The Botanical Magazine Vol. 8 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
by William Curtis
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Flower-Garden Displayed:


The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.


Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated LINNAEUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:




Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.




"Much I love To see the fair one bind the straggling pink, Cheer the sweet rose, the lupin, and the stock, And lend a staff to the still gadding pea. Ye fair, it well becomes you. Better thus Cheat time away, than at the crowded rout, Rustling in silk, in a small room, close-pent, And heated e'en to fusion; made to breathe A rank contagious air, and fret at whist, Or sit aside to sneer and whisper scandal."



PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN, For W. CURTIS, No 3, St. George's-Crescent, Black-Friars-Road; And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland, M DCC XCIV. */



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Stylus planus, supra villosus, superne latior. Cal. laciniae superiores 2-breviores.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LATHYRUS articulatus pedunculis subunifloris, cirrhis polyphyllis; foliolis alternis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 662. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 41.

CLYMENUM hispanicum, flore vario, siliqua articulata. Tourn. Inst. 396.

LATHYRUS hispanicus, pedunculis bifloris, cirrhis polyphyllis foliolis alternis. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

The seed-vessels are of the first importance in ascertaining the several species of Lathyrus, some being naked, others hairy, some long, others short, some having a smooth and perfectly even surface, others, as in the present instance, assuming an uneven or jointed appearance.

Of this genus we have already figured three annual species, common in flower-gardens, viz. odoratus, tingitanus, and sativus; to these we now add the articulatus, not altogether so frequently met with, but meriting a place on the flower-border, as the lively red and delicate white so conspicuous in its blossoms, causes it to be much admired.

It is a native of Italy, and was cultivated at the Chelsea Garden, in the time of Mr. RAND, anno 1739.

It is a hardy annual, requiring support, and rarely exceeding the height of two feet, flowering in July and August, and is readily raised from seeds, which should be sown in the open border at the beginning of April.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. irregularis, pentapetala, duo superiora geniculata, quintum inferne declinatum, plicatum, ungue arcuata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LOPEZIA racemosa caule herbaceo ramoso; foliis alternis ovato-lanceolatis, serratis; floribus racemosis. Cavanilles Ic. et descr. Pl.

Some plants have a claim on our attention for their utility, some for their beauty, and some for the singularity of their structure, and the wonderful nature of their oeconomy; in the last class we must place the present plant, the flowers of which we recommend to the examination of such of our readers as may have an opportunity of seeing them; to the philosophic mind, not captivated with mere shew, they will afford a most delicious treat.

We first saw this novelty in flower, towards the close of the year 1792, at the Apothecaries Garden, Chelsea, where Mr. FAIRBAIRN informed me, that he had that season raised several plants of it from seeds, communicated by Dr. J. E. SMITH, who received them from Madrid, to which place they were sent from South-America, and where the plant as Mons. CAVANILLE informs us, grows spontaneously near Mexico. In October 1793, we had the pleasure of seeing the plant again in blossom in the aforesaid garden, raised from seeds which ripened there the preceding year, but unfortunately from the lateness of their flowering, and the very great injury the plants had sustained from the Cobweb Mite (Acarus teliarius) vulgarly called the red Spider, there seemed little prospect that the seed-vessels would arrive at perfection.

The seeds were sown by Mr. FAIRBAIRN, in March, and the plants kept in the green-house till very late in the summer, when to accelerate their blowing, they were removed into the dry stove: it is worthy of remark, that these plants, even late in the autumn, shew no signs of blossoming, but the flowers at length come forth with almost unexampled rapidity, and the seed-vessels are formed as quickly, so that if the flowers were not very numerous, their blossoming period would be of very short duration; future experience may perhaps point out the means of making the plant blow earlier: in Spain, the blossoms appeared later than here, Mons. CAVANILLE observed them in the Royal Garden, in November and December, most probably in the open ground, as no mention is made of the plants having been preserved from the weather.

It was not till long after our description was taken, that we had an opportunity of seeing Mons. CAVANILLE'S most accurate and elegant work, above quoted, in which this plant is first figured and described; we have selected the most essential parts of his generic character, and adopted his specific description: there is one point, however, in which we differ from him; the part which he regards as the fifth Petal, we are inclined to consider rather as that indescribable something, called by LINNAEUS the Nectary, it is indeed of little moment whether we call it a Petal or a Nectary, but there are several reasons why, strictly speaking, we cannot regard it as a Petal: in general the number of Petals correspond with the number of the leaves of the Calyx, those of the latter are four; the base of this Nectary originates deeper than the claws of the Petals, springing in fact from the same part as the Filament, its structure, especially the lower part of it, is evidently different from that of the Petals, corresponding indeed as nearly as possible with that of the base of the filament.—Vid. DESCER.

Mons. CAVANILLE was induced to call this plant Lopezia, in compliment to TH. LOPEZ, a Spaniard[1].

[Footnote 1: In honorem Licent. THOMAE LOPEZ, Burgensis, qui aliquot annos Regii Senatoris munere functus in America, CAROLO V. imperante. In patriam reversus breviarium historiae naturalis novi orbis scripsit sub titulo de tribus elementis aere, aqua, et terra, MS. apud eundem Muguozium.]


ROOT annual.

STALK five or six feet high, branched almost to the bottom, square, of a deep red colour, smooth towards the bottom, slightly hairy above: Branches like the stalk.

LEAVES alternate, ovate, pointed, toothed on the edges, more so on the larger leaves, slightly beset with soft hairs, veins prominent on the under side, usually running parallel to each other and unbranched: Leafstalks hairy.

FLOWERS numerous, from the alae of the leaves, growing irregularly on hairy leafy racemi, standing on long slender peduncles, which hang down as the seed-vessels are produced: in this and some others of its characters, the plant shews some affinity to the Circaea.

CALYX: a Perianthium of four leaves, sitting on the Germen, leaves narrow, concave, reddish, with green tips, the lowermost one widely separated from the others, and placed immediately under the Nectary, fig. 1.

COROLLA four Petals of a pale red colour, forming in their mode of growth the upper half of a circle, the two uppermost linear, of a deeper colour near the apex, jointed below the middle, with a small green gland on each joint, standing on short round footstalks, which are hairy when magnified, the two side Petals nearly orbicular with long narrow claws, the part between the base of the Petal and the claw of a deeper red or crimson, fig. 2.

NECTARY situated below the Petals, perfectly white, somewhat ovate, the sides folding together, before the flower fully expands, nearly upright, embracing and containing within it the Pistillum and Stamen, on touching it ever so slightly with the point of a pin, while in this state, it suddenly springs back and quits the Pistillum, the lower elastic part of it is then bent in the form represented in a magnified view of the flower on the plate, fig. 4. this curious phoenomenon has not been noticed by CAVANILLE.

STAMEN: Filament one, tapering and very slender just below the Anthera, arising from the same part as (and placed opposite to the base of) the Nectary the lower part of it broader, somewhat fleshy, cartilaginous, and of the same nature as the inferior part of the Nectary, with a groove as that has on the inside, so that before the flower expands, the bases of each are like two half tubes, the sides of which, nearly touching each other, wholly enclose the Pistillum; as the fructification goes forward, the Filament, endowed also with an elastic power, bends back soon after the flower is open, betwixt the two uppermost Petals, and becomes invisible to an inattentive observer; the Anthera, which is large, is at first yellow, and afterwards dark brown, fig. 5.

PISTILLUM: Germen below the Calyx, round, smooth, and green; Style filiform, white, length of the Filament; Stigma forming a small villous head, fig. 6. in some of the flowers the Pistillum appears imperfect, being much shorter than usual, and wanting the Stigma, perhaps such have not acquired their full growth, fig. 6.

PERICARPIUM (from CAVANILLE) a round Capsule, of four cells, and four valves, the cells many-seeded.

SEEDS very minute, ovate, affixed to a four-cornered receptacle.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus: 2/3 Legumen basi attenuatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CYTISUS sessilifolius racemis erectis, calycibus bractaea triplici, foliis floralibus sessilibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 666. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 50.

CYTISUS glabris foliis subrotundis, pediculis brevissimis. Bauh. Pin. p. 390.

