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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto
by Ivy Kellerman
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TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE:

The Esperanto alphabet contains 28 characters. These are the characters of English, but with "q", "w", "x", and "y" removed, and six diacritical letters added. The diacritical letters are "c", "g", "h", "j" and "s" with circumflexes (or "hats", as Esperantists fondly call them), and "u" with a breve. Zamenhof himself suggested that where the diacritical letters caused difficulty, one could instead use "ch", "gh", "hh", "jh", "sh" and "u". A plain ASCII file is one such place; there are no ASCII codes for Esperanto's special letters.



A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO

THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE

WITH GRADED EXERCISES FOR READING AND TRANSLATION TOGETHER WITH FULL VOCABULARIES

BY IVY KELLERMAN, A.M., Ph.D.

MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND CHAIRMAN OF EXAMINATIONS FOR THE ESPERANTO ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA, MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL "LINGVA KOMITATO"

* * * * *

TO

DR. L. L. ZAMENHOF

THE AUTHOR OF ESPERANTO

* * * * *

PREFACE.

This volume has been prepared to meet a twofold need. An adequate presentation of the International Language has become an imperative necessity. Such presentation, including full and accurate grammatical explanations, suitably graded reading lessons, and similarly graded material for translation from English, has not heretofore been accessible within the compass of a single volume, or in fact within the compass of any two or three volumes.

The combination of grammar and reader here offered is therefore unique. It is to furnish not merely an introduction to Esperanto, or a superficial acquaintance with it, but a genuine understanding of the language and mastery of its use without recourse to additional textbooks, readers, etc. In other words, this one volume affords as complete a knowledge of Esperanto as several years' study of a grammar and various readers will accomplish for any national language. Inflection, word-formation and syntax are presented clearly and concisely, yet with a degree of completeness and in a systematic order that constitute a new feature. Other points worthy of note are the following:

The reasons for syntactical usages are given, instead of mere statements that such usages exist. For example, clauses of purpose and of result are really explained, instead of being dismissed with the unsatisfactory remark that "the imperative follows 'por ke,'" or the "use of 'tiel ... ke' and 'tia ... ke' must be distinguished from that of 'tiel ... kiel' and 'tia ... kia,'" etc., with but little intimation of when and why "por ke", "tiel ... ke" and "tia ... ke" are likely to occur.

Affixes are not mentioned until some familiarity with the general character of the language is assured, as well as the possession of a fair vocabulary. They are introduced gradually, with adequate explanation and illustration. Of importance in connection with word-formation is an element distinctly new—the explanation and classification of compound words. Such words, like affixes, are withheld until the use of simple words is familiar.

Another new feature is the gradual introduction of correlative words in their logical order, and in their proper grammatical categories, before they are called "correlatives," or tabulated. The tabulation finally presented is a real classification, with regard to the meaning and grammatical character of the words, not merely an arbitrary alphabetical arrangement. The use of primary adverbs precedes the explanation of adverb derivation; prepositions, especially "de", "da", "je", etc., receive careful attention, also the verb system, and the differentiation of words whose English equivalents are ambiguous.

A general characteristic of obvious advantage is that almost without exception new forms and constructions are illustrated by means of words or roots already familiar. Likewise, the new words or roots of each lesson recur at least once in the next lesson, and usually in some lesson thereafter as well. Each reading exercise gives not only a thorough application of the grammatical principles of the lesson, but a review of those in the preceding lesson, and no use is made of words or constructions not yet explained. The comparative ease of the language, and the lack of necessity for reciting paradigms, permit the reading exercises to be long enough for the student to feel that he has really mastered something. These exercises are further unique, in that each after the fifth is a coherent narrative, and nearly every one is a story of genuine interest in itself. These stories, if bound separately, would alone constitute a reader equivalent to those used in first and second year work in national languages. (For list of titles, see Table of Contents.)

The second element of the twofold need which this volume meets is the necessity for a presentation of Esperanto, not as a thing apart, but in that form which will make it most serviceable as an introduction to national tongues. A stepping-stone to both ancient and modern languages, Esperanto may render invaluable aid, and pave the way for surmounting the many difficulties confronting both student and teacher. Through Esperanto, the labor in the acquirement of these languages may be reduced in the same proportion in which the pleasure and thoroughness of such acquirement are increased. For this reason, the grammatical constructions of Esperanto are here explained as consistently as possible in accordance with the usage of national languages, especially those in the school curriculum, and precise names are assigned to them. Such matters as "contrary to fact conditions", "indirect quotations", "clauses of purpose" and "of result", "accusatives of time" and "measure", "expressions of separation", "reference", etc., thus become familiar to the student, long before he meets them in the more difficult garb of a national tongue, whose exceptions seem to outnumber its rules, and whose idioms prove more puzzling than its exceptions, unless approached by the smooth and gradual ascent of the International Language, Esperanto.

Ivy Kellerman.

Washington, D. C., August 3, 1910.

