The Botanical Magazine v 2 - or Flower-Garden Displayed
by William Curtis
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The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.


Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated LINNAEUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:




Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.




"A Garden is the purest of human Pleasures." VERULAM.


Printed by COUCHMAN and FRY, Throgmorton-Street,

For W. CURTIS, at his BOTANIC-GARDEN, Lambeth-Marsh;

And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.



Chironia Frutescens. Shrubby Chironia.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. rotata. Pistillum declinatum. Stamina tubo corollae infidentia. Antherae demum spirales. Peric. 2-loculare.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CHIRONIA frutescens, foliis lanceolatis subtomentosis, calycibus campanulatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 229.

CENTAURIUM foliis binis oppositis angustis linearibus, flore magno rubente. Burm. Afric. 205. t. 74. fig. 1.

Of the genus Chironia, ten species are enumerated in Prof. MURRAY's last edition of the Syst. Vegetab. of LINNAEUS, exclusive of the Chironia Centaurium which we first added to this genus in the 42d number of the Flora Londinensis.

Of these, the frutescens is the most shewy, and therefore the most cultivated.

It is a native of different parts of Africa.

The flowers are produced from June to autumn, and the seeds ripen in October. This plant should be placed in an airy glass case in winter, where it may enjoy a dry air, and much sun, but will not thrive in a warm stove, nor can it be well preserved in a common green-house, because a damp moist air will soon cause it to rot.

The seed of this plant should be sown in small pots filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a moderate hot-bed; sometimes the seeds will lie a long time in the ground; so that if the plants do not appear the same season, the pots should not be disturbed, but preserved in shelter till the following spring, and then plunged into a fresh hot-bed, which will bring up the plants in a short time if the seeds are good. When the plants are fit to remove, they should be transplanted into small pots, four or five in each pot, then plunged into a moderate hot-bed, where they must have a large share of air in warm weather; when they have obtained some strength, they must be gradually inured to the open air; when exposed abroad, they should be mixed with such plants as require little water, placed in a warm situation, and screened from heavy rains, which are apt to rot them. The cuttings of this sort take root if properly managed. Miller's Gard. Dict.


Viburnum Tinus. Common Laurustinus.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Trigynia.

Generic Character.

Calyx 5-partitus, superus. Cor. 5-fida. Bacca 1-sperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

VIBURNUM Tinus foliis integerrimis ovatis: ramificationibus venarum subtus villoso-glandulosis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 294.

LAURUS sylvestris, corni faeminae foliis subhirsutis. Bauh. Pin. 461.

The wild Bay-tree. Park. Parad. p. 400.

We scarcely recollect a plant whose blossoms are so hardy as those of the Laurustinus, they brave the inclemency of our winters, and are not destroyed but in very severe seasons.

The beauties of this most charming shrub can be enjoyed by those only who cultivate it at some little distance from town, the smoke of London being highly detrimental to its growth.

It is a native of Portugal, Spain, and Italy.

Botanists enumerate many varieties of the Laurustinus, and so considerably do some of these differ, that MILLER has been induced to make two species of them, which he distinguishes by the names of Virburnum Tinus and V. lucidum; the last of these is the most ornamental, and at the same time the most tender; there are some other trifling varieties, besides those, with variegated leaves, or the gold and silver-striped.

It is only in very favourable situations that these shrubs ripen their seeds in England, hence they are most commonly propagated by layers, which readily strike root: MILLER says, that the plants raised from seeds are hardier than those produced from layers.

It thrives best in sheltered situations and a dry soil.


Franklin's Tartar.

A Scarlet Bizarre Carnation.

The Carnation here exhibited is a seedling raised by Mr. FRANKLIN, of Lambeth-Marsh, an ingenious cultivator of these flowers, whose name it bears: we have not figured it as the most perfect flower of the kind, either in form or size, but as being a very fine specimen of the sort, and one whose form and colours it is in the power of the artist pretty exactly to imitate.

The Dianthus Caryophyllus or wild Clove is generally considered as the parent of the Carnation, and may be found, if not in its wild state, at least single, on the walls of Rochester Castle, where it has been long known to flourish, and where it produces two varieties in point of colour, the pale and deep red.

Flowers which are cultivated from age to age are continually producing new varieties, hence there is no standard as to name, beauty, or perfection, amongst them, but what is perpetually fluctuating; thus the red Hulo, the blue Hulo, the greatest Granado, with several others celebrated in the time of PARKINSON, have long since been consigned to oblivion; and it is probable, that the variety now exhibited, may, in a few years, share a similar fate; for it would be vanity in us to suppose, that the Carnation, by assiduous culture, may not, in the eye of the Florist, be yet considerably improved.

To succeed in the culture of the Carnation, we must advert to the situation in which it is found wild, and this is observed to be dry and elevated; hence excessive moisture is found to be one of the greatest enemies this plant has to encounter; and, on this account, it is found to succeed better, when planted in a pot, than in the open border; because in the former, any superfluous moisture readily drains off; but, in guarding against too much wet, we must be careful to avoid the opposite extreme.

To keep any plant in a state of great luxuriance, it is necessary that the soil in which it grows be rich; hence a mixture of light-loam, and perfectly rotten horse or cow dung, in equal proportions, is found to be a proper compost for the Carnation. Care should be taken that no worms, grubs, or other insects, be introduced with the dung; to prevent this, the dung, when sifted fine, should be exposed to the rays of the sun, on a hot summer's day, till perfectly dry, and then put by in a box for use; still more to increase the luxuriance of the plants, water it in the spring and summer with an infusion of sheep's dung.

The Carnation is propagated by seeds, layers, and pipings; new varieties can only be raised from seed, which, however, is sparingly produced from good flowers, because the petals are so multiplied, as nearly to exclude the parts of the fructification essential to their production.

"The seed must be sown in April, in pots or boxes, very thin, and placed upon an East border.

"In July, transplant them upon a bed in an open situation, at about four inches asunder; at the end of August transplant them again upon another bed, at about ten inches asunder, and there let them remain till they flower: shade them till they have taken root, and in very severe weather in winter, cover the bed with mats over some hoops.

"The following summer they will flower, when you must mark such as you like, make layers from, and pot them." Ellis's Gardener's Pocket Calendar.