CYTISUS vulgatior, the common Tree Trefoile. Park. Parad. p. 440.

The term sessilifolius has been given to this species of Cytisus, because the leaves are for the most part sessile, that is sit close to the branches, without any or very short footstalks; such they are at least on the flowering branches when the shrub is in blossom, but at the close of the summer they are no longer so, the leaves acquiring very evident footstalks.

It is a native of the more southern parts of Europe, and though in point of size and elegance it cannot vie with its kindred Laburnum, it is a deciduous shrub of considerable beauty, rarely exceeding the height of five or six feet, and producing a great profusion of bright yellow flowers, which continue in blossom a long while; they make their appearance in May and June, and are usually succeeded by seed-vessels which produce ripe seeds, by these the plant is readily propagated.

It is one of the most common shrubs we have, as well as one of the oldest inhabitants of our shrubberies, being mentioned by PARKINSON in his Parad. Terrestris.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. Stigmata 3.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IXIA longiflora foliis ensiformibus linearibus strictis, tubo filiformi longissimo. Ait. Kew. v. 4. p. 58.

GLADIOLUS longiflorus caule tereti, tubo longissimo, spathis foliisque linearibus glabris. Linn. Suppl. p. 96. Gmel. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 86.

We are not acquainted with a tribe of plants which stand more in need of elucidation than those of this genus; of the vast numbers imported from the Cape within these few years, where they are chiefly natives, and that for the most part by way of Holland, few comparatively are well ascertained; some of them appear subject to great variation, both in the size and colour of their blossoms (whether in their wild state they are thus inconstant, or whether there are seminal varieties raised by the persevering industry of the Dutch Florists, we have not yet had it in our power satisfactorily to ascertain); others like the present one have their characters strongly marked, and less variable; in general they are plants of easy culture, requiring chiefly to be protected from the effects of frost, the least degree of which is presently fatal to most of them.

The treatment recommended for the Ixia flexuosa is applicable to this and the other Cape species.

According to the Hort. Kew. this species was introduced by Mr. MASSON in the year 1774.

It flowers from April to June.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 1-phyllus, oblongus, laevis. Petala 5-unguiculata. Limbo sub-bifido. Caps. 5-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LYCHNIS chalcedonica floribus fasciculatis fastigiatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 435. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 16.

LYCHNIS hirsuta flore coccineo major. Bauh. Pin. 203.

FLOS Constantinopolitanus. Dod. Pempt. 178.

LYCHNIS chalcedonica flore simplici miniato. Single Nonsuch, or Flower of Bristow or Constantinople. Parkins. Parad. 253.

The Scarlet Lychnis appears to have been a great favourite with PARKINSON, he calls it a glorious flower, and in a wooden print of him prefixed to his Paradisus Terrestris, we see him represented with a flower of this sort in his hand of the double kind.

It grows spontaneously in most parts of Russia, and is one of our most hardy perennials.

The extreme brilliancy of its flowers renders it a plant, in its single state highly ornamental; when double, its beauty is heightened, and the duration of it increased.

It flowers in June and July.

The single sort may be increased by parting its roots in autumn, but more abundantly by seeds, which should be sown in the spring; the double sort may also be increased by dividing its roots, but more plentifully by cuttings of the stalk, put in in June, before the flowers make their appearance; in striking of these, however, there requires some nicety.

This plant is found to succeed best in a rich, loamy, soil; and certain districts have been found to be more favourable to its growth than others.

A white and a pale red variety of it in its single state were known to CLUSIUS, and similar varieties of the double kind are said to exist; it is of little moment whether they do or not, every variation in this plant from a bright scarlet is in every sense of the word a degeneracy.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus: 2/3: dentibus superioribus connatis. Vexillum vix alis longius. Legumen isthmis interceptum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CORONILLA varia herbacea, leguminibus erectis teretibus torosis numerosis, foliolis plurimis glabris. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 670. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 59.

SECURIDACA dumetorum major, flore vario, siliquis articulatis. Bauh. Pin. p. 349.

SECURIDACA II. altera species. Clus. Hist. 2. ccxxxvij. The greater joynted Hatchet Vetch. Park. Theat. p. 1088.

CLUSIUS, in his work above referred to, informs us that he found this plant growing wild in various parts of Germany, in meadows, fields, and by road sides; that it flowered in June, sometimes the whole summer through, and ripened its seeds in July and August; the blossoms he found subject to much variation of colour, being either deep purple, whitish, or even wholly white: CASP. BAUHINE notices another variety, in which the alae are white and the rostrum purple; this variety, which we have had the honour to receive from the Earl of EGREMONT is the most desirable one to cultivate in gardens, as it is more ornamental than the one wholly purple, most commonly met with in the nurseries, and corresponds also better with its name of varia; it is to be noted however that this variety of colour exists only in the young blossoms.

The Coronilla varia is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, climbing, if supported, to the height of four or five feet, otherwise spreading widely on the ground, and frequently injuring less robust plants growing near it; on this account, as well as from its having powerfully creeping roots whereby it greatly increases, though a pretty plant, and flowering during most of the summer, it is not to be introduced without caution, and is rather to be placed in the shrubbery, or outskirts of the garden, than in the flower border.

It will grow in any soil or situation, but blossoms and seeds most freely in a soil moderately dry.

PARKINSON in his Theater of Plants, mentions its being cultivated, as an ornamental plant. Ait. Kew.

Its bitterness, will be an objection to its being cultivated for the use of cattle, for which purpose it has been recommended.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala campanulata: linea longitudinali nectarifera. Caps. valvulis pilo cancellato connexis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LILIUM Catesbaei caule unifloro, petalis erectis unguiculatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel. p. 545.

LILIUM Catesbaei foliis sparsis, bipedali, flore unico erecto, corolla campanulata, petalis unguibus angustis longis. Walt. Fl. Carol. p. 123.

LILIUM Spectabile foliis sparsis; floribus solitariis erectis; petalorum unguibus angustis, alternis extus utrinque sulcatis, laminis revolutis. Salisb. Ic. Stirp. rar. t. 5.

At the close of the year 1787, Mr. ROBERT SQUIBB, sent me from South-Carolina roots of the Lily here figured, many of which have since flowered with various persons in this kingdom.

CATESBY in his Natural History of Carolina, gives a figure and short account of it; WALTER in his Flora Caroliniana describes it under the name of Lilium Catesbaei; Mr. SALISBURY in the first number of his very magnificent work, lately published, presents us with a very highly finished likeness of this lily, accompanied by a most accurate and minute description of it, and judging from some appearances in CATESBY'S figure, that it was not the Lilium Catesbaei of WALTER, names it spectabile; but as we are assured by Mr. SQUIBB, who assisted his friend WALTER in his publication, that it was the lily figured by CATESBY, we have continued the name given in honour of that Naturalist.

Of the different Lilies cultivated in this country, this is to be numbered among the least, the whole plant when in bloom being frequently little more than a foot high; in its native soil it is described as growing to the height of two feet; the stalk is terminated by one upright flower, of the form and colour represented on the plate; we have observed it to vary considerably in the breadth of its petals, in their colour, and spots.

It flowers usually in July and August.

This plant may be raised from seeds, or increased by offsets, which, however, are not very plentifully produced, nor is the plant to be made grow in perfection without great care, the roots in particular are to be guarded against frost; the soil and situation may be the same as recommended for the Cyclamen Coum. p. 4. v. 1.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-dentatus, sinu germen fovens. Petala 5, caduca. Stam. discreta, petalis multoties longiora. Caps. 3-4 locularis, polysperma. Banks. Gaertner.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

METROSIDEROS citrina foliis lineari-lanceolatis rigentibus.

Though many species of this genus have been raised from seeds, brought within these few years from the South Seas, where they are said to be very numerous; this is, we believe, the only one that as yet has flowered in this country: our drawing was made from a plant which blossomed toward the close of last summer at Lord CREMORNES, the root of which had been sent from Botany-Bay; previous to this period we have been informed, that the same species flowered both at Kew and Sion-House: as it is without difficulty raised both from seeds and cuttings, young plants of it are to be seen in most of the Nurseries near town; it would seem that they do not flower till they are at least five or six years old.