* * * * *

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

LESSON I. Alphabet.—Vowels.—Consonants.—Names of the Letters.— Diphthongs.—Combinations of Consonants.—Syllables.—Accent. II. Nouns.—The Article.—Adjectives.—Attributive Adjectives.— Present Tense of the Verb III. The Plural Number.—Predicate Adjective and Noun IV. Transitive Verbs.—The Accusative Case.—The Conjunction "Kaj".—The Negative "Ne". V. The Complementary Infinitive.—Interrogation.—The Conjunction "Nek". VI. Personal Pronouns.—Agreement with Pronouns.—Conjugation of the Verb. VII. The Past Tense.—Prepositions.—Accusative Case of Personal Pronouns. VIII. Reflexive Pronouns.—Reflexive Verbs. IX. Limitation of the Third Personal Pronoun.—Possessive Adjectives.—Pronominal Use of Possessive Adjectives.—"La Kato kaj la Pasero". X. The Accusative of Direction.—The Article for the Possessive Adjective.—Apposition.—"La Arabo kaj la Kamelo". XI. Possessive Case of Nouns.—Impersonal Verbs.—Verbs Preceding their Subjects.—Coordinating Conjunctions.—"La Arabo en la Dezerto". XII. Indirect Statements.—The Indefinite Personal Pronoun "Oni".—The Future Tense.—"La Ventoflago". XIII. The Demonstrative "Pronoun Tiu".—Tenses in Indirect Quotations.—Formation of Feminine Nouns.—"En la Parko". XIV. The Demonstrative Pronoun "Cxi tiu".—Possessive Form of the Demonstrative Pronoun.—The Suffix "-Il-".—The Expression of Means or Instrumentality.—"La Mangxo". XV. The Demonstrative Adjective.—Adverbs Defined and Classified.—Formation of Opposites.—"La Ruza Juna Viro". XVI. The Demonstrative Adverb of Place.—Accompaniment.—The Adverb "For".—The Meaning of "Povi".—"Malamikoj en la Dezerto". XVII. The Demonstrative Temporal Adverb.—Comparison of Adjectives.—Manner and Characteristic.—"Diri", "Paroli" and "Rakonti".—"Frederiko Granda kaj la Juna Servisto". XVIII. The Demonstrative Adverb of Motive or Reason.—Derivation of Adverbs.—Comparison of Words Expressing Quantity.— Comparisons Containing "Ol".—Causal Clauses.—"Pri la Sezonoj". XIX. "Ju" and "Des" in Comparisons.—The Preposition "Inter".— The Preposition "Pro".—Prepositions with Adverbs and Other Prepositions.—"La Auxtuno kaj la Vintro". XX. The Demonstrative Adverb of Manner and Degree.—Prepositions Expressing Time-Relations.—"En Septembro". XXI. The Accusative of Time.—Adverbs and the Accusative of Time.—The Preposition "Por".—"La Sezonoj kaj la Mondo". XXII. Clauses Expressing Duration of Time.—Clauses Expressing Anticipation.—The Infinitive with "Anstataux", "Por", "Antaux ol".—The Expression of a Part of the Whole.— "Diogeno kaj Aleksandro Granda". XXIII. Adverbs Expressing a Part of the Whole.—The Demonstrative Adverb of Quantity.—Result Clauses.—"En la Butiko". XXIV. The Interrogative Pronoun.—The Present Active Participle.—Compound Tenses.—The Progressive Present Tense.—The Suffix "-Ej-".—"En Nia Domo". XXV. The Interrogative Adjective.—The Imperfect Tense.— Salutations and Exclamations.—Word Formation.—"Koni" and "Scii".—"La Nepo Vizitas la Avinon". XXVI. The Interrogative Adverb of Place.—The Past Active Participle.—Adverb Derivation from Prepositions.—Adverbs Expressing Direction of Motion.—The Suffix "-Eg-".—"La Pluvego". XXVII. The Interrogative Temporal Adverb.—The Perfect Tense.—The Preposition "Cxe".—The Suffix "-Ar-".—"Tempo" and "Fojo".— The Orthography of Proper Names.—"Roberto Bruce kaj la Araneo". XXVIII. The Interrogative Adverb of Motive or Reason.— The Infinitive as Subject.—Present Action with Past Inception.—The Suffix "-Ul-".—"Logxi" and "Vivi".—"Pri la Avo kaj la Avino". XXIX. The Interrogative Adverb of Manner and Degree.—The Pluperfect Tense.—Cardinal Numbers.—The Accusative of Measure.—"Nia Familio". XXX. The Interrogative Adverb of Quantity.—Modifiers of Impersonally Used Verbs.—Formation of Cardinal Numerals.—The Suffix "-An-".—"Leciono Pri Aritmetiko". XXXI. The Relative Pronoun.—The Future Perfect Tense.—Ordinal Numerals.—"Alfredo Granda kaj la Libro". XXXII. "Kia" as a Relative Adjective.—"Kie" as a Relative Adverb.—The Future Active Participle.—The Periphrastic Future Tenses.—The Suffix "-Ind-".—"Alfredo Granda kaj la Kukoj". XXXIII. "Kiam" as a Relative Adverb.—"Kiel" as a Relative Adverb.—Numeral Nouns and Adverbs.—Word Derivation from Prepositions.—"La Invito". XXXIV. Prepositions as Prefixes.—The Suffix "-Ebl-".—Expression of the Highest Degree Possible.—Titles and Terms of Address.—"Cxe la Festo". XXXV. "Kiom" as a Relative Adverb.—The Present Passive Participle.—Fractions.—Descriptive Compounds.—"La Hxinoj". XXXVI. The Present Passive Tense.—The Use of "De" to Express Agency.—The General Meaning of "De".—Word Derivation from Primary Adverbs.—The Suffix "-Ist-".—"Antikva Respubliko". XXXVII. The Distributive Pronoun.—The Preposition "Po".— Dependent Compounds.—"La Cxapelo sur la Stango". XXXVIII. The Distributive Adjective.—The Imperfect Passive Tense.— Compound Tenses of Impersonal Verbs.—Reciprocal Expressions.—The Suffix "-Uj-".—"Vilhelmo Tell kaj la Pomo". XXXIX. The Distributive Adverb of Place.—The Future Passive Tense.—Possessive Compounds.—The Time of Day.—The Suffix "-Obl-".—"En la Stacidomo". XL. The Distributive Temporal Adverb.—The Distributive Adverb "Cxial".—The Past Passive Participle.—The Perfect Passive Tense.—The Preposition "Laux".—The Suffix "-Em-".—"La Perdita Infano". XLI. The Distributive Adverb "Cxiel".—The Distributive Adverb "Cxiom".—The Pluperfect Passive Tense.—The Future Perfect Passive Tense.—The Expression of Material.—The Suffix "-Et-".—"La Donaco". XLII. The Future Passive Participle.—The Passive Periphrastic Future Tenses.—The Generic Article.—The Suffix "-Ec-".—"Sur la Vaporsxipo". XLIII. The Indefinite Pronoun.—Participial Nouns.—The Prefix "Ek-".—The Suffix "-Id-".—"La Nesto sur la Tendo". XLIV. The Indefinite Adjective.—The Indefinite Adverb of Place.— Predicate Nominatives.—"La Cxevalo kaj la Sonorilo". XLV. The Indefinite Temporal Adverb.—The Indefinite Adverb "Ial".—Causative Verbs.—Emphasis by Means of "Ja".— "Cxe la Malnova Ponto". XLVI. The Indefinite Adverb "Iel".—The Indefinite Adverb "Iom".— The Suffix "-Ad-".—The Use of "Mem".—"Arhximedo kaj la Kronoj". XLVII. The Negative Pronoun.—The Adverbial Participle.—The Prefix "Re-".—"La Filozofo Arhximedo". XLVIII. The Negative Adjective.—The Negative Adverb of Place.—The Negative Temporal Adverb.—The Suffix "-Ajx-".—The Adverb "Jen".—"Du Artkonkursoj". XLIX. The Negative Adverbs "Nenial", "Neniel", "Neniom".—The Suffix "-Igx-".—"La Krepusko". L. The Pronouns ending in "-O".—Correlative Words.—The Use of "Ajn".—The Suffix "-Ing-".—"La Gordia Ligajxo". LI. The Pronoun "Ambaux".—Formations with "-Ig-" and "-Igx-".— Factual Conditions.—"La Monahxoj kaj la Azeno". LII. The Conditional Mood.—Compound Tenses of the Conditional Mood.—Less Vivid Conditions.—Independent Use of the Conditional Mood.—The Prefix "Dis-".—"Pri la Gravitado". LIII. Conditions Contrary to Fact.—The Verb "Devi".—The Preposition "Sen".—"La Filozofo Sokrato". LIV. Summary of Conditions.—Clauses of Imaginative Comparison.—The Use of "Al" to Express Reference.—The Suffix "-Estr-".—"La Ostracismo de Aristejdo". LV. The Imperative Mood.—Resolve and Exhortation.—Commands and Prohibitions.—Less Peremptory Uses of the Imperative.—The Use of "Mosxto".—"La Glavo de Damoklo". LVI. The Imperative in Subordinate Clauses.—The Preposition "Je".—The Suffix "-Op-".—"La Marsxado de la Dekmil Grekoj". LVII. Clauses Expressing Purpose.—Further Uses of the Accusative.—Synopsis of the Conjugation of the Verb.—The Suffix "-Um-".—"La Reirado de la Dekmilo". LVIII. Permission and Possibility.—The Prefix "Ge-".—The Suffix "-Acx-".—Interjections.—"Aleksandro Granda". LIX. The Position of Unemphatic Pronouns.—Some Intransitive Verbs.—The Suffix "-Er-".—The Prefixes "Bo-" and "Duon-".—Correspondence.—"Kelkaj Leteroj". LX. Some Transitive Verbs.—Elision.—The Prefix "Eks-".—The Prefix "Pra-".—The Suffixes "-Cxj-" and "-Nj-".—Weights and Measures.—The International Money System.—Abbreviations.— "Pri La Kamero".

