS; for the connexion of which with Mercury we must refer to Cicero (De Nat. Deor. iii. 22.), where mention is made of it in these words:—

"Alter (Mercurius) Valentis et Phoronidis filius, is qui sub terris habetur idem Trophonius."

Here the identification with Trophonius strikes us at once as affording a clue to THE CAVE into which Venus fled, giving great probability to Valens as the true solution of Chaucer's meaning.

But if we receive it as such, the following hypothesis becomes necessary, viz., that Chaucer imagined a double impersonation of Mercury—one absent, the other present,—one sidereal, the other mythological,—one Cyllenius, the other Valens.

When Venus first enters Mercury's "palais," she "ne found ne sey no maner wight." This signifies the absence from home of Cyllenius, who was abroad upon "his chirachee" in attendance upon the Sun; and here again is an instance of the nice astronomical accuracy of Chaucer. It was impossible that the planet Mercury could be in the sign Gemini, because his greatest elongation, or apparent distance from the sun, does not exceed 29 degrees; so that the Sun having but just entered Taurus, Mercury could not be in Gemini. Neither could Venus see Valens (the other impersonation of Mercury), because of his concealment in the cave; but when she entered the cave, then she was welcomed and received by him.

Now, to render the text conformable with this interpretation, some alteration in the construction is necessary, as indeed it must be in any attempt to render the passage intelligible.

Taking, away the word "Fro," and transposing "might" to the other side of "Valanus," the lines would stand thus,—

"—— it happed for to be That, while the weping Venus made her mone, (Cyllenius riding in his chirachee) Venus might Valens in this palais see; And Venus he salveth and maketh chere And her receiveth as his frende full dere!"

On the other supposition of "Valanus" being a common name, to which a capital letter has been prefixed in mistake, then the only word for which it would appear to be a probable substitution would be "Vallum," in the sense of a border or rampart; but the application would be so far-fetched that I shall not attempt it, especially as I look upon the explanation afforded by "Valens" as most probably the true one.

A. E. B.

Leeds, March 20. 1851.

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Cure of Hooping Cough.—There is a superstition in Cheshire that hooping cough may be cured by holding a toad for a few moments with its head within the mouth of the person affected. I heard only the other day of a cure by this somewhat disagreeable process; the toad was said to have caught the disease, which in this instance proved fatal to it in a few hours.

A. H. H.

Charms from Devonshire.—The following charms were obtained from an old woman in this parish, though probably they are all known to you already:

(a.) For a Scald or Burn.

"There were three angels came from The East and West, One brought fire and another brought frost, And the third it was the Holy Ghost. Out fire, in frost, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen."

(b.) For a Sprain.

"As our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was riding into Jerusalem, His horse tripped and sprained his leg. Our Blessed Lord and Saviour blessed it, and said,

'Bone to bone, and vein to vein, O vein, turn to thy rest again!'

M. N. so shall thine, in the Name," &c.


(c.) For stopping Blood.

"Our Blessed Saviour was born in Bethlehem and baptized in the river Jordan.

'The Waters were wild and rude. The child Jesus was meek, mild, and good.'

He put His foot into the waters, and the waters stopped, and so shall thy blood, in the Name," &c.

(d.) For the Tooth-ache.

"All glory! all glory! all glory! be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.

"As our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was walking in the garden of Gethsamene, He saw Peter weeping. He called him unto Him, and said, Peter why, weepest thou? Peter answered and said, Lord, I am grievously tormented with pain, the pain of my tooth. Our Lord answered and said, If thou wilt believe in Me, and My words abide with thee, thou shalt never feel any more pain in thy tooth. Peter said, Lord, I believe, help Thou my unbelief. In the Name, &c.

"God grant M. N. ease from the pain in his teeth."

(e.) For Fits.—Go into a church at midnight and walk three times round the communion table. This was done in this parish a few years since.

(f.) An inhabitant of this parish told me that his father went into Lydford Church, at twelve o'clock at night, and cut off some lead from every diamond pane in the windows with which he made a heart, to be worn by his wife afflicted with "breastills," i.e. sore breasts.

(g.) The skin cast by a snake is very useful in extracting thorns, &c. from the body, but, unlike I other remedies, it is repellent, not attractive; hence it must always be applied on the opposite side to that on which the thorn entered. In some cases where the skin has been applied on the same side, it has forced the thorn completely through the hand.

Lent Lilies.—Oak Webs, &c.—In this part of Cornwall, the native yellow narcissus, known in most counties, and in the books, as daffodils (the "Daffy Down Dilly" of your correspondent, Vol. iii. p. 220.), are called only by the name of Lent lilies, or simply Lents, and are commonly sold by the poor children, frequently in exchange for pins. The pleasing name reminds one of Michaelmas Daisy (Chrysanthemum), Christmas rose (Helleborus niger), and the beautiful pasque flower (Anemone pulsatilla).

The common beetle called cockchafer is here known only as the oak-web, and a smaller beetle as fern-web. It seems hard to guess why they should be named web (which in Anglo-Saxon means weaver), as they do not, I think, form any cocoon.

H. G. T.


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The Threnodia Carolina of sir Thomas Herbert is a jewel of historical composition, and I am persuaded that a new edition of it, if formed on a collation of the best manuscripts, and illustrated by extracts from the principal historians of the same period, would not only be received by the public with thanks, but with expressions of surprise that so rare a treasure should have been suffered to remain in such comparative obscurity.

There are four manuscripts of the work in public libraries, two of which I am enabled to describe.

1. The Harleian Ms. in the British Museum, No. 7396.

This Ms. is in folio. The preliminary leaves have the notes marked 1, 2, 3—the second being in the handwriting of sir William Dugdale. The narrative occupies thirty-six pages, with interlinear corrections and additions. This Ms. does not contain the words This brief narrative, &c. nor the letter dated the 3d Nov. 1681.


(1) "This book contains S^r Tho. Herberts memoirs being the original in his own hand sent to S^r W^m Dugdale in 1678."

(2) "A true and perfect narrative of the most remarkable passages relating to king Charles the first of blessed memory, written by the proper land of S^r Thomas Herbert baronet, who attended upon his ma^{tie} from Newcastle upon Tine, when he was sold by the Scotts, during the whole time of his greatest afflictions, till his death and buriall; w^{ch} was sent to me S^r Will^m Dugdale knight, garter principall king of armes, in Michaellmasse Terme a^o. 1678, by the said S^r Thomas Herbert, from Yorke, where he resideth."


(3) "Court passages in the two last yeares of the raigne of king Charles the first, during y^e time of his affliction."

2. The Harleian Ms. in the British Museum, No. 4705.

This Ms. is in small folio. It was formerly in the possession of Peter le Neve, norroy. A preliminary leaf has the subjoined attestation by sir William Dugdale. The narrative is much more ample and circumstantial than in the former Ms., but it is not all in the handwriting of sir Thomas Herbert. The letter dated 3 November 1681, and the relations of Huntington, Cooke, and Firebrace, are added in the handwriting of Dugdale; also, the names of persons who corresponded with Charles I. while he was a prisoner in the Isle of Wight. The passages transcribed by the REV. ALFRED GATTY appear in this Ms.—also in the edition of 1702. The edition of 1813 is a verbatim reprint of the first and second articles of that of 1702. It was edited by Mr. George Nicol.


"This booke containeth a large answer to a short letter sent by S^r Will^m Dugdale kn^t (garter; principall king of armes) unto S^r Thomas Herbert baronet, {260} residing in the citty of Yorke. By w^{ch} letter he did desire the sayd S^r Thomas Herbert to informe him of such materiall passages, as he had observed touching the late king Charles the first (of blessed memory) during the time that he the sayd S^r Thomas did attend him in person; B^t for the two last yeares of his afflicted life."

The other Mss. alluded to are preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. The most important is No. 1141., which is minutely described in the admirable catalogue compiled by Mr. Black. A transcript of the Threnodia Carolina by Ant. a Wood, also in the Ashmolean Museum, is recorded by Huddesford.

As there were two recensions of the narrative, I have added a specimen of each of the Harleian Mss., which may serve as a clue to the nature of other copies, whether in public libraries, or in private hands.

"The Lords ordered a girdle or circumscription of Capitall Letters to be cutt in Lead and putt about the Coffin. being onely these wordes


The kings body was then brought from the chamber to Saint Georges hall. whence after a Little pause, it was w^{th} a slow pase & much sorrow carrye'd by those gentlemen that were in mourninge: the Lords in blacks following the royall Corpes & many gentlemen after them, and their attendants."—THRENODIA CAROLINA, p. 36. Harleian MS. 7396.