Metrosideros is a name given originally by RUMPHIUS in Herb. Amboin to some plants of this genus, the term applies to the hardness of their wood, which by the Dutch is called Yzerhout (Ironwood): FORSTER in his Gen. Pl. figures this and another genus on the same plate, under the name of Leptospermum; SCHREBER in his edition of the Gen. Pl. of LINNAEUS, unites Metrosideros, Melaleuca, Leptospermum, and Fabricia, under the genus Melaleuca; GAERTNER in his elaborate work on the seeds of plants, makes separate genera of these, agreeably to the ideas of Sir JOSEPH BANKS and Mr. DRYANDER, who on this subject can certainly boast the best information.

We cannot, without transgressing the allotted limits of our letter-press, give a minute description of the plant figured; suffice it to say, that it is an ever-green shrub, growing to the height of from four to six or more feet, that its leaves on the old wood feel very harsh or rigid to the touch, and when bruised give forth an agreeable fragrance, the flowers grow in spikes on the tops of the branches, and owe their beauty wholly to the brilliant colour of the filaments.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. 5-petala. Nect. Squamulae 5 cum filamentis alternantes; et glandulae melliferae, basi staminum insidentes. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus; rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata. L'Herit. Geran.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ERODIUM incarnatum pedunculis paucifloris, foliis tripartitis ternatisve trifidis scabris, caule fruticuloso. L'Herit. n. 21. tab. 5. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 415.

GERANIUM incarnatum pedunculis bifloris, foliis tripartitis trifidis glabris, petalis integris, arillis glabris. Linn. Suppl. Pl.

GERANIUM incarnatum foliis incisis quinquelobis punctatis; petiolis longissimis, pedunculis trifloris. Cavanill. diff. 4. p. 223. n. 314. t. 97. f. 3.

In the 80th number of this work we gave a figure of the Pelargonium tricolor, a plant very generally regarded as the most beautiful of the genus; we now present our readers with the representation of an Erodium, which has to boast nearly an equal share of admiration.

This species, as we learn from the Hortus Kewensis, is a native of the Cape, and was introduced by Mr. MASSON in the year 1787.

Its usual time of flowering is July and August; in this point it is inferior to the Pelargonium tricolor, which blossoms through the spring as well as summer months.

It produces seeds but sparingly; cuttings of the plant are struck with less difficulty than those of the Pelargonium above mentioned, the same treatment is applicable to both plants, they must be regarded as green-house plants of the more tender kind, which are liable to be destroyed in the winter season by a moist cold atmosphere.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Petala numerosa linearia. Caps. carnosa infera polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM aureum foliis cylindrico-triquetris punctatis distinctis, pistillis atro purpurascentibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. p. 1060. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 190.

This Mesembryanthemum is one of the taller and more upright species, as well as the earliest in point of flowering, producing its blossoms from February to May; these are large and of a bright orange hue, the pistilla in the centre are purple, and serve at once to distinguish and embellish them.

It was first described in the 10th ed. of Linn. Syst. Nat. and afterwards inserted in the Hort. Kew. of Mr. AITON, who informs us that it is a native of the Cape, and was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in the year 1750. Prof. MURRAY omits it in his 12th ed. of the Syst. Vegetab. of LINNAEUS, as does Prof. GMELIN in the last edition of Linn. Syst. Nat.

The facility with which this tribe in general is increased by cuttings is well known; this is raised as readily as the others.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus. Corollae carina apice vexillum reflectens.

Specific Character.

GLYCINE bimaculata caule volubili laevi, foliis simplicibus cordato-oblongis, racemis multifloris.

Of the many plants which within these few years have been raised from Botany-Bay seeds, this is one of the first which flowered in this country, and one of the most ornamental; to the greenhouse it is indeed an invaluable acquisition: we regret that the size of our paper and the imperfection of the colouring art, will not admit of our giving a representation of it more adequate to its beauty.

It rises up with a twining shrubby stalk to the height of six, eight, or more feet; these multiplying greatly by age, become loaded with a profusion of purple flowers, growing in racemi, the richness of which is enlivened by the appearance of two green spots at the base of the vexillum; for the most part the blossoms go off with us without producing any seed-vessels; in some instances, however, perfect seeds have been produced, and we have seen a plant in bloom raised from such in the charming retreat of JOHN ORD, Esq. Walham-Green.

A great excellence of this plant is the duration of its flowering period, it begins to put forth its blossoms in February, and continues to do so during most of the summer.

In the Nurseries about town, it is known by the name of Glycine virens, a name given the plant originally by Dr. SOLANDER; the latter of these terms we have taken the liberty of changing to bimaculata, as being more expressive of an obvious character in the flower: we might, perhaps, been justified in altering the genus, as its characters do not appear to be peculiarly expressive of a Glycine, nor indeed of any other genus in this numerous natural order.

It is raised readily from seeds.

We think it highly probable, that in warm sheltered situations, this climber might grow in the open ground; to such as have it in abundance, we recommend them to make the experiment.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 5-petala. Cal. 5-phyllus, foliolis duobus minoribus. Capsula.

Mr. LEE, Nurseryman of Hammersmith, informs me, that in the year 1780, he raised the Cistus here figured from seeds, the produce of Portugal, and as its flowers were uncommonly beautiful, he was induced to name it formosus.

It approaches so near to the Cistus halimifolius in point of habit, in the form and colour of its leaves and flowers, that we are inclined rather to regard it as a variety of that plant, than as a distinct species; at the same time it must be allowed to be a very striking variety, the flowers being at least thrice as large as those of the halimifolius usually are, and the whole plant more hairy: as an ornamental shrub, it is highly deserving a place in all curious collections.

It will grow very well in the open border in warm sheltered situations, it may be kept also in a pot, by which means it may more readily be sheltered during the winter, either in the greenhouse or under a frame.

It flowers early in May, and may be increased by cuttings.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 1-petala, tubulosa; tubo recto, filiformi; limbo 6-partito, campanulato, aequali. Stigmata tria, simplicia. Thunb. Diss. de Ixia.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IXIA Bulbocodium scapo unifloro brevissimo, foliis angulatis caulinis, stigmatibus sextuplicibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. p. 76.

IXIA Bulbocodium scapo ramoso, floribus solitariis, foliis sulcatis reflexis. Thunb. Diss. n. 3.

CROCUS vernus angustifolius. 1. 11. Clus. Hist. i. p. 207. violaceo flore, 208. ejusd.

There are three plants cultivated in the gardens of the curious to which Bulbocodium is applied, either as a generic or a trivial name, viz. Narcissus Bulbocodium, Bulbocodium vernum, already figured, and the present plant: the Ixia Bulbocodium and Bulbocodium vernum are given in this work, not so much for their beauty as their rarity, not so much to gratify the eye, as to communicate a knowledge of two plants but little known, and liable to be confounded from a similarity of their names.

This is one of the few hardy species of the genus, and grows wild in many parts of Spain and Italy; it is said to have been found in Guernsey: it affects hilly and dry situations, will grow readily in almost any soil, especially if fresh, and not infested with vermin: it flowers about the middle of April, the blossoms do not expand fully unless exposed to the sun, and are not of long duration: authors describe the wild plants as varying greatly in colour, vid. Clus. they are most commonly pale blue.

Like the Crocus, it increases readily by offsets.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1739, Ait. Kew. Bulbocodium, 1. in the 6th edition of his Dictionary in 4to, is not this plant, but the Anthericum scrotinum, Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 5. app. t. 38.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. deciduus. 5 phyllus, (rarius 3-phyllus) Petala 5, (rarius 2, 3, aut 8) intra ungues squamula vel poro mellifero. Styli persistentes. Sem. incrustata, erecta. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

RANUNCULUS amplexicaulis foliis ovatis acuminatis amplexicaulibus, caule multifloro, radice fasciculata. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 515. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 265.

RANUNCULUS montanus foliis plantaginis. Bauh. Pin. 180.

RANUNCULUS pyrenaeus albo flore. Clus. app. alt. auct. ic. 4 ta. Ger. emac. 963. fig. 2.