The means of increasing these plants by layers and pipings, are known to every Gardener.

Such as wish for more minute information concerning the culture, properties, divisions, or varieties, of this flower, than the limits of our Work will admit, may consult Miller's Gard. Dict. or the Florists Catalogues.


Trillium Sessile. Sessile Trillium.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Trigynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 3-phyllus. Cor. 3-petala. Bacca 3-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TRILLIUM flore sessili erecto. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 349.

PARIS foliis ternatis, flore sessili erecto. Gron. virg. 44.

SOLANUM triphyllum. Pluk. alm. 352. t. 111. f. 6. Catesb. car. t. 50.

Of this genus there are three species, all of which are natives of North-America, and described by MILLER, in his Gardener's Dictionary, where the genus is called American Herb Paris; but as the Paris and Trillium, though somewhat similar in the style of their foliage, are very different in their parts of fructification, we have thought it most expedient to anglicise Trillium, it being to the full as easily pronounced as Geranium, and many other Latin names now familiar to the English ear.

This species takes its' trivial name of sessile, from the flowers having no foot-stalk, but sitting as it were immediately on the end of the stalk.

The figure here exhibited was taken from a plant which flowered in my garden last spring, from roots sent me the preceding autumn, by Mr. ROBERT SQUIBB, Gardener, of Charleston, South-Carolina, who is not only well versed in plants, but indefatigable in discovering and collecting the more rare species of that country, and with which the gardens of this are likely soon to be enriched.

It grows in shady situations, in a light soil, and requires the same treatment as the Dodecatheon and round-leav'd Cyclamen. We have not yet had a fair opportunity of observing whether this species ripens its seeds with us: though of as long standing in this country as the Dodecatheon, it is far less common; hence one is led to conclude that it is either not so readily propagated, or more easily destroyed.


Calceolaria pinnata. Pinnated Slipper-wort.

Class and Order.

Diandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. ringens inflata. Caps. 2-locularis, 2-valvis. Cal. 4-partitus aequalis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CALCEOLARIA pinnata foliis pinnatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 64.

CALCEOLARIA foliis scabiosae vulgaris. Fewill Peruv. 3, t. 12. fig. 7.

There being no English name to this plant, we have adopted that of Slipper-wort, in imitation of Calceolaria, which is derived from Calceolus, a little shoe or slipper.

This species of Calceolaria is one of the many plants introduced into our gardens, since the time of MILLER: it is an annual, a native of Peru, and, of course, tender: though by no means a common plant in our gardens, it is as easily raised from seed as any plant whatever. These are to be sown on a gentle hot-bed in the spring; the seedlings, when of a proper size, are to be transplanted into the borders of the flower-garden, where they will flower, ripen, and scatter their seeds; but being a small delicate plant, whose beauties require a close inspection, it appears to most advantage in a tan stove, in which, as it will grow from cuttings, it may be had to flower all the year through, by planting them in succession.

This latter mode of treatment is used by Mr. HOY, Gardener to his Grace of Northumberland, at Sion-House, where this plant may be seen in great perfection.


Camellia Japonica. Rose Camellia.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Polyandria.

Generic Character.

Calyx imbricatus, polyphyllus: foliolis interioribus majoribus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CAMELLIA japonica foliis acute serratis acuminatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 632. Thunberg Fl. Japon. t. 273.

TSUBAKI Kempfer Amoen. 850. t. 851.

ROSA chinensis. Ed. av. 2. p. 67. t. 67.

THEA chinensis pimentae jamaicensis folio, flore roseo. Pet. Gaz. t. 33. fig. 4.

This most beautiful tree, though long since figured and described, as may be seen by the above synonyms, was a stranger to our gardens in the time of MILLER, or at least it is not noticed in the last edition of his Dictionary.

It is a native both of China and Japan.

THUNBERG, in his Flora Japonica, describes it as growing every where in the groves and gardens of Japan, where it becomes a prodigiously large and tall tree, highly esteemed by the natives for the elegance of its large and very variable blossoms, and its evergreen leaves; it is there found with single and double flowers, which also are white, red, and purple, and produced from April to October.

Representations of this flower are frequently met with in Chinese paintings.

With us, the Camellia is generally treated as a stove plant, and propagated by layers; it is sometimes placed in the green-house; but it appears to us to be one of the properest plants imaginable for the conservatory. At some future time it may, perhaps, not be uncommon to treat it as a Laurustinus or Magnolia: the high price at which it has hitherto been sold, may have prevented its being hazarded in this way.

The blossoms are of a firm texture, but apt to fall off long before they have lost their brilliancy; it therefore is a practice with some to stick such deciduous blossoms on some fresh bud, where they continue to look well for a considerable time.

PETIVER considered our plant as a species of Tea tree; future observations will probably confirm his conjecture.


Cistus incanus. Hoary, or Rose Cistus.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla 5-petala. Calyx 5-phyllus, foliolis duobus minoribus. Capsula.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CISTUS incanus arborescens exstipulatus, foliis spatulatis tomentosis rugosis inferioribus basi connatis vaginantibus. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 497.

CISTUS mas angustifolius. Bauh. Pin. 464.

Few plants are more admired than the Cistus tribe; they have indeed one imperfection, their petals soon fall off: this however is the less to be regretted, as they in general have a great profusion of flower-buds, whence their loss is daily supplied. They are, for the most part, inhabitants of warm climates, and affect dry, sheltered, though not shady, situations.

The present species is a native of Spain, and the south of France, and being liable to be killed by the severity of our winters, is generally kept with green-house plants.

It may be propagated either by seeds, or cuttings; the former make the best plants.


Cyclamen persicum. Persian Cyclamen.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla rotata, reflexa, tubo brevissimo: fauce prominente. Bacca tecta capsula.

Specific Character.

CYCLAMEN persicum foliis cordatis serratis. Miller's Dict. 4to. ed. 6.

LINNAEUS in this, as in many other genera, certainly makes too few species, having only two; MILLER, on the contrary, is perhaps too profuse in his number, making eight. The ascertaining the precise limits of species, and variety, in plants that have been for a great length of time objects of culture, is often attended with difficulties scarcely to be surmounted, is indeed a Gordian Knot to Botanists.