"The girdle or circumscription of Capitall Letters in Lead putt about the Coffin had onely these words.


The Kings body was then brought from his Bed-chamber, downe into S^t Georges-hall; whence after a little stay, itt was with a slow and solemn pace (much sorrow in most faces discernable) carryed by gentlemen that were of some quallity and in mourning. the Lords in like habitts followed the Royall Corps. the Governor, and severall gentlemen, and officers, and attendants came after."—CAROLINA THRENODIA, p. 80. Harleian MS. 4705.


Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs of Charles I.—The question suggested by MR. GATTY'S first note upon this subject was one of some importance, viz., whether the original MS. in the possession of his friend contained anything of Sir Thomas Herbert's not hitherto published? There is no doubt that the "Memoir of the two last years of King Charles I." was written by Sir Thomas Herbert, after his retirement to his native city of York, at the request of the author of the Athenae Oxonienses, who made use of nearly the whole of it in compiling that great work, adapting different portions to his biographical notices of the persons to whom they principally related. The notices of Colonel Joyce and Colonel Cobbet are chiefly composed of extracts from Herbert's Memoir; whilst under the name of Herbert himself not more than about one-third of his own communication will be found.

The first edition of the Athenae was not published until 1691, several years after Sir Thomas Herbert's death; and the memoir in a complete form, with the title of Threnodia Carolina, did not appear until the year 1702, when it was published by Dr. Charles Goodall, physician to the Charter House, together with other tracts relating to Charles I. This is doubtless the volume described by MR. BOLTON CORNEY (vol. iii., p. 157.), who will, I hope, favour your readers with the information requested by MR. GATTY (p. 222.).

The Memoir, as published in 1813 by G. and W. Nicol, Booksellers, Pall Mall, professes to be a faithful reprint of the former edition of 1702. The commencing and concluding paragraphs in this reprint are precisely the same as those transcribed by MR. GATTY'S friend from the MS. in his possession. His idea, that an incorrect copy of his MS. was improperly obtained, and published in 1813, seems to be without foundation.


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Minor Notes.

Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis.—The following extract from an advertisement in the St. James's Chronicle, April 15, 1779, is worth a note as illustrative of the altered value of the book referred to:—

"If any person is possessed of an impression of Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis, 4to. Printed by Richard Field for John Harrison, 1593, and will bring it to Mr. Thomas Longman, bookseller, in Paternoster Row, he will receive one guinea for it."

Malone gave 25l. for the copy in his collection in the Bodleian.

J. F. M.

Moorfields in Charles II.'s Time.—I copy this from The New Help to Discourse, published about 1670:

"Two gentlemen of Stepney going homewards over Moor-fields, about twelve of the clock at night, were staid by an impertinent constable with many frivolous questions, more by half to show his office than his wit; one whereof was, If they were not afraid to go home at that time of the night? They answered, 'No.' 'Well,' said he, 'I shall let you pass at this time; but if you should be knockt on the lead before you get home, you cannot but report that there was a good watch kept in Moor-fields."


Yankee, Derivation of.—The word Yankee is nothing more than the word English so transformed by the imperfect pronunciation of the natives of Massachusets—Yenghis, Yanghis, Yankies. The orthography of this much-used epithet, which is not given, we believe, in any English or American work, was communicated to M. Philarete {261} Charles by one of the best-informed men of that province.

"Le mot Yankee, applique aujourd'hui comme sobriquet aux populations agricoles et commercantes du nord, n'est autre que le mot English transforme par la prononciation defectueuse des indigenes du Massachusets: Yenghis, Yanghis, Yankies. Nous tenons de l'un des hommes les plus instruit de la province cette curieuse etymologie, que ne donne aucun ouvrage americain ou anglais. Les Anglais, quand ils se moquent des Yankies, se moquent d'eux-memes."—Philarete Charles, "Les Americains," in Revue des Deux Mondes, May 15, 1850.

J. M.

A Word to Literary Men (Vol. iii., p. 161.).—Perhaps MR. KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE will allow me to add the following as a rider to his suggestion:—

"Even after all the labours of the Prussian scholars," says Dr. Arnold, "much remains to be done towards obtaining a complete knowledge of the number, and still more of the value, of the Greek MSS. now existing in Europe. It is not easy to know how many MSS. of any given writer are extant, where they are to be found, and, above all, whether from their age and character they are worth the trouble of an exact collation. A labour of this kind cannot be accomplished by individuals; but the present spirit of liberal co-operation, which seems to influence literary as well as scientific men throughout Europe, renders its accomplishment by the combined exertions of the scholars of different countries by no meals impracticable. It would be exceedingly convenient to possess an alphabetical list of all the extant Greek and Latin writers, with a catalogue raisonnee of the MSS. of each; and if such a work were attempted, there is little doubt, I imagine, that in point of number a very large addition would be made to the stock of MSS. already known. What the result might be in point of value is another question; still it is desirable to know what we have to trust to; and when we have obtained a right estimate of our existing resources in manuscripts, we shall then be better able to judge what modern criticism will have to do from its own means towards bringing the text of the ancient writers to the greatest possible state of perfection."—Preface to Thucydides, vol. iii. page iv. 2d edit.

M. N.

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In the Letters on the British Museum, 1767 (referred to Vol. iii., p. 208.), at p. 33. is given a short Latin poem, which the writer states he "found among the manuscripts;" and adds, "It was written by John Seward in the time of Henry V., who conquered Charles VI. of France." The poem is as follows:

"Ite per extremam Tanaim, pigrosque Triones, Ite per arentem Lybiam, superate calores Solis, et arcanos Nili deprendite fontes, Herculeumque sinum, Bacchi transcurrite metas, Angli juris erit quicquid complectitur orbis. Anglis rubra dabunt pretiosas aequora conchas, Indus ebur, ramos Panchaia, vellera Seres, Dum viget Henricus, dum noster vivit Achilles; Est etenim laudes longe transgressus avitas."

If these lines are compared with the contemporary Leonine verses in praise of Henry V., preserved in MS. Cott. Cleop. B. i. f. 173. beginning:

"Ad Salvatoris laudes, titulos et honores."

their great superiority, in point of Latinity, will be perceived, and this Query forthwith arises: Who was John Seward?

In reply to this, the following information has been collected. The name of the author was not Seward, but Seguard. He is not mentioned by Leland, but Bale calls him "insignis sui temporis rhetor ac poeta;" and states further, that in the city of Norwich, "non sine magno auditorum fructu, bonas artes ingenue profitebatur." He then gives a list of his writings, among which is a work on Prosody, entitled Metristenchiridion, addressed to Richard Courtney, Bishop of Norwich, who held the see only from Sept. 1413 to Sept. 1415, and therefore composed during that interval. He notices also a tract De miseria hominis, together with Carmina diversi generis and Epistolae ad diversos; all of which, he says, he himself saw in manuscripts in Merton College, Oxford, and in the Royal Library of Edward VI. Pits, the next authority in point of date, chiefly follows Bale in his account of John Seguard; but adds, "Equestris ordinis in Anglia patre natus," and among his writings inserts one not specified by Bale, De laudibus Regis Henrici Quinti, versu. Tanner copies the first of these statements, yet, singular enough, omits all notice of the poem on Henry V., the very one, apparently, cited in the Letters on the British Museum. But there are further difficulties. It was natural to suppose, that the MS. seen by Bale in the Royal Library would be there still; and Tanner unhesitatingly refers to the volume marked 15 A. xxii. art. 5., as the one which contained the poem De miseria hominis, noted by Bale. On looking, however, at this manuscript, it became apparent that both Bale and Tanner are in error in ascribing this poem to Seguard. The handwriting is of the early part of the thirteenth century, and consequently full a century and a half before the Norwich poet was born! At the conclusion is this note, by the same hand:

"Hos versus, sicut nobis quidam veridicus retulit, Segardus junior de Sancto Audomaro composuit."

The writer here named is not mentioned in Fabricius, nor in the Histoire Litteraire de la France. Besides the MS. in Merton College, Oxford, referred to by Bale, which still exists there under the signature Q. 3. 1., I find another in Bernard's Catt. {262} MSS. Angliae, 1697, vol. ii. p. 216., among the manuscripts of Sir Henry Langley of Shropshire, "No. 22. Jo. Segnard [read Seguard] Poemata." I would therefore close these remarks by requesting attention to the following Queries:—

1. As Blomefield is silent on the subject, is anything more known respecting the biography of John Seguard?

2. Can a list be obtained of the contents of the Merton manuscript?

3. What became of the Langley MS., and where is it at present?

4. In what manuscript of the British Museum is the poem on Henry V. contained?


P.S. Since I wrote the above, I have found in the Sale Catalogue of the Towneley library, 1814, pt. i. lot 396.:

"Seguardi Opuscula. Manuscript on vellum. This volume contains several treatises not mentioned by Bale or Pits."

