Orthography - As Outlined in the State Course of Study for Illinois
by Elmer W. Cavins
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Copyright, 1904, by C. M. Parker.


This book is prepared for teachers and pupils who use the Illinois State Course of Study. The outline in Orthography for the Seventh and Eighth Years is the basis of all that is included herein. Three fifths or more of this work is word analysis which, valuable as it is, teachers as a rule are unable to teach without the aid of a text, never having learned much of it themselves. What, for example, can the average teacher unaided do toward writing a list of words to be analyzed which contain the root ann, meaning year? He might turn in the dictionary to annual, anniversary, and annuity, but he must fall back on his acquired knowledge for such as, biennial, centennial, millennium, perennial, and superannuate. And having the list, very many teachers, as well as pupils, need help in the analysis.

The aim of this book has been to set down in an orderly and convenient form such facts as are needed by those who follow the State Course of Study.

Emphasis has been placed upon word analysis. The author believes that this has more value in education than is generally attributed to it. When Mr. Kennedy named his work on word analysis "What Words Say", he gave it the best possible title. Composite words have a wealth of meaning; each syllable is significant. And, as a rule, only to those who can read this significance does the word yield its full meaning. Accuracy is the mark of a scholar. Accuracy in speech and in the understanding of speech cannot be attained by those whose knowledge of words is vague and general. Pupils should early learn how to interpret what words say, and to discriminate carefully in the use of words, for these are the tools which they are to use in all the various departments for acquiring knowledge.

Normal, Ill., Aug. 30, 1904. E. W. CAVINS.



I have long thought that the careful, discriminating study of words is much neglected in our schools. And I am glad to approve, and help to forward, anything that will promote such a study.

Not only will such a study improve a person's language greatly, but it will, at the same time, do much to improve the clearness and precision of his thinking; thought and language have a reciprocal effect.

If a child, while young, can be made to be interested in words themselves,—their origin, their exact meaning, their relations to each other and some of the changes in their meaning which result from their use,—he will be likely to retain that interest through life; it will be more likely to increase than to diminish.

It seems often to be assumed that a student can do nothing profitably with the study of words made up from Greek and Latin roots till he has acquired some mastery of those languages. But I know from experience and much observation that this is not true. Why should it be? Must one master Greek and Latin before he can understand that, in English words, graph means write; ge means earth; phone means sound; cur means run; fin means limit; port means carry, etc.?

And then having learned the meaning of the prefixes and suffixes, is it preposterous to train him to know the etymological significance of a few hundred words by showing him how they are built up?

Of course, we know that many words in common use have shades of meaning quite different from, and in some cases almost opposite to, their literal significance. But will not the student be better able to understand these derived meanings by knowing their literal significance than in any other way? At any rate, I am fully persuaded that such a study of words as this book proposes can be made very profitable to those pupils for whose use it is prepared.

The teacher will find, however, that the teaching of this subject will require much careful labor on his part. The mere learning of the meaning of prefixes and suffixes and of the roots themselves, with the brief remarks on the meaning of some of the words, will need to be supplemented by a careful mastery of it all on his part. And to this must be added much thought of his own, together with careful research in the great dictionaries. But to the earnest and intelligent teacher, such thought and research will yield very rich fruit in his own thinking, and in his use of English speech.

I cheerfully commend the book as a move in the right direction; and as adapted, in my opinion, to do much to supply a serious lack in the present work of the schools.

Normal, Ill., Aug. 18, 1904. E. C. H.


1. From the lists given in this book omit such words as in your opinion are beyond the vocabulary of your pupils.

2. All words given for the first month's work are either defined or illustrated below the lists. This is done to help make clear the method of showing their literal significance. Further along in each year's work only the most difficult words are explained. Insist that pupils in every case where it is possible define or illustrate so as to show the literal meaning, else much of the value of the study is lost.

And, moreover, the ordinary, or current meaning, where it differs from the literal, should be given. Very many of the words have various uses. Thorough work requires that these be illustrated. This necessitates a free use of the dictionary.

It is strongly urged that the pupils (with the aid of the teacher when necessary) try to find an appropriate sentence to illustrate each word and write the same in an orderly way in a note book for the purpose.

In work of this kind a teacher should not underrate the value of reviews. By this means fix facts on the minds of your pupils, especially the meanings of roots and prefixes. Since these meanings are given in a single word, reviews may proceed rapidly.

One convenient method of recitation in this subject is to send pupils to the blackboard without their books, assign them by turns words to be analyzed according to the examples given under "Directions to Pupils", and then let each pupil read to the class what he has written on the board.


Given in the seventh and eighth years' work of the State Course of Study are 45 prefixes, 64 roots, and 33 suffixes,—in all 142 elements or component parts of words. In this book a list of words is furnished to illustrate each element, the average number of words in each list being about eleven, and the total number of different words analyzed, or partially analyzed, is over 1200.


1. Name its component parts—root, prefix, and suffix—and give the literal meaning of each.

2. Combine these meanings in a definition, supplying additional words if necessary, to make the sense complete. In exceptional cases, however, the exact literal meanings of the parts cannot be put together in a good definition. One or more of the parts must then be omitted entirely, or represented by words which are not exactly literal.

3. Give an illustration of the use of the word.

(Caution: Carefully distinguish verbs, adjectives and nouns. Do not define adjectives as nouns or verbs, or vice versa. Do not, for illustration, say audible is that which can be heard; but rather say audible means capable of being heard.)


avert: (1) a, away + vert, turn. (2) To turn away; to ward off. (3) The evils which exist are necessary to avert greater evils.

deify: (1) dei, god + fy, to make. (2) To make a god of; to praise and revere as if a deity. (3) The people of India deify the Ganges River.

hostile: (1)host, enemy + ile, belonging to. (2) Belonging to or having the characteristics of an enemy. (3) Yon tower which rears its head so high invites the hostile winds.

portable: (1) port, carry + able, capable of. (2) capable of being carried or moved from place to place; not stationary. (3) A portable photograph gallery stopped for three days at the cross-roads near my home.

benefactor: (1) bene, good + fact, make, do + or, one who. (2) One who does good; especially one who makes a charitable donation. (3) "He is a true benefactor and alone worthy of honor who brings comfort where before was wretchedness, who dries the tear of sorrow."

A careful study of the five examples given above will reveal that to analyze words a pupil must—

1. Learn some facts—meanings of the component parts of words.

2. Be careful in putting these facts together to make a sensible definition.

3. Use the dictionary to find the ordinary, or current, use of a word.

4. Gather illustrations. This is not easy, but it should not be neglected, for it is the most practical feature of word analysis. Pupils should help each other, and the teacher may contribute when his help is needed. One good illustration for a difficult word might suffice the entire class.


Word Analysis.



a, ab, abs = from, away.

1. a vert, turn 2. ab brevi ate, short 3. ab duct, lead 4. ab ject, cast 5. ab lut ion, wash 6. ab origin es, beginning 7. ab rupt, break 8. ab sorb, suck in 9. ab solve, loosen 10. ab use, use.

2. To shorten, to take from; to make briefer.

3. To lead away; to carry off by force; to kidnap.

4. An abject person is one sunk to low condition (as if cast from the society of others).

5. An ablution is a washing or cleansing; especially a religious rite.

6. The inhabitants of a country from the beginning. The earliest inhabitants of which anything is known.

7. Broken or appearing as if broken away or off; as an abrupt cliff.

8. To suck up; to drink in. A brick will absorb a pint of water.

9. To loosen or set free, as from some duty or obligation

10. To divert from the proper use; to misuse.

ambi, (amphi) = both, on both sides, around.

1. ambi dextr ous, right hand 2. ambi ti on, go 3. amphi bi ous, life 4. amphi theatre, view.

1. Having skill with both hands (as if both were right hands).

2. A going around or about, as of a candidate soliciting votes; eager for favors; strongly desirous.

3. Living both on land and in water. Frogs, turtles, crocodiles, seals, otters, and beavers are amphibious.

4. An amphitheatre is a building built circular so that spectators may view a performance from both sides or from all around.

bene = well, good.

1. bene dict ion, speak 2. bene fact ion, do 3. bene fact or, one who 4. bene fic ent, do 5. bene fic ial, pertaining to 6. bene fit, do 7. bene vol ent, will 8. beni gn, (genus) kind 9. beni gn ant, being 10. nota bene, note

1. The act of speaking well to or of; a blessing pronounced at the close of divine service.

2. The act of doing good; making a charitable donation.

4. Doing or effecting good; performing acts of kindness.

5. Pertaining to what does good, is useful or profitable.

6. A good deed done; an act of kindness.

7. Willing to do good; well-wishing; charitable.

8. Good and kind of heart; expressive of gentleness or kindness. Literally, of a good kind.

9. Being kind and gracious.

10. Note well; observe carefully; take notice. Usually abbreviated to N. B.

circum = around.

1. circum fer ence, carry 2. circum flex, bend 3. circum locut ion, speak 4. circum navig ate, sail 5. circum scribe, write, draw 6. circum spect, look 7. circum sta nce, stand 8. circum vent, come.

1. Think the circumference in the process of making; carry the crayon around the circle to produce the circumference.

2. A bending around; a wave or bend of the voice embracing both a rise and a fall on the same syllable.

3. The act of speaking in a round about way; particularly a studied indirectness or evasiveness of speech.

4. The act of sailing around; especially the earth or globe.

5. To draw a bounding line round; hence to mark out the limits of.

6. Looking around on all sides; examining carefully.

7. That which attends or relates to (stands around, as it were,) an event, a person or a thing.

8. To circumvent one in any enterprise is to come around in an unexpected way for the purpose of gaining an advantage.

contra, (contro, counter) = against

1. contra dict, speak 2. contra vene, come 3. contra st, stand 4. counter act, do 5. counter balance, scales 6. contro versy, turn

1. To speak against; to assert the opposite of.

2. To come against; to oppose.

3. To stand against; to set in opposition to, as two or more objects of a like kind with a view to showing their difference.

4. To act against; to do what hinders.

5. To weigh against with equal weight; equal weight, power or influence acting in opposition to.

6. A turning against; debate, contention.

ann = year.

1. annu al, relating to 2. anni vers ary, turn 3. annu ity, that which 4. bi ennial, two 5. cent ennial, hundred 6. mille nnium, thousand 7. per ennial, through 8. super annuate, beyond

1. Relating to a year; yearly.

2. That day which returns once a year commemorating some event.

3. A stated sum of money payable yearly.

4. Happening once in two years; lasting two years.

5. Consisting of or lasting a hundred years. Happening every hundred years.

6. A period or interval of a thousand years.

7. Throughout the year; lasting, perpetual.

8. Condition of being beyond the years of active service; impaired or disabled by length of years.

art = skill.