Our plant is the Cyclamen persicum of MILLER, and has been introduced into our gardens long since the European ones; being a native of the East-Indies, it is of course more tender than the others, and therefore requires to be treated more in the style of a green-house plant.

It is generally cultivated in pots, in light undunged earth, or in a mixture of loam and lime rubbish, and kept in frames, or on the front shelf of a green-house, where it may have plenty of air in the summer, but guarded against too much moisture in the winter.

May be raised from seeds in the same manner as the round-leaved Cyclamen already figured in this work, p. n. 4.

Flowers early in the spring, and is admirably well adapted to decorate the parlour or study.

Varies with fragrant flowers, and the eye more or less red.


Crocus vernus. Spring Crocus.

Class and Order

Triandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla 6-partita, aequalis. Stigmata convoluta.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CROCUS vernus foliis latioribus margine patulo. Jacq. Fl. Austr. Vol. 5. app. t. 36. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 83. var. sativ.

CROCUS vernus latifolius. Bauh. Pin. 65, 66.

The Yellow Crocus. Parkins. Parad. p. 166.

LINNAEUS considers the Crocus, or Saffron of the shops, which blows invariably in the autumn, and the spring Crocus, with its numerous varieties (of which PARKINSON, in his Garden of Pleasant Flowers, enumerates no less than twenty-seven) as one and the same species; other Botanists have considered them as distinct, particularly PROF. JACQUIN, whose opinion on this subject we deem the most decisive.

We have figured the yellow variety, which is the one most commonly cultivated in our gardens, though according to the description in the Flora Austriaca, the Crocus vernus, in its wild state, is usually purple or white.

The cultivation of this plant is attended with no difficulty; in a light sandy loam, and dry situation, the roots thrive, and multiply so much as to require frequent reducing; they usually flower about the beginning of March, and whether planted in rows, or patches, on the borders of the flower-garden, or mixed indiscriminately with the herbage of the lawn, when expanded by the warmth of the sun, they produce a most brilliant and exhilirating effect.

The most mischievous of all our common birds, the sparrow, is very apt to commit great depredations amongst them when in flower, to the no small mortification of those who delight in their culture; we have succeeded in keeping these birds off, by placing near the object to be preserved, the skin of a cat properly stuffed: a live cat, or some bird of the hawk kind confined in a cage, might perhaps answer the purpose more effectually, at least in point of duration.


Leucojum vernum. Spring Snow-Flake.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla campaniformis, 6-partita, apicibus incrassata, Stigma simplex.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LEUCOJUM vernum spatha uniflora, stylo clavato. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 316.

LEUCOJUM bulbosum vulgare. Bauh. Pin. 55.

The great early bulbous Violet. Park. Parad.

The blossoms of the Leucojum and Galanthus, or Snow-Drop, are very similar at first sight, but differ very essentially when examined; the Snow-Drop having, according to the Linnaean description, a three-leaved nectary, which is wanting in the Leucojum; the two genera then being very distinct, it becomes necessary to give them different names; we have accordingly bestowed on the Leucojum the name of Snow-Flake, which, while it denotes its affinity to the Snow-Drop, is not inapplicable to the meaning of Leucojum.

As the spring Snow-Flake does not increase so fast by its roots, as the Snow-Drop, or even the summer Snow-Flake, so it is become much scarcer in our gardens; it may, indeed, be almost considered as one of our plantae rariores, though at the same time a very desirable one.

It does not flower so soon by almost a month, as the Snow-Drop; but its blossoms, which are usually one on each foot-stalk, sometimes two, are much larger, and delightfully fragrant.

It is found wild in shady places and moist woods in many parts of Germany and Italy. The most proper situation for it is a north or east border, soil a mixture of loam and bog earth; but by having it in different aspects, this, as well as other plants, may have its flowering forwarded or protracted, and, consequently, the pleasure of seeing them in blossom, considerably lengthened.

In a favourable soil and situation, it propagates tolerably fast by offsets.


Amaryllis formosissima. Jacobaean Amaryllis.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla 6-petala, campanulata. Stigma trifidum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AMARYLLIS formosissima spatha uniflora, corolla inaequali petalis tribus, staminibus pistilloque declinatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 320.

LILIO-NARCISSUS jacobaeus, flore sanguineo nutante, Dillen. elth. 195. t. 162. f. 196.

The Indian Daffodil with a red flower. Park. Par. 71. f. 3.

A native of South-America: according to LINNAEUS, first known in Europe in 1593, figured by PARKINSON in 1629, and placed by him among the Daffodils; stoves and green-houses were then unknown, no wonder therefore it did not thrive long.

"Is now become pretty common in the curious gardens in England, and known by the name of Jacobaea Lily; the roots send forth plenty of offsets, especially when they are kept in a moderate warmth in winter; for the roots of this kind will live in a good green-house, or may be preserved through the winter under a common hot-bed frame; but then they will not flower so often, nor send out so many offsets as when they are placed in a moderate stove in winter. This sort will produce its flowers two or three times in a year, and is not regular to any season; but from March to the beginning of September, the flowers will be produced, when the roots are in vigour.

"It is propagated by offsets, which may be taken off every year; the best time to shift and part these roots is in August, that they may take good root before winter; in doing of this, there should be care taken not to break off the fibres from their roots. They should be planted in pots of a middling size, filled with light kitchen-garden earth; and, if they are kept in a moderate degree of warmth, they will produce their flowers in plenty, and the roots will make great increase." Miller's Gard. Dict.


Narcissus triandrus. Reflexed Daffodil.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Petala sex, aequalia. Nectario infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo, Stamina intra nectarium.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

NARCISSUS triandrus spatha sub-biflora, floribus cernuis, petalis reflexis, staminibus tribus longioribus.

NARCISSUS triandrus spatha sub-uniflora, nectario campanulato crenato dimidio petalis breviore, staminibus ternis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 317.

NARCISSUS juncifolius, albo flore reflexo. Clus. app. alt.

The yellow turning Junquilia, or Rush Daffodil. Parkins. Parad. 93. fig. 2, 3.