It was purchased by Mr. Laing for 1l. 1s. May I, therefore, add one more Query?

5. Can the present owner of this MS. (which is probably the same as the Langley copy) furnish a note of its contents?

F. M.

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Who was the writer of the oft-quoted lines,

"Underneath this marble (sable) hearse," &c.

intended, as all know, for an epitaph on Mary Sidney, afterwards Countess of Pembroke, but not inscribed upon any monumental stone? They are almost universally attributed to Ben Jonson, and are included amongst his poems. But this is not conclusive evidence, as we also there find the epitaph on Drayton, which was written by Quarles. In Aubrey's MS. Memoires of Naturall Remarques in Wilts, these verses are said to have been "made by Mr. Williā. Browne, who wrote the Pastoralls, and they are inserted there." Mr. Britton, in his Life of Aubrey (p. 96.), adds:

"It is essential to observe, that Aubrey is not alone in stating them to be by Browne; for, in his note upon the subject, he left a blank for the latter's Christian name, 'William,' which was filled up by Evelyn when he perused the manuscript. Indeed, Evelyn added as a further note, 'William, Governor to the now Earl of Oxford.'"

But these lines are not to be found in Browne's Pastorals. In book ii., song 4., there is an epitaph, but which bears little resemblance to the one in question. It concludes with the following conceit:

"If to the grave there ever was assign'd One like this nymph in body and in minde, We wish here in balme, not vainely spent, To fit this maiden with a monument, For brass, and marble, were they seated here, Would fret, or melt in tears, to lye so near."

Addison, in The Spectator, No. 323., speaks of this epitaph as "written by an uncertain author." This was not more than seventy-five or eighty years after Jonson's death. In the lives of the Sidneys, and in Ballard's Memoirs of Celebrated Ladies (1752), no author is mentioned; but the latter speaks of the epitaph as likely to be more lasting than marble or brass. To the six lines which generally stand alone, the following are added in the two last-mentioned works:

"Marble pyles let no man raise, To her name, for after daies, Some kind woman, born as she, Reading this like Niobe, Shall turn marble, and become, Both her mourner and her tomb."

These are also given by Brydges in his Peers Of James II., but they are not in Jonson's works. Did they originally form part of the epitaph, or are they the production of another and later author?

That this epitaph should be attributed to Jonson, may possibly have arisen from the following lines being confounded with it. Jacob, in his English Poets, says—

"To show that Ben was famous at epigram, I need only transcribe the epitaph he wrote on the Lady Elizabeth L. H.:

"Underneath this stone doth lie As much virtue as could die, Which when alive did harbour give To as much beauty as could live.

J. H. M.


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Minor Queries.

The Vellum-bound Junius.—Mr. Cramp, in his late publication, Junius and his Works, conjectures that the printer having bound a copy of Junius for and under the direction of the writer of the letters, followed the pattern in the binding of other copies; and this, he says, "will account for similar copies having been found in the libraries of so many persons, which from time to time has occasioned so much speculation." With Mr. Cramp's conjecture I do not concern myself; but I should be much obliged if he would inform me, through your Journal, in what libraries, and where, these many vellum-bound copies have been found, and where I can find the speculations to which they have given rise.

V. B.

The Vellum-bound Junius.—Some years ago, on reading the private letters of Junius, addressed to H. S. Woodfall, and printed by G. Woodfall, 1812, I was particularly struck by those of No. 58. and 59., wherein he states a desire to have one set of his letters (which were published 3d March, 1772, by Woodfall) bound in vellum.

Constantly bearing in mind the fact of the vellum copy, I invariably examined all the book {263} catalogues that came in my way for it. At last the long-wished-for object appeared in the Stowe sale, and I immediately gave my agent instruction to purchase the book for me, and he might offer as much as 10l.: he bid 8l., and then it was intimated that it was no use to go on; that fifty guineas would not purchase it, or any other sum.

Query, Has this volume been in any other sale? if not, it certainly connects the Buckingham family with Junius, though it does not prove the author.


[The Stowe copy of Junius, it appears, was bought by Mr. Rodd for 9l., no doubt upon commission.]

What is a "Tye?"—In Essex, many parishes have a place called "the tye," which I believe is always an out-lying place where three roads meet. In an old map I have seen one place now called "Tye" written "Dei." Is it where a cross once stood, and Tye a corruption of Dei? Forby, in his East Anglian Vocabulary, mentions it, but cannot make it out.


"Marriage is such a Rabble Rout."—In D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, Moxon's edition, in 1 vol. p. 118., or ed. edited by his son, vol. i. p. 363., under the head "A Literary Wife," are the lines—

"Marriage is such a rabble rout, That those that are out, would fain get in; And those that are in, would fain get out:"

quoted from Chaucer. I have heard these lines quoted as being from Hudibras: as I cannot trace them in my editions of Chaucer of Butler, perhaps some of your readers can tell me where I can find them?


Arms of Robert Nelson.—Can any of the numerous readers and correspondents of "NOTES AND QUERIES" describe the armorial bearings of Robert Nelson, Esq., the author of the Companion for the Festivals and Fasts of the Church of England? He was buried in the burying-ground in Lamb's Conduit Fields, January, 1714.

G. F.

Knebsend or Nebsend, co. York.—Query, whereabouts in the county of York is this place? I believe that one of the above is the way of spelling, but at any rate they have the same sound.

J. N. C.

Moore's Almanack.—Can any of your correspondents inform me as to the history of Moore's Almanack?

What is the date of its first appearance? Was Francis Moore a real personage, or merely a myth?

H. P. W.


Archbishop Loftus.—I shall be deeply obliged to any of your correspondents who will inform me whether, and where, any diary or private memoranda are known to exist of Adam Loftus, who was Archbishop of Dublin nearly forty years, from 1567 to 1605, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and the first Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. He was an ancestor of the Viscount Loftus, and of the Marquess of Ely.


Thurles, Ireland, March 20.

Matrix of Monastic Seal.—A brass matrix has fallen into my hands of a period certainly not much anterior to the Revolution. Device, the Virgin and Child, their heads surrounded with nimbi; the former holds in her right hand three lilies, the latter a globe and cross. The legend is:

"* SIG[=IL] . MON . B . M . DE . PRATO . ALIAS . DE . BONO . NVNCIO."

In the field, a shield charged with three lions passant. Can any correspondent aid me in assigning it rightly? There was an Abbey of St. Mary de Pratis at Leicester (Vide Gent. Mag., vol. xciii. p. 9.); and there is a church dedicated to "St. Mary in the Marsh at Norwich." In a recent advertisement I find a notice of Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato, so that the appellation is not very uncommon.


Syriac Scriptures and Lexicon.—What edition of the Peschito-Syriac version of the Old and New Testaments, respectively, is considered the best? Also, what Syriac Lexicon stands highest for value and accuracy?

T. TN.

Villiers Duke of Buckingham.—There is a tradition in Portsmouth, that in the evening preceding his assassination, Villiers Duke of Buckingham killed a sailor. Is there any authority for this?

E. D.

Porci solidi-pedes.—Can any of your readers inform me if any pigs with single hoofs are in existence in any county in England? They are mentioned in a letter from Sir Thomas Browne to Dugdale the antiquary.

J. S. P. (a Subscriber).

The Heywood Family.—I am anxious to know if Thomas Heywood, the dramatist, was in any way related to Nathaniel Heywood or Oliver Heywood, the celebrated Nonconformist ministers in the seventeenth century? Could any of your correspondents give me information on this point?

H. A. B.

Trin. Coll. Camb.

Was Charles II. ever in Wales?—There is a tradition amongst the inhabitants of Glamorganshire, that, after his defeat at the battle of Worcester, Charles come to Wales and staid a night at a place called Llancaiach Vawr, in the parish of Gelligaer. The place then belonged to a Colonel Pritchard, an officer in the Parliamentary army; and the story relates that he made himself known to his host, and threw himself upon his generosity for safety. The colonel assented to his staying for {264} one night only, but went away himself, afraid, as the story goes, that the Parliament should come to know he had succoured Charles. I know that Llancaiach was a place of considerable note long after that, and that an old farmer used to say he had heard tile story from his father. The historians, I believe, are all silent as to his having fled to Wales between the time of his defeat at Worcester and the time he left the country.