1. art ist, one who 2. arti fic ial, make 3. artist ic, relating to 4. art less, without

1. One who is skilled or adept in any of the fine arts.

2. Produced or made by art or skill rather than by nature.

3. Relating to skill in any field.

4. Without skill; especially without skill in fraud or deceit.

aster, (astr) = star.

1. aster isk, little 2. aster oid, form 3. astr olog er, speak. 4. astr onomy, distribute 5. dis aster, apart

1. Literally, a little star; a mark like a star used to refer to a note in the margin.

2. Formed like a star.

3. One who speaks about the stars; one who foretells events by the stars, or interprets the supposed influence of the stars.

4. The science which treats of the distribution, arrangement and size of heavenly bodies (stars).

5. An unfavorable aspect of a star or planet, hence an ill portent, a calamity.

aud = hear.

1. aud ible, capable of 2. audit ory, pertaining to 3. audit ors, those who 4. in audible, not

1. Capable of being heard.

2. Pertaining to the hearing, or the sense of hearing.

3. Those who hear; people who assemble for the purpose of hearing music or discourse.

4. Not capable of being heard; indistinct.


dis (dif) = apart, from, away.

1. dis burse, purse 2. dis cord, heart 3. dis cuss, shake 4. dif fer, bear 5. dif fuse, pour 6. dis loc ate, place 7. dis miss, send 8. dis pel, drive 9. dis pose, put 10. dis rupt, break 11. dis sect, cut 12. dis tend, stretch

1. To disburse money is to pay it out (from one's purse).

2. (Literally, hearts apart.) Want of harmony; not agreeing in opinion, or in action.

3. The discussion of a question shakes it apart, for a more thorough examination.

4. When two minds differ, one bears in one direction, the other in another, and thus they bear apart. They do not agree.

5. To pour out and cause to spread apart, as a fluid; to circulate; to scatter.

6. To place apart or out of proper position.

7. To dismiss a congregation is to send the people (or allow them to go) apart to their homes.

8. To dispel fear is to drive it away.

9. To dispose of property is to part with it (put it apart from one).

10. Rocks are disrupted when broken apart.

11. To dissect the eye of an ox is to cut it apart, for the purpose of examination.

12. To distend is to stretch apart or spread in all directions; to dilate, to expand.

extra = beyond.

1. Extra ordin ary, order, rule (ary, relating to). Relating to what is beyond or out of the common rule or order; exceptional, unusual.

2. Extra vag ant, wander (ant, ing). Wandering beyond bounds or out of the regular course; excessive.

inter = between, among, through.

1. inter cede, go 2. inter cept, take 3. inter course, run 4. inter ject ion, throw 5. inter lop er, run 6. inter mingle, mix 7. inter pose, place 8. inter rogate, ask 9. inter sect, cut 10. inter val, wall 11. inter vene, come 12. inter view, see

1. To go between parties for the purpose of reconciling those who differ; to plead in favor of another.

2. To seize or take between the starting point and destination; as to intercept a letter or messenger.

3. Frequent or habitual meeting or contact of one person with another (a running between, to and fro).

4. An interjection is a word thrown in between other words to express emotion or feeling.

5. An interloper is one who runs in between two parties to get the advantage which one would obtain from the other. One who intercepts and buys a basket of eggs between a farmer's wagon and a grocery store would, from the standpoint of the merchant, be an interloper.

6. To mix between or together.

7. To protect the eyes from a strong light interpose (place between the eyes and light) a shade.

8. To interrogate is to question. (The questions come between the answers.)

9. One line intersects another when it cuts through it, or between its parts.

10. An interval is an open space or stretch between things or limits. Formerly it meant a space between walls.

11. To come between persons, things, or events.

12. A mutual exchange of views between two or more people.

non = not, un.

The prefix non- may be joined to the leading word by means of a hyphen, or, in most cases, the hyphen may be dispensed with.

1. noncommittal 2. non compos mentis 3. nonconductor 4. nondescript 5. nonentity 6. nonessential 7. nonpareil 8. non-payment 9. nonplus 10. non-resident 11. nonsense 12. nonsuit

2. Com, with + pos, power + mentis, of mind. Literally, not with power of mind. Not of sound mind; not capable, mentally, of managing one's own affairs.

4. That which has not been described; difficult to describe; new, novel, odd.

5. Entity means thing or being; hence a nonentity is no thing or nothing. Often applied to a person or thing which counts for little or nothing.

9. Plus means more. Literally, a person is nonplused when he can do no more, or go no further; puzzled, confounded, embarrassed.

(It seems unnecessary to append definitions or illustrations to other words of the above list.)

per = through, thoroughly, by.

1. per ambul ate, walk 2. per ceive, take 3. per cent, hundred 4. per col ate, filter 5. per enni al, year 6. per fect, make 7. per for ate, bore 8. per form, form 9. per fume, smoke 10. per mit, let go 11. per plex, entangle 12. per secute, follow 13. per sist, stand 14. per vade, go 15. per vert, turn 16. per vi ous, way

1. To walk through or over. He got out of bed and perambulated the room for some minutes.

2. To take or obtain knowledge through the senses. To take with a thorough mental grasp; to understand.

3. By the hundred.

4. To pass through; as, a filter or strainer.

5. Lasting through the year, or through many years.

6. Thoroughly made; finished in every part; without blemish or defect.

7. To bore through; to make holes in; to pierce.

8. To form thoroughly; to execute, accomplish, or carry out.

9. "To perfume means literally to smoke thoroughly. Hence to impregnate or fill with scent or odor."—Kennedy.

10. By this permit we may go through the factory.

11. To entangle thoroughly. "Love with doubts perplexes still the mind."

12. To follow with persistence or thoroughness. To follow close after; specifically to afflict or harass on account of adherence to a particular creed. The early Christians suffered persecution.

13. To take a thorough stand; to continue steadily in some state or course of action; especially in spite of opposition.

14. To go through; to spread throughout the whole.

15. To turn in another direction; to turn thoroughly from a former course. "Blessings unused pervert into a waste."

16. Having a way through. "—— to have their way free and pervious to all places."

clud, clus = shut.

1. close 2. clos et, little 3. con clude, together 4. dis close, un 5. en close, in 6. ex elude, out 7. exclus ion, act of 8. in clude, within 9. pre clude, before 10. re cluse, back 11. se clude, aside 12. se clus ion, state of being

1. To shut.

2. A small side room in which, clothing and other articles are kept shut away from view.

3. To bring to an end. Literally to shut in or together (obsolete); as, "The body of Christ was concluded in the grave."

4. To un-shut; to open or uncover; to make known.

9. To put an obstacle before, or in the way of, in order to shut out; to prevent or hinder.

10. One who is shut up (or has shut himself back) from the world or public view.

11. To shut off or keep apart or aside, as from company or society.

cor, cord = heart.

1. core 2. cordial, relating to 3. con cord, with 4. cord ate, shaped 5. dis cord, apart 6. discord ant, being 7. re cord, again 8. cour age, having

1. The heart or innermost part of a thing; as the core of an apple.

2. Relating to the heart; hearty, sincere.

3. Heart with heart; hence unity of sentiment or harmony. "Love quarrels oft in concord end."

4. Heart shaped; as a cordate leaf.

5. Heart apart from heart; hence disagreement or want of harmony.

6. State of being out of harmony.

7. Record; through the Latin recordari, to remember (or know again). To get by heart; hence to register; to write or inscribe an authentic account of.

8. Having heart; hence bravery, calmness, firmness. (The heart is accounted the seat of bravery; hence the derivative sense of courage.)

corpus, corpor = body.

1. corpse 2. corps (pronounce core) 3. corpor al, relating to 4. corpu lent, full of 5. incorpor ate, make 6. corpus cle, small 7. corset 8. habeas corpus. You may have

1. The body only; hence a dead body.

2. A body of soldiers.

3. Relating to the body; as corporal punishment.

4. A corpulent person is fleshy; literally full of body.

5. To make into a body in the legal sense, so that a number of individuals may transact business legally as one person.

6. A small body; a minute particle.

7. In the middle ages, a close-fitting body garment, having sleeves and skirt.

8. Literally, you may have the body. A writ requiring the body of a person restrained of liberty to be brought into court that the lawfulness of the restraint may be investigated.

cura, curo = care.

1. cure 2. curable, capable of 3. curate, one who 4. curi ous, full of 5. mani cure, hand 6. ac cur ate, to 7. pro cure, for 8. se cure, aside

1. To take care of; to restore to health.

2. Capable of being cured or restored by care.

3. One who has the care of souls; a parish priest.

4. Formerly, curious meant full of care, or careful, nice, precise; as, "Men were not curious what syllables or particles they used." Eager to learn; inquisitive.

5. To care for the hands and nails.

6. A thing is made accurate by giving care to it.

7. Literally, to care for; to look after; as, "I procured that rumor to be spread." To obtain; to get.

8. Aside, or free, from care, anxiety, or fear; safe.


pre = before.

1. pre amble, walk 2. pre cede, go 3. pre ced ent, that which 4. pre cip ice, head 5. pre clude, shut 6. pre coc ious, cook, ripe 7. pre curs or, run 8. pre destinate, to determine 9. pre dict, speak 10. pre face, say 11. pre fer, bring 12. pre fix, fasten 13. pre judice, judgment 14. pre limin ary, threshold 15. pre mature, ripe 16. pre monit ion, warning 17. pre pare, make ready 18. pre posit ion, place 19. pre poster ous, after 20. pre scribe, write

1. The introductory part of a discourse. Formerly preamble meant, to walk over beforehand; as, "I will take a thorough view of those who have preambled this by path."

3. That which has gone before. A previous example or usage which has, in some measure at least, become established; as, a custom, habit, or rule.

4. A headlong fall; an abrupt descent. Literally, head foremost.

5. See second month, page 16.

6. Ripe in understanding at an early age or before due time; as, a precocious child.

7. A precursor is a forerunner. That which precedes an event and indicates its approach.

8. To determine beforehand by an unchangeable purpose or decree. "Whom He did foreknow He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son."

11. To prefer one thing to another is to bring or set it before the other in estimation. To hold in greater liking or esteem.

13. A prejudgment formed without due examination. "Prejudice is the child of ignorance."

14. Literally, before the threshold. Preceding or leading up to something more important; as preliminary arrangements.

18. A preposition is so called because usually placed before the word with which it is phrased.

19. Anything is preposterous when it is contrary to nature, reason, or common sense. Literally, having that last which ought to be first; as, the "cart before the horse".