The leaves of the Ranunculus amplexicaulis in part surround the stalk at their base, whence its trivial name; in colour they differ from most others of the genus, being of a greyer or more glaucous hue, which peculiarity joined to the delicate whiteness of the flowers, renders this species a very desirable one to add to a collection of hardy, ornamental, herbaceous plants, more especially as it occupies but little space, and has no tendency to injure the growth of others.

It is a native of the Apennine and Pyrenean mountains, and flowers in April and May.

CLUSIUS is the first author who describes and figures this species. JOHNSON in his ed. of GERARD copies his figure, and mentions it as being then made a denizen of our gardens.

It is readily propagated by parting its roots in Autumn, and provided it has a pure air will succeed in most soils an situations.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Petala 5. Pomum inferum, 5-loculare, polyspermum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PYRUS spectabilis umbellis sessilibus, foliis ovali oblongis serratis laevibus, unguibus calyce longioribus, stylis basi lanatis. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 175. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel. p. 842.

The Chinese Apple-Tree when it blossoms in perfection, answers truly to the name of spectabilis; a more shewy or ornamental tree can scarcely be introduced to decorate the shrubbery or plantation; its beauty like that of most trees, whose ornament consists chiefly in their blossoms, is however but of short duration, and depends in some degree on the favourableness of the season at the time of their expansion, which usually takes place about the end of April or beginning of May; the flowers are large, of a pale red when open, and semi-double, the buds are of a much deeper hue, the fruit is of little account, and but sparingly produced. Trees of this species are to be met with in some gardens of the height of twenty or thirty feet.

Dr. FOTHERGILL is regarded as the first who introduced this Chinese native, he cultivated it in the year 1780; such plants of it as were in his collection, passed at his decease into the hands of Messrs. GORDON and THOMPSON, in whose rich and elegant Nursery, at Mile-End, this tree may be seen in great perfection.

Though perfectly hardy, as its blossoms are liable to be injured by cutting winds, it will be most proper to plant it in a shelter'd situation.

It is usually increased by grafting it on the Crab stock.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus. Corollae carina apice vexillum reflectens.

Specific Character.

GLYCINE rubicunda caule perenni volubili, foliis ternatis, foliolis subovalibus integerrimis, pedunculis subtrifloris.

The plant here figured, and very generally known to the Nurserymen, in the neighbourhood of London, by the name of Glycine rubicunda, is a native of New South-Wales, and was introduced to this country about the same time as the Glycine bimaculata already figured.

It is a shrubby, twining plant, running up to the height of five, six, or more feet, producing blossoms abundantly from April to June, which are usually succeeded by seed-vessels which ripen their seeds with us.

The flowers though large and shewy, have a kind of dingy or lurid appearance, which greatly diminishes their beauty. We have observed the blossoms of some plants more brilliant than those of others, and we think it highly probable, that, at some future period, seminal varieties may be obtained with flowers highly improved in colour.

This species is readily raised from seeds, is of quick growth, and may be regarded as one of our more hardy green-house plants: probably it may succeed in the open air, if planted in a warm situation, and sheltered in inclement seasons.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 6 petala, erecta, persistens, supra medium patens, Filamenta alterna basi dilatata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ORNITHOGALUM nutans floribus secundis pendulis, nectario stamineo campaniformi. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 328. Ait. Kew. v. i. p. 443.

ORNITHOGALUM exoticum magno flore minori innato. Bauh. Pin. p. 70.

ORNITHOGALUM Neopolitanum, the Starre-flower of Naples. Park. Parad. p. 138. p. 137. f. 8. Clus. app. alt. p. 9. fig. 7.

Authors have given to this species of Ornithogalum the name of Neapolitan, following CLUSIUS by whom the plant is figured and described, and who so called it, merely on receiving it from Naples; it may perhaps be doubted whether it be originally a native of Italy. Prof. JACQUIN has figured it in his Flora Austriaca, the plant being common about Vienna, in garden-walks, under hedges, and in meadows, he does not however, from that circumstance, regard it as an original native there. CASP. BAUHIN informs us that HONORIUS BELLI sent it him from Crete under the name of Phalangium, leaving its true habitat to be settled more precisely hereafter, we shall observe, that it is one of those plants which soon accommodate themselves to any country; producing a numerous progeny both from roots and seeds, and by no means nice as to soil or situation; it is not long before it becomes a weed in the garden, from whence it is apt like the Hyacinthus racemosus, already figured, to pass into the field or meadow.

Its flowers, which if not beautiful are singular and delicate, make their appearance towards the end of April, they are of no long duration, seldom continuing above a fortnight, and are succeeded by seed-vessels which produce abundance of ripe seed, by which, as well as by its bulbs, the plant may be increased.

In the Hortus Kewensis it is set down as a Greenhouse plant, one of the rare errors which occur in that most useful work.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus. Corollae carina apice vexillum reflectens.

Specific Character.

GLYCINE coccinea foliis ternatis, foliolis subrotundis undulatis.

We here present our readers with another Glycine, very lately raised by several persons in the neighbourhood of London from Botany-Bay seeds, and which we have called coccinea from the colour of its blossoms.

It is a shrubby, climbing plant, which, if supported, will grow to the height of many feet, producing a great number of flowers on its pendant branches; the leaves, which grow three together, are nearly round, and, in the older ones especially, are crimped or curled at the edges; the flowers grow for the most part in pairs, are of a glowing scarlet colour, at the base of the carina somewhat inclined to purple, the bottom of the vexillum is decorated with a large yellow spot, verging to green, which adds much to the beauty of the flower.

It blossoms from April to June, and appears to be fully as much disposed to produce seed vessels, and perfect seeds, as the rubicunda, and by which alone it has hitherto been propagated.

We must rank it among the more tender green-house plants.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. tubulosa, clavata, curva, 6-fida, laciniae ovato-oblongae. Filamenta tubo inserta, apice conniventia. Linn. Fil.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CYRTANTHUS angustifolius foliis obtuse carinatis rectis, floribus cernuis, Linn. Fil. Ait. Kew. v. i. p. 414.

CRINUM angustifolium foliis linearibus obtusis, corollis cylindricis: laciniis alternis interglandulosis. Linn. Suppl. 195.

CYRTANTHUS is a genus which takes its name from the curvature of its flower, was established by the younger LINNAEUS, and adopted by Mr. AITON in the Hortus Kewensis.

The present species is a native of the Cape, and was added to the royal collection at Kew, by Mr. MASSON, in the year 1774. The plant from whence our drawing was made flowered the preceding May with Mr. WHITLEY, Nurseryman, Old Brompton, who received it from Holland, and who has been so fortunate as to obtain young plants of it from seed.

It flowers in May and June; requires the same treatment as other Cape bulbs, and may be increased by offsets and seeds.

At the extremity of each alternate segment of the corolla there is a kind of small glandular hook, deserving of notice.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 6-partita, ringens. Stamina adscendentia.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GLADIOLUS tristis foliis lineari-cruciatis, corollis campanulatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 86. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 63.

LILIO-GLADIOLUS bifolius et biflorus, foliis quadrangulis. Trew. Ehret. t. 39.

GLADIOLUS tristis foliis linearibus sulcatis, caule bifloro, tubo longissimo, segmentis aequalibus. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

LINNAEUS gave to this species of Gladiolus the name of tristis, from the colour of its flowers, which however possess scarcely sufficient of the sombre to justify the appellation; still less so if they vary in the manner represented in TREW'S Ehret, where they are painted in gay and lively colours: in the specimens we have seen, the blossoms have been of a sulphur colour, shaded in particular parts with very fine pencillings, especially on the under side: most authors describe the flowering stems as producing only two flowers, LINNAEUS has observed that they sometimes produce many, we have seen them do so where the plant has grown in perfection; in their expansion, which usually takes place in April and May, they give forth a most agreeable fragrance.

It is a native of the Cape, and other parts of Africa; was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, and flowered in the Chelsea Garden in the year 1745. Ait. Kew.

The leaves which so characteristically distinguish this species are highly deserving of notice, instances of such rarely occur; as the bulbs produce numerous offsets, the plant is propagated by them without difficulty, and requires the same treatment as other Cape bulbs.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 5-petala. Nectaria 5, supra germen. Caps. 3. s. 5. coalitae. Sem. calyptrata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DIOSMA uniflora foliis ovato oblongis, floribus solitariis terminalibus. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 287. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 239. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 276.