[Some accounts state that Charles I. was entertained by Colonel Prichard, when that monarch, travelling through Wales, lost his way between Tredegar and Brecknock. (See Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Wales, art. "Gellygaer.")]

Dog's Head in the Pot.—"Thomas Johnson, Citizen and Haberdasher of London, by will, dated 3d Sept. 1563, gave 13s. 4d. annually to the highways between Barkway and Dogshed-in-the-Pot, otherwise called Horemayd."

The Dogshed-in-the-Pot here mentioned was, as I infer, a public-house in the parish of Great or Little Hormead in Hertfordshire, by the side of the road from Barkway to London. In Akerman's Tradesmen's Tokens current in London I find one (numbered 1442) of the "Dogg's-Head-in-the-Potte" in Old Street, having the device of a dog eating out of a pot; and the token of Oliver Wallis, in Red Cross Street (No. 1610., A.D. 1667), has the device of a dog eating out of a three-legged pot. In April, 1850, Hayward Brothers (late R. Henly and Co.), wholesale and manufacturing builders ironmongers, 196. Blackfriars Road, and 117. and 118. Union Street, Borough, London (who state their business to have been established 1783), put forth an advertisement headed with a woodcut of a dog eating out of a three-legged pot.

Can any of your readers elucidate this sign of the "Dog's-head-in-the Pot?"


Cambridge, May 24. 1850.

"Poor Allinda's growing old."—Charles II., to vex the Duchess of Cleveland, caused Will Legge to sing to her—

"Poor Allinda's growing old, Those charms are now no more."

(See Lord Dartmouth's note in Burnet, vol. i. p. 458. ed. 1823.) Let me ask, through "NOTES AND QUERIES," Dr. Rimbault, Mr. Chappell, or any readers, where are these verses to be found?


* * * * *

Minor Queries Answered.

Who was the Author of "The Modest Enquiry, &c."?—There is an anonymous tract, entitled A Modest Enquiry, &c., (4to. London, 1687), on the question of St. Peter's ever having been at Rome: proving, in so far as a negative in the case can be proved, in the most logical, full, clear, and satisfactory manner, that—He never was at Rome; and never was, either nominally or otherwise, Bishop of the Church there: and showing the grounds for the contrary assertion to be altogether baseless and untrue; being a tissue of self-contradicting forgeries and frauds, invented long subsequently to the time, evidently for the sole purpose of justifying the Papal pretensions of succession and derivation from the Apostle; as those, and all its other claims, are founded alone upon that fact, and must stand or fall with it.

The inquiry is conducted throughout with evidence of great acquaintance with Scripture and much theological learning (though the writer states himself to be a layman), without the least undue pretension, and with the most perfect temperateness and impartiality. The work would seem now well worth reprinting in a cheap and popular form.

Who was the author?


[In Francis Peck's Catalogue of Discourses in the Time of King James II., No. 226., the name of HENRY CARE is given as the author. A list of his other works may be found in Watt's Bibliotheca.]

William Penn's Family.—Can any of your correspondents inform me to whom his eldest surviving son (William) was married, and also to whom the children of the said son were married, as well as those of his daughter Letitia (Mrs. Aubrey), if she had any? This son and daughter were William Penn's children by his first marriage with Miss Springett.

A. U. C.

[William Penn, eldest son (of William Penn by Miss Springett), had two children, Gulielma Maria, married to Charles Fell, and William Penn of the Rocks in Sussex, who by his first wife, Christian Forbes, had a daughter and heir, married to Peter Gaskell. Mrs. Aubrey was living in 1718. Our correspondent may also be referred to Mr. Hepworth Dixon's recently published William Penn, an Historical Biography.]

Deal, Dover, and Harwich.—Where do the following lines come from?

"Deal, Dover, and Harwich, The devil gave with his daughter in marriage; And, by a codicil to his will, He added Helvoet and the Brill."

J. H. L.

[Francis Grose, in his Collection of Proverbs, speaks of them as "A satirical squib thrown at the innkeepers of those places, in return for the many impositions practised on travellers, as well natives as strangers. Equally applicable to most other sea-ports."]

Author of Broad Stone of Honour.—Who is the author of the Broad Stone of Honour, of which mention is made in the Guesses at Truth, 1st series, p. 230., &c., and in the Ages of Faith, p. 236., works of some interest in reference to the Papal discussions which are raging at present?


[Kenelm M. Digby is the author of the Broad Stone of Honour.]


Pope Joan.—Can any information be procured as to the origin of the game called Pope Joan, and (what is of more importance) of the above title, whether any such personage ever held the keys of St Peter and wore the tiara? If so, at what period and for what time, and what is known of her personal history?


[That Papissa Joanna is merely a fictitious character, is now universally acknowledged by the best authorities. "Clearer confirmations must be drawn for the history of Pope Joan, who succeeded Leo IV. and preceded Benedict III., than many we yet discover, and he wants not grounds that doubts it." So thought Sir Thomas Browne, in his Vulgar Errors, B. vii. Ch. 17. Gibbon, too, rejects it as fabulous. "Till the Reformation," he says, "the tale was repeated and believed without offence, and Joan's female statue long occupied her place among the Popes in the Cathedral of Sienna. She has been annihilated by two learned Protestants, Blondel and Bayle; but their brethren were scandalized by this equitable and generous criticism. Spanheim and L'Enfant attempted to save this poor engine of controversy, and even Mosheim condescends to cherish some doubt and suspicion."—The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap. xlix. Spanheim's work, Joanna Papissa Restituta, was printed at Leyden in 1692.]

The Well o' the World's End.—I am very anxious to find out, whether there still exists in print (or if it is known to any one now alive) an old Scotch fairy tale called "The Weary Well at the World's End?" Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Esq., who is unhappily dead lately, knew the story and meant to write it down; but he became too infirm to do so, and though many very old people in the hilly districts of Lammermoor and Roxburghshire remember parts of it, and knew it in their youth, I cannot find one who knows it entirely.

L. M. M. R.

[Some references to the story alluded to by our correspondent will be found in Dr. Leyden's valuable introduction to The Complaynt of Scotland; and the story itself in Chambers's admirable collection of Scottish Folk Lore, Popular Rhymes of Scotland, p. 236. of the third edition, which form vol. vii. of the Select Writings of Robert Chambers.]

Sides and Angles.—What is the most simple and least complicated method of determining the various relations of the sides and angles of the acute and obtuse-angled triangles, without the aid of trigonometry, construction, or, in fact, by any method except arithmetic?

F. G. F.

St. Andrew's.

[The relations of sides and angles cannot be obtained without trigonometry in some shape. A very easy work has lately been published by Mr. Hemming, in which there is as little as possible of technical trigonometry.]

Meaning of Ratche.—In John Frith's Antithesis, published in 1529, he says:

"The pope and bishops hunt the wild deer, the fox, and the hare, in their closed parks, with great cries, and horns blowing, with hounds and ratches running."

I should be glad to have the word ratches satisfactorily explained.

H. W.

[From a note by Steevens on the line in King Lear (Boswell's Shakspeare, vol. x. p. 155.), it appears that the late Mr. Hawkins, in his notes to The Return from Parnassus, p. 237., says, "That a rache is a dog that hunts by scent wild beasts, birds, and even fishes, and that the female of it is called a brache:" and in Magnificence, an ancient Interlude of Morality, by Skelton, printed by Rastell, no date, is the following line:

"Here is a leyshe of ratches to renne an hare."

In a following note, Mr. Tollet, after saying "What is here said of a rache, might, perhaps, be taken from Holinshed's Description of Scotland, p. 14.," proceeds, "The females of all dogs were once called braches; and Ulitius upon Gratius observes, 'Racha Saxonibus canem significabat unde Scoti hodie Rache pro cane foemina habent, quod Anglis est Brache.'"]

"Feast of Reason," &c.—Seeing your correspondents ask where couplets are to be found, I venture to ask whence comes the line—

"The feast of reason and the flow of soul."

I have often heard it asked, but never answered.

H. W. D.

[It will be found in Pope's Imitations of Horace, Book ii. Satire i.:

"There St. John mingles with my friendly bowl The feast of reason and the flow of soul."]

Tu Autem.—In page 25. of "Hertfordshire," in Fuller's Worthies, there is a story of one Alexander Nequam, who, wishing to become a monk of St. Alban's, wrote thus to the abbot thereof:

"Si vis, veniam. Sin autem, tu autem."

To which the abbot replied:

"Si bonus sis, venias. Si Nequam, nequaquam."