ESPERANTO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

ENGLISH-ESPERANTO VOCABULARY.

INDEX.

* * * * *

A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO.

* * * * *



LESSON I.

ALPHABET.

1. The Esperanto alphabet contains the following letters: a, b, c, cx, d, e, f, g, gx, h, hx, i, j, jx, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, sx, t, u, ux, v, z.

VOWELS.

2. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

"a" as in "far".

"e" as in "fiance", like "a" in "fate".

[Footnote: This "long a" sound in English frequently ends with a vanish,—a brief terminal sound of "short i" which makes the vowel slightly diphthongal, as in "day", "aye". Such a vanish must not be given to any of the Esperanto vowels.]

"i" as in "machine".

"o" as in "toll", "for".

"u" as in "rude", "rural".

CONSONANTS.

3. The consonants "b", "d", "f", "h", "k", "l", "m", "n", "p", "t", "v", "z", are pronounced as in English, and the remaining eleven as follows:

"c" like "ts" in "hats", "tsetse".

"cx" like "ch" in "chin", "much".

"g" like "g" in "go", "big".

"gx" like "g" in "gem", "j" in "jar".

"hx" is produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat only partially open.

[Footnote: As in pronouncing German and Scotch "ch", Spanish "j", Irish "gh", Russian "x", Classical Greek Greek: "chi" etc. There are only a few words containing this consonant.]

"j" like "y" in "yes", "beyond".

"jx" like "z" in "azure", "s" in "visual".

"r" is slightly trilled or rolled.

"s" like "s" in "see", "basis".

"sx" like "sh" in "shine", "rash", "ch" in machine".

"ux" like "w" or consonantal "u". See Diphthongs, 5.

NAMES OF THE LETTERS.

4. The vowels are named by their sounds, as given in (2). The names of the consonants are "bo", "co", "cxo", "do", "fo", "go", "gxo", "ho", "hxo", "jo", "jxo", "ko", "lo", "mo", "no", "po", "ro", "so", "sxo", "to", "uxo", "vo", "zo". These are used in speaking of the letters, in pronouncing them in abbreviations, as "ko to po" for "k. t. p." (= etc.), and in spelling words, as "bo, i, ro, do, o, birdo".

DIPHTHONGS.

5. Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an i or u sound as the second element, but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in "naiva", like English "naive", etc.), they are written with "j" and "ux" instead. Their pronunciation is as follows:

"aj" like "ai" in "aisle".

"ej" like "ei" in "vein", "ey" in "they".

"oj" like "oi" in "coin", "oy" in "boy".

"uj" like "ui" in "ruin", "u(e)y" in "gluey".

"eux" like "ayw" in "wayward", or like E(h)oo" pronounced together.

"aux" like "ou" in "out", "ow" in "owl".

COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS.

6. Each consonant, in a combination of two or more consonants, is pronounced with its full value, whether within a word or at its beginning. There are no silent letters.

a. Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups "kn", "kv", "gv", "sv", in such words as "knabo", "kvin", "gvidi", "sviso".

b. The combination "kz", as in "ekzisti", "ekzameno", must not be modified to the "gs" or "ks" represented by "x" in "exist", "execute".

c. The combination "sc", as in "escepte", "scias", is equivalent to the combination "sts" in "laST Said", "firST Song", pronounced together rapidly. The "s" in a word beginning with "sc" may be sounded with the end of the preceding word, if that word ends in a vowel, as "mis-cias" for "mi scias".

d. The "n" and "g" are pronounced separately in the combination "ng", in such words as "lingvo", "angulo", producing the sound of "ng" heard in "linger", not that in "singer".

e. Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded, as "interrilato", "ellasi", like "inter-relate", "well-laid".

SYLLABLES.

7. Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. The division of syllables within a word is as follows:

a. A single consonant goes with the following vowel, as "pa-no", "be-la", "a-e-ro".

b. A consonant followed by "l" or "r" (which are liquids) goes with the "l" or "r", as in "ta-blo", "a-kra", "a-gra-bla".

c. Otherwise, the syllable division is made before the last consonant of the group, as "sus-pek-ti", "sank-ta", "deks-tra".

d. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attached, as "dis-meti", "mal-akra", and compound words are divided into their component parts, as "cxef-urbo", "sun-ombrelo".

ACCENT.

8. Words of more than one syllable are accented upon the syllable before the last, as "TA-blo", "a-GRA-bla", "sus-PEK-ti".

WORDS FOR PRACTICE.

9. (To be pronounced aloud, and correctly accented) Afero, trairi, najbaro, aero, hodiaux, pacienco, centono, cxielo, ecx, samideano, treege, obei, obeu, Euxropo, gvidi, gxojo, cxiujn, justa, gxuste, jugxi, jxauxdo, lingvo, knabo, largxa, pagi, kvieteco, ekzemplo, ellerni, fojo, krajono, forrajdi, kuirejo, cxevalejo, sankteco, scio, nescio, edzo, meze, duobla, sxipo, sxargxi, posxo, svingi, sklavo, palaj, sxafajxo, atmosfero, monahxo, geometrio, lauxdi, vasta, eksplodi, sencxesa, sensencajxo, malluma, arbaranoj, mangxo, fresxa, auxskulti, dauxri.



LESSON II.

NOUNS.

10. Words which are the names of persons or things are called nouns. The ending, or final letter, of nouns in Esperanto is "o":

knabo = boy. pomo = apple. cxevalo = horse. tablo = table.

THE ARTICLE.

11. The definite article is "la", the, as "la knabo", the boy, "la cxevalo", the horse, "la tablo", the table, "la pomo", the apple. In English there is an indefinite article "a, an" for the singular, but none for the plural. Esperanto has no indefinite article for either singular or plural. Therefore "knabo" may mean "boy", or "a boy", "pomo" may mean "apple" or "an apple".

ADJECTIVES

12. A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. The ending of adjectives in Esperanto is "a":

bela = beautiful. granda = large. flava = yellow. forta = strong.

ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES.

13. An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses. When directly preceding or following its noun, it is called an attributive adjective:

la granda cxevalo = the large horse. bela birdo = a beautiful bird. floro flava = a yellow flower. forta knabo = a strong boy.

PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB.

14. Words which express action or condition are called verbs. When representing an act or condition as a fact, and dealing with the present time, they are said to be in the present tense. The ending of all Esperanto verbs in the present tense is "-as":

kuras = runs, is running. brilas = shines, is shining. flugas = flies, is flying. dormas = sleeps, is sleeping.

15. The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is called the subject of the verb:

La suno brilas, the sun shines (is shining), subject: suno. Knabo kuras, a boy runs (is running), subject: knabo.