20. To lay down beforehand in writing as a rule of action. "Prescribe not us our duties."

re = back, again.

1. re bound, leap 2. re cede, go 3. re claim, call 4. re cluse, shut 5. re cogn ize, know 6. re con struct, build 7. re course, run 8. re create, make 9. re cruit, grow 10. re cur, run 11. re flect, bend 12. re fresh, new 13. re hash, chop 14. re im burse, purse 15. re ject, throw 16. re juven ate, young 17. re lapse, slip 18. re late, carry 19. re lease, loose 20. re mit, send 21. re morse, bite 22. re nov ate, new 23. re pel, drive 24. re plen ish, full 25. re pulse, drive 26. re sult, leap 27. re sume, take (up) 28. re surrect ion, rise 29. re tain, hold 30. re tract, draw

Use each of the above words in a sentence and illustrate its meaning, thus: A ball thrown against a brick wall will rebound (leap back).

semi = half.

1. semicircle 2. semicolon 3. semidiameter 4. semilunar 5. semivowel 6. semiweekly

super = over, above, beyond.

1. super annu ate, year 2. super cili ous, pride 3. super fic ial, face 4. super flu ous, flow 5. super natur al, nature 6. super numer ary, number 7. super pose, put 8. super script ion, write 9. super struct ure, build. 10. super vise, see

1. A superannuate is one who has become impaired or disabled by length of years. Specifically, one living beyond the years of active service and allowed to retire on a pension.

2. Lofty with pride; overbearing. "A supercilious nabob of the east, haughty and purse-proud."

3. Literally, not extending below (i. e. in depth beyond) the surface; shallow. "She despised superficiality, and looked deeper than the color of things."

4. Overflowing; more than is needed; as, a composition abounding with superfluous words.

5. Being beyond or exceeding the powers of nature. Miracles were performed by supernatural power.

6. Beyond a stated or required number; as, a supernumerary officer in a regiment.

7. To put over or upon; as to superpose one rock upon another.

8. A superscription is a writing over or upon; especially an address on a letter.

9. A superstructure is something built over something else; particularly an edifice in relation to its foundation.

10. To oversee; as, to supervise the erection of a house.

tri = three.

1. tri angle, angle 2. tri cuspid, point 3. tri cycle, circle 4. tri dent, tooth 5. tri enni al, year 6. tri gam ist, marriage. 7. tri gon ometry, measure 8. tri later al, side 9. tri nomi al, term 10. trio 11. tri pod, foot 12. tri sect, cut 13. tri syllable, syllable 14. trium vir, man 15. tri une, one 16. tri via l, way

2. A tricuspid tooth has three points.

4. A three-toothed or three-pronged spear. Specifically, a fishing spear.

"His nature is too noble for the world; He would not flatter Neptune for his trident, Or Jove for his power to thunder."

6. A trigamist is one who has been three times married; especially one who has three wives or three husbands at the same time.

7. Trigonometry literally means three angle measure. That branch of mathematics which treats of the relations of sides and angles of triangles, and applies them to other figures.

9. A trinomial in algebra is a quantity consisting of three terms.

10. A trio is a musical composition in three parts.

11. A tripod has three feet or legs; as a three-legged table or stool, a three-footed kettle or vase.

14. A triumvir is one of three men united in office; specifically in ancient Rome.

15. The triune is three in one; the three-fold personality of one divine being,—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

16. Trivial formerly meant, pertaining to three ways; where three ways or roads cross; of the cross roads; hence, common, commonplace, such as may be picked up anywhere; ordinary; trifling; of little worth.

due = lead, draw.

1. ab duct, away 2 ad duce, to 3. aque duct, water 4. con duct, with 5. de duct, from 6. duct ile, capable of 7. duke, a leader 8. e duc ate, out 9. in duce, into 10. in duce ment, that which 11. intro duce, into 12. pro duce, forth 13. se duce, aside 14. re duce, back

1. To lead or carry away wrongfully and usually by force; to kidnap; as, to abduct a child.

2. To lead or bring to; to bring forward or offer as an argument in a case. "I too prize facts and shall adduce nothing else."

3. An aqueduct is a leadway or artificial channel for conveying water.

4. A guide conducts a traveler when he goes with him and, in a sense, leads him along a safe route.

5. To deduct is to take from; to draw away.

6. A ductile metal is one capable of being drawn into wire; as, copper, platinum, steel, etc.

8. To develop mentally and morally by instruction. Educate literally means to lead forth, to draw out.

11. An introduction is the initial step which leads people into one another's acquaintance.

14. (1) To lead or bring back to a former state; as,

"It were but right And equal to reduce me to my dust."

(2) To bring to any specific state or form.

fac, fact = do, make.

(fec, fic, fy, fea, fash are variations.)

1. fact 2. fact ory, place where 3. facil ity, quality of 4. bene fact or, good 5. manu fact ure, hand 6. ef fect, (ex.) out 7. per fect, thoroughly 8. im perfect, not 9. arti ficial, skill 10. bene ficial, good 11. sacri fice, sacred 12. paci fic, peace 13. feat 14. de feat, un 15. feas ible, capable of 16. fashion.

1. A fact is something done or brought to pass.

3. Quality of being easily done.

5. Manufacture formerly meant to make by hand.

6. An effect is something worked out, or done.

7. A thing is perfect when thoroughly made, or finished.

11. Sacrifice literally means to make sacred; to set apart as sacred.

12. Pacific means pertaining to peace; suited to make or restore peace.

13. A feat is an act, a deed, an exploit; something done.

14. To defeat means to overcome or vanquish. Literally to un do.

16. The fashion of a thing is, in a sense, the make of it.

NOTE.—fy, meaning to make, is found as a suffix in derivatives too numerous to mention; as, purify (to make pure), rarefy (to make rare), classify (to make or put into a class), etc.

fer, ferr = carry, bear, bring.

1. circum fer ence, around 2. con fer, together 3. dif fer, apart 4. fert ile, capable of 5. of fer, (ob) near. 6. pro (f)fer, forth 7. re fer, back 8. re fer ee, one who 9. suf fer, (sub) under 10. trans fer, across

1. See first month, page 10.

2. When two or more persons confer they bring together opinions and facts on some special subject.

3. See second month, page 13.

5. To bring near to; to present for acceptance; as, to offer one's services.

6. To bring or put forward; to hold forth so that a person may take; as, to proffer a gift.

7. To direct for information. Literally, to carry back; as, "Mahomet referred his new laws to the angel Gabriel, by whose direction he gave out they were made."

9. To suffer is to bear under; to undergo.

NOTE.—Ferr is an irregular Latin verb the principal parts of which are: fero, ferre, tuli, latus. The last form is found in a number of English words; as, dilate, elate, legislate, relate, superlative, translate. The meaning of the root in these words, as in the ten given above, is bear, carry, or bring.

fest = feast.

1. fest al. Pertaining to a feast, a holiday or celebration.

2. fest ive. Pertaining to or becoming a feast; festal, joyous, gay.

3. festival. A time of feasting or celebration.

4. festivity. Joyousness, gayety, such as becomes a feast.

5. festoon. Originally an ornament for decoration at a feast.

6. fete. Modern French, equivalent of feast.


uni = one.

1. unit, one 2. un ity, ness 3. un ion, state of being 4. unite 5. dis unite, not 6. re unite, again 7. un anim ous, mind 8. unanim ity, state of being 9. uni corn, horn 10. uni form, form 11. uni son, sound 12. uni verse, turn 13. unique 14. onion

9. The unicorn is a fabulous one-horned animal.

12. The universe consists of all things considered as one whole.

13. A thing is unique when it is the only one of its kind.

14. Onion comes from the Latin unio, which means oneness; also a single pearl of large size resembling the onion.

anti = against, opposed to.

1. anti climax, ladder 2. anti christ, Christ 3. anti dote, give 4. anti path y, feel 5. anti pod es, foot 6. anti thesis, place 7. anti slave ry, slave 8. anti soci al, companion

1. An anti climax is opposed to or in contrast with a climax. In rhetoric it is a figure or fault of style consisting of an abrupt descent (down the ladder) from stronger to weaker expressions.

3. An antidote is something given to counteract (act against) poison or disease.

5. Those who live at opposite points on the globe so that their feet are directly toward each other are antipodes. Figuratively, things opposed to each other.

6. In rhetoric an antithesis is a figure of speech which consists of one idea placed against another; a contrast.

8. A person is antisocial when he is averse or opposed to society, social intercourse or companionship.

dia = across, through, between.

1. diagon al, angle 2. dia gram, writing 3. dia lect, speech 4. dia log, speech 5. dia meter, measure 6. dia pason, all 7. dia phragm, fence

1. A diagonal is a line across from angle to angle.

2. A diagram is that which is marked out by lines drawn or written across; as, a figure, a plan.

3. Dialect is speech or language by means of which ideas are communicated (across) from one to another.

6. The diapason is one of certain stops in the organ, so called because it extends through all notes of the scale.

7. The diaphragm is a membranous partition or fence between the thorax and abdomen.

en = on.

1. en dorse, back 2. en grave, carve 3. en throne, throne 4. en list, list

1. To endorse a check is to write one's name on the back of it.

NOTE.—en in most words is the equivalent of the Latin in, meaning in, into, within; as in encage, encase, encircle, enclose, encourage, enrage, enroll, entangle, entice, entomb, entrap, entwine, envelop, enwrap.

foli = leaf.

1. foliage. A cluster of leaves. 2. folio. A leaf-sheet folded once. 3. foil. A thin leaf of metal. 4. trefoil. A plant with three leaves; as, clover. 5. port-folio. A case for carrying loose leaves of paper.

fort, forc = strong.

1. fort 2. forti fy, make 3. fortr ess 4. ef fort, (ex.) out 5. forti tude, quality of 6. force 7. forc ible, capable of 8. en force, on 9. com fort, with 10. piano forte, soft

1. A fort is a stronghold.

2. To make strong; to strengthen or secure by means of forts, batteries, or other military works.

3. Ess is a feminine ending. A "maiden fortress" is a fortification which has never been taken. A fortress is a very strong fort.

4. An effort is a putting out of one's strength for the accomplishment of some end.

5. Fortitude is strength or firmness of mind in meeting danger, pain, or adversity.

6. Force is strength in general, physical, mental, moral.

9. To comfort is to strengthen with hope and cheer; to give consolation to.

10. The piano forte is an instrument having both soft and loud (strong) tones. The name is generally shortened to piano.

fract, frang = break.