The present species of Narcissus is considered by the Nursery-men near London as the triandrus of LINNAEUS, which it no doubt is, though it does not accord in every particular with his description: his triandrus is white, ours is pale yellow, but colour is not in the least to be depended on, for it is found to vary in this as in all the other species; his triandrus he describes as having in general only three stamina, whence the name he has given it; ours, so far as we have observed, has constantly six, three of which reach no further than the mouth of the tube, a circumstance so unusual, that LINNAEUS might overlook it without any great impeachment of his discernment; he says, indeed, that it has sometimes six: perhaps, the three lowermost ones may, in some instances, be elongated so as to equal the others; if he had observed the great inequality of their length, he would certainly have mentioned it.

This species is found wild on the Pyrenean mountains; was an inhabitant of our gardens in the time of PARKINSON (who has very accurately described it, noticing even its three stamina) to which, however, it has been a stranger for many years: it has lately been re-introduced, but is as yet very scarce. Our figure was taken from a specimen which flowered in Mr. LEE's Nursery at Hammersmith.

It grows with as much readiness as any of the others of the genus, and flowers in March and April.


Soldanella alpina. Alpine Soldanella.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla campanulata, lacero-multifida. Caps. 1-locularis, apice multidentata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SOLDANELLA alpina. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 194.

SOLDANELLA alpina rotundifolia. Bauh. Pin. 295.

Of this genus there is at present only one known species, the alpina here figured, which is a native of Germany, and, as its name imports, an alpine plant.

Its blossoms are bell-shaped, of a delicate blue colour, sometimes white, and strikingly fringed on the edge.

It flowers usually in March, in the open ground; requires, as most alpine plants do, shade and moisture in the summer, and the shelter of a frame, in lieu of its more natural covering snow, in the winter; hence it is found to succeed best in a northern aspect: will thrive in an open border, but is more commonly kept in pots.

May be increased by parting its roots early in autumn.


Iris sibirica. Siberian Iris.

Class and Order.

Triandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, inaequalis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus. Stigmata petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. Thunb. Diss. de Iride.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IRIS sibirica imberbis foliis linearibus, scapo subtrifloro tereti, germinibus trigonis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 91.

IRIS pratensis angustifolia, non foetida altior. Bauh. Pin. 32.

IRIS bicolor. Miller's Dict. ed. 6, 4to.

The greater blue Flower-de-luce with narrow leaves. Parkins. Parad. p. 185. fig. 2.

This species of Iris is a native of Germany and Siberia, and is distinguished from those usually cultivated in our gardens by the superior height of its stems, and the narrowness of its leaves; from which last character it is often, by mistake, called graminea; but the true graminea is a very different plant.

The Iris sibirica is a hardy perennial, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation; but grows most luxuriantly in a moist one, and flowers in June.

Is propagated most readily, by parting its roots in autumn.


Narcissus major. Great Daffodil.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Petala 6 aequalia: Nectario infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. Stamina intra nectarium.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

NARCISSUS major foliis subtortuosis, spatha uniflora, nectario campanulato patulo crispo aequante petala.

NARCISSUS major totus luteus calyce praelongo. Bauhin Pin. 52.

NARCISSI sylvestris alia icon. Dodon. Stirp. p. 227.

The great yellow Spanish Bastard Daffodil. Parkins. Parad. t. 101. fig. 1.

The present species of Daffodil is the largest of the genus, and bears the most magnificent flowers, but, though it has long been known in this country, it is confined rather to the gardens of the curious.

It is a native of Spain, and flowers with us in April. As its roots produce plenty of offsets, it is readily propagated.

It approaches in its general appearance very near to the Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus, but differs in being a much taller plant, having its leaves more twisted, as well as more glaucous, its flowers (but especially its Nectary) much larger, and its petals more spreading; and these characters are not altered by culture.

It answers to the bicolor of LINNAEUS in every respect but colour, and we should have adopted that name, had not the flowers with us been always of a fine deep yellow; we have therefore taken BAUHIN's name as the most expressive.

It varies with double flowers.


Gentiana acaulis. Large-Flowered Gentian, or Gentianella.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Digynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla monopetala. Capsula bivalvis, 1-locularis. Receptaculis 2-longitudinalibus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GENTIANA acaulis corolla quinquefida campanulata caulem excedente. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 267.

GENTIANA alpina latifolia magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 187.

Small Gentian of the Spring. Park. Par. p. 352. t. 351. f. 3.

Plants growing in mountainous situations, where they are constantly exposed to strong-blowing winds, are always dwarfish; in such situations, the present plant has no stalk, whence its name acaulis, but cultivated in gardens it acquires one.

Most of the plants of this family are beautiful, and, cultivated in gardens, in brilliancy of colour none exceed the present species.

As most Alpine plants do, this loves a pure air, an elevated situation, and a loamy soil, moderately moist; it is however somewhat capricious, thriving without the least care in some gardens, and not succeeding in others; at any rate it will not prosper very near London.

It flowers usually in May, and sometimes in the autumn.

Is propagated by parting its roots at the close of summer; but MILLER says, the strongest and best plants are produced from seed.


Cineraria lanata. Woolly Cineraria.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

Generic Character.

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus simplex. Calyx simplex, polyphyllus, aequalis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CINERARIA lanata caule suffruticoso, foliis subquinquelobis, subtus tomentosis; foliolis ad pedunculos lanatis.

In the beauty of its blossoms, this species of Cineraria, lately introduced from Africa, by far eclipses all the others cultivated in our gardens; its petals exteriorly are of a most vivid purple, interiorly white; this change of colour adds much to the brilliancy of the flower.

What renders this plant a more valuable acquisition to the green-house, is its hardiness, its readiness to flower, and the facility with which it may be propagated.

It flowers early in the spring, and, by proper management, may be made to flower the whole year through; it is sometimes kept in the stove, and may be made to flower earlier by that means; but it succeeds better in a common green-house, with no more heat than is just necessary to keep out the frost, indeed it may be preserved in a common hot-bed frame through the winter, unless the weather prove very severe.

Certain plants are particularly liable to be infested with Aphides, or, in the vulgar phrase, to become lousy, this is one: the only way to have handsome, healthy, strong-flowering plants, is to procure a constant succession by cuttings, for there is no plant strikes more readily; these should be placed in a pot, and plunged into a bed of tan.