VOCABULARY.

(To be memorized in this and in all following lessons.)

bela = beautiful. kaj = and. birdo = bird. kantas = sings, is singing. blanka = white. knabo = boy. bona = good. kuras = runs, is running. brilas = shines, is shining. la = the. cxevalo = horse. luno = moon. dormas = sleeps, is sleeping. marsxas = walks, is walking. flava = yellow. pomo = apple. floro = flower. suno = sun. flugas = flies, is flying. tablo = table. forta = strong, violo = violet. granda = large. viro = man.

READING LESSON.

1. Bona viro. 2. La granda tablo. 3. Blanka floro. 4. Flava birdo. 5. La bela birdo kantas. 6. Forta knabo kuras. 7. La bona viro marsxas. 8. La bela cxevalo kuras. 9. La suno brilas. 10. Birdo flugas kaj knabo kuras. 11. Cxevalo blanka marsxas. 12. La bela luno brilas. 13. La knabo kantas kaj la viro dormas. 14. Bela granda pomo. 15. La bona knabo kantas. 16. La granda cxevalo dormas. 17. La suno brilas kaj la luno brilas. 18. Granda forta tablo. 19. Violo flava. 20. La bona flava pomo.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. A beautiful flower. 2. A good large table. 3. A yellow violet and a white violet. 4. The moon is-shining (shines). 5. The good boy is-walking (walks). 6. The beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies). 7. The strong man is-sleeping (sleeps). 8. The white bird is-singing (sings). 9. A strong horse runs, and a man walks. 10. The sun shines, and the boy is-singing (sings). 11. The large yellow apple. 12. An apple large and good.



LESSON III.

THE PLURAL NUMBER.

16. The plural number of nouns, that is, the form which indicates more than one person or thing, is made by adding "-j" to the noun, as "viroj", men, from "viro", man; "tabloj", tables, from "tablo", table.

[Footnote: "-oj" is pronounced like "oy" in "boy". See 5.]

17. An adjective modifying a plural noun agrees with it in number, being given the plural form by the addition of the ending -j. An adjective modifying two or more nouns used together is of course given the plural form:

bonaj viroj, good men. grandaj cxevaloj, large horses. belaj birdo kaj floro (bela birdo kaj bela floro), beautiful bird and (beautiful) flower.

[Footnote: "-aj" is pronounced like "ai" in "aisle". See 5.]

18. The article is invariable, that is, does not change in form when used with plural nouns, as "la viro", the man, "la viroj", the men. The verb is also invariable in form:

La viroj marsxas, the men walk, the men are walking. La suno kaj la luno brilas, the sun and the moon are shining. La viro estas, the man is. La viroj estas, the men are.

PREDICATE ADJECTIVE AND NOUN.

19. When the adjective is a part of that which is told or predicated of the subject of the verb, as when used with the verbs "to be," "to seem," etc., it is called a "predicate adjective":

La birdo estas bela, the bird is beautiful. La knabo sxajnas bona, the boy seems good. La viroj estas fortaj, the men are strong.

20. A noun may also be used as part of the predicate, and is then called a "predicate noun":

Violoj estas floroj, violets are flowers. La kolombo estas birdo, the dove is a bird.

21. Predicate nouns and adjectives agree in number with the word or words with which they are in predicate relation:

Rozoj estas belaj, roses are beautiful. La knabo kaj la viro sxajnas fortaj, the boy and the man seem strong.

VOCABULARY

alta = high, tall. kolombo = dove. arbo = tree. kusxas = lies, is lying, lie. cxambro = room. longa = long. domo = house. rozo = rose. en = in. rugxa = red. estas = is, are. segxo = chair. folio = leaf. sidas = sits, sit, is sitting. fresxa = fresh. sur = on. gxardeno = garden. sxajnas = seems, seem. kampo = field. verda = green.

READING LESSON.

1. La alta viro estas en la gxardeno. 2. Blanka cxevalo estas en la kampo. 3. Belaj birdoj sidas sur la verda arbo. 4. La bonaj knaboj estas en la domo. 5. La cxambroj en la bela domo estas grandaj. 6. Fresxaj floroj kusxas sur la tablo. 7. La violoj en la kampo estas belaj. 8. La luno kaj la suno sxajnas grandaj. 9. La kolomboj estas belaj birdoj. 10. La knaboj sxajnas fortaj. 11. Rugxaj pomoj estas sur la tablo en la cxambro. 12. La fortaj viroj sidas sur segxoj en la longa cxambro. 13. La arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. 14. La kolomboj sur la arboj kantas. 15. Fortaj cxevaloj marsxas kaj kuras en la verdaj kampoj. 16. La knaboj dormas en la granda domo. 17. Rugxaj, flavaj, kaj verdaj folioj estas en la gxardeno. 18. Longa tablo estas en la domo. 19. Belaj birdoj flugas kaj kantas en la kampo. 20. Fresxaj rozoj sxajnas belaj. 21. La folioj estas verdaj kaj rugxaj.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The trees in the garden are tall and green. 2. The rooms in the house are long. 3. The flowers on the table are red, yellow and white. 4. The leaves are long and green. 5. The men are-sitting (sit) on chairs in the garden. 6. In the garden are yellow roses. 7. The birds in the field are doves. 8. The boys in the room in the house seem tall. 9. Fresh violets are beautiful flowers. 10. The horses in the green fields seem strong. 11. Doves are-singing (sing) in the garden. 12. The men in the large house sleep. 13. The house is long and high, and the rooms in the house are large. 14. Red and yellow apples lie on the big table. 15. Green leaves are on the trees in the large garden.



LESSON IV.

TRANSITIVE VERBS.

22. The verbs so far given have been "intransitive verbs", expressing a state or an action limited to the subject, and not immediately affecting any other person or thing, as "la knabo kuras", the boy runs. On the other hand a "transitive verb" expresses an act of the subject upon some person or thing; as, "la knabo trovas — —", the boy finds — —.

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE.

23. The person or thing acted upon is called the "direct object" of a transitive verb, and is given the ending "-n". This is called the accusative ending; and the word to which it is attached is said to be in the "accusative case":

La viro havas segxon, the man has a chair. La knabo trovas florojn, the boy finds flowers.

[Footnote: The ending "-n" follows the ending "-j", if the word to be put in the accusative case is in the plural number.]

24. An attributive adjective modifying a noun in the accusative case is made to agree in case, by addition of the same accusative ending "-n". This prevents any doubt as to which of two or more nouns in a sentence is modified by the adjective, and permits of variation in the order of the words:

La knabo trovas belan floron, the boy finds a beautiful flower. Florojn belajn la viro havas, the man has beautiful flowers. La viro havas grandan segxon, the man has a large chair. Rugxan rozon la knabo havas, the boy has a red rose.

25. A predicate adjective or noun (19) is never in the accusative case, nor is the accusative ending ever attached to the article, which is invariable as stated in 18.

THE CONJUNCTION "KAJ".

26. In the expression "both ... and ...", the conjunction "kaj" is used for both words, being merely repeated:

La viro kaj marsxas kaj kuras, the man both walks and runs. La cxevalo estas kaj granda kaj forta, the horse is both large and strong. La knabo havas kaj rozojn kaj violojn, the boy has both roses and violets. Kaj la knabo kaj la viro estas altaj, both the boy and the man are tall.