1. frail 2. frail ty, quality 3. fract ure, that which 4. fract ion, that which 5. fract ious, quality of 6. frag ile, capable of 7. frag ment, that which 8. in fringe, in

1. A thing is frail when it is easily broken.

2. Frailty is a quality of things easily broken.

3. A fracture is a break; as of a bone.

4. A fraction is a part, as if broken off.

5. A fractious person is one apt to break out into a passion.

6. "The stalk of ivy is tough and not fragile" (capable of being broken).—Bacon.

7. A fragment is that which is broken off.

8. To infringe is to break in upon; to trespass on another's rights.

frater, fratr = brother.

1. fratern al, pertaining to 2. fratern ity, that which 3. fratern ize, make 4. frater 5. friar 6. friary

1. Fraternal means brotherly; like brothers.

2. An organization in which the members hold one another in brotherly relations.

3. To fraternize means to make a brother of; to receive into a fraternity.

4. Frater. A brother; especially a monk.

5. Friar. A brother of any religious order, but especially one of certain monastic orders of the Roman Catholic church.

6. Friary. A home for friars (brothers); a monastery.


mono = one, single, alone, solitary.

1. mon arch, rule 2. mono gam ist, marriage 3. mono gram, write 4. mono logue, speak 5. mono mania, mind 6. mo nomi al, term 7. mono poly, sell 8. mono syllable, syllable 9. mono the ism, God 10. mono tone, tone, sound

1. A monarch is a sole or supreme ruler.

2. A monogamist is one who believes in marriage with one person only.

3. A monogram is a single character formed of two or more letters interwoven (as if done at one writing).

4. A speaking by one person.

5. Monomania is a derangement of mind in regard to a single subject only.

6. A monomial in algebra is a quantity which consists of a single term.

7. A monopoly is the sole (or single) right to sell a certain article, or to sell it at a given place.

9. Monotheism is the doctrine of belief that there is but one God.

10. A monotone is a single tone without harmony or variation in pitch.

para = aside, beside, similar

1. para ble (ballo), throw 2. para graph, write 3. par allel, one another 4. para phrase, speak 5. para site, feed 6. par en thesis, put

1. A parable is a short fictitious narrative placed (thrown) beside something which it is intended to illustrate.

2. A paragraph was originally a mark or note of comment written beside the line or place where a division should be made; now a distinct part of a discourse or writing.

3. Parallel lines extend beside one another.

4. Paraphrasing is telling (speaking) the same thing in other words.

5. A parasite is an animal or plant which lives beside or in another organism on which it feeds.

6. Marks of parenthesis are often used for a word, phrase, clause, or sentence put in by way of explanation to what it stands beside.

peri = around.

1. peri anth, flower 2. peri cardium, heart 3. peri meter, measure 4. peri tone um, stretch 5. peri oste um

1. The perianth is the floral envelope around the flower.

2. The pericardium is the membrane which surrounds the heart.

3. The perimeter of a figure is the outer boundary or measure around it.

4. The peritoneum is the membrane which is stretched around the abdomen.

5. The periosteum is the membrane around the bones.

syn (syl, sym) = with, together.

1. syl lable, take 2. sym pathy, feel 3. sym phony, sound 4. syn chron ous, time 5. syn onym, name 6. syn ops is, view 7. syn thesis, put, place

1. Literally, a syllable is two or more sounds taken together, or uttered by one impulse of the voice. Many syllables, however, comprise but one sound.

2. Sympathy is feeling with another, especially his sorrows and misfortunes.

3. A symphony is a sounding together; a harmony of sounds.

4. Synchronous. Happening or existing at the same time.

5. Synonym. Literally, a word having the same name. But it is applied to words of like or kindred meaning.

6. A synopsis is a view of the whole together. A summary giving a general view of some subject.

7. The putting of two or more things together. Synthesis is the opposite of analysis.

tele = far (distance).

1. tele gram, write 2. tele graph, write 3. tele pathy, feel 4. tele meter, measure 5. tele phone, sound 6. tele scope, view

1. A telegram is a message transmitted (written) from afar.

3. Telepathy is the sympathetic communication at a distance of one mind with another; not by the ordinary methods, but through feeling.

4. Telemeter. An instrument for measuring distances in surveying.

liber = free.

1. liber al, relating to 2. il liberal, not 3. liberal ity, quality of 4. liber ate, act of 5. liberat or, one who 6. liber ty, state of being 7. liberal ize, make 8. de liver, from 9. deliver er, one who 10. deliver y, act of

1. Liberal. Relating to or possessing a free and generous heart.

3. Liberality is the quality of being free or generous.

7. To liberalize is to make free, as to free from narrow views or prejudices.

8. To deliver means to set free from bondage or restraint.

liter = letter.

1. letter 2. letters 3. liter ary, pert. to 4. liter ate, condition of 5. il literate, not 6. al literation, (ad) to 7. liter al, relating to 8. ob literate, against

1. Letter (from L. linere, to besmear); so called because smeared on parchment and not cut on wood.

2. Letters usually means literature in general; hence knowledge gained from books; literary culture.

6. Alliteration is a repetition of the same letter or sound at the beginning of two or more words in close succession. Examples: "A whole fleet of bulky bottomed boats." "What a tale of terror now their turbulency tells." Literally, letter to letter.

8. In obliterate, ob means against or the reverse. The reverse of besmear is to rub off; hence to obliterate means to rub out, to erase.

NOTE.—Other words from the same root are, literally, illiteracy, literati, literature, literalize, literalist.

man (manus) = hand.

1. bi mana, two 2. e man cip ate, take 3. man acle, cuff 4. man euver, work 5. man (n) er, relating to 6. manu al, pert. to 7. manu fact ory, make 8. manu script, write

1. Bimana is a term applied to man as a special order of mammalia. Animals having two hands.

2. To emancipate a slave is to take him out of the hands of his master.

3. The word manacle comes from manicula, which means handcuff.

4. Literally, maneuver means a working with the hands. To make adroit and artful moves; as, of an army.

5. Manner relates to the way of handling or doing things.

6. Manual. Performed, made, or used by the hands; as manual labor, manual arts.

mater = mother.

1. alma mater, foster 2. matern al, pert. to 3. matern ity, state of being 4. matri cide, kill 5. metro polis, city 6. metropolit an, relating to 7. matron 8. matron ly, like

1. Literally, alma mater means foster mother. It is applied by students to the university or college in which they have been trained.

5. Metropolis means mother city; the chief city of a state or country. Chicago is the metropolis of Illinois.

6. Metropolitan. Relating to the metropolis; as, a metropolitan newspaper.

7. A matron is a woman with motherly duties; as the matron of a school or hospital.


able = capable of, fit to be.

1. ar able, plow 2. cap able, take, hold 3. dur able, last, hard 4. lia ble, bind 5. mut able, change 6. laud able, praise 7. port able, carry 8. soci able, companion 9. ten able, hold 10. us able, use.

1. Arable land is capable of being plowed.

2. A capable mind can take and hold ideas (understand and remember).

4. One is liable for a debt when legally bound to pay it.

7. A portable library is one fitted for being carried from place to place.

9. Tenable ground for argument is ground which is capable of being held or maintained.

acy = state of being, office of.

1. celib acy, unmarried 2. delic acy, pleasing 3. magistr acy, master 4. obdur acy, hard 5. obstin acy, firmly set 6. pap acy, pope 7. intim acy, inmost 8. intric acy, entangle

1. Celibacy is the state of being unmarried; especially that of a bachelor or of one bound by vows not to marry.

3. Magistracy. The office of master; of one clothed with power, as a civil officer.

4. Obduracy is the state of being hardened, especially against moral influences; hard-hearted; stubbornly wicked.

6. The papacy is the office of the pope.

7. Intimacy is the state of being inmost or near in relationship.

an = pertaining to.

This suffix is seldom used except with names of countries and states. It means, pertaining to what is of that country or state; as, American history, American products, American people.

1. African 2. Alaskan 3. Armenian 4. Australian 5. Bolivian 6. Bulgarian 7. Corsican 8. European 9. Georgian 10. Hawaiian 11. Indian 12. Mexican 13. Ohioan 14. Persian 15. Russian 16. amphibian 17. republican 18. metropolitan

16. Amphibian: amphi, both (two); bi, life; an, pertaining to: pertaining to two kinds of life; i. e. life on the land and in the water. Frogs, turtles, crocodiles, seals, walruses, otters, beavers, etc., are amphibians, because they can live in water (for a time at least) and on land.

18. Metropolitan. Pertaining to the mother city. (See fifth month's work, page 32.)

ary = one who, that which.

1. ad vers ary, turn 2. anni vers ary, year 3. antiqu ary, ancient 4. drom ed ary, run 5. miss ion ary, send 6. e miss ary, out 7. not ary, note 8. sal ary, salt 9. secret ary, secret

1. Literally, an adversary is one who turns toward another (to oppose him); hence, one who turns against another.

2. That day which returns each year commemorating some event is an anniversary.

3. An antiquary is one who collects and examines old (ancient) things; as, coins, medals, weapons.

4. A dromedary is a thorough-bred Arabian camel of more than ordinary speed and bottom; hence well adapted for running.

5. A missionary is one who is sent on a mission; especially one sent to propagate religion.

6. An emissary is one who is sent out; especially one sent on secret business, as a spy. "I am charged with being an emissary to France."—Robert Emmet.

7. A notary was formerly one whose vocation was to make notes or memoranda of acts of others. Now, a public officer usually spoken of as notary public.

8. A salary was formerly an allowance (that which was) given to soldiers with which to buy salt.

9. A secretary was formerly one who was intrusted with the private or secret matters of his chief. One employed to do clerical work.

Ary is also a suffix of adjectives, meaning relating to; as in, arbitrary, contrary, culinary, exemplary, antiquary, hereditary, military, primary, revolutionary, solitary, secondary, visionary.

Ary also means place where; as in, granary, infirmary, library, seminary, sanctuary.

ate = having.

1. corpor ate, body 2. de sper ate, hope 3. ef femin ate, woman 4. fortun ate, luck 5. in anim ate, breath 6. cord ate, heart 7. cruci ate, cross 8. cuspid ate, point 9. dent ate, tooth 10. glomer ate, ball 11. labi ate, lip 12. lun ate, moon 13. pin (n) ate, feather 14. serr ate, saw 15. sagitt ate, arrow 16. stell ate, star

1. Corporate means having a body. (See incorporate, second month, page 18.)

2. Having no hope; as, "Continued misfortune had rendered him desperate."

3. Effeminate. Having the qualities of a woman; soft, delicate, to an unmanly degree. Applied to men.

5. Inanimate. Not having breath; without life.

6. Cordate. Having the shape of a heart; as a cordate leaf.

pel, puls = drive.