Can any of your readers inform me of the meaning of "tu autem" in the first line? as I have been long puzzled.

This puts me in mind of a form which there was at Ch. Ch., Oxford, on "gaudy" days. Some junior students went to the "high table" to say a Latin grace, and when they had finished it, they were dismissed by the Dean saying "Tu autem;" on which, I remember, there was invariably a smile pervading the faces of those present, even that of the Dean himself, as no one seemed to know the meaning of the phrase. I believe that it was in my time an enigma to all. Can any of your ingenious readers solve me this?

H. C. K.

——Rectory, Hereford.

[Pegge in his Anonymiana, Cent. iv. Sect. 32. says, "At St. John's College, Cambridge, a scholar, in my time, read some part of a chapter in a Latin Bible; and after he had read a short time, the President, or {266} the Fellow that sat in his place cried, Tu autem. Some have been at a loss for the meaning of this; but it is the beginning of the suffrage, which was supposed to follow the reading of the Scripture, which the reading scholar was to continue by saying Miserere mei, Domine. But at last it came to mean no more than to be a cue to the reader to desist or give over."]

* * * * *



(Vol. iii., pp. 87. 189.)

The inquiry of P., in p. 87., seems to indicate an impression that all the witnesses to the charter of Hugh Lupus to Chester Abbey were barons of the Palatinate, but only a few of them were such, the rest being of England generally.

The original barons of the Palatinate were clearly distinguishable by possession of privileges confirmed to them by a well-known charter of Earl Ranulph III.; and all the Norman founders of their baronies will be found, under Cestrescire, in Domesday, as tenants in capite, from the Earl Palatine, of lordships within the lyme of his county.

Bigod de Loges (one of the subjects of P.'s inquiry) will not bear this test, unless he was identical with Bigot, Norman lord of the manors afterwards comprised in Aldford Fee, which is not known to have been the case. For this last-named Bigot, whose lands descended through the Alfords to Arderne, reference may be made to the History of Cheshire, I. xxix., II. 411.

William Malbanc, the other subject of inquiry, who has eluded M. J. T.'s searches, is easily identified. He was the Norman baron of Nantwich, the Willelmus Malbedeng of the Domesday Survey (vol. i. p. 265. col. 2.), and the name is also written thus in the copy of H. Lupus's charter referred to, which was ratified under inspection by Guncelyn de Badlesmere, Justiciary of Chester in 8 Edw. I.

The charter, with Badlesmere's attestation prefixed, will be found in Leycester's Cheshire Antiquities, p. 109., and in Ormerod's Hist. of Cheshire, vol. i. p. 12. In the latter work, in vol. iii., the inquirer will also find an account of William Malbedeng or Malbanc, his estates, his descendant coheirs, and their several subdivisions, extending from p. 217. to p. 222., under the proper head of Nantwich or Wich Malbanc, a still existing Palatine barony.


Your correspondent M. J. T. says it appears from—

"The MS. Catalogue of the Norman nobility before the Conquest, that Robert and Roger de Loges possessed lordships in the districts of Coutances in Normandy."

Will he be so good as to say what MS. Catalogue he refers to? He seems to speak of the MS. Catalogue of Norman nobility as if it were some well-known public and authentic record.

Q. G.

* * * * *


(Vol. iii., p. 186.)

In a recent number of "NOTES AND QUERIES" (which, by the way, I have only recently become acquainted with) I saw the Queries of your correspondent G. P. P. upon the above subject, and having some time ago had occasion to investigate it, I accumulated a mass of notes from various sources,—and these I send you, rough and unpolished as they are, in the hope that in the absence of better information, they may prove to be acceptable.

Herodotus (viii. 98.) mentions the existence of a method of communication among the Persians, by means of horsemen placed at certain distances.

In the Close and Misae Rolls (temp. King John et post) payments are recorded for nuncii who were charged with the carriage of letters.

In 1481, Edward IV., during his war with Scotland, established horse riders at posts twenty miles apart, by which letters were conveyed two hundred miles in two days (Gale's Hist. Croyland); and the Scottish Parliament issued an ordinance for facilitating the expedition of couriers throughout the kingdom. Carriers of letters also existed in England about this time, for in a letter from Sir J. Paston, written in 1471, we are informed that "Courby, the carrier, hath had 40d. for the third hired horse," for a journey from Norwich to London and back. (Fenn's Paston Letters, 4to. vol. v. p. 73.)

In 1542, letters reached Edinburgh on the fourth day from their despatch from London. (Sadler's Letters and Negociations.)

In 1548, the rate to be charged for post-horse hire was fixed by statute (2 & 3 Edw. VI. cap. 3.) at one penny per mile.

In 1581 (according to Camden), Thomas Randolph was appointed the first Chief Postmaster of all England.

James I. established (date unknown) the office of Foreign Postmaster, which was first held by Mathewe le Questor.

In 1631, Charles I. appointed William Frizell and Thomas Witherings (in reversion) to the sole management of the foreign post-office. And at this date it seems a regular home post was also carried on, as appears by the following entry from the Corporation Books of Great Yarmouth:—"1631. Agreed, June 6, with the Postmaster of Ipswich to have Quarterly 20s. paid him for carrying and bringing letters to and from London to Yarmouth for the vse of the Towne."

In 1635, Charles I. issued a proclamation for the establishment of "a running post or two, to {267} run night and day between Edinburgh and Scotland and the City of London, to go thither and come back again in six days:" branch posts were also to be established with all the principal towns on the road: the rates of postage were fixed at 2d. under 80 miles; 4d. for 140 miles; 6d. beyond; and 8d. to Scotland. This is conclusive evidence that a regular post-office establishment existed nearly ten years before Prideaux had anything to do with the post-office.

In 1640, a proclamation was issued by the Long Parliament, by which the offices of Foreign and Inland Postmaster (then held by Witherings) were sequestrated into the hands of one Philip Burlamachy, a city merchant. Soon after this we find a Committee of the Commons, with "Master Edmund Prideaux" for chairman, inquiring into the matter.

In 1644, a resolution of the Commons declared that "Edmund Prideaux, Esq., a member of the House," was "constituted master of the posts, messengers, and couriers."

In 1649 Prideaux established a weekly conveyance to every part of the kingdom; and also appears to have introduced other judicious reforms and improvements,—indeed he seems to have been the Rowland Hill of those days; but he has not the slightest claim to be considered as the "Inventor of the Post-office." The mistake may have arisen from a misapprehension of the following statement frown Blackstone: "Prideaux first established a weekly conveyance of letters into all parts of the nation, thereby saving to the public the charge of maintaining postmasters, to the amount of 7000l. per annum."

I have not been able to obtain any particulars of Prideaux's personal history.


Jememutha Magna.

Edmund Prideaux and the First Post-office.—See the Appendix to the Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Commons on the Detaining and Opening of Letters at the Post-Office, 1844, which contains copies of numerous documents furnished by Mr. Lechmere and Sir Francis Palgrave.


[We avail ourselves of this opportunity of inserting the following extract from Mr. Rowland Hill's Post-Office Reform; its Importance and Practicability, p. 86. of the third edition, published in 1837, as it shows clearly the use which Mr. Rowland Hill made of the story in his great work of Postage Reform; and that Miss Martineau had clearly no authority for fathering the story in question upon that gentleman:—

"Coleridge tells a story which shows how much the Post-office is open to fraud, in consequence of the option as to pre-payment which now exists. The story is as follows:—

'One day, when I had not a shilling which I could spare, I was passing by a cottage not far from Keswick, where a letter-carrier was demanding a shilling for a letter, which the woman of the house appeared unwilling to pay, and at last declined to take. I paid the postage, and when the man was out of sight, she told me that the letter was from her son, who took that means of letting her know that he was well; the letter was not to be paid for. It was then opened and found to be blank!'[1]

"This trick is so obvious a one that in all probability it is extensively practised."]

[Footnote 1: Letters, Conversations, and Recollections of S. T. Coleridge, vol. ii. p. 114.]