THE NEGATIVE "NE".

27. The negative word meaning "not" when forming part of a sentence, and "no" when used as an answer to a question, is "ne". When used as a sentence-negative, it usually immediately precedes the verb. For emphatic negation of some other word than the verb, "ne" may precede that word:

Violoj ne estas rugxaj, violets are not red. La viroj ne sidas sur segxoj, the men are-not-sitting on chairs. La kolombo kantas, ne flugas, the dove is-singing, not flying. La domo estas blanka, ne verda, the house is white, not green.

VOCABULARY

apud = near, in the vicinity of. koloro = color. benko = bench. largxa = wide, broad. brancxo = branch. mangxas = eat, eats. diversa = various. mola = soft. felicxa = happy. nigra = black. frukto = fruit. ne = not, no. havas = have, has. rompas = break, breaks. herbo = grass. sed = but. ili = they. trovas = find, finds. kolektas = gather, collect. vidas = see, sees.

READING LESSON.

1. La knaboj ne estas en la cxambro en la blanka domo. 2. Ili estas en la granda gxardeno. 3. La gxardeno sxajnas kaj longa kaj largxa. 4. La felicxaj knaboj vidas la belan gxardenon. 5. Ili vidas florojn apud alta arbo. 6. La floroj havas diversajn kolorojn. 7. La knaboj kolektas kaj rugxajn kaj flavajn florojn. 8. Sed ili ne trovas fruktojn en la gxardeno. 9. Florojn blankajn ili ne vidas. 10. La alta arbo havas verdajn foliojn sur la brancxoj. 11. La knaboj rompas brancxon, kaj kolektas la fruktojn. 12. Ili vidas florojn sur la brancxoj, sed la florojn ili ne kolektas. 13. La knaboj ne sidas sur benkoj en la gxardeno, sed kusxas sur la mola herbo. 14. La kolomboj sidas sur la arboj, kaj ili estas felicxaj. 15. La knaboj vidas la belajn birdojn. 16. Fortaj nigraj cxevaloj mangxas la herbon en la kampo. 17. La knaboj vidas la cxevalojn, sed la cxevaloj ne vidas la knabojn. 18. La cxevaloj ne dormas, ili mangxas. 19. La fresxa herbo estas verda kaj mola. 20. Felicxaj estas kaj la knaboj kaj la cxevaloj. 21. La pomo estas bona frukto.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Green leaves are on the trees. 2. The boys break branches and gather the apples. 3. They are near the tall tree in the garden. 4. They find leaves on the tree, but they do not see the fruit. 5. The house is long, broad and high. 6. The rooms in the house are both long and wide. 7. The men have strong black horses. 8. The horses eat the fresh green grass in the field. 9. The men sit on benches in the garden. 10. The boys do not sleep, but they lie on the soft grass. 11. They see both the birds and the flowers, and they seem happy. 12. The flowers have various colors, but the grass is green. 13. The doves are not sitting on the tree, they are flying near the trees. 14. Beautiful red roses are lying on the table in the house. 15. The large red apples are near the yellow roses.



LESSON V.

THE COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE.

28. The infinitive is a form of the verb which expresses merely the general idea of the action or condition indicated, and has some of the characteristics of a noun. The ending of the infinitive is "-i", as "kuri", to run, "esti", to be, "havi", to have.

29. An infinitive used to complete the meaning of another verb, serving as a direct object to a transitive verb, is called a "complementary infinitive". If the complementary infinitive is from a transitive verb, it may itself have a direct object:

La knabo volas kuri, the boy wishes to run. Birdoj sxatas kanti, birds like to sing. La knabo volas havi cxevalon, the boy wishes to have a horse. Ili volas trovi florojn, they wish to find flowers.

INTERROGATION.

30. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a question. Unless some directly interrogative word (as "who," "when," "why," etc.) is used, the sentence is rendered interrogative by use of the word "cxu". This interrogative particle is placed at the beginning of a sentence, the words of which are left in the same order as for a statement. Since there is no inversion of order, there is no necessity for a word like English "do" or "does," to introduce the verb:

Cxu la knabo estas bona? Is the boy good? Cxu ili havas florojn? Have they flowers? Cxu la kolomboj kantas? Do the doves sing? (Are the doves singing?)

THE CONJUNCTION "NEK".

31. In the expression "neither ... nor ...", the conjunction "nek" is used for both words. Since an adjective modifier of two or more words connected by "nek" must necessarily modify them separately, the adjective remains in the singular number:

Ili nek marsxas nek kuras, they neither walk nor run. La viro havas nek domon nek gxardenon, the man has neither a house nor a garden. Nek la rozo nek la violo estas verda, neither the rose nor the violet is green.

VOCABULARY

(Verbs will hereafter be quoted in the infinitive form.)

bruna = brown. matura = ripe. cxerizo = cherry. Mario = Mary. cxu = (30). nek = neither, nor. dolcxa = sweet. persiko = peach. gusto = taste. jes = yes. gxi = it. preferi = to prefer. Gertrude = Gertrude. sxati = to like. knabino = girl. voli = to wish.

READING LESSON.

1. Cxu persiko estas rugxa? 2. Jes, gxi estas kaj rugxa kaj dolcxa. 3. Cxu cxerizoj estas brunaj? 4. Ne, ili estas nek brunaj nek nigraj, sed flavaj. 5. Cxu la pomo estas frukto? Jes, gxi estas bona frukto. 6. Cxu la viro kaj la knabo havas pomojn? 7. Ne, ili havas nek pomojn nek persikojn. 8. Cxu Mario havas la maturan frukton? 9. Mario kaj Gertrudo havas la frukton. 10. Ili estas en la domo, kaj mangxas la maturan frukton. 11. La persikoj havas dolcxan guston. 12. La knabinoj volas havi florojn, sed la knaboj preferas kolekti diversajn fruktojn. 13. Ili volas trovi maturajn cxerizojn kaj flavajn persikojn. 14. La cxerizoj havas belan rugxan koloron. 15. La persikoj sxajnas molaj kaj bonaj. 16. Mario rompas brancxon, kaj vidas cxerizojn sur la brancxoj. 17. Gertrudo estas felicxa, kaj volas havi la belan frukton. 18. Gertrudo estas alta, bela knabino. 19. Mario sxatas cxerizojn. 20. La knaboj kaj knabinoj sidas sur la verda herbo, kaj mangxas la cxerizojn. 21. Ili ne volas mangxi pomojn, ili preferas la dolcxajn cxerizojn. 22. La folioj apud la cxerizoj estas nek largxaj nek longaj.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Have the girls beautiful flowers? 2. No, they have fresh fruit. 3. The boys do not wish to gather flowers. 4. They prefer to break the branches, and find the sweet cherries. 5. Gertrude wishes to eat apples, but Mary has neither apples nor peaches. 6. Do the girls like to sit in the house and eat fruit? 7. Yes, they like to sit in the house, but they prefer to walk in the field. 8. Are ripe peaches brown? 9. No, they are red and yellow. 10. Has the peach a sweet taste? 11. Do the girls see the beautiful black horses in the fields? 12. Yes, they see the horses, but the horses seem not to see the girls. 13. Mary sits on the soft green grass, and eats ripe fruit.