1. com pel, together 2. compuls ion, act of 3. dis pel, apart 4. ex pel, out 5. expuls ion, act of 6. im pel, on 7. im pulse, on 8. pulse 9. pro pel, forward 10. re pel, back 11. re pulse, back 12. repuls ive, quality

1. To compel, literally means to drive together; as a herd (a Latinism and rare). To drive or urge with force.

8. The pulse is caused by driving the blood through the arteries.

12. A person is repulsive when he has qualities which tend to drive others back or away.

pend, pens = hang.

1. ap pend, to 2. append age, that which 3. de pend, from 4. depend ent, one who 5. depend ence, state or quality of 6. in dependence, not 7. independent, one who 8. im pend, over 9. pend ant, that which 10. pendulum 11. per pendicular, through 12. sus pend, under 13. suspend ers, that which 14. suspens ion, state of

1. Append. To hang or attach to.

2. An appendage is that which hangs to something as a part of it. "This little pensive appendage or tender (the moon) to our fuming engine of an earth."—De Quincey.

3. Depend. To hang from; to be fastened or attached to something above; to rely upon.

4. A dependent is one who hangs (figuratively), or relies on another for support.

8. Impend. To hang over, be ready to fall; threaten. "We seriously consider the dreadful judgments that now impend the nation."—Penn.

9. A pendant is that which hangs from something else; as, an earring or a tassel.

10. The pendulum of a clock hangs and swings to and fro.

11. A plumb line is a line perpendicular to the horizon, hanging (through the air).

12. Suspend. To hang under or from beneath.

13. Suspenders are that from which trousers are hung.

ped (pod) = foot.

1. anti podes, against 2. bi ped, two 3. centi ped, hundred 4. ex pedite, out 5. expedi ent, that which 6. im pede, in 7. impedi ment, that which 8. ped al, pertaining to 9. peddl er, one who 10. pede stal, stand 11. pedestr ian, one who 12. pedun cle, little 13. quadru ped, four 14. tri pod, three 15. octo pus, eight 16. pedi gree, crane

1. See fourth month, page 25.

2. Biped. A two-footed animal, as man.

3. Centiped. An animal so called from having a great many feet (indefinitely a hundred).

4. Expedite. Literally, to take the feet out of entanglement; hence, to hasten.

6. Impede. Literally, to entangle the feet. To obstruct the progress, motion, or effect of.

8. The pedal is something made to be moved by the feet.

9. A peddler, literally, is a trader who travels on foot.

10. Pedestal. That which forms the base (standing place for the feet) of a statue, column, vase, etc.

12. A peduncle is a (little) footstalk of a flower or leaf.

15. An octopus is an eight-footed or armed cuttlefish.

16. Pedigree means, literally, crane's foot. Why so called is uncertain, but supposed to be on account of a fancied resemblance of the lines of a pedigree, as drawn out on paper, to a crane's foot. (Compare crow's foot, applied to the lines of age about the eyes.)

pon, pos = place, put.

1. ap position, to 2. com pose, together 3. compos ite, being 4. composit ion, act of 5. compon ent, that which 6. com pound, together 7. de pose, down 8. de posit, down (away) 9. deposit ory, place where 10. dis pose, apart 11. ex pose, out 12. im pose, upon 13. inter pose, between 14. im post, upon 15. im post or, one who 16. op pose, (ob.) against 17. oppos ite, being 18. posit ion, state of being 19. pro pose, before 20. trans pose, across

1. One word is in apposition to another when it is placed near to it, by way of explanation.

3. Being made by putting together separate parts or elements; as, a composite flower.

5. One of the several parts or elements which, when placed together, form the whole, is a component part.

6. To compound is to put or mix together two or more elements or ingredients.

8. To put away for safe keeping; as, to deposit money in a bank.

10. To dispose of anything is to put it apart from one; to get rid of it.

11. To place out where all may see; to uncover; as, to expose fraud.

15. An impostor is one who puts burdens on others; commonly applied to one who assumes a character for the purpose of deceiving others.

18. Position. The manner in which a thing is placed; the state of being placed.

20. To transpose a quantity from one side of an equation to another is to place it across.


ic = pertaining to.

1. arct ic, bear 2. aromat ic, spice 3. civ ic, citizen 4. class ic, first class 5. com ic, revelry 6. democrat ic, rule of the people 7. despot ic, master 8. domest ic, house 9. empir ic, experience 10. metr ic, measure 11. numer ic, number 12. phon ic, sound 13. prosa ic, prose 14. plast ic, form 15. graph ic, write

1. Arctic literally means pertaining to the Bear; i. e. the northern constellations called the Great and Little Bears; hence, pertaining to the northern polar regions.

2. Aromatic. Pertaining to an agreeable or spicy odor; fragrant.

3. One's civic duties are those pertaining to him as a citizen, in distinction from those as a soldier.

4. Classic pertains to what is first class in literature or art, especially that of the Greeks and Romans.

5. Comic pertains to revelry; to what provokes mirth; as a comic song.

9. Empiric pertains to experience, or what is founded on experience; relying on or guided by practical experience rather than scientific knowledge.

13. Prosaic means pertaining to prose; especially to that which lacks animation or interest.

14. Plastic means pertaining to the process of forming or modeling; capable of being moulded into a desired form.

15. Graphic means pertaining to the art of writing or drawing. A graphic illustration is generally in the form of a drawing.

id = (ness) quality, condition.

1. ac id, sour 2. flor id, flower 3. flu id, flow 4. frig id, cold 5. in sip id, taste 6. in trep id, tremble 7. luc id, light 8. morb id, disease 9. pal(l) id, pale 10. splend id, shine 11. tep id, warm 12. torr id, parch 13. torp id, numb 14. viv id, life

1. The distinguishing quality of acid is its sourness.

2. Having the quality or appearance of flowers; specifically, flushed with red; as a florid countenance.

5. That which is insipid has not those qualities which affect the taste; tasteless.

6. An intrepid person is brave and daring; he does not tremble with fear.

13. Torpid. Benumbed; insensible; inactive; as an animal in hibernation, when it passes its time in sleep.

ity = state or quality of being.

1. alacr ity, lively 2. brev ity, short 3. enm ity, enemy 4. fidel ity, faith 5. mortal ity, death 6. rotund ity, wheel 7. sanct ity, holy 8. seren ity, calm 9. tranquil (l)ity, quiet 10. un ity, one 11. util ity, use 12. veloc ity, swift

5. Mortality. State of being subject to death; frequency of death; hence the death-rate.

ive = one who, that which.

1. ad ject ive, throw 2. alter native, other 3. capt ive, take 4. con nect ive, bind 5. ex ecut ive, follow 6. ex plet ive, fill 7. fugit ive, flee 8. in finit ive, limit 9. locomotive, move 10. nat ive, born 11. negat ive, deny 12. posit ive, place

1. (ad, to) An adjective is a word which is added (thrown) to a noun to qualify its meaning.

2. Alternative in the plural means two things of which one or the other may be taken as a choice.

5. The executive of a state or nation is the one whose duty it is to follow out the decrees of the law making bodies; i. e. to see that the laws are obeyed.

6. An expletive is that word which fills out the sentence that contains it; as an expletive adverb.

8. (in, not) An infinitive is that verb which is not limited by person and number.

9. (loco, place) A locomotive is that which can move cars from place to place.

12. The positive is that which has a real standing place. Not admitting of doubt; definitely laid down; clearly stated.

ment = act of, that which.

1. com ple ment, fill 2. fila ment, thread 3. fragment, break 4. garment, protect 5. impedi ment, foot 6. inducement, lead 7. liga ment, bind 8. monu ment, remind 9. orna ment, deck 10. refresh ment, new

1. That which fills or completes.

2. A filament is that which is threadlike; as, the filament of silk, or flax.

5. Literally, an impediment is that which entangles the feet; hence, that which hinders or interferes.

10. Refreshments consist of that which makes one fresh or new again.

tang, tact, tig = touch.

1. con tact, together 2. contagion, act of 3. contag ious, quality of 4. contamin ate, to make 5. contigu ity, state of being 6. contiguous, quality of 7. en tire, not 8. in teger, not 9. integr al, relating to 10. integr ity, state of being 11. tact 12. in tact, not 13. tact ile, relating to 14. tangent, that which 15. tang ible, capable of 16. in tangible, not

1. The coming together of two bodies; touching.

2. The act of communicating disease by the touch.

3. Having the quality of being imparted by touch; catching; as, contagious diseases.

4. To contaminate is to make impure by mixture (touching together).

5. Contiguity is the state of being within touching distance.

7. Entire. Whole or complete; not touched.

8. An integer is a complete or not touched whole; a whole number.

10. State of being untouched or unimpaired; freedom from corruption or impurity; as, integrity of character.

11. Tact is skill in touching; nice perception or discernment in dealing with others.

12. Intact. Not touched, especially by anything that misplaces, harms, or defiles.

13. Tactile. Relating to the sense of touch.

14. A tangent is a line which touches a curve.

15. Anything is tangible when it is capable of being touched, or perceived by senses.

tempor = time.

1. contempor ary, one who 2. contemporaneous, quality of 3. ex tempore, out 4. tempor al, relating to 5. tempor ary, that which 6. temporari ly, state of being 7. tempor ize, do 8. tense 9. tempus fugit, flies

1. (con, together) One who lives at the same time together with another is his contemporary; occurring or existing at the same time.

3. Extempore means, literally, out of the moment. On the spur of the moment; without previous study or preparation.

4. Relating to time as opposed to eternity; earthly, transient; as, our temporal affairs.

5. That which lasts for a brief time only; not permanent; as, a temporary scaffolding.

7. To temporize is to comply with the time or occasion; to yield to the current of opinion or circumstances; to "do as the times do".

8. The modification of verbs to indicate time, is called tense.

9. Tempus fugit is a Latin phrase frequently met with in English. It means, literally, time flies.

ten, tent, tain = hold.

1. abs tain, from 2. con tain, together 3. de tain, from 4. detent ion, act of 5. main tain, hand 6. re tain, back 7. sus tain, (sub) under 8. ten ant, one who 9. tenet 10. ten able, capable of 11. tenacious, quality of 12. tenure, that which

1. To abstain from drink is to hold from it, to refrain voluntarily.

2. A vessel contains a liquid when it holds its particles together.

3. To detain the wages of a laborer is to hold them from him after they are due.

5. Maintain literally means to hold by the hand; to preserve from falling. To hold fast; to keep in possession; as, to maintain one's ground in battle.