Anemone sylvestris, Snowdrop Anemony.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Calyx nullus. Petala 6-9. Semina plura.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANEMONE sylvestris pedunculo nudo, feminibus subrotundis, hirsutis, muticis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 510.

ANEMONE sylvestris alba major. Bauh. Pin. p. 176.

The white wild broad-leafed Wind-Flower. Park. Par. 202.

PARKINSON very accurately notices the striking characters of this species of Anemone, which are its creeping roots, its large white flowers standing on the tops of the flower-stalks, which sometimes grow two together, but most commonly singly; the leaves on the stalk, he observes, are more finely divided than those of the root, and its seeds are woolly.

MILLER describes it as having little beauty, and therefore but seldom planted in gardens; it is true, it does not recommend itself by the gaudiness of its colours, but there is in the flowers, especially before they expand, a simple elegance, somewhat like that of the Snowdrop, and which affords a pleasing contrast to the more shewy flowers of the garden.

It flowers in May, and ripens its seeds in June.

It will grow in almost any soil or situation, is propagated by offsets from the root, which it puts out most plentifully, so as indeed sometimes to be troublesome. Is a native of Germany.


Geranium striatum. Striped Geranium.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Monogynia. Stigmata 5. Fructus rostratus 5-coccus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GERANIUM striatum pedunculis bifloris, foliis quinquelobis: lobis medio dilatatis, petalis bilobis venosoreticulatus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 616.

GERANIUM striatum pedunculis bifloris, foliis caulinis trilobis, obtuse crenatis. Miller's Dict.

GERANIUM Romanum versicolor sive striatum.

The variable striped Cranesbill. Park. Parad. p. 229.

This species is distinguished by having white petals, finely reticulated with red veins, and the corners of the divisions of the leaves marked with a spot of a purplish brown colour, which PARKINSON has long since noticed.

Is said by LINNAEUS to be a native of Italy, is a very hardy plant, flowers in May and June, and may be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn, or by seed; prefers a loamy soil and shady situation.


Geranium lanceolatum. Spear-Leaved Geranium.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Monogyna. Stigmata 5. Fructus rostratus 5-coccus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GERANIUM glaucum calycibus monophyllis, foliis lanceolatis integerrimis glaucis, caule erecto suffruticoso. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 614. Supp. Pl. p. 306.

This elegant and very singular species of Geranium appears to have been first cultivated in this country; its introduction was attended with circumstances rather unusual. Mr. LEE, Nurseryman of the Vineyard, Hammersmith, in looking over some dried specimens in the Possession of Sir JOSEPH BANKS, which he had recently received from the Cape of Good Hope, was struck with the singular appearance of this Geranium, no species having before been seen in this country with spear-shaped leaves; on examining the specimens attentively, he perceived a few ripe seeds in one of them, those he solicited, and obtained; and to his success in making them vegetate, we are indebted for the present species.

The shape of the leaf readily suggested the name of lanceolatum, an epithet by which it has been generally distinguished in this country, and which, from its extreme fitness, we have continued, notwithstanding young Professor LINNAEUS has given it that of glaucum, though, at the same time, his illustrious father had distinguished another species by the synonymous term of glaucophyllum.

This species rarely ripens its seeds with us, and is therefore to be raised from cuttings, which however are not very free to strike.

It has been usual to keep it in the stove, but we have found by experience, that it succeeds much better in a common green-house, in which it will flower during the whole of the summer. Small young plants of this, as well as most other Geraniums, make the best appearance, and are therefore to be frequently obtained by cuttings.


Papaver orientale. Eastern Poppy.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 4-petala. Cal. 2-phyllus. Capsula, 1-locularis sub stigmate persistente poris dehiscens.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PAPAVER orientale capsulis glabris, caulibus unifloris scabris foliosis pinnatis serratis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 490.

Papaver orientale hirsutissimum, magno flore. Tournes. cor. 17. itin. 3. p. 127. t. 127.

Most of the plants of this tribe are distinguished by the splendour of their colours, most of them also are annuals, in gaiety of colour none exceed the present species; but it differs in the latter character, in having not only a perennial root, but one of the creeping kind, whereby it increases very much, and by which it is most readily propagated.

Though a native of the East, as its name imports, it bears the severity of our climate without injury, flowers in May, and as its blossoms are extremely shewy, it gives great brilliancy to the flower-garden or plantation; prefers a dry soil.


Iris spuria. Spurious Iris.

Class and Order.

Triandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla 6-petala, inaequalis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus. Stigmata petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. Conf. Thunb. Diss. de Iride.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IRIS spuria imberbis foliis linearibus, scapo subtrifloro tereti, germinibus hexagonis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 91. Jacq. Fl. austr. tab. 4.

IRIS pratensis angustifolia, folio foetido. Bauh. Pin. 32.

The greater blue Flower-de-luce with narrow leaves. Park. Parad. p. 184.

Some plants afford so little diversity of character, that an expressive name can scarcely be assigned them; such is the present plant, or LINNAEUS would not have given it the inexpressive name of spuria, nor we have adopted it.

This species is distinguished by the narrowness of its leaves, which emit a disagreeable smell when bruised, by the colour of its flowers, which are of a fine rich purple inclining to blue, and by its hexangular germen.

It is a native of Germany, where, as Professor JACQUIN informs us, it grows in wet meadows; is a hardy perennial, thrives in our gardens in almost any soil or situation, flowers in June, and is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.


Mesembryanthemum bicolorum. Two-Coloured Fig-Marigold.

Class and Order.

Icosandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Petala numerosa, linearia. Caps. carnosa, infera, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM bicolorum foliis subulatis punctatis laevibus distinctis, caule frutescente, corollis bicoloribus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 470.

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM tenuifolium fruticescens, flore croceo. Dill. Elth. 267. t. 202. f. 258.

Contrary to the Mesembryanthemum dolabriforme, lately figured in this work, this species expands its flowers in the day-time, and that only when the sun shines powerfully on them; on such occasions, the blossoms on the top of the branches being very numerous, exhibit a most splendid appearance.

It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, flowers in July, and is most readily propagated by cuttings.

Like most of the Cape plants, it requires the shelter of a green-house during the winter.