LESSON VI.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

32. Words which stand in the place of nouns, as "you," "he," "who," "which," are called "pronouns". Pronouns referring to the person speaking ("I", "we"), the person addressed ("you", "thou"), or the person or thing spoken of ("he", "she", "it", "they"), are called "personal pronouns". They are considered singular or plural, according to whether they refer to one or more persons. Since the meaning of such pronouns indicates the number, no plural ending is ever attached to them. The personal pronouns are:

Singular. Plural.

First person: mi, I (me). ni, we (us).

Second person: vi, you. vi, you.

li, he (him). Third person: sxi, she (her). ili, they (them). gxi, it.

[Footnote: There is another pronoun "ci" (thou), for the second person singular, used in solemn style, as in the Bible, in poetry, and also for intimate or familiar address when desired, like German "du", French "tu", etc.]

AGREEMENT WITH PRONOUNS.

33. Nouns in predicate relation with pronouns, or adjectives modifying such pronouns, are made to agree with them in number:

Ni estas bonaj kaj felicxaj, we are good and happy. Rozoj estas floroj, ill ne estas fruktoj, roses are flowers, they are not fruits. Gertrudo, vi estas bona, Gertrude, you are good. Knabinoj, cxu vi estas felicxaj? Girls, are you happy?

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.

34. Any pronoun may serve as the subject of a verb. The combination of the verb with each of the personal pronouns in succession for its subject, is called the "conjugation" of the verb. Following is the conjugation of the present tense of "esti", and of "vidi":

mi estas = I am. mi vidas = I see. vi estas = you are. vi vidas = you see. li (sxi, gxi) estas = li (sxi, gxi) vidas : he (she, it) is. he (she, it) sees. ni estas = we are. ni vidas = we see. vi estas = you (plural) are. vi vidas = you (plural) see. ili estas = they are. ili vidas = they see.

VOCABULARY

al = to, toward. hodiaux = today. Arturo = Arthur. kudri = to sew. aux = or (aux ... aux ..., either ... or ...) Roberto = Robert. cxar = because. skui = to shake. doni = to give. stari = to stand. fali = to fall. sub = under, beneath. fenestro = window. virino = woman.

READING LESSON.

1. Knaboj, cxu vi volas sidi en la domo, aux en la gxardeno? 2. Ni preferas sidi hodiaux en la gxardeno, sub la granda arbo. 3. Cxu vi havas pomojn, aux cxerizojn? 4. Ni havas nek pomojn nek cxerizojn, sed ni havas dolcxajn persikojn. 5. Arturo donas al vi la maturajn persikojn, cxar li sxatas kolekti frukton. 6. Arturo, cxu vi rompas la brancxojn? 7. Ne, sed mi skuas brancxon, kaj la persikoj falas. 8. Mi staras sub la arbo, kaj kolektas la dolcxan frukton. 9. La frukton mi donas al Mario kaj Gertrudo. 10. Mi volas doni persikon al Heleno, sed hodiaux sxi estas en la domo. 11. Sxi sidas apud la fenestro kaj kudras. 12. Sxi preferas kudri, kaj volas nek marsxi nek sidi en la gxardeno. 13. Kaj sxi kaj la virino apud sxi volas kudri hodiaux. 14. Ili estas felicxaj, cxar ili vidas la birdojn en la arbo apud la fenestro. 15. La birdoj estas kolomboj, kaj sidas sur la arbo. 16. Sub la arboj en la kampo staras cxevaloj, kaj ili mangxas la verdan molan herbon. 17. Ni donas pomojn al ili, cxar ili sxatas pomojn. 18. Ni estas felicxaj, cxar ni havas belajn persikojn maturajn kaj bonajn. 19. Roberto, vi estas alta, sed vi, knabinoj, ne estas altaj.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Does Arthur break the branch and gather the apples? 2. No, he shakes the branch, and the apples fall. 3. They are ripe and sweet. 4. Robert, do you wish to stand beneath the tree? 5. No, I do not wish to stand under it, but near it. 6. I wish to give both the peaches and the apples to the woman. 7. She is sitting in the house, near the window. 8. Mary is sitting in (on) a chair near her. 9. Both Mary and the woman are sewing. 10. They prefer to sew, and do not wish to walk in the garden to-day. 11. They are happy because they like to sew. 12. They do not wish to gather flowers, or walk, or see the birds. 13. They have neither apples nor peaches, but they do not wish to eat. 14. They give the fruit to the boys and girls.



LESSON VII.

THE PAST TENSE.

35. The past tense of the verb expresses an action which took place in past time, or a condition which existed in past time. The ending of this tense is "-is", as "kuris", ran, "flugis", flew, "brilis", shone. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the past tense is as follows:

mi estis = I was. mi vidis = I saw. vi estis = you were. vi vidis = you saw. li (sxi, gxi) estis = li (sxi, gxi) vidis : he (she, it) was. he (she, it) saw. ni estis = we were. ni vidis = we saw. vi estis = you (plural) were. vi vidis = you (plural) saw. ili estis = they were. ili vidis = they saw.

PREPOSITIONS.

36. A preposition is a word like "in," "on," placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate some relation between this and another word. The preposition is said to "govern" the noun or pronoun, which is called its "complement". In English, the complement of a preposition seems to be put in the accusative case if it is a pronoun, but to remain unchanged in form if it is a noun. In Esperanto the preposition does not affect the form of the word governed, which remains in the nominative case:

La arbo estas en la gxardeno, the tree is in the garden. Bonaj pomoj estas sur gxi, good apples are on it. Mi donis cxerizojn al li, I gave cherries to him. La knabo estas apud mi, the boy is near me. Sub la arbo staris cxevalo, under the tree stood a horse.

ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

37. For use as the object of a verb, any pronoun may be put in the accusative case by addition of the accusative ending "-n" (23):

La viro vidis vin kaj min, the man saw you and me. Li vidis ilin kaj nin, he saw them and us. Mi vidis nek lin nek sxin, I saw neither him nor her. Ni volas havi gxin, we wish to have it.

VOCABULARY

agrabla = pleasant, agreeable. luma = light (not dark). bildo = picture. muro = wall. blua = blue. nun = now. danki = to thank. planko = floor. de = from. pordo = door. diri = to say. rigardi = to look (at). infano = child. tapisxo = carpet. interesa = interesting. tra = through.

READING LESSON.