7. Sustain. To hold up from beneath; to uphold; to support; to endure.

8. A tenant is one who holds land under another.

9. A tenet is an opinion or doctrine held as true.

10. Tenable. Capable of being held; as ground taken for argument.

11. Tenacious. Having the quality of holding fast.

12. One's tenure of office is that time during which he holds office.

terr = earth.

1. in ter, in 2. inter ment, act of 3. sub terranean, under 4. terr ace, that which 5. terra cotta, baked 6. terrestri al, relating to 7. terr ier, that which 8. territ ory, relating to 9. Medi terranean, middle 10. Terra del Fuego, fire 11. Terre Haute, high 12. terra firma, firm

1. To bury in the earth; as a dead body.

3. Situated or occurring under the surface of the earth; as subterranean forests—buried forests.

4. A terrace is a long mound or raised portion of earth.

5. Terra cotta is literally baked earth. A species of hard pottery used in building; ornamentation.

6. Terrestrial. Relating to the earth, earthly.

7. A terrier is one of a small breed of dogs, named from their propensity to scratch the ground or earth in pursuit of prey.

8. Territory. Relating to the earth; a large extent or tract of land.

9. The Mediterranean Sea is so called because situated in the middle of the land. In the middle of the ancient known world.

10. Terra del Fuego means literally the land of fire (del, of).

11. Terre Haute means high land. A city in Indiana situated on high land.

12. Terra firma is a Latin phrase, frequently met in English. It means firm land.


ac = pertaining to.

1. cardi ac, heart 2. demoni ac, demon 3. mani ac, mad 4. zodi ac, animal

1. Cardiac. Pertaining to or resembling the heart; exciting action in the heart.

2. Demoniac. Pertaining to demons; one possessed of an evil spirit; a lunatic.

3. Maniac. Raving with madness; crazy; insane.

4. Zodiac. Pertaining to the imaginary animals figured in the twelve constellations forming a circle around the sun.

ics = science of.

1. civ ics, citizen 2. eth ics, character 3. econom ics, (see below) 4. mechan ics, machine 5. opt ics, see 6. phys ics, nature 7. phon ics, sound 8. polit ics, city

1. Civics. The Science which treats of citizenship.

2. Ethics. The science of right conduct—of character-building.

3. Economics literally means, the science of managing the household; the science of the production and distribution of wealth, or the means of living well.

4. Mechanics. The science of machinery, or the theory of machines.

5. Optics. The science which treats of light and vision, and all that is connected with the phenomena of sight.

6. Physics. The science which treats of the forces of nature; as, gravitation, light, heat, electricity.

7. Phonics. The science of sound; especially of sounds produced by the human voice.

8. Politics. The science which treats of the government of states and cities.

ism = state of being, theory of.

1. altru ism, other 2. barbar ism, foreign 3. ego tism, self, I 4. commun ism, common 5. hero ism, hero 6. hypnot ism, sleep 7. organ ism, organ 8. sensual ism, sense

1. Altruism. The theory that devotion to the interests of others is the highest good.

2. Barbarism. The state of being foreign; rude in point of manners, arts and literature.

3. Egotism. The state of being self-centered, self-conceited, and unduly self-confident; selfish as opposed to altruistic.

4. Communism. A theory of government and social order according to which property is held in common, and the profits of all labor devoted to the general good.

5. The state of being a hero or having heroic qualities; as, lofty aim, fearlessness, fortitude.

6. Hypnotism. An artificially induced state of sleep, in which the mind becomes passive, but acts readily upon suggestion or direction.

7. Organism. The state of being composed of different organs or parts, working together and each necessary to the whole.

8. Sensualism. The state which regards the gratification of the senses as the highest good.

y = state of being.

1. a path y, feel 2. anti pathy, against 3. an arch y, rule 4. bi gam y, marriage 5. eu phon y, sound 6. melan chol y, bile 7. mis anthrop y, mankind 8. phil anthrop y, love 9. mono poly, sell 10. poly gam y, many 11. sym path y, with

1. Apathy (a = without). State of being without feeling; lack of interest; mental indifference; sluggishness.

2. Antipathy. A state of feeling against or antagonistic to a person or thing; as, antipathy to spiders.

3. Anarchy (an = without). State of being without rule; social and political disorder.

4. Bigamy (bi = two). State of being married twice; having two wives or two husbands at the same time.

5. Euphony (eu = well). State of being agreeable in sound; well-sounding.

6. Melancholy (melan = black). State of having black bile; gloomy state of mind arising from grief or natural indisposition.

7. Misanthropy (mis = hatred). State of having hatred for mankind; ill will for people in general.

9. Monopoly (mono = one). State of having the exclusive (sole) privilege or power to sell an article at a certain place and time.

11. Sympathy. State of feeling with another (as he feels) on account of his sufferings, misfortune, or joy.

NOTE.—The suffix y has the same meaning in the following words. They are, however, too simple to need defining; in fact, there are no simpler words on which to base definitions: airy, balky, bony, briny, chunky, downy, dusty, healthy, hearty, miry, musty, rusty, scaly, showy, sinewy, wealthy, worthy.

chron = time.

1. chron ic, pertaining to 2. chronicl er, one who 3. chron ology, science of 4. chrono meter, measure 5. syn chron ous, together 6. ana chron ism, state of

1. Pertaining to time; continuing a long time, as a chronic disease; hence mild as to intensity and slow as to progress.

2. Chronicler. One who records events in the order of their occurrence in time.

3. Chronology. The science of ascertaining the true historic order (in time) of past events and their exact dates.

4. Chronometer. Any instrument for measuring time; as, clock, watch, dial. Specifically, an instrument of great accuracy used on vessels for determining longitude.

5. Synchronous. Occurring together in time; happening or existing at the same time.

6. Anachronism (ana = back). Any error in respect to dates. Literally, state of being placed at a wrong time. The significance of ana in this word is not clear; the original meaning probably was, the referring of an event to a time back of its correct date.

ge = earth.

1. geo graph y, write 2. geo logy, science of 3. geo metr y, measure 4. George, (erg) work

1. Geography. A description (writing) of the earth and its inhabitants.

2. Geology. The science which treats of the structure of the earth; of its history as regards rocks, minerals, rivers, valleys, mountains, etc.

3. Geometry. That branch of mathematics which treats of the measurement of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles. So called because one of its earliest and most important applications was to the measurement of the earth's surface.

4. George. A tiller (worker) of the earth; a farmer.

NOTE 1.—Other words, kindred to the above, containing this root-form are: geometric, geometrical, geometrician, geographic, geologize, geologist.

NOTE 2.—O is no part of the root. It is the "wedding ring" that ties roots of families together.

graph = write.

1. auto graph, self 2. bio graphy, life 3. chiro graphy, hand 4. tri graph, three 5. graphic, pertaining to 6. graphite 7. litho graph, stone 8. mono graph, single 9. ortho graphy, right 10. para graph, beside 11. phono graph, sound 12. photo graphy, light 13. steno graphy, narrow 14. topo graphy, place

6. Graphite is a mineral used in lead pencils for writing.

7. Lithograph. A writing on stone [Rare]. Made by printing (writing) from stone; as a picture.

8. Monograph. A written account or description of a single thing, or class of things.

9. Orthography. The art of writing words correctly (right), or according to standard usage.

10. Paragraph. (See fifth month, page 29.)

12. A photograph is produced by the action of light (writing, as it were,) upon chemically prepared paper.

13. Stenography is short (in a somewhat vague sense narrow) hand writing.

14. Topography. A written description of a particular place, town, or tract of land; especially the description of the physical features of a locality.

log, logy = speech, reason, science of.

1. logic 2. logic ian, one who 3. apo logy, from 4. chrono logy, time 5. deca logue, ten 6. dia logue, between 7. epilogue, upon 8. eu logy, well 9. eulog ize, act of 10. geo logy, earth 11. mono logue, single 12. myth ology, fable 13. ornith ology, bird 14. psych ology, soul 15. pro logue, before 16. theo logy, God 17. dox ology, praise 18. zoo logy, animal

1. Logic. The science of reason.

3. An apology is a speech in defense of what appears to others wrong, the speaker thereby seeking relief from blame.

5. Decalogue. The ten commandments (speeches) given to Moses on Mount Sinai.

7. Epilogue. A speech or poem at the end of an argument or address; a speech upon (on top of, or in addition to) what has been said.

14. Psychology. The science which treats of the human soul (mind and spirit included) and its operations.



ad = to, toward.

(ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, denote the same as ad. The consonant is changed for the sake of euphony.)

1. ad dress, direct 2. ad equate, equal 3. ad here, stick 4. adher ent, one who 5. a dieu, God 6. ad ject ive, throw 7. ad journ, day 8. ad mon ish, warning 9. ad apt, fit 10. ad opt, choose 11. ad vent, come 12. ad vert ise, turn 13. ag greg ate, flock 14. al lure, entice 15. an nex, bind 16. ap pend, hang 17. af fix, fasten 18. ar rive, bank 19. as sail, leap 20. at tach, fasten

1. To address a letter is to direct it to its destination.

2. One is adequate to a duty or occasion when equal to it.

3. To adhere is to stick to; as, a stamp to an envelope.

4. "Every great man has his adherents" (those who stick to him).

5. Adieu. A farewell; a commendation to the care of God.

6. An adjective is a word added (in a sense thrown) to a noun to modify its meaning.

7. Adjourn. To put off to another day, or indefinitely.

8. To admonish is to give a friendly warning to; to give advice.

9. To adapt is to fit to a certain purpose.

10. To adopt is to choose (to one's self); as to adopt a child.

11. Advent. The second coming of Christ (to the earth).

12. To advertise goods is to cause the public to turn their attention to them.

13. To aggregate is to collect into a flock; to collect into a mass or sum.

14. To allure is to attempt to entice or draw (to) by the offer of some good, real or apparent.

15. To annex is to bind, join or add to, as a smaller thing to a greater.

16. Append means to hang or attach to, as by a string.

17. Affix. To fasten to; to add at the close or end.

18. Arrive literally means to come to the bank or shore (from out on the water). In present usage it means to reach any object or result.

19. Assail. To leap toward; to attack with violence.

20. Attach. To fasten to; to affix or connect.

ante = before.

1. ante ced ent, go 2. ante di luv ian, wash 3. ante meridi an, midday 4. ante pen ult, last

1. Antecedent. That which goes before in time.

2. Antediluvian (di = away) (ian = one who). One who lived before the flood (wash away).

3. Antemeridian. Before the middle of the day. Generally abbreviated to A. M.

4. Antepenult (pen = almost). Before almost the last. The last syllable of a word but two.

bi (bis) = two (twice).