Lathyrus odoratus. Sweet Pea, or Vetchling.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Stylus planus, supra villosus, superne latior. Cal. laciniae superiores 2-breviores.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LATHYRUS odoratus pedunculis bifloris, cirrhis diphyllis, foliolis ovato-oblongis, leguminibus hirsutis, Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 663.

LATHYRUS distoplatyphyllos hirsutus mollis, magno et peramaeno flore odoro. Comm. hort. 2. p. 219. t. 80.

There is scarcely a plant more generally cultivated than the Sweet Pea, and no wonder, since with the most delicate blossoms it unites an agreeable fragrance.

Several varieties of this plant are enumerated by authors, but general cultivation extends to two only, the one with blossoms perfectly white, the other white and rose-coloured, commonly called the Painted Lady Pea.

The Sweet Pea is described as a native of Sicily, the Painted Lady Variety as an inhabitant of Ceylon; they have both been introduced since the time of PARKINSON and EVELYN.

It is an annual, and not a very tender one; seedling plants sown in Autumn frequently surviving our winters.

As it is desirable to have this plant in flower for as great a length of time as possible, to have them early, we must sow them in the Autumn, either in pots or in the open border; if sown in pots, they can the more readily be secured from any severe weather, by placing them in a hot-bed frame, a common practice with gardeners who raise them for the London markets, in which they are in great request: others again should be sown early in the spring, and the sowings repeated every month; they grow readily in almost any soil or situation, and by this means may be had to flower most of the year through.

If sown in pots, care must be taken to water them frequently.


Iris ochroleuca. Tall Iris.

Class and Order.

Triandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla 6-petala, inaequalis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus. Stigmata petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. Thunb. Diss. de Iride.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IRIS ochroleuca imberbis foliis ensiformibus, scapo subtereti germinibus hexagonis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 90.

Of the several species of Iris cultivated in our gardens, this excels in point of height; we have taken our English name therefore from this character, and not from the term ochroleuca, which, if translated, would be too expressive of the colour of the blossoms of the Iris Pseudacorus, with which the ochroleuca has some affinity in point of size as well as colour.

Notwithstanding Mr. MILLER's description of his orientalis accords very badly with that of LINNAEUS's ochroleuca, they have been generally considered in this country as one and the same plant, distinguished by the name of POCOCKE's Iris, Dr. POCOCKE being the person who, according to MILLER, in his time first introduced it from Carniola (by inadvertence spelt Carolina, in the 6th 4to edition of the Dictionary). There are grounds, however, for suspecting some error in the habitat of this plant, for had it grown spontaneously in Carniola, it is not probable that SCOPOLI would have omitted it in his Flora Carniolica.

Leaving its place of growth to be more accurately ascertained hereafter, we shall observe, that it appears perfectly naturalized to this country, growing luxuriantly in a moist rich soil, and increasing, like most of the genus, very fast by its roots. It flowers later than most of the others.


Centaurea glastifolia. Woad-Leaved Centaurea.

Class and Order.

SyngenesiA Polygamia Superflua.

Generic Character.

Receptaculum setosum. Pappus simplex. Corollae radii infundibuliformes, longiores, irregulares.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CENTAUREA glastifolia calycibus scariosis, foliis indivisis integerrimis decurrentibus. Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 787. Gmelin Sib. 2. p. 83.

CENTAURIUM majus orientale erectum, glasti folio, flore luteo. Comm. rar. 39. t. 39.

Assumes the name of glastifolia from the similitude which the leaves bear to those of the Isatis tinctoria, or Woad, Glastum of the old Botanists.

In this plant we have an excellent example of the Folium decurrens and Calyx scariosus of LINNAEUS, the leaves also exhibit a curious phenomenon, having veins prominent on both their sides; the scales of the calyx are moreover distinguished by a beautiful silvery appearance, which it is difficult to represent in colours.

It is a native of the East, as well as of Siberia; flowers with us in July, in the open border, and is readily propagated by parting its roots in autumn, which are of the creeping kind: requires no particular treatment.

MILLER, in the last 4to edition of his Dictionary, enumerates a Cent. glastifolia; but his description in detail, by no means accords with the plant.


Fragaria monophylla. One-Leaved Strawberry, or Strawberry of Versailles.

Class and Order.

Icosandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Calyx 10-fidus. Petala 5. Receptaculum feminum ovatum, baccatum, deciduum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FRAGARIA monophylla foliis simplicibus. Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 476. Le Fraisier de Versailles. Duchesne Hist. nat. des Frais, p. 124.

The first mention made of this Strawberry, we find in DUCHESNE'S Histoire naturelle des Fraisiers, where we have its complete history, and from which we learn, that it was originally raised by him at Versailles, in the Year 1761, from seeds of the Wood Strawberry.

From France this plant has been conveyed to most parts of Europe; how it has happened we know not, but it is certainly very little known in this country: in the 14th edit of the Syst. Veg. of LINNAEUS, it appears as a species under the name of monophylla, originally imposed on it by DUCHESNE; LINNAEUS, however, has his doubts as to its being a species distinct from the vesca, and, in our humble opinion, not without reason; for it can certainly be regarded as a very singular variety only; its origin indeed is a proof of this; in addition to which we may observe, that plants raised from the runners will sometimes, though very rarely indeed, have three leaves instead of one: and it is observed by the very intelligent author of the Hist. nat. abovementioned, that seedling plants sometimes produced leaves with three divisions, like those of the Wood Strawberry. Besides the remarkable difference in the number of the leaves in this plant, the leaves themselves are observed to be much smaller in the winter season, and their ribs less branched; the runners also are slenderer and more productive, and the fruit in general more oblong or pyramidal. As an object of curiosity, this plant is deserving a place in every garden of any extent; nor is its singularity its only recommendation, its fruit being equal to that of the finest Wood Strawberry, with which it agrees in the time of its flowering, fruiting, and mode of treatment.


Hemerocallis fulva. Tawny Day-Lily.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla campanulata: tubo cylindrico. Stamina declinata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HEMEROCALLIS fulva foliis lineari-subulatis carinatis, corollis fulvis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 339.

LILIUM rubrum asphodeli radice. Bauh. Pin. 80.

The gold red Day-Lily. Park. Parad. p. 148. t. 149. f. 5.