The quotations of your correspondent G. P. P., from Polwhele's Cornwall, relate to the same individual, and a more general construction must, I think, be put upon the expression "our countryman," than that it inferred a native of the county. The family of Prideaux was one of great antiquity, and originated in Cornwall (their first seat being at Prideaux Castle there), and had estates there in the time of the above Edmund. His father, Sir Edmund Prideaux, of Netherton (the first baronet), studied the law in the Inner Temple, where he became very eminent for his skill and learning. He is stated to have raised a large estate in the counties of Devon and Cornwall. He married * * *; secondly, Catherine, daughter of Piers Edgecombe, of Mount Edgecombe, Esq., by whom he had two sons, Sir Peter his successor, and Edmund, the subject of your correspondent's Queries, who is thus described in Prince's Worthies of Devon, p. 509.:—

"This gentleman was bred to the law, and of so great a reputation, as well for zeal to religion as skill in the law, it is not strange he was chosen a Member of that which was called the Long Parliament, wherein he became a very leading man; for, striking in with the prevailing party of those times (though he never joined with them in setting upon the life of his Sovereign), he grew up to great wealth and dignity. He was made Commissioner of the Great Seal [1643. Rushworth, vol. iii. p. 242.], worth 1500l. a-year and by ordinance of Parliament practised within the bar as one of the king's counsel, worth 5000l. per annum. After that he was Attorney General, worth what he pleased to make it [!!], and then Postmaster General ... from all which rich employments he acquired a great estate, and among other things purchased the Abbey of Ford, lying in the Parish of Thorncombe, in Devonshire, where he built a noble new house out of the ruins of the old," &c.

Prideaux cannot be called the inventor of the Post-office, although to him may be attributed the extension of the system. The first inland letter office, which, however, extended to some of the principal roads only, was established by Charles I. in 1635, under the direction of Thomas Witherings, who was superseded in 1640. On the breaking out of the civil war, great confusion was occasioned in the conduct of the office, and about that time Prideaux's plan seems to have been conceived. {268} He was chairman of a committee in 1642 for considering the rates upon inland letters; and afterwards (1644) appointed Postmaster, in the execution of which office he first established a weekly conveyance of letters into all parts of the nation. Prior to this, letters were sent by special messengers, or postmasters, whose duty it was to supply relays of horses at a certain mileage. (Blackstone, book i. c. 8. s. 3.)

I am unable to discover when Edmund Prideaux died; but it appears that either he, or one of his descendants, took part in the rising of the Duke of Monmouth in the West of England, upon which occasion the "great estate" was found of great service in providing a bribe for Lord Jeffreys. In the Life of Lord Jeffreys, annexed to the Western Martyrology; or, Bloody Assizes (5th ed. 266. London, 1705), it is said that "A western gentleman's purchase came to fifteen or sixteen hundred guineas, which my Lord Chancellor had." And Rapin, vol. ii. p. 270., upon the authority of Echard, iii. p. 775., states that in 1685 one Mr. Prideaux, of Ford Abbey, Somerset, gave Jeffreys 14000l. [probably misprint for 1400l.] "to save his life."

I think it likely that your correspondent may find further information upon the subject of this note, in the Life of Dr. Humphrey Prideaux, Dean of Norwich (born 1648, died 1724), published in 1748.


Eye, March 18. 1851.

Polwhele was clearly wrong in designating Edmund Prideaux, the Attorney-General, a Cornishman, as he belonged to the family long seated in Devonshire, and was fourteenth in descent from Hickedon Prideaux, of Orcharton, in that county, second son of Nicholas, lord of Prideaux, in Cornwall, who died in 1169.

The four Queries of G. P. P. may be more or less fully answered by reference to Prince's Worthies of Devon, ed. 1810, p. 651.; and an excellent history of the Post-office in the Penny Magazine for 1834, p. 33.

Is it too much to ask of your correspondent, who writes from Putney under my initials, that he will be so good as to change his signature? I think that I have strong reasons for the request, but I will only urge that I was first in the field, under the designation which he has adopted.[2]

J. D. S.

[Footnote 2: [Would J. D. S. No 1, and J. D. S. No. 2, add the final letter of their respective names, h n s y, or whatever it may be, the difficulty may probably be avoided. We have now so many correspondents that coincidence of signature can scarcely be avoided.]]

* * * * *


(Vol. i., p. 103.; Vol. ii., p. 485.)

Jane, Countess of Henry Neville, fifth Earl of Westmoreland, was daughter of SIR ROGER CHOLMLEY, of Kinthorpe and Roxby, co. York. (Vis. York. Harl. MS. 1487. fol. 354.) She is often confused with his other wife, Anne Manners, and also with her own sister, Margaret Gascoigne, both in the Neville and Cholmley pedigrees as printed. (Burke's Extinct Baronetage, art. Cholmley, and Extinct Peerage, art. Neville.) But while the Manners pedigree in Collins's Peerage (by Longmate, vol. i. p. 433.), as cited by Q. D., removes the former difficulty, that of Gascoigne is disposed of by the Cholmley pedigree in Harl. MS. above quoted, as well as by that (though otherwise very incorrect) in Charlton's Whitby, book iii. pp. 290, 291. 313., and by the Gascoigne pedigree in Whitaker's Richmondshire, vol. i. p. 77. Thus we possess legal and cotemporary evidence who JANE, Countess of Henry, fifth Earl of Westmoreland, really was, without any authentic obstacle or unremoveable contradiction to its reception, viz. that she was a Cholmley.

But I conceive your correspondent's identification is totally erroneous. It is true he only puts an hypothesis on the subject; but this hypothesis has no solid foundation. In the first place, Henry, fifth Earl of Westmoreland, died in 1549; and all authorities seem to agree that his first wife was Anne Manners, and his second Cholmley's daughter. Thus, if either of his countesses were living in 1585, it must have been the latter, by which means all chance of appropriation is removed from Manners to Cholmley. But I shall now give reasons for contending that neither of these ladies was your correspondent's Countess of Westmoreland, by referring him (2ndly) to Longmate's Collins's Peerage, vol. i. p. 96., where he will find that Jane, daughter of Henry Howard, the talented and accomplished Earl of Surry, married Charles Neville, sixth Earl of Westmoreland. He has evidently passed her over, through seeing her called Anne in the Neville pedigrees: "Anne" and "Jane" being often mutually misread in old writing, from the cross upon the initial letter of the last name.

I offer it to your correspondent's consideration, whether his "Jane, Countess of Westmoreland," was not wife of the said Charles Neville, sixth Earl of Westmoreland, who was attainted 18 Eliz. (1575-6). His date is evidently most favourable to this view. It is true the attainder stands in the way; but if even this affords an obstacle, the next candidate for appropriation would be Jane Cholmley. Assuming, however, that your correspondent allows this lady as a candidate for the appropriation, her pedigree corroborates the claim. I have found, by long and minute observation, that hereditary talent, &c. usually descends by the mesmeric {269} tie of affection and favoritism, from fathers to the eldest daughter, and from mothers to the eldest son; and the pedigree of Jane, Countess of Charles, sixth Earl of Westmoreland, stands thus:—

EDWARD STAFFORD, Duke of Buckingham; great, good, and accomplished, and fell a victim to envy.== 1st Dau. ELIZABETH, wife of Thomas Howard, third Duke of Norfolk. == - 1st Son. HENRY HOWARD, Earl of Surry, the poet; great, good, and accomplished, and fell a victim to envy == as physical heir of his mat. grandfather. - 1st Dau. JANE, wife of Charles Neville, sixth Earl of Westmoreland (and qu. the authoress in question?).

Besides being eldest daughter of the celebrated poet, the said Jane, Countess of Westmoreland, was sister of Henry Howard, the learned Earl of Northampton, her father's younger son—(some younger son, like eldest daughters, generally inheriting, physically, in some prominent feature, from the father).


* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

Ulm Manuscript (Vol. iii., pp. 60. 191.).—In addition to the information supplied by MR. FOSS, it may be mentioned that this manuscript is so called from having been referred to by Griesbach as the Codex Ulmensis apud Gerbert. This takes us to the Iter Alemannicum, Italicum et Gallicum of Martin Gerbert, published in 1765, at p. 192. of which work he informs us, that in the year 1760 this manuscript was preserved at Ulm in the library of the family of Krafft, which consisted of 6000 volumes, printed and manuscript. Of its history from this period till it came into Bishop Butler's hands, I am ignorant. Its reference at present in the British Museum is MSS. Add. 11,852.


_Father Maximilian Hell_ (Vol. iii., p. 167.).—A querist is in conscience bound to be a respondent; I therefore hasten to tell you that Dr. Watt (_Biblioth. Britan._ iv. MAGNETISM, ANIMAL) should have written _Hell_ instead of _Hehl_. It was that eminent astronomer, Maximilian _Hell_, who supposed that magnets affected the human frame, and, at first, approved of Mesmer's views. The latter was at Vienna in 1774; and perhaps got some parts of his theory from Father Hell, of whom he was afterwards jealous, and therefore very abusive. The life of Hell in Dr. Aikin's _General Biography_ is an unsatisfactory compilation drawn up by Mr. W. Johnston, to whom we are indebted for the current barbarism _so-called_. In that account there is not one word on Hell's _Treatise on Arti_ficial Magnets_, Vienna, 1763; in which the germ of animal magnetism may probably be found.