1. Hodiaux la knaboj kaj knabinoj estas en la granda domo. 2. Ili staras apud la tablo, en agrabla luma cxambro. 3. Gxi havas altajn largxajn fenestrojn. 4. Sub la tablo kaj segxoj, mola tapisxo kusxas sur la planko. 5. La tapisxo havas belajn kolorojn, rugxan, bluan, flavan, kaj verdan. 6. Virino marsxis tra la pordo, kaj staris apud la tablo. 7. Sxi havis interesajn bildojn, kaj donis ilin al la knaboj kaj la knabinoj. 8. Sxi diris "Cxu vi volas rigardi la bildojn?" 9. "Jes, ni dankas vin," diris la infanoj, kaj sxi donis al ili la bildojn. 10. Granda bildo falis de la tablo, sed Arturo nun havas gxin. 11. Li donas gxin al Mario, sxi dankas lin, kaj donas gxin al Roberto. 12. Ili volis doni gxin al Gertrudo, sed sxi diris "Ne, mi dankas vin, mi ne sxatas rigardi bildojn." 13. Sxi marsxis de la tablo al la fenestro kaj diris "Mi preferas kudri." 14. Sxi volis sidi en granda segxo apud la fenestro. 15. La virino rigardis sxin kaj diris "Mi donis la bildojn al vi, knaboj kaj knabinoj," cxar ili estas interesaj bildoj. 16. Gertrudo diris "Vi estas bona al ni, sed mi volas sidi apud la pordo aux la fenestro. 17. Mi kolektis dolcxajn violojn en la gxardeno, kaj nun mi volas rigardi la dolcxajn florojn, kaj kudri."

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Do the boys and girls wish to be good? 2. They gathered fresh flowers and gave them to the woman. 3. The happy children were in the garden, but now they are in the house. 4. The rooms in the house are light, because they have large wide windows. 5. The doors in the room are wide and high. 6. The carpets on the floor seem soft, and have various beautiful colors. 7. A large strong table stands near the door. 8. We can sit near the table and look through the windows. 9. Gertrude is-looking-at the various pictures. 10. She looks-at them, and seems to be happy. 11. She gave a picture to me and I thanked her. 12. Helen walked near the table and shook it. 13. Arthur did not see the pictures because they were lying on the floor. 14. He looked-at the pictures on the wall, but they are neither interesting nor beautiful. 15. Robert looked through the window, and saw us in the pleasant garden.



LESSON VIII.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

38. A pronoun which refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the verb in the sentence, but is used in some other relation than subject of that verb, is said to be used "reflexively", or to be a "reflexive pronoun".

39. The first and second personal pronouns, "mi", "ni", and "vi", ("ci") are used for the reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons. There can be no ambiguity, since words such as "me, myself, us, ourselves," can refer to no one else than the person or persons speaking; while words such as "you, yourself, yourselves (thee, thyself)," can refer to no one else than the person or persons addressed:

Mi vidas min, I see myself. Mi diris al mi, I said to myself. Ni havas tapisxon sub ni, we have a carpet under us. Ni amuzis nin, we amused ourselves. (Ci trovas domon apud ci, thou findest a house near thee.) Vi diras al vi, you say to yourself (yourselves). Vi amuzas vin, you amuse yourself (yourselves).

40. When the verb is in the third person, a pronoun of the third person, used otherwise than as the subject, might or might not refer to the subject of that verb. For example, "He sees a bird near him," may mean that the subject sees a bird near himself, or near another person. If such a pronoun of the third person is intended to refer to the subject of the verb, Esperanto uses a special reflexive pronoun "si" (accusative "sin"), which means "him(self)", "her(self)", "it(self)", "them(selves)", according to the gender and number of the verb:

Li amuzas sin, he amuses himself. Arturo vidis birdon apud si, Arthur saw a bird near him(self). Sxi trovas floron apud si, she finds a flower near her(self). Mario trovis sin sur blua tapisxo, Mary found herself on a blue carpet. La tapisxo havas diversajn kolorojn en si, the carpet has various colors in it(self). La birdo kasxas sin sub la folioj, the bird hides itself under the leaves. Ili amuzas sin, they amuse themselves. La viroj havas segxojn apud si, the men have chairs near them(selves). La virinoj trovas florojn apud si, the women find flowers near them(selves). La arboj havas cxerizojn sur si, the trees have cherries on them(selves). Sub si la infanoj trovis molan tapisxon, under them(selves) the children found a soft carpet.

[Footnote: From the very fact that "si" always refers to the subject of the verb, it is evident that "si" can never itself be used as subject or part of the subject of the verb.]

REFLEXIVE VERBS.

41. A verb having a reflexive pronoun for its direct object is sometimes called a "reflexive verb", from the fact that some languages have had or still have a special reflexive or middle form of the verb, to express an act of the subject on or for itself, or they have certain verbs whose use is chiefly or exclusively reflexive. The conjugation of a verb reflexively is therefore as follows:

mi amuzas min (mi min amuzas), I amuse myself. vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourself. li (sxi, gxi) amuzas sin (sin amuzas), he (she, it) amuses him (her, it)self. ni amuzas nin (ni nin amuzas), we amuse ourselves. vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourselves. ili amuzas sin (ili sin amuzas), they amuse themselves.

[Footnote: As Greek "etraponto", they turned themselves; Latin "exerceor", I exercise myself, "vescor", I eat (I feed myself); German "ich huete mich", I beware (I guard myself); Spanish "me alegro", or "alegrome", I rejoice (I gladden myself); French "il s'arrete", he halts (he stops himself).]

VOCABULARY

Alfredo = Alfred. komenci = to begin. amuzi = to amuse. lauxdi = to praise. antaux = before, in front of. legi = to read. aparteni = to belong. libro = book. griza = gray. perdi = to lose. iri = to go. skatolo = small box or case. Johano = John. strato = street. kasxi = to hide, to conceal. si = himself, etc. (40).

READING LESSON.

1. Johano kaj Alfredo amuzis sin en la gxardeno. 2. Johano kasxis sin, kaj Alfredo trovis Johanon. 3. Alfredo sin kasxis en alta arbo, kaj Johano trovis Alberton. 4. Mario kaj Gertrudo sin kasxis apud la floroj, kaj la knaboj trovis la knabinojn. 5. La knabinoj ne volas perdi sin en la agrabla kampo. 6. Johano komencis amuzi sin en luma cxambro en la domo. 7. La muro havas interesajn bildojn sur si. 8. Tra la fenestro antaux si Johano rigardas la virojn kaj la virinojn sur la strato. 9. Li havas molan grizan tapisxon sub si, kaj ne volas segxon. 10. Li kaj Alfredo volis iri al la strato kaj amuzi sin. 11. Ili marsxis al la pordo, kaj trovis rugxan skatolon antaux si. 12. En la skatolo estis libro, kaj Johano diris al si "La libro ne apartenas al mi." 13. Li diris al Alfredo "Cxar ni trovis gxin, mi volas legi la libron." 14. Virino antaux pordo komencis rigardi la knabojn, kaj ili diris al sxi "Cxu la libro apartenas al vi? Ni trovis gxin en skatolo." 15. La virino diris "Jes, ni perdis gxin, kaj mi dankas vin, cxar vi donas al mi la skatolon kaj la libron." 16. Sxi iris al la strato, kaj la knaboj iris al la domo.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The book in the gray box does not belong to me. 2. I found it in front of me, near the door. 3. You began to praise yourselves, but I do not praise myself. 4. They hid themselves, and I stood near them. 5. The birds sit on the tree, because it has ripe cherries on it. 6. Alfred amused himself on the street, but we like to amuse ourselves in the house. 7. The trees have good fruit on them. 8. She found herself in a beautiful light room. 9. The carpet on the floor had various colors in it, and the high wall had pictures on it. 10. The pictures had boys and girls in them. 11. The book belongs to her, but it fell from the box. 12. The table has red and blue and yellow flowers on it. 13. Did you see the doves near the flowers in front of (before) you? 14. The birds saw the fruit on the tree in front of them, and flew to the branches. 15. I sat on the bench in the garden, and began to read an interesting book. 16. They hid themselves in the leaves and began to sing. 17. The child is in a pleasant room.