According to LINNAEUS, this species is a native of China.

It has long been inured to our climate, and few plants thrive better in any soil or situation, but a moist soil suits it best; its leaves on their first emerging from the ground, and for a considerable time afterwards, are of the most delicate green imaginable; the appearance which the plant assumes at this period of its growth is, indeed, so pleasing, that it may be said to constitute one half of its beauty; its blossoms which appear in July and August, are twice the size of those of the flava, of a tawny orange colour, without gloss or smell, the Petals waved on the edge, the flowers are rarely or never succeeded by ripe Capsules as in the flava, which is a circumstance that has been noticed by PARKINSON; when these several characters, in which the fulva differs so essentially from the flava, are attentively considered, we shall wonder that LINNAEUS could entertain an idea of their being varieties of each other.

The Hemerocallis fulva, from its size, and from the great multiplication of its roots, is best adapted to large gardens and plantations.

May be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.


Clematis integrifolia. Entire-Leaved Clematis, or Virgins-Bower.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 0. Petala 4. rarius 5.—vel 6. Sem. caudata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CLEMATIS integrifolia foliis simplicibus ovato-lanceolatis, floribus cernuis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 512.

CLEMATITIS coerulea erecta. Bauh. Pin. 300.

CLEMATIS coerulea Pannonica. The Hungarian Climer. Park. Parad. p. 393.

The Clematis integrifolia is not an uncommon plant in the nurseries about London, and is deserving a place in gardens, if not for the beauty of its flowers, at least for their singularity.

It is a native of Germany, flowers in July, and is one of those hardy perennials which suit most people, requiring little more than an introduction.

Is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.


Passiflora alata. Winged Passion-Flower.

Class and Order.

Gynandria Pentandria.

Generic Character.

Trigyna. Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Nectarium corona. Bacca pedicellata.

Specific Character.

PASSIFLORA alata foliis indivisis cordatis integerrimis, petiolis quadriglandulosis, cauli membranaceo tetragono.

This species of Passion-flower is one of those which have been introduced into the English gardens since the time of MILLER; if it does not equal the coerulea in elegance, it excels it in magnificence, in brilliancy of colour, and in fragrance, the blossoms being highly odoriferous: as yet, it is by no means so general in this country, as its extraordinary beauty merits, we have seen it flower this year, both summer and autumn, in great perfection in the stove of our very worthy friend JAMES VERE, Esq. Kensington-Gore; at the Physic Garden, Chelsea; and at Mr. MALCOM's, Kennington; at Chelsea, in particular, it afforded the richest assemblage of foliage and flowers we ever saw.

It appears to the greatest advantage, when trained up an upright pole, nearly to the height of the back of the stove, and then suffered to run along horizontally.

By some it has been considered as a variety only of the Passiflora quadrangularis, others, with whom we agree in opinion, have no doubt of its being a very distinct species; it differs from the quadrangularis, in having leaves more perfectly heart-shaped, and less veiny; in having four glands on the foot-stalks of the leaves, instead of six; and in not producing fruit with us, which the quadrangularis has been known frequently to do.

The Nursery-men report, that this species was first raised in this country, by a gentleman in Hertfordshire, from West-India seeds.

The usual mode of propogating it here, is by cuttings.


Mesembryanthemum pinnatifidum. Jagged-Leaved Fig-Marigold.

Class and Order.

Icosandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Petala numerosa linearia. Caps. carnosa infera polysperma.

Specific Character.

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM pinnatifidum foliis pinnatifidis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 470. Suppl. p. 260.

This species of Mesembryanthemum, so different in the shape of its foliage from all the others hitherto introduced into this country, is first described in the Supplementum Plantarum of the younger LINNAEUS, from which we learn that it grew in the Upsal Garden, into which it was most probably introduced by professor THUNBERG, as on his authority it is mentioned as a native of the Cape of Good Hope.

Mr. ZIER, Apothecary, of Castle-Street, was so obliging as to present me this summer with the seeds of this curious plant, I sowed them in a pot of earth, plunged in a tan pit, whose heat was nearly exhausted; they quickly vegetated, and though the summer was far advanced, they proceeded rapidly into flower, and bid fair to produce ripe seeds, as the Capsules have long since been formed.

The whole plant is sprinkled over with glittering particles like the ice plant, to which it bears some affinity in its duration, being an annual and requiring the same treatment.

The blossoms are small and yellow, and if the weather be fine, open about two or three o'clock in the afternoon, the stalks are of a bright red colour, and the foliage yellowish green.


Sempervivum arachnoideum. Cobweb Houseleek.

Class and Order.

Dodecandria Dodecagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 12-partitus. Petala 12. Caps. 12. polyspermae.

Specific Character.

SEMPERVIVUM arachnoideum foliis pilis intertextis, propaginibus globosis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 456.

SEDUM montanum tomentosum. Bauh. Pin. 284.

By the old Botanists, this plant was considered as a Sedum; and to this day it is generally known in the gardens by the name of the Cobweb Sedum, though its habit or general appearance, independent of its fructification, loudly proclaims it a Houseleek.

In this species the tops of the leaves are woolly; as they expand they carry this woolly substance with them, which being thus extended, assumes the appearance of a cobweb, whence the name of the plant.

Like most of the Houseleeks it is best kept in a pot, or it will grow well and appear to great advantage on a wall or piece of rock-work; the more it is exposed to the sun, the more colour will enliven its stalks and foliage, and the more brilliant will be its flowers; the latter make their appearance in July.

It is propagated by offsets which it sends forth in abundance.

It is no uncommon practice to treat this beautiful species of Houseleek, as a native of a warm climate; under such an idea we have seen it nursed up in stoves, while the plant spontaneously braves the cold of the Switzerland Alps.


Rosa muscosa. Moss Rose.

Class and Order.

Icosandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Petala 5. Cal. urceolatus, 5-fidus, carnosus, collo coarctatus. Sem. plurima, hispida, calycis interiori lateri affixa.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ROSA muscosa caule petiolisque aculeatis, pedunculis calycibusque pilosissimis. Miller's Dict.

If there be any one genus of plants more universally admired than the others, it is that of the Rose—where is the Poet that has not celebrated it? where the Painter that has not made it an object of his imitative art?