1. bi ceps, head 2. bi cuspid, point 3. bi cycle, circle. 4. bi ennial, year 5. bi gamy, marriage 6. bi mana, hand 7. bi nomial, name or term 8. bi ped, foot 9. bis cuit, cook 10. bi sect, cut 11. bi valve, door 12. ba lance, plate

1. The biceps is a muscle which draws up the forearm; so called because it has two heads or origins.

2. The bicuspid teeth have two points.

3. A bicycle has two wheels or circles.

4. Biennial means lasting two years or occurring once in two years.

5. A bigamist is one who has been married twice, and who has two wives or two husbands at the same time.

6. The bimana are animals having two hands; as man.

7. A binomial in algebra is a quantity consisting of two terms.

8. A biped is an animal having but two feet; as man.

9. Biscuit were so called because formerly baked or cooked twice.

10. To bisect a line is to cut it into two equal parts.

11. Bivalve. Having two doors; as the clam. (Each side or shell is comparable to a door, opening and shutting on a hinge.)

12. Balances are so called because they consist of two plates or pans suspended from the balance beam.

con (col com cor) = with, together.

1. col lapse, slip, fall 2. col lect, choose, gather 3. col lide, strike 4. col loquy, talk 5. com mingle, mix 6. com miserate, pity 7. com motion, move 8. com mute, change 9. com pany, bread 10. com position, put 11. com peer (par), equal 12. con cur, run 13. con fide, faith 14. con cord, heart 15. con flict, strike 16. con gregate, flock 17. con tact, touch 18. cor robor ate, strength

1. A building collapses when its sides fall together; when it tumbles down.

2. To collect botanical specimens is to gather them together.

3. Two objects collide when they strike together.

4. A colloquy is a talking together of two or more people.

5. Commingle means to mix together; as people in society.

6. Commiserate. To feel sorrow, pain or pity (with another).

7. A commotion is a moving together; a tumult.

8. Commute. To change one thing (with) for another; to exchange. To substitute a less thing for a greater.

9. Company formerly meant an assembly of people eating bread together.

10. Composition. The act of putting parts together to produce a harmonious whole.

11. One's compeer is the equal with himself in rank, age, prowess, etc.

12. Two people concur in regard to a matter when their minds run together; when they agree.

13. To confide in one is to have faith in him; to intrust secrets with him.

14. Concord means literally heart with heart; agreement; harmony.

15. Conflict. A striking together; hostile contest.

16. To congregate means to flock or assemble together.

17. Contact. A touching together; a close union of bodies.

18. Corroborate. To strengthen; to make more certain; to confirm. Two statements corroborate when one agrees with the other; each thus strengthens the other.

de = down, from.

1. de capi tate, head 2. de cid uous, fall 3. de fine, end, limit 4. de grade, step, degree 5. de ject ed, cast 6. de pose, place put 7. de preci ate, price 8. de scend, climb 9. de spic able, look 10. de tract, draw

1. Decapitate. To take the head from the body; to behead.

2. The leaves of deciduous trees fall (down) once a year.

3. Define. To put down, or mark out the bounds or limit; to fence from; to determine the precise meaning; to describe accurately.

4. Degrade. To reduce from a higher (down) to a lower rank or degree.

5. Dejected. Cast down in spirit; discouraged.

6. Depose. To put down; especially to remove from a throne or high station.

7. Depreciate. To put down the price; to reduce the value of.

8. Descend. To climb down.

9. Despicable. Deserving to be looked down upon; low, mean, contemptible.

10. Detract. To draw from; to take away; as, to take credit or reputation from.

capt (caput) = head.

1. bi ceps, two 2. capit al, pertaining to 3. capt ain, one who 4. capit ul ate, act of 5. de capitate, from 6. cab(b) age, that which 7. per capita, by 8. cap. 9. cape

1. Biceps. A large muscle of the upper arm, so called because it has two heads or origins.

2. Pertaining to the head; chief; principal; as the capital city.

3. One who is at the head; a leader; as the captain of a vessel, or a company of soldiers.

4. Capitulate. To surrender on stipulated terms or conditions; to draw up items under heads or chapters.

5. Decapitate. To take the head from the body.

6. Cabbage. A vegetable which has a head.

7. By the head; as a per capita tax.

8. A cap is a covering for the head.

9. A cape is a head of land.

cede, ced, cess = go, yield.

1. accede, to 2. antecedent, before 3. exceed, out, beyond 4. intercede, between 5. precede, before 6. proceed, forward 7. recede, back 8. secede, aside 9. succeed, (sub) after, under 10. access 11. an (te) cestor 12. excess 13. intercessor 14. predecessor 15. process 16. recess 17. secession 18. successor

1. Accede. To yield to; to agree; consent, concur; go to.

2. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun which goes before it, and for which the pronoun stands.

3. Exceed. To go beyond what is needed or expected.

4. To go between two persons as a mediator; especially to plead with the person who has some advantage over the other.

5. Precede. To go before in order of time.

6. To go on or forward; as proceed with your work.

7. Recede. To go back from a given position.

8. To go aside; to separate; as to secede from the church.

9. To go or follow after in order of time; as, one shock succeeded another with great rapidity.

NOTE 1.—The principal parts of the Latin verb are cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum. From this it appears that words 10-18 above are kindred in meaning and correspond to words 1-9.

NOTE 2.—Observe that in three of these words the root is spelled ceed, in the others cede.


1. cent enni al, year 2. centi grade, step, degree 3. centi meter, measure 4. centi ped, foot 5. per cent, by

1. Happening once in a hundred years. The Centennial Exposition was held in Philadelphia in 1876, one hundred years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

2. Divided into one hundred degrees. On the centigrade thermometer there are one hundred degrees between the freezing point and the boiling point.

3. Centimeter. The hundredth part of a meter (standard of measure).

4. Centiped. A segmented invertebrate animal of the class nyrapod (Greek for many feet), so called because it has a great many (indefinitely one hundred) feet.

5. By the hundred; as, six per cent; that is, six cents on the dollar.

civ = citizen.

1. civic, pertaining to 2. civ il, quality of 3. civil ize, to make 4. civil ian, one who

1. Civic. Pertaining to a citizen, or the affairs of a city.

2. Civil. Fit to live in a state or society with citizens.

3. Civilize. To make civil. To instruct in the arts and customs of citizenship.

4. A civilian is one whose pursuits are those of a citizen and not of a soldier.


ex = out, beyond, from.

(e, ec, and ef, are euphonic variations of ex.)

1. ex ceed, go 2. ex cept, take 3. ex clude, shut 4. ex cursion, run 5. ex cuse, charge 6. ex hale, breathe 7. ex it, go 8. ex pand, spread 9. ex pect, look 10. ex ped ite, foot 11. ex pel, drive 12. ex pire, breathe 13. ex port, carry 14. ex tent, stretch 15. ex tract, draw

5. To excuse is to relieve (take out) from the charge of blame.

10. To expedite is to hurry forward; especially by removing hinderances (as from the feet).

in (il, im, ir) = in, into, on, not.

1. il leg al, law 2. il liter ate, letter 3. im bibe, drink 4. im mature, ripe 5. im mense, measure 6. im merse, plunge 7. im mort al, death 8. im mut able, change 9. im pel, drive 10. im per vi ous, way 11. im pious, reverent 12. im port, carry 13. im pose, put 14. im pulse, drive 15. im pun ity, punish 16. in carn ate, flesh 17. in clem ent, mild 18. in cognito, known 19. in clude, shut 20. in crease, grow 21. in cred ible, believe 22. in cur, run 23. in dorse, back 24. in duce, lead 25. in del ible, rub out 26. in dent, tooth 27. in evit able, avoid 28. in fidel, faithful 29. in fant, speak 30. in grate, thankful 31. in hale, breathe 32. in ject, throw 33. in nate, born 34. in nov ate, new 35. in sect, cut 30. in spect, look 37. in toxic ate, poison 38. in trude, thrust 39. in vade, go 40. in vert, turn

NOTE.—In defining the words in this list choose that meaning of the prefix from the four given above (in, into, on, not) which is most suitable; thus: imbibe means to drink in; immature, not ripe; immerse, to plunge into; indorse, to write on the back of.

2. An illiterate person is one not familiar with letters; one who has little or no learning.

5. Literally, anything is immense when it can not be measured; of vast extent.

7. Immortal. Not liable to death.

10. Having no way through (per = through); as, cloth which is impervious to water; waterproof.

14. An impulse is a sudden mental motive or feeling which tends to drive one on to say or do something.

15. Not liable to punishment; freedom from the bad consequences which usually result from an act; as, the magician could eat fire with impunity.

16. In the flesh; as Christ was the incarnate Son of God.

17. Not mild, but harsh and severe; as inclement weather.

18. Not known; under an assumed name; disguised; as a nobleman traveling incognito.

21. A story is incredible when it is not capable of being believed; unworthy of belief.

26. Indent. To cut into points like a row of teeth.

29. Infant. A young babe (not yet able to speak).

35. Insect. A small animal apparently cut into segments.

40. Invert. To turn the outside in; to place in a contrary way.

ob = against, in the way of.

(oc, of, op, are euphonic variations of ob.)

1. ob ject, throw 2. ob loqu y, speak 3. ob sta cle, stand 4. ob struct, build 5. ob trude, thrust 6. oc cupy, hold 7. of fend, strike 8. op pon ent, place

1. An objection to a proposition is an opinion thrown against or in opposition to it.

2. Obloquy. A speaking against; language that casts contempt on men and their actions.

6. To take and hold (against the possession of another); as to preempt and occupy a homestead.

post = after, behind.

1. post date, date 2. post pone, place 3. post script, write 4. post meridian, midday 5. post mortem, death 6. pre poster ous, before

6. Preposterous originally meant, having that first which ought to be last; hind side before; reversing the natural order. In present day usage, contrary to nature, reason, or common sense; absurd.

curr, curs = run.

1. couri er, one who 2. con cur, together 3. con course, together 4. curs ory, ing 5. course 6. ex curs ion, out 7. in cur, into 8. inter course, between 9. pre curs or, before 10. re course, back

1. A courier is one who runs, or goes hastily with a message.

2. The opinions of people concur when they agree, or run together.

3. A concourse is an assemblage of people who have come (or run) together.

4. A cursory glance is a hasty, and hence, a running glance.

5. A race course is a place for running.

7. To incur a debt is to run into it.

10. One who adds to his indorsement of a note or check the words "without recourse", says in effect, "You can't run back on me for payment".

dent = tooth.