CISTUS humilis aethiopicus, inferioribus foliis rosmarini sylvestris punctatis, caeteris autem serpylli subrotundis, flore carneo. Pluk. mant. 49. t. 342. f. 5.

The Diosma uniflora another native of the Cape, that never failing source of vegetable riches, was introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew by Mr. MASSON in the year 1775, it flowers in our Green-Houses from April to June, and is usually propagated by cuttings.

This plant forms a small bushy shrub, the leaves are thickly and irregularly set on the branches, quite up to the flowers, which stand singly on their summits, and are larger than those of any other known species of Diosma, expanding as we have found on trial beyond the size of half-a-crown, which the blossom does in our figure, though it will not appear to do so to the eye of most observers; they are without scent, the calyx is large and continuing, composed of five ovato-lanceolate leaves, reddish on the upper side, and if viewed from above visible between the petals; the petals are five in number, much larger than the calyx, and deciduous, of a white colour with a streak of red running down the middle of each, surface highly glazed, the stamina are composed of five short filaments, white and slightly hairy, broad at their base and tapering gradually to a fine point, by which they are inserted into the hind part of the antherae, near the bottom; the antherae are as long as the filaments, of a brown purple colour, bending over the stigma, and opening inwardly, each carrying on the upper part of its back a gland-like substance, of a pale brown colour: besides these parts there are five filamentous bodies alternating with, and of the same length as the stamina, of a white colour, and hairy, each dilating at its extremity where it is of a reddish hue, and presenting towards the antherae an oval somewhat concave surface, which secretes a viscous liquid; in some flowers that we have examined, and we regret seeing but few, we have observed these nectaries (for such they may be strictly called) closely adhering by their viscous summits to the glandular substances at the back of the antherae[2]; the germen is studded with a constellation of little glands, which pour forth, and almost deluge it with nectar; the stigma is composed of five little round knobs: seed vessels we have not seen.

[Footnote 2: What the use of this very extraordinary apparatus may be we can at present scarcely conjecture, future observation may perhaps enable us to speak more decisively; when we figure the Diosma ericoides we shall probably have more to say of this species.]



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. acuminato-spinosus. Stigma emarginatum. Legumen mucronatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

BORBONIA crenata foliis cordatis multinerviis denticulatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 643. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 9.

FRUTEX aethiopicus leguminosus, foliis rusci majoribus in ambitu spinulis fimbriatis. Pluk. Alm. 159.

PLANTA leguminosa aethiopica, foliis rusci. Breyn. Cent. t. 28.

Borbonia is a genus of plants established by LINNAEUS in the 6th edition of his Genera Plantarum; of this genus there are six species enumerated in the 3d edition of the Species Plant. and two in the Hort. Kew. the latter of which, the crenata, introduced from the Cape by Mr. MASSON, in 1774, is here figured.

It is a small shrubby plant, rarely exceeding the height of three feet, producing its flowers in a small cluster on the summits of the branches; these are of a yellow colour, and have nothing about them peculiarly singular, or beautiful; it is the foliage alone which renders this plant desirable in a collection.

It flowers from June to August, and in favourable seasons ripens its seeds, by which the plant is usually propagated.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 3-phyllus. Petala 6. Sem. imbricata in strobilum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LIRIODENDRON Tulipifera foliis lobatis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 507. Ait. Kew. v. 2. 250.

TULIPIFERA virginiana, tripartito aceris folio: media lacinia velut abscissa. Pluk. Alm. 379. t. 117. f. 5. & t. 248. f. 7. Catesb. Carol. 1. p. 48. t. 48.

LIRIODENDRON foliis angulatis truncatis. Trew. Ehret. t. x.

The Tulip-tree is a native of most parts of North-America, MARSHALL describes it as often growing to the size of a very large tree, 70 or 80 feet in height, and above 4 feet in diameter; he mentions two varieties, one with yellow and the other with white wood; that with yellow wood is soft and brittle, much used for boards, heels of shoes, also turned into bowls, trenchers, &c. the white is heavy, tough, and hard, and is sawed into joists, boards, &c. for building.

RAY informs us in his Hist. Pl. that this tree was cultivated here by Bishop COMPTON, in 1688: and from MILLER we learn, that the first tree of the kind which flowered in this country, was in the gardens of the Earl of PETERBOROUGH, at Parsons-Green, near Fulham; in Mr. ORD'S garden, at Walham-Green, there is, among other choice old trees, a very fine tulip-tree, which is every year covered with blossoms, and which afforded us the specimen here figured. It flowers in June and July, rarely ripens its seeds with us, though it does readily in America.

The foliage of this plant is extremely singular, most of the leaves appearing as if truncated, or cut off at the extremity; they vary greatly in the division of their lobes, the flowers differ from those of the tulip in having a calyx, but agree as to the number of petals, which is six; and so they are described in the sixth edition of the Gen. Pl. of LINN. but in Professor MURRAY'S Syst. Veg. Ait. H. K. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13, by GMELIN, 9 are given, this in the first instance must be a mere typographical error arising from the inversion of the 6.

This tree is found to flourish most in a soil moderately stiff and moist, is usually raised from seeds, the process of which is amply described by MILLER in his Dictionary.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Col. 3-fidus. Petala O. Sem. 1. calyce baccato.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

BLITUM virgatum capitellis sparsis lateralibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 53. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 7.

ATRIPLEX sylvestris mori fructu. Bauh. Pin. p. 519.

ATRIPLEX sylvestris baccifera. Clus. Hist. cxxxv.

This plant, not unfrequently met with in gardens, is known to most cultivators by the name of Strawberry Spinach; the leaves somewhat resembling those of the latter, and the fruit that of the former: C. BAUHINE likens its berries to those of the Mulberry, to which they certainly bear a greater resemblance: in most of the species of this genus the calyx exhibits a very singular phenomenon, when the flowering is over, it increases in size, becomes fleshy, and finally pulpy, containing the ripe seed, which however it does not wholly envelope; thus from each cluster of flowers growing in the alae of the leaves are produced so many berries, of a charming red colour, to which the plant owes its beauty altogether, for the flowers are small, herbaceous, and not distinctly visible to the naked eye; they can boast however of being of the first class in the Linnean system Monandria, to which few belong.

Strawberry Blite is a hardy annual, growing spontaneously in some parts of France, Spain, and Tartary; is not a very old inhabitant of our gardens, Mr. AITON mentioning it as being first cultivated by Mr. MILLER in 1759. Its berries are produced from June to September; in their taste they have nothing to recommend them, though not pleasant they are harmless.

CLUSIUS we believe to be the first author who gives a figure and description of it.

It affects a dry soil, and open situation; in such there is no necessity to give any particular directions for its cultivation, as it comes up readily from seed spontaneously scattered, so much so as sometimes to prove a troublesome weed.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-dentatus. Petala 5. Nectaria 5 obcordata, filamentis supposita. Caps. 5-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MAHERNIA pinnata, foliis tripartito pinnatifidis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 308. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 398.

HERMANNIA foliis tripartitis, media pinnatifida. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 943.

HERMANNIA frutescens, folio multifido tenui, caule rubro. Boerh. Lugd. 1. p. 273.

LINNAEUS, in his Spec. Pl. regarded this plant as a species of Hermannia; finding afterwards that it differed materially in its fructification from that genus, he made a new one of it in his Mantissa, by the name of Mahernia; still, however, the two genera are very nearly related: one principal difference consists in the nectaria of the Mahernia, which are very remarkable.

This species was introduced from the Cape, where it is a native, by Mr. MASSON, in 1774, and is now very generally met with in our green-houses. It produces its little bells, of a lively red when they first open, from June to August, or September; is a small delicate plant, and easily raised from cuttings.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, campanulata: linea longitudinali nectarifera. Caps. valvulis pilo cancellato connexis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LILIUM candidum foliis sparsis, corollis campanulatis, intus glabris. Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 433. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 324. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 429.

LILIUM album flore erecto et vulgare. Bauh. Pin. 76.