Meaning of "strained" as used by Shakspeare (Vol. iii., p. 185.).—The context of the passage quoted by L. S. explains the sense in which Shakspeare used the word "strain'd:"

"Portia. Then must the Jew be merciful. Shylock. On what compulsion must I? tell me that. Portia. The quality of mercy is not strain'd," &c.

that is, there is nothing forced, nothing of compulsion in the quality of mercy.

Johnson gives: "To strain, to force, to constrain."

Q. D.

L. S. will find his difficulty solved by Johnson's Dictionary (a work to which he himself refers), if he compares the following quotation with Portia's reply to Shylock:—

"He talks and plays with Fatima, but his mirth Is forced and strained," &c.


[We have also to thank, for replying to this Query, our correspondents R. F., R. T. G. H., P. K., J. H. KERSHAW, C. M., Y., E. N. W., C. D. LAMONT, and also MR. SNOW, who remarks that "actresses rarely commence this speech satisfactorily, or give, or seem to feel, the point of contrast between the must and no must, the compulsion and no compulsion. In fact, the whole of it is usually mouthed out, without much reference to Shylock or the play, as if it had been learned by rote from a school speech-book. Hazlitt says, in his Characters of Shakspeare's Plays, 'The speech about mercy is very well, but there are a thousand finer ones in Shakspeare.'"]

Headings of Chapters in English Bibles (Vol. iii., p. 141.).—The summaries of the contents of each chapter, as found in the authorised editions of our English Bible, were prefixed by Miles Smith, bishop of Gloucester, one of the original translators, who also wrote the preface, and, in conjunction with Bishop Bilson, finally reviewed the whole work. Your correspondent will find full answers to his other queries in Stackhouse and Tomlins; in Johnson's History of English Translations, &c.; and in T. H. Horne's Introduction.


* * * * *



The author of The History of the Church of Rome to the end of the Episcopate of Damasus, A.D. 384, which has just been published by Messrs. Longman, well remarks, "that he is not aware that there is any account of the Church of Rome, framed on the simple and obvious principle of merely collecting and arranging the testimony of history with regard to facts, and so presented to the reader as that he should leave a right to believe that when he has read what is before him, he {270} has learnt all that is to known. This is strange, considering the points at issue, and the extent, duration, and intensity of the controversies which have been carried on between that Church and the rest of Christendom." It is indeed strange, and it happens fortunately, looking at the all-important question which now agitates the public mind, that the subject should have engaged for some years the attention of a learned, acute, and laborious scholar like Mr. Shepherd, so that he is enabled to put forth the result of his inquiries upon this interesting topic at this moment. Mr. Shepherd's book is indeed a startling one: and when we tell our readers that he "has proved, or, to say the least, has given such indications as will lead to the proof that some documents which have been quoted as authorities in the History of the Early Christian Church, are neither genuine nor authentic;" that he has pretty well resolved St. Cyprian into a purely mythic personage; and shown that all the letters in his works passed between imagined or imaginary correspondents,—we think we are justified in pronouncing his History of the Church of Rome a work calculated to excite the deepest interest in all who peruse it (and by the omission of all long quotations in the learned languages, it is adapted for the perusal of all), to exercise great influence on the public mind, and to awaken a host of endeavours to combat and overthrow arguments which appear to us, however, to be irresistible.

The Council of the Shakspeare Society has just issued to the members the first volume for the present year. It contains Two Historical Plays on the Life and Reign of Queen Elizabeth, by Thomas Heywood, which are very ably edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Mr. Collier; and we have no doubt will be very acceptable; first, from the interest of the plays themselves, the second of which appears to have been extremely popular; and, lastly, as a further instalment towards a complete collection of Heywood's dramatic works.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Tuesday and Wednesday next a valuable portion of the Library of a gentleman, including the late Charles Mathews' copy of the Second Shakspeare; a valuable series of works on Annuities, &c.; and another on the History and Antiquities of London.

BOOKS RECEIVED.—Supplement on the Doctrine and Discipline of the Greek Church. We characterised Mr. Appleyard's interesting little volume, entitled, The Greek Church, as historical rather than doctrinal. The title of this Supplement shows that it expressly supplies the very material in which the original work was deficient.—Archaeologia Cambrensis, New Series, No. VI. A very good number of this record of the Antiquities of Wales and its Marches, and in which are commenced two series of papers of great interest to the Principality: one on the Architectural Antiquities of Monmouthshire, by Mr. Freeman; the other on the Poems of Taliessin, by Mr. Stephens.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.—W. Brown's (46. High Holborn) Catalogue Part 52. of Valuable Second-hand Books, Ancient and Modern;—Cole's (15. Great Turnstile, Holborn) List No. 33. of very Cheap Books; B. Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 27. of Antiquarian, Historical, Heraldic, Numismatic, and Topographical Books; Charles Skeet's (21. King William Street, Strand) List No. 2. of Miscellaneous Books just purchased.

* * * * *


WOOD'S ATHENAE, by Bliss. Vol. 3. 4to.



MEDE'S WORKS, by Worthington. 1664. Fol. Vol. 1.


WARBURTON'S (BISHOP) WORKS. 4to. edition. Vol. 1.

A MIRROR FOR MATHEMATICS, by Robert Tanner, Gent. London, 1587.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents.

We are reluctantly compelled, by want of room, to postpone until next week MR. SINGER'S Paper on a passage in Shakspeare's Anthony and Cleopatra; one by MR. DAWSON TURNER on the Authors of the Rolliad; and many other interesting communications.

CROMWELL'S DEVLINGS WITH THE DEVIL. S. H. H. is thanked for the curious MS. he has forwarded upon this subject, which shall appear next week, when the original shall be carefully returned. We should be glad to see the other paper referred to by S. H. H.

A. L. is thanked. The only reason for the non-appearance of any of his communications is, that they were not sent separately, and we have not had time to make a selection. We take this opportunity of again begging correspondents who write to us on several subjects to oblige us by writing on separate papers; and (which does not refer to A. L.) by writing plainly, more particularly proper names and quotations.

K. R. H. M. Received.

NOCAB has our very best thanks for his kind letter, and his endeavours to increase our circulation. We are endeavouring to arrange for a permanent enlargement of our paper, and propose shortly to make use of NOCAB'S communication and valuable hint.

SING'S reminder, that Saturday last, the 29th of March, was "the centenary anniversary of the death of Captain Coram, the worthy founder of the Foundling," reached us too late for us to call attention to it.

MR. A. J. DUNKIN'S communication on the subject of his proposed Monumenta Anglicana shall have our early attention.

KERRIENSIS is thanked for several interesting communications of which we propose to make an early use.

Will L. M. M. R. send his address? The book he wants has been reported to the publisher.

REPLIES RECEIVED.—Mathew's Med. Passage—San Grail—Nettle in. &c.—The Tanthony—Treatise by Engelbert—Circulation of the Blood—Sir A. Chadwick—Rowley Powley—Langholme Fair—Epitaph on a Turncoat—Gig Hill—Damasked Linen—Endeavour—Meaning of Strained—Rack—Daughter of James II.—Snail-eating—Munchausen's Travels—Mitre, &c.—Cloven Tongues—"Going the whole hog"—Expression in Milton—Haybands in Seals—King John at Lincoln—Handbell—Vineyards—Mazer Wood.

VOLS. I. and II., each with very copious Index, may still be had, price 9s. 6d. each.

NOTES AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c. are, probably, not yet aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive NOTES AND QUERIES in their Saturday parcels.

All communications for the Editor of NOTES AND QUERIES should be addressed to the care of MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

Errata.—P. 236, Col. 2. l. 26, for Hanse town read hamlet; p. 238, col. 1. l. 27, for "cratus" read "natus"; p. 217, col. 1. l. 29. for "Count" read "Court"; p. 250, col. 1. l. 4, for "Tedley" read "Sedley," col. 2. l. 23, for "tantus" read "tantas."


* * * * *

On the 31st of March was commenced the Publication of a


In Monthly Volumes, each containing Three Hundred and Twenty Pages, and from Thirty to a Hundred Engravings,

Price Half-a-Crown, Beautifully Bound.

* * * * *

The Age in which we live is essentially of a practical character, and the predominant principle influencing all classes is a marked desire for cheapness. Cheapness, however, is too often found without excellence, and hence this proposition to supply a deficiency at present existing in the popular literature of this country.