1. dent 2. dent al, pertaining to 3. dent ate, shaped like 4. dent ist, one who 5. e dent ate, without 6. dan de lion, of lion

1. A dent is an impression like that made by a tooth.

5. Edentate animals, such as the sloth, are without teeth, or at least are without the incisors.

6. The dandelion has yellow compound flowers which resemble the tooth of the lion.

dict = speak, say, tell.

1. bene dict ion, well 2. contra dict, against 3. diction ary, that which 4. dict ate, act of 5. e dict, out 6. pre dict, before 7. ver dict, truth 8. male dict ion, bad

1. A benediction is a blessing (a speech to the effect that it may be well with thee).

3. A dictionary is a book in which we may learn about words, the elements of speech.

4. To dictate is to speak or say what another shall write or do.

7. The verdict of a jury is what they say to be the truth in the case.

doc, doct = teach.

1. doc ile, capable of 2. doct or, one who 3. doct rine, that which 4. docu ment, that which

1. Docile. Capable of being easily taught.

2. A doctor is one who, by virtue of his master's degree, is qualified to teach.

3. Doctrine is that which is taught; a principle taught as a part of a system of belief.

4. A document is that which teaches by means of the evidence it gives.


pro = for, forth, forward, before.

1. pro bat ion, try, prove 2. pro bosc is, feed 3. pro crastin ate, tomorrow 4. pro duce, lead 5. pro (f) fer, bear, bring 6. pro fuse, pour 7. pro gnostic ate, know 8. pro gram, write 9. pro gress, step 10. pro ject, cast 11. pro logue, speech 12. pro mise, send 13. pro mote, move 14. pro noun, noun 15. pro pel, drive 16. pro pose, put 17. pro spect, look 18. pro trude, thrust 19. pro vide, see 20. pro voke, call

1. One who joins a church on probation is given a trial to prove his worthiness before being fully admitted.

2. A hollow organ attached to the head or mouth (the forward portion) of the animal with which he feeds.

3. To put forward till tomorrow, or to put off from time to time. "Procrastination is the thief of time."

6. A profuse speaker pours forth ideas freely.

12. One's promise is his word, spoken or written, sent forth as evidence of something more substantial to follow.

16. When a young man proposes he puts the question before his lady.

19. A good provider sees necessities beforehand and prepares to meet them.

20. To provoke laughter is to call it forth.

retro = backward.

1. retro grade, step 2. retro spect, look

se (sed) = aside.

1. se cede, go 2. se clude, shut 3. se cure, care 4. se duce, lead 5. se greg ate, flock 6. se lect, gather

3. Secure. Free (aside) from care, as to danger or risk; as, secure from attack, or secure against loss by fire.

4. Seduce. To lead or draw aside; especially from a path of rectitude. To lead into evil.

5. Segregate. To place or group (flock) aside from others or the rest. In science, to put into a new or separate class.

sub = under, after, near.

(suc, suf, sug, sup, sur, are euphonic variations of sub.)

1. sub due lead 2. sub jug ate, yoke 3. sub lunar, moon 4. sub merge, plunge 5. sub ordin ate, rank 6. sub poena, penalty 7. sub scribe, write 8. sub side, sit 9. sub soil, ground 10. sub stance, stand 11. sub terr anean, earth 12. sub trahe nd, draw 13. sub urbs, city 14. sub way, way 15. suc cess or, go 16. suc cumb, lie 17. suf fer, bear 18. suf fix, fasten 19. suf focate, throat 20. sup port, carry

1. Subdue. To lead or bring under authority; to conquer.

2. Subjugate. To bring under the yoke of power or dominion.

3. Sublunar. Situated underneath the moon; hence earthly.

6. Subpoena. A writ commanding attendance under penalty.

7. Subscribe. To bind one's self to, by writing one's name underneath; as to subscribe to the terms of a contract.

8. Subside. To sit (or settle) under (down).

10. Substance. That which underlies (stands under) all outward manifestation.

11. Subterranean. Situated or occurring under the surface of the earth.

12. The subtrahend is placed under the minuend to be drawn from it.

13. Suburb. A town or village so near to a city that it may be used for residence by those doing business in the city.

15. One who goes or follows after; as, a successor in office.

16. Succumb. To lie under discouragement, rather than to surmount it.

19. Certain fumes or vapors under the mouth (or throat), will suffocate one.

20. Support. To carry on; keep up; as to support a conversation; to support a war. To bear the weight of, especially by holding up from beneath (under).

trans = across, over, through.

1. trans act, drive 2. trans alpine, Alps 3. trans atlantic, Atlantic 4. tran scend, climb 5. tran scribe, write 6. trans fer, carry 7. trans form, shape 8. trans fuse, pour 9. trans gress, step 10. trans it, go 11. trans late, carry 12. trans lucent, shining 13. trans marine, sea 14. trans migration, moving 15. trans mit, send 16. trans mute, change 17. trans parent, appear 18. trans port, carry 19. trans pose, put 20. trans verse, turn

The literal meanings of the twenty words given above are so apparent as to need no explanation. Illustrate each with a sentence.

fin = end, limit.

1. Final. Pertaining to the end; the last.

2. Finale. The end of a musical composition.

3. Finish. To make an end of.

4. Fine. Well finished. Also, a penalty assessed at the end of the case.

5. Refine. Finished over (or again).

6. Finite. Having a limit in power or knowledge.

7. Infinite. Having no limit in power or knowledge.

8. Confine. To keep within limits or bounds.

9. Superfine. Over or extra finish.

firm = strong, steadfast.

1. infirm, not 2. infirm ity, that which 3. infirm ary, place where 4. con firm, with 5. farm

1. Infirm. Not strong, but weak and defective.

2. Infirmity. That with which one is afflicted or infirm.

4. The testimony of one witness is made stronger when that of another witness agrees with or confirms it.

5. A farm is a substantial possession, steadfast and immovable.

flex, flect = bend, turn.

1. flex ible, capable of 2. in flexible, not 3. flexibil ity, quality 4. flect or, that which 5. circum flex, around 6. de flect, from 7. re flection, back 8. re flex, back

4. That which bends; as, the biceps muscle is the flector which bends the arm.

5. A circumflex is a bending around of the voice,—a rise and a fall on the same syllable.

7. Reflection. A turning of the thoughts back to things of the past.

8. Sensations arrested at the nerve centers and turned back without their reaching the brain results in reflex action.

flu = flow.

1. flu ent, characteristic of 2. af fluence, (ad) to 3. con fluence, together 4. in fluence, in 5. influenz a 6. in flux, in 7. super fluous, over 8. fluid 9. flush

1. A fluent speaker uses smooth and flowing language.

2. People of affluence have wealth flowing to them.

3. The confluence of two streams is their flowing together.

4. Influence literally means flowing in. The bringing about a result by a gradual process; gradual because flowing.

5. Influenza. A disease, somewhat allied to a cold, formerly attributed to the influence of the stars.

8. A fluid is so called because it is capable of flowing.

9. Flush. To flow swiftly.


vice = instead of.

1. vice president 2. vice admiral 3. vice roy, king 4. vic ar, one who 5. vice versa, turn

3. Viceroy. A ruler acting with kingly authority instead of the king.

4. Vicar. In general, one who is authorized to perform functions, especially religious ones, instead of another.

5. Vice versa. Turned, one instead of the other, interchanged.

a (an) = without, not.

1. a byss, bottom 2. a cephal ous, head 3. a chrom atic, color 4. a gnostic ism, knowledge 5. an archy, rule 6. an ecdote, given out 7. an esthetic, feeling 8. an onym ous, name 9. a pathy, suffer, feel 10. a sylum, right of seizure 11. a the ist, God 12. a tom, cut

4. Agnosticism. The doctrine or theory that man has not any real or absolute knowledge of anything, but can know only "impressions".

5. Anarchy. A state of society in which there is no authority or ruling power.

6. Anecdote [ec (ex) = out]. Originally a personal or biographical incident not given out for publication.

7. That which causes a loss of sensation; hence, one who has taken an anesthetic is without the feeling of pain.

10. Asylum. Originally a place of refuge where criminals or debtors were free from (without) the right of seizure.

11. Atheist. One who is without belief in the existence of a God.

12. Atom. The smallest particle of matter; hence a particle which cannot be further cut or divided.

auto = self.

1. auto crat, rule 2. auto graph, write 3. auto bio graphy, life 4. auto maton, strive 5. auto mobile, move 6. aut ops y, see

1. Autocrat. An absolute sovereign, one who has the ruling power all in himself.

3. Autobiography. A writing of one's life by himself.

4. Automaton. A self acting (striving) machine; one having its motive power within itself.

6. Autopsy. Seeing by one's self; personal observation or examination.

epi = upon.

1. epi cycle, circle 2. epi demic, people 3. epi dermis, skin 4. epi gram, write 5. epi sode, way 6. epi taph, tomb 7. epi thet, place 8. epi zooetic, animal

1. Epicycle. A circle whose center moves around upon, or in, the circumference of another circle; as the orbit of the moon in its motion with the earth around the sun.

4. Epigram. Literally, to write upon. A short, pointed poem, or a bright thought concisely and sharply expressed.

5. Episode. Something which happens upon the way, or comes in incidentally to the main enterprise.

7. Epithet. An adjective or term placed upon a person or thing and expressing some quality especially appropriate to that person or thing.

8. Epizooetic. A disease upon many animals in a community.

micro = little.

micro be, life; micro cosm, world; micro scope, see, view.

grat (grac) = pleasing, favor, thankful.

1. grati tude, ness 2. grate ful, full of 3. grati fy, make 4. in grati ate, into 5. in grate, not 6. un grateful, not 7. dis grace, from 8. grac ious, having 9. a gree, (ad) according to 10. gratis 11. grace

4. To become ingratiated with another is to get into his favor. "The pigmy had contrived to ingratiate himself into every man's affection."—Stanley.

5. An ingrate is not thankful for benefits received.

7. One in disgrace is out of (away from) favor with others.

9. An agreement is entered into according to the pleasure of both parties.

10. Gratis. Out of, or because of, favor; without recompense.

11. Grace. Literally, pleasing; beloved.

greg = flock, herd.

1. ag gregate, (ad) to 2. con gregate, together 3. gregari ous, quality 4. se gregate, aside

3. Gregarious. Quality or characteristic of animals which tend to gather in flocks; as, sheep, geese, deer.

4. Segregate. To separate (aside) from others and form into an isolated group (flock).

ject = cast, throw.

1. ab ject, away 2. de jected, down 3. e ject, out 4. in ject, in 5. ob ject, against 6. pro ject, forth 7. re ject, back 8. ad jective, to 9. inter jection, between 10. sub ject, under

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