In the opinion of MILLER, the Moss Rose, or Moss Province, as it is frequently called, is a perfectly distinct species; LINNAEUS considers it as a variety only of the centifolia: as it is found in our Nurseries in a double state only, and as we are ignorant of what country it is the produce, the decision of this matter must be left to future observation and inquiry.

Though it may not increase so fast by suckers, nor be increased so readily by layers, as the centifolia, there is no difficulty in propagating it either way; the latter mode is usually adopted.


Mesembryanthemum barbatum. Bearded Fig-Marigold.

Class and Order.

Icosandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Petala numerosa, linearia. Caps. carnosa, infera, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM barbatum, foliis subovatis papulosis distinctis, apice barbatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 469.

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM radiatum, ramulis prolixis recumbentibus. Dillen. Hort. Elth. 245. t. 190. f. 234.

The leaves of this species have small hairs, issuing like rays from their points, whence its name of barbatum; there are two others figured by DILLENIUS, whose leaves have a great similarity of structure, and which are considered by LINNAEUS as varieties of this species; our plant is the Stellatum of MILLER's Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

Like most of this tribe it inhabits the Cape, flowers in July, and is readily propagated by cuttings.


Statice sinuata. Purple-cup't Statice, or Thrift.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 1-phyllus, integer, plicatus, scariosus. Petala 5. Sem. 1. superum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

STATICE sinuata caule herbaceo, foliis radicalibus alternatim pinnato sinuatis: caulinis ternis triquetris subulatis decurrentibus. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 301.

LIMONIUM peregrinum foliis asplenii. Bauh. Pin. 192.

LIMONIUM Rauwolfii Marsh Buglosse. Parkins. Parad. p. 250.

That this singular species of Statice was long since an inhabitant of our gardens, appears from PARKINSON, who in his Garden of Pleasant Flowers, gives an accurate description of it, accompanied with an expressive figure; since his time it appears to have been confined to few gardens: the nurserymen have lately considered it as a newly-introduced species, and sold it accordingly.

It is one of those few plants whose calyx is of a more beautiful colour than the corolla (and which it does not lose in drying); it therefore affords an excellent example of the calyx coloratus, as also of scariosus, it being sonorous to the touch.

Being a native of Sicily, Palestine, and Africa, it is of course liable to be killed with us in severe seasons, the common practice is therefore to treat it as a green-house plant, and indeed it appears to the greatest advantage in a pot; it is much disposed to throw up new flowering stems; hence, by having several pots of it, some plants will be in blossom throughout the summer; the dried flowers are a pretty ornament for the mantle-piece in winter.

Though a kind of biennial, it is often increased by parting its roots, but more advantageously by seed; the latter, however, are but sparingly produced with us, probably for the want, as PARKINSON expresses it, "of sufficient heate of the Sunne."


Helleborus lividus. Livid or Purple Hellebore.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. nullus. Petala-5. sive plura. Nectaria bilabiata, tubulata. Caps. polyspermae, erectiusculae.

Specific Character.

HELLEBORUS lividus caule multifloro folioso, foliis ternatis. Ait. Hort. Kew. ined. 2. p. 272.

It is not a little extraordinary that this plant which has for many years been cultivated in this country, should have escaped the notice of LINNAEUS; it is equally wonderful that we should at this moment be strangers to its place of growth.

Having three leaves growing together, it has been considered by many as the trifoliatus of LINNAEUS but his trifoliatus is a very different plant, a native of Canada, producing small yellow flowers.

It has been usual to treat this species as a green-house plant, or at least to shelter it under a frame in the winter; probably it is more hardy than we imagine.

It is propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and by seeds, though few of the latter in general ripen, nor do the roots make much increase—to these causes we must doubtless attribute its present comparative scarcity.

It flowers as early as February; on which account, as well as that of its singularity, it is a very desirable plant in collections.


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Second Volume are alphabetically arranged.


47 Amaryllis formosissima. 54 Anemone sylvestris. 41 Calceolaria pinnata. 42 Camellia japonica. 62 Centaurea glastifolia. 37 Chironia frutescens. 53 Cineraria lanata. 43 Cistus incanus. 65 Clematis integrifolia. 45 Crocus vernus. 44 Cyclamen persicum. 39 Dianthus Caryophyllus, var. 63 Fragaria monophylla. 52 Gentiana acaulis. 55 Geranium striatum. 56 —— lanceolatum. 72 Helleborus lividus. 64 Hemerocallis fulva. 61 Iris ochroleuca. 50 —— sibirica. 58 —— spuria. 60 Lathyrus odoratus. 46 Leucojum vernum. 70 Mesembryanthemum barbatum. 59 —— bicolorum. 67 —— pinnatifidum. 51 Narcissus major. 48 —— triandrus. 57 Papaver orientale. 66 Passiflora alata. 69 Rosa muscosa. 49 Soldanella alpina. 68 Sempervivum arachnoideum. 71 Statice sinuata. 40 Trillium sessile. 38 Viburnum Tinus.


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Second Volume are alphabetically arranged.


47 Amaryllis Jacobean. 54 Anemony Snowdrop. 42 Camellia Rose. 43 Centaurea woad-leaved. 37 Chironia shrubby. 53 Cineraria woolly. 43 Cistus, hoary or rose. 65 Clematis, or Virgin's-bower entire-leaved. 45 Crocus spring. 44 Cyclamen Persian. 51 Daffodil great. 48 —— reflexed. 64 Day-lily tawny. 39 Franklin's Tartar. 70 Fig-marigold bearded. 67 —— jagged-leaved. 59 —— two-coloured. 52 Gentian large-flowered, or Gentianella. 56 Geranium spear-leaved. 55 —— striped. 68 Houseleek cobweb. 72 Hellebore, livid or purple. 50 Iris Siberian. 58 —— spurious. 61 —— tall. 38 Laurustinus common. 66 Passion-flower winged. 60 Pea, or Vetchling sweet. 57 Poppy eastern. 69 Rose moss. 41 Slipper-wort pinnated. 46 Snow-flake spring. 49 Soldanella alpine. 63 Strawberry one-leav'd. 40 Trillium sessile. 71 Thrift purple-cup't.


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