For some time past the projectors of the present undertaking have felt interested in watching the result of an experiment simultaneously made by the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Book Trades; and, having seen that cheap, and occasionally indifferent literature, "got up" in a most inferior manner, will sell, they feel assured that good and judiciously selected works, having the additional advantage of COPIOUS ILLUSTRATION, being produced with the utmost attention to general excellence, and published at the moderate price fixed upon, cannot fail to secure extensive patronage from the Reading Public. The principle upon which they can undertake to supply good books at a low rate is, that being themselves the actual producers, they are enabled to save the public the expense of all intermediate profit.

As a practical explanation of the above views, THREE SAMPLE VOLUMES of the "NATIONAL ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY" were published on the 31st of March. It will be observed that these volumes are widely different in character, in order that the public may form some idea of the extent and variety of the series generally. Afterwards, one volume will be issued monthly. Each volume will contain at least 320 crown octavo pages, illustrated according to the requirements of the subject-matter, by from 30 to 100 illustrations, and will be strongly bound in ornamental cloth boards. Thus, for 30s. a year, in the course of a short period, a Library of great extent and interest may be formed, which shall furnish materials for instruction and amusement during the course of a long life.

The chief advantages which this series of works will present over all others—more especially the closely printed double column editions, and the new fashioned, though equally objectionable, Shilling books, with their numerous errors, thin paper, and flimsy binding, are the following:—

1. A carefully Revised Text. 2. Judicious Explanatory Foot Notes. 3. Engravings really Illustrating the Text. 4. A new and legible Type. 5. Good Paper and Printing. 6. Strong neat Binding.

In carrying out their undertaking it will be the endeavour of the projectors to bestow upon Half-crown Volumes for the many the same typographical accuracy, and the same artistic ability, hitherto almost exclusively devoted to high-priced books for the few. Supported by the co-operation of the Reading Public, no pains will be spared to provide every English home with a complete treasury of knowledge and entertainment in the volumes of the "NATIONAL ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY."

* * * * *

The following are the Volumes which appeared on the 31st of March,




* * * * *

Office of the ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS, 198. Strand.

* * * * *

Just published, No. VII., price 2s. 6d., imperial 4to.

DETAILS of GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, measured and drawn from existing Examples, by J. K. COLLING, Architect.—CONTENTS: Eastern side of Altar Screen, Beverley Minster; Details from ditto; Our compartment of Nave, Austrey Church, Warwickshire; Clerestory and Aisle windows from ditto; Buttresses from ditto. (Continued monthly.)

GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Just published, New Edition, 4to cloth, price 25s.

ILLUSTRATIONS of the REMAINS of ROMAN ART in CIRENCESTER, the SITE of ANTIENT CORINIUM. By Professor BUCKMAN, F.L.S., &c., and C. H. NEWMARCH. Esq. Containing Plates by DE LA MOTTE, of the magnificent Tessellated Pavements discovered in August and September, 1849, with copies of the grand heads of Ceres, Flora, and Pomona, reduced by the Talbotype from fac-simile tracings of the original; together with various other Plates and numerous Wood Engravings.

Cirencester: BAILY AND JONES; London: GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street.

* * * * *


In 8vo., 10s. 6d.,

A HISTORY of the ARTICLES of RELIGION; to which is added a SERIES of DOCUMENTS, from A.D. 1536 to A.D. 1615; together with Illustrations from Contemporary Sources. By CHARLES HARDWICK, M. A., Fellow of St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, and Whitehall Preacher.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Churchyard, and Waterloo Place; and DEIGHTON, Cambridge.

* * * * *

Second Edition, Now Ready, Price 3s. 6d.,

THE NUPTIALS of BARCELONA: A Tale of Priestly Frailty and Spanish Tyranny. By R. N. DUNDBAR.

"This work is powerfully written. Beauty, pathos, and great powers of description are exhibited in every page. In short, it is well calculated to give the author a place among the most eminent writers of the day."—Sunday Times.

SAUNDERS and OTLEY, Publishers, Conduit Street.


* * * * *


YEAST: a PROBLEM. Reprinted, with Additions and Alterations, from FRASER'S MAGAZINE. 9s.

* * * * *


* * * * *

GREGORY OF NAZIANZUM: a Contribution to the Ecclesiastical History of the Fourth Century. By PROFESSOR ULLMANN. Translated by G. V. COX, M.A. 6s.

* * * * *

THE PHILOSOPHY OF LIVING. By HERBERT MAYO, M.D., late Senior Surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital. Third and Cheaper Edition, with Additions. 5s.

* * * * *

CHEMISTRY OF FIRE, AIR, EARTH, AND WATER: an Essay, founded upon Lectures delivered before the Queen. By T. GRIFFITHS, Professor of Chemistry in St. Bartholomew's Hospital. With numerous Illustrations, Second Edition. 4s. 6d.

* * * * *

DE OBLIGATIONE CONSCIENTIAE PRAELECTIONES DECEM OXONII IN SCHOLA THEOLOGICA HABITAE. A ROBERTO SANDERSON, S. Theologicae Ibidem Pofessore Regio. Edited for the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press. With English Notes, including an abridged Translation, by W. WHEWELL, D.D., Master of Trinity College. 9s.

* * * * *

THE EARLY PROGRESS of the GOSPEL: being the Hulsean Lectures for 1850. By W. G. HUMPHRY, B.D., Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of London. 8vo.

* * * * *


By the same Author,



* * * * *


The present reprint was proposed by the editor—a master in a large public school—with a view of reading it with his boys. There is, so far as he is aware, no English book in common use in schools which at all sets forth the distinctions of Laws and the foundations on which their authority is based; and perhaps none could be found better calculated to meet this want than that which is here offered.

* * * * *

BRAMPTON RECTORY; or, the LESSON OF LIFE. Second Edition. 8s. 6d.

By the same Author, 8s. 6d.


London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand.

* * * * *

Just published, price 3d., the April No. of the



THE ART OF REASONING:— The Doctrine of the Syllogism. CONTROVERSY:— Is Mesmerism true? Was Oliver Cromwell a first-rate General, a Great Statesman, and a Sincere Man? The R. C. Hierarchy, ought it to be interdicted? Have the Working Classes been benefited by Machinery? SOCIETIES SECTION:— The Art of Public Speaking Reports of Lectures and Meetings. THE INQUIRER:— Questions requiring Answers. Answers to Questions. French without a Master. German and Italian Grammars. Chemistry. Astronomy. Improvement of the Memory, &c. THE YOUNG STUDENT AND WRITER'S ASSISTANT:— Essays and Exercises. NOTICES OF BOOKS.

"It is unique in its design, able in its execution, and vast and noble in its object."—Leamington Courier.

HOULSTON & STONEMAN, and all Booksellers.

* * * * *

Just published, in One Volume, post 8vo., price 3s. 6d. cloth,

REMONSTRANCE AGAINST ROMISH CORRUPTIONS IN THE CHURCH: addressed to the People and Parliament of England in 1395, 18 RIC. II. Now for the first time published. Edited by the Rev. J. FORSHALL, F.R.S., &c., formerly Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford.


* * * * *

Just published, in One large Volume, 8vo. price 14s. cloth.

THE HISTORY of the CHURCH of ROME, to the End of the Episcopate of Damasus, A.D. 384. By EDWARD JOHN SHEPHERD, A.M. Rector of Luddesdown.


* * * * *


This day is published, in 2 vo's, 8vo.,

NARRATIVES OF MAGIC AND SORCERY. By THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq., F.S.A., Author of "England under the House of Hanover, illustrated by the Caricatures and Satires of the Day."

RICHARD BENTLEY, New Burlington Street, (Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty)

* * * * *

This day, crown 8vo cloth, price 4s. 6d.

LONDON AS IT IS TO-DAY, WHERE TO GO, and WHAT TO SEE during THE GREAT EXHIBITION. With a Map and 300 Engravings on Wood.

THE CRYSTAL PALACE, ITS ORIGIN, HISTORY, and CONSTRUCTION. No. I. price 11/2d. To be completed in 12 Numbers.

London: H. G. CLARKE & CO., 4. Exeter Change.

* * * * *



Payment of premiums may be occasionally suspended without forfeiting the policy, on a new and valuable plan, adopted by this society only, as fully detailed in the prospectus.

A. SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary and Secretary; Author of "Industrial Investment and Emigration; being a Second Edition of a Treatise on Benefit Building Societies, &c." Price 10s. 6d.

London: J. W. PARKER, West Strand.

* * * * *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, April 5. 1851.


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