LILIUM album vulgare. The ordinary White Lily. Park. Parad. p. 39. t. 37. f. 4.

We may rank the White Lily among the very oldest inhabitants of the flower-garden; in the time of GERARD it was very generally cultivated, and doubtless at a much earlier period; a plant of such stateliness, so shewy, so fragrant, and at the same time so much disposed to increase, would of course soon be found very generally in gardens, into which its introduction would be accelerated on another account; it was regarded as a plant of great efficacy; among other extraordinary powers attributed to it, we are gravely told that it taketh away the wrinkles of the face.

LINNAEUS makes it a native of Palestine and Syria; Mr. AITON of the Levant.

Its blossoms, which open early in July, continue about three weeks, and when they go off leave the flower-garden greatly thinned of its inhabitants.

Of the White Lily there are three principal varieties:

1. With double flowers. 2. With flowers blotched with purple. 3. With striped leaves, or leaves edged with yellow.

The two first of these are to be esteemed merely as curiosities; in the third the plant acquires an accession of beauty which it has not originally; though many persons object to variegated leaves, as conveying an idea of fickliness, that complaint cannot be urged against the foliage of the striped Lily, to which the borders of the flower-garden are indebted for one of their chief ornaments during the autumnal and winter months; early in September these begin to emerge, and towards spring another set rises up in their centre, of more upright growth, and which announce the rising of the flowering stem.

Besides these varieties, LINNAEUS has considered the Lilium album floribus dependentibus s. peregrinum of C. BAUHINE, the Sultan Zambach of CLUSIUS, and the Hortus Eystettensis, as one of its varieties also: MILLER regards this plant as a distinct species, and those who have attentively examined the figures and descriptions of CLUSIUS and the Hort. Eyst. will be of the same opinion.

The Lily increases most abundantly by offsets, hence it becomes necessary that the bulbs should be taken up, and reduced every second or third year; but the striped leaved variety increasing much more slowly, should remain unmolested for a greater length of time.

There is scarcely a soil or situation in which the Lily will not grow, it will thrive most in a soil moderately stiff and moist; though a native of a warm climate no severity of weather affects it with us: we may learn from this, not to regulate the culture of plants invariably by the climate in which they grow spontaneously.

The best time for removing the bulbs of this plant is about the middle of August, before they shoot forth their leaves; but they may be transplanted any time from September to spring.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Contorta. Folliculi 2. reflexi. Semina membranae propriae inserta.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PLUMERIA rubra foliis ovato-oblongis, petiolis biglandulosis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 254. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 298.

PLUMERIA flore roseo odoratissimo. Tourn. Inst. 659. Trew. Ehret. Tab. xli.

Plumeria is a genus of plants named by TOURNEFORT in honour of his countryman the celebrated PLUMIER, it comes near to Nerium or Oleander, and contains several species, all natives of warm climates.

The present plant is a native of Jamaica, where it is known by the name of Red Jasmine, from whence seeds and large cuttings are often sent to this country; here they require the stove to bring them to flower: seed-vessels they are never known to produce.

The flowers, which are very odoriferous, are produced in July and August in large bunches, on the summits of the branches, from whence the leaves also proceed; the stems, which grow to a considerable height as well as thickness, are naked, and the whole plant loses its foliage from the middle of winter till about the beginning of May; the branches and other parts of the plant, when broken off, give forth a milky juice, the leaves are handsome, and the veins remarkable.

Being too tender to bear the open air of this climate, it is kept in the stove even during summer, in hot weather it must have plenty of air, and in cold seasons be sparingly watered.

Is propagated by seeds, but more frequently by cuttings, which MILLER recommends to be put by for two months or ten weeks, previous to their being committed to the earth.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. campanulata. Glandulae 5 cum staminibus alternae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

APOCYNUM androsaemifolium caule rectiuseulo herbaceo, foliis ovatis utrinque glabris, cymis terminalibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 258. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 303.

APOCYNUM canadense; foliis androsaemi majoris. Bocc. sicc. 35. t. 16. f. 3. Moris. Hist. 3. p. 609. s. 15. t. 3. f. 16.

In addition to the powerful recommendations of beauty and fragrance, the Tutsan-leav'd Dogsbane interests us on account of the curious structure of its flowers, and their singular property of catching flies.

This species is a native of different parts of North-America; Mr. W. HALE, of Alton, Hants, who resided at Halifax in Nova-Scotia several years, brought me some seeds of it gathered in that neighbourhood, which vegetated, and produced flowering plants: it is not new to this country, being known to MORISON who figures it, and to MILLER, who cultivated it in 1731.

It is a hardy perennial plant, growing to about the height of a foot and a half, or two feet, and flowering from the beginning of July, to September; it has a creeping root, thereby it increases greatly in light dry soils, and warm situations, so as even to be troublesome; it will not thrive in a wet soil; with us it produces seed-vessels but rarely; is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn or Spring; MILLER recommends March as the most proper season, or it may be raised from seeds, which in certain situations and seasons ripen here.

The flowers of this Apocynum have a sweet honey-like fragrance, which perfumes the air to a considerable distance, and no doubt operates powerfully in attracting insects; when a plant of this sort is fully blown, one may always find flies caught in its blossoms, usually by the trunk, very rarely by the leg; sometimes four, or even five, which is the greatest possible number, are found in one flower, some dead, others endeavouring to disentangle themselves, in which they are now and then so fortunate as to succeed; these flies are of different species, the musca pipiens, a slender variegated fly with thick thighs, is a very common victim, the musca domestica, or house fly, we have never observed among the captives.

Previous to our explaining the manner in which it appears to us that these insects are caught, it will be necessary that we should describe, in as plain a manner as possible, those parts of the flower which more particularly constitute this fatal fly trap.

On looking into the flower we perceive five Stamina, the Antherae of which are large, of a yellow colour, and converge into a kind of cone; each of these Antherae is arrow-shaped, towards the top of the cone their sides touch but do not adhere, below they separate a little, so as to leave a very narrow opening or slit between each, they are placed on very short filaments, which stand so far apart that a considerable opening is left between them, which openings, however, are closed up by processes of the corolla, nicely adapted to, and projecting into them; at the bottom of, and in the very centre of the flower, we perceive two germina, or seed-buds, the rudiments of future seed-vessels, surrounded by glandular substances, secreting a sweet liquid; on the summit of these germina, and betwixt the two, stands the stigma, in the form of a little urn, the middle of which is encircled by a glandular ring, which secretes a viscid honey-like substance, to this part of the stigma the Antherae interiorly adhere most tenaciously, so as to prevent their separation unless considerable force be applied; it is, as we apprehend, the sweet viscid substance thus secreted by the stigma, within the Antherae, which the fly endeavours to obtain, and to this end insinuates its trunk first into the lowermost and widest part of the slit, betwixt each of the Antherae above described, pushing it of necessity upwards: when gratified, not having the sense to place itself in the same position as that in which it stood when it inserted its trunk, and to draw it out in the same direction downwards, unfortunately for it, it varies its position, and pulling its trunk upwards, draws it into the narrow part of the slit, where it becomes closely wedged in, and the more it pulls the more securely it is caught, and thus this heedless insect, as THOMSON calls it, terminates its existence in captivity most miserable.

In the incomparable poem of Dr. DARWIN, entitled the Botanic Garden, there is a figure given of this plant; and in the Supplement we have the following account written by Mr. DARWIN, of Elston.

"In the Apocynum Androsaemifolium the Anthers converge over the nectaries, which consist of five glandular oval corpuscles, surrounding the germ, and at the same time admit air to the nectaries at the interstice between each anther; but when a fly inserts its proboscis between these anthers to plunder the honey, they converge closer, and with such violence as to detain the fly, which thus generally perishes."

This explanation of a phaenomenon entitled to much attention, is widely different from ours; which of the two is most consonant to truth and nature, we shall leave to the determination of future observers.

In explaining the preceding appearances, to prevent confusion we called those parts which form the cone in the middle of the flower Antherae, but strictly speaking they are not such, the true Antherae being situated on the inside of their summits, where they will be found to be ten in number, making in fact the Apocynum a decandrous plant.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus, infundibuliformis, exterior 2-phyllus. Petala 5 calyci inserta. Stigmata multifida. Caps. 1-locularis, 3-valvis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TURNERA angustifolia floribus sessilibus petiolaribus, foliis lanceolatis rugosis acuminatis. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

TURNERA frutescens folio longiore et mucronato. Mart. Cent. 49. t. 49.

This plant here represented is generally known to the Nurserymen about London as the Turnera ulmifolia, or Elm-leav'd Turnera, its foliage however does not answer to the name, nor to the figures of the plant as given by MARTYN in his Cent. Pl. and LINNAEUS in his Hortus Cliffortianus, which figures indeed are so similar that they look like copies of each other, these represent the true elm leaf; on the same plate of Martyn's Cent. there is given a very excellent figure of what he considers as another species of Turnera, vide Synon. and which MILLER, who cultivated it about the year 1773, also describes as a distinct species, under the name of angustifolia, asserting, from the experience of thirty years, that plants raised from its seeds have constantly differed from those of the ulmifolia; this is our plant, which on his authority we have given as a species, though LINNAEUS regards it as a variety.

PLUMIER gave to this genus the name of Turnera, in honour of Dr. WILLIAM TURNER, a celebrated English Botanist and Physician, who published an Herbal, black letter, folio, in 1568.

The present species is a native of the West-Indies, and is commonly cultivated in our stoves, where it rises with a semi-shrubby stalk, to the height of several feet, seldom continuing more than two or three years; young plants generally come up in plenty from seeds spontaneously scattered, so that a succession is easily obtained.

It flowers from June to August.

Its foliage has a disagreeable smell when bruised; its flowers are shewy, but of short duration, and are remarkable for growing out of the footstalk of the leaf.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. carina transverse obtusa. Legumen articulis 1-spermis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HEDYSARUM obscurum foliis pinnatis, stipulis vaginalibus, caule erecto flexuoso, floribus pendulis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 676. Mant. 447. Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 2. t. 168.

HEDYSARUM caule recto, ramoso; foliis ovatis; siliquis pendulis, laevissimis, venosis. Hall. Hist. Helv. n. 395.

ONOBRYCHIS semine clypeato laevi. Bauh. Pin. 350.

Prof. JACQUIN, in the second volume of the Flora austriaca, gives an excellent figure and accurate description of our plant, a native of the Alps of Germany and Switzerland, and points out the characters in which it differs from the alpinum, for which it has sometimes been mistaken.

It is a hardy perennial, rarely exceeding a foot in height, produces its spikes of pendulous flowers, which are of a most beautiful purple colour, in July and August; hitherto these have not been succeeded by seed-vessels with us; though we have cultivated the plant for several years.

Its size renders it a suitable plant for rock-work, on which it will grow readily, increasing by its roots, which are of the creeping kind.

HALLER mentions a variety of it with white flowers.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 4-dentatus, prismaticus. Cor. ringens; labio superiore lateribus replicato. Caps. 2-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MIMULUS ringens erectus, foliis oblongis linearibus sessilibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 575. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 361.

EUPHRASIA floridana lysimachiae glabrae siliquosae foliis, quadrato caule ramosior. Pluk. Amalth. 83. t. 393. f. 3.

LYSIMACHIA galericulata s. Gratiola elatior non ramosa, &c. Gron. Fl. Virg. p. 97.

DIGITALIS perfoliata glabra flore violaceo minore. Moris. Hist. 2. p. 479. s. 5. t. 8. f. 6.

CLAYTON, in the Fl. Virg. published by GRONOVIUS, describes this plant as a native of Virginia, and says of it, "maddidis gaudet locis," it delights in wet places: LINNAEUS makes it a native of Canada also.

It is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, growing with us to the height of about two feet, and producing its flowers, which are of a pale violet colour, in July and August; these are frequently succeeded by capsules containing perfect seeds, by which the plant may be propagated, as also by parting its roots in Autumn; MILLER recommends the seeds to be sown as soon as ripe.

The plant succeeds best in a moist and somewhat shady situation, with a loamy soil.

A perusal of the synonyms will shew to what a variety of genera this plant has been referred by different authors; LINNAEUS first gave to it the name of Mimulus, of which term we find in his Philosophia Botanica the following concise explanation:—"MIMULUS mimus personatus;" in plain English, a masked mimick: MIMMULUS is a classical word for the Pedicularis, or Lousewort; the English term Monkey flower has probably been given it, from an idea that mimulus originated from [Greek: mimo] a monkey, as in mimusops monkey face.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Petala 5. Cal. urceolatus, 5-fidus, carnosus, collo coarctatus, demum baccatus, coloratus. Antrum duplicatum, 1-loculare, superne apertum, pericarpiis osseis intus nidulantibus.

Specific Character.

ROSA semperflorens caule aculeato, foliis subternis, pedunculis subunifloris aculeato-hispidis, calycis laciniis integris.

We are induced to consider the rose here represented, as one of the most desirable plants in point of ornament ever introduced to this country; its flowers, large in proportion to the plant, are semi-double, and with great richness of colour unite a most delightful fragrance; they blossom during the whole of the year, more sparingly indeed in the winter months; the shrub itself is more hardy than most greenhouse plants, and will grow in so small a compass of earth, that it may be reared almost in a coffee cup; is kept with the least possible trouble, and propagated without difficulty by cuttings or suckers.

For this invaluable acquisition, our country is indebted to the late GILBERT SLATER, Esq. of Knots-Green, near Laytonstone, whose untimely death every person must deplore, who is a friend to improvements in ornamental gardening: in procuring the rarer plants from abroad, more particularly from the East-Indies, Mr. SLATER was indefatigable, nor was he less anxious to have them in the greatest perfection this country will admit; to gain this point there was no contrivance that ingenuity could suggest, no labour, no expence withheld; such exertions must soon have insured him the first collection of the plants of India: it is now about three years since he obtained this rose from China; as he readily imparted his most valuable acquisitions to those who were most likely to increase them, this plant soon became conspicuous in the collections of the principal Nurserymen near town, and in the course of a few years will, no doubt, decorate the window of every amateur.

The largest plants we have seen have not exceeded three feet, it may no doubt be trained to a much greater height; a variety of it much more robust, having usually several flowers on a footstalk, of a pale red colour, and semi-double also, has more lately been introduced, and as far as we can learn from the same source.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla hypocrateriformis. Bacca dicocca. Semina solitaria, arillata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

JASMINUM odoratissimum foliis alternis obtusiusculis ternatis pinnatisque, ramis teretibus, laciniis calycinis brevissimis. Ait. Hort. H. v. 1. p. 10. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 56.

JASMINUM flavum odoratum. Barr. Ic. 62.

The flowers of most of the species of Jasmine are odoriferous, trivial names therefore expressive of this quality are ineligible, as wanting character; the present name is peculiarly objectionable, inasmuch as several other species are greatly superior to this in point of fragrance; a lesson for Botanists to abstain from trivial names of the superlative degree, such as odoratissimum, foetidissimum, maximum, minimum, &c.

The present species, according to Mr. AITON, is a native of Madeira, and was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1730; it is now a plant common in most greenhouses: it will form a shrub of considerable size, which requires no support; its leaves are glossy, inclining to yellow, growing for the most part three together, sometimes pinnated; its blossoms, which are yellow, make their appearance from May to November: in point of hardiness it is superior to many greenhouse plants, and may be propagated without difficulty by cuttings.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. clavato-infundibuliformis. Antherae 4-6. longitudinales. Caps. 5-gona, 2-valvis, retusa, 2-locularis, polysperma, coronata calyce 5-phyllo.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PORTLANDIA grandiflora floribus pentandris. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 213. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 228. foliis ovatis. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel. p. 360.

PORTLANDIA grandiflora floribus pentandris, capsulis ovatis, foliis oblongis acuminatis. Swartz. Obs. Bot. p. 69.

Dr. BROWN, in his Natural History of Jamaica, gives to this genus the name of Portlandia, in honour of the Duchess Dowager of PORTLAND, who employed many of the leisure hours of a long and happy life, in the pursuits of natural history, in which she was eminently skilled.—She was the friend and patron of Mr. LIGHTFOOT, who dedicates to her his Flora Scotica; the fine collection of rare and valuable trees and shrubs which enrich part of the grounds at Bulstrode, were of her planting.

Dr. SWARTZ, in his Observations on the Plants of the West-Indies, informs us, that this species grows wild in Jamaica, where (incolit calcareosa petrosa) it inhabits calcareous rocky places[3], forms a small tree about the height of six feet, and flowers from the middle of Summer to Autumn; its bark, he observes, as in other plants of the same genus, is extremely bitter.

From Mr. AITON we learn, that it was introduced here by —— ELLIS, Esq. in 1775.

It forms a very beautiful stove plant, not of difficult growth, and readily disposed to flower; we have seen blowing plants of it little more than a foot high; its blossoms are not only uncommonly large, shewy, and curious in their structure, but fragrant also, and very much so when dried.

It is usually increased by cuttings.

[Footnote 3: We wish that every person who describes foreign plants on the spot, would do thus; it would greatly facilitate their culture.]



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Flores monopetali, superi. Caps. bilocularis. Cor. supra longitudinaliter fissa, stigma urceolatum ciliatum. Smith Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 2. p. 346.

Specific Character.

GOODENIA laevigata foliis obovato-lanceolatis dentatis glabris.

In the Autumn of 1792, SAMUEL TOLFREY Esq. most kindly invited me to inspect a vast number of the natural productions of Botany-Bay, in his possession; collected with great assiduity, and brought over in high preservation by Captain TENCH; among other curiosities, he shewed me specimens of the earths of that country, imported in very small bags. I suggested to Mr. TOLFREY, that those earths might possibly contain the seeds of some curious and unknown plants; he readily acquiesced in the idea, and permitted me to make trial of them: accordingly, in the Spring of 1793, I exposed them in shallow pans, on a gentle tan heat, keeping them duly watered; in the course of the Summer they yielded me fourteen plants, most of which were altogether new, and among others the species of Goodenia here figured; this we have since found to be a hardy greenhouse plant, flowering from July to October, and very readily increased by cuttings.

The oldest plant in our possession is about a foot and a half high, much branched, the stalks are round and smooth to the naked eye, green below, above purplish, the leaves are smooth, a deep bright green colour, alternate, standing on footstalks, which gradually widen into the leaves, somewhat ovate, and deeply toothed; the flowers grow in the alae of the leaves, forming a thin spike, they are sessile, of a pale violet colour, and have a peculiar smell which is rather unpleasant; at the side of each flower are two long narrow Bracteae; the Calyx, which is placed on the germen, is composed of five short ovate leaves, which appear edged with hairs if magnified; the Corolla is monopetalous, the lower part, which at first is tubular, splits longitudinally above, and forms a kind of half tube, the edges of which are brown, the inside yellow, the outside greenish, the mouth beset with short hairs, each of which is terminated by a small villous head; the limb is deeply divided into five linear segments, spreading out like a hand, and terminated by short points; the Filaments are five in number, of a whitish colour, somewhat broadest above, rather flat, inserted into the receptacle; Antherae oval, flattened, yellow, bilocular, a little bent, the length of the pistillum; but this is to be understood of such flowers as are not yet fully expanded, in those that are, they are much shorter, and appear withered; the Style, in flowers about to open, the length of the filaments, upright, in those that are opened much longer, and bent somewhat downward; Stigma at first upright, in the form of a cup, having the edge curiously fringed with white hairs, afterwards it closes together, loses its hollow, and assumes a flat appearance, and nods somewhat, the back part of it is bearded; Germen beneath the calyx, oblong, usually abortive with us.

The name of Goodenia has been given to this genus by Dr. SMITH, in honour of the Rev. SAMUEL GOODENOUGH, LL. D. of Ealing, my much-honoured friend, whose name will be ever dear to Botanists for his laborious investigation of the British Carices[4].

[Footnote 4: Vide a Dissertation on the British species of Carex, by Dr. GOODENOUGH, in the second volume of the Transactions of the Linnean Society.]



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Stamina germini vicina. Nectarium multi-radiatum. Antrum pedicellatum duplicatum 1-loculare.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PASSIFLORA ciliata foliis trilobis glabris ciliato serratis intermedio longissimo, petiolis eglandulosis. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 310.

This Passion-Flower is described in the Hort. Kew. as a new one, under the name of ciliata, introduced by Mrs. NORMAN, from the West-Indies, in 1783: we saw it during the latter part of the last Summer, with great profusion of flowers, in several collections, more particularly in that of Mr. VERE, Kensington-Gore, from whence our figure and description were taken.

Its stalks are round, perfectly smooth, and run to a very great height; leaves dark green, glossy, perfectly smooth, except on the edges, where they are beset with strong glandular hairs, divided into three large and two small lobes, the middle lobe running out to a considerable length, the footstalks of the leaves are beset with a few hairs thinly scattered, at the base of each leaf is a tendril, and two finely-divided stipulae, edged also with glandular hairs. The Involucrum is composed of three leaves, dividing into capillary segments, each of which terminates in a viscid globule, fetid when bruised; betwixt the involucrum and the blossom is a short peduncle; the pillar which supports the germen is of a bright purple colour, with spots of a darker hue, the germen is smooth and green; Styles green; Stigmata of a dark green; Filaments six in number; Antherae pale yellow green, the former dotted with purple; of Radii, there may be said to be four rows, variegated with white and purple, petals ten, externally greenish, internally red, deeper or paler according to circumstances.

The leaves of this plant vary greatly in form, according to the health and luxuriance of the plant; on comparing it with the foetida, we strongly suspect it to be a variety merely of that species: time will shew.

It is increased by cuttings, or seeds.


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Eighth Volume are alphabetically arranged.


280 Apocynum androsaemifolium.

276 Blitum virgatum.

274 Borbonia crenata.

264 Cistus formosus.

258 Coronilla varia.

271 Cyrtanthus angustifolius.

255 Cytisus sessilifolius.

273 Diosma uniflora.

261 Erodium incarnatum.

272 Gladiolus tristis.

263 Glycine bimaculata.

268 ———- rubicunda.

270 ———- coccinea.

287 Goodenia laevigata.

282 Hedysarum obscurum.

285 Jasminum odoratissimum.

256 Ixia longiflora.

265 —— Bulbocodium.

253 Lathyrus articulatus.

259 Lilium Catesbaei.

278 ——— candidum.

275 Liriodendron Tulipifera.

254 Lopezia racemosa.

257 Lychnis chalcedonica.

277 Mahernia pinnata.

262 Mesembryanthemum aureum.

260 Metrosideros citrina.

283 Mimulus ringens.

269 Ornithogalum nutans.

288 Passiflora ciliata.

279 Plumeria rubra.

286 Portlandia grandiflora.

267 Pyrus spectabilis.

266 Ranunculus amplexicaulis.

284 Rosa semperflorens.

281 Turnera angustifolia.


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Eighth Volume are alphabetically arranged.


267 Apple-tree Chinese.

276 Blite strawberry.

274 Borbonia heart-leaved.

264 Cistus beautiful.

272 Corn-flag square-leaved.

258 Coronilla purple.

261 Crane's-bill flesh-coloured.

266 Crowfoot plantain-leaved.

271 Cyrtanthus narrow-leaved.

255 Cytisus common.

273 Diosma one-flowered.

280 Dogsbane tutsan-leaved.

262 Fig-marigold golden.

263 Glycine purple.

268 ———- dingy-flowered.

270 ———- scarlet.

287 Goodenia smooth.

282 Hedysarum creeping-rooted.

285 Jasmine sweet.

256 Ixia long-flowered.

265 —— crocus-leaved.

253 Lathyrus jointed-podded.

259 Lily Catesby's.

278 —— white.

254 Lopezia mexican.

257 Lychnis scarlet.

277 Mahernia winged.

260 Metrosideros harsh-leaved.

283 Monkey-flower narrow-leav'd.

288 Passion-flower fringed-leaved.

279 Plumeria red.

286 Portlandia great-flowered.

284 Rose ever-blowing.

269 Star of Bethlehem Neapolitan.

275 Tulip-tree common.

281 Turnera narrow-leaved.


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