LESSON IX.

LIMITATION OF THE THIRD PERSONAL PRONOUN.

42. Since there is a special reflexive pronoun of the third person, the third personal pronouns, "li", "sxi", "gxi", "ili", when used otherwise than as subjects, never refer to the subject of the verb, but always to some other person or thing:

La knabo lauxdas lin, the boy praises him (another person). Sxi donas pomojn al sxi, she gives apples to her (to another person). La birdo vidis gxin, the bird saw it (something else than the bird). La knaboj kasxis ilin, the boys hid them (other persons or things). Ili trovis ilin apud si, they found them (other persons or things) near them(selves). La birdoj flugis al ili, the birds flew to them.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.

43. Words like "my," "his," "your," which indicate ownership or some possessive relation, are called "possessive adjectives". Possessive adjectives are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the adjective ending "-a", as "mia", my, "via", your ("cia", thy), "lia", his, "sxia", her, "gxia", its, "nia", our, "via", your (plural), "ilia", their. The limitation in the use of the third personal pronouns ("42") is also true of the adjectives derived from them:

Mia domo kaj miaj gxardenoj estas grandaj, my house and my gardens are large. Johano sidas sur via segxo, John is sitting in your chair. Li havas lian cxevalon, he has his (another person's) horse. Cxu vi legis sxiajn librojn? Did you read her books?

[Footnote: Sometimes these words are called possessive pronouns, although really they are not pronouns at all, but pronominal adjectives with a possessive meaning.]

44. Reflexive possessive adjectives, like the reflexive pronoun, refer to the subject of the verb in the sentence. For the first and second persons, they are the same as the personal possessive adjectives. The reflexive possessive adjective of the third person is "sia", his, her, its, their, formed by adding the ending "-a" to the reflexive pronoun "si":

Mi havas miajn librojn sur mia tablo, I have my books on my table. Johano perdis siajn librojn, John lost his (John's) books. Mario estas en sia cxambro, Mary is in her room. La birdoj flugis al sia arbo, the birds flew to their tree.

PRONOMINAL USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.

45. Possessive adjectives may be used predicatively, as "the book is mine," or may modify some word or words not expressed, as "mine are large." Instead of having special forms, like English "mine", "yours", "hers", etc., Esperanto uses the regular possessive adjectives preceded by the article:

La granda libro estas la mia, the large book is mine. La via estas granda, la miaj estas belaj, yours is large, mine are beautiful. Ili havas la sian, sed ne la lian, they have theirs, but not his. La iliaj sxajnas esti bonaj, theirs seem to be good.



VOCABULARY

diro = saying, remark. mangxo = meal. gxis = as far as, up to, down to. nesto = nest. hieraux = yesterday. pasero = sparrow. juna = young. patro = father. kapti = to catch, to seize. post, after, behind. kato = cat. surprizi = to surprise. kolera = angry. teni = to hold, to keep. lavi = to wash. vizagxo = face.

READING LESSON.

1. Hieraux mi perdis mian grizan katon. 2. Ilia kato kaptis nian birdon. 3. Via kolera diro surprizis mian patron. 4. Cxu la granda kampo apartenas al sxia patro? 5. Ne, gxi ne estas la lia. 6. La lia estas bela, sed mi preferas la mian. 7. Cxu vi sxatas vian libron aux la ilian? 8. Li havas nek siajn cxevalojn nek la iliajn. 9. La knabinoj sxajnas esti koleraj. 10. Ili komencis legi siajn librojn. 11. La viro kaptis kaj tenis siajn cxevalojn, sed li ne trovis iliajn cxevalojn. 12. Sxia libro kusxas sur la planko, post sxia segxo. 13. Sxi ne trovis ilian libron, sed la junaj infanoj trovis la nian.

LA KATO KAJ LA PASERO.

Griza kato iris de la domo gxis la strato. Gxi vidis paseron antaux si, kaj volis mangxi gxin. La kato staris post granda arbo, kaj kaptis la paseron. La pasero diris "Bona kato lavas sin antaux sia mangxo, sed vi ne lavis vian vizagxon." La interesa diro surprizis la katon. La kato ne tenis la paseron, sed komencis lavi sian vizagxon. La pasero flugis de la kato gxis la arbo. La kolera kato diris "Mi perdis mian mangxon, cxar mi komencis lavi min antaux la mangxo!" Nun la katoj ne lavas sin antaux la mangxoj. Ili havas siajn mangxojn, kaj post la mangxoj ili lavas la vizagxojn. La paseroj ne surprizas ilin nun, sed ili tenas la paserojn. La katoj estas felicxaj, sed la paseroj ne estas felicxaj. La junaj paseroj volas flugi al la nestoj en la arboj.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The boys are not in their (own) house, but they are in his. 2 Is the large beautiful house yours? 3. The woman walked through the door of their house, as far as her room. 4. The room has interesting pictures on its walls. 5. We praised their flowers yesterday, and they gave them to us. 6. Their books are in their (the books') box. 7. They are on their (the boys') table. 8. The gray cat was angry because it did not hold the bird. 9. The sparrow surprised it, and it commenced to wash its face. 10. The sparrow wished to fly as far as the tall tree, but the cat held it. 11. The sparrow said "A good cat washes its face, but you are not a good cat." 12. The sparrow was angry because the cat seized it and held it. 13. The bird did not lose its meal, but the angry cat lost its meal. 14. Do you see his cat or hers? 15. I see both his and hers, but ours is not in our garden. 16. My father is a tall strong man. 17. I like to look at him. 18. The children saw the young birds in the nest.



LESSON X.

THE ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECTION.

46. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion, the word indicating the place, person or thing toward which the motion is directed is given the accusative ending. This is also true if the word is the complement of any preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate motion in a certain direction. (The prepositions "al", to, toward, "gxis", as far as, "tra", through, express motion in the direction of their complements, and could not well be used except in a sentence whose verb expresses motion. Consequently the accusative is not used after any of these three):

Li iris gxardenon, he went to the garden ("gardenward"). La viro iros Bostonon, the man will go to Boston ("Bostonward").

[Footnote: Cf. English "he went home," "he went homeward," etc.]

Li estis en la gxardeno, kaj kuris en la domon, he was in the garden and ran into the house. Gxi ne estas sur la tablo, gxi falis sur la plankon, it is not on the table, it fell upon the floor. Ili falis sub la tablon gxis la planko, they fell under the table as far as the floor (direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase). Mi iris tra la domo en mian cxambron, I went through the house into my room.

THE ARTICLE FOR THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE.

47. In many sentences where the possessor is already sufficiently indicated, English nevertheless uses a possessive adjective, as in "I wash my face," "he shakes his head," but on the other hand omits it entirely with certain words indicating relationship, as in "Brother gave it to me," etc. In both cases Esperanto uses the article instead of the possessive adjective, unless the fact of possession is to be emphasized:

Mi lavas la vizagxon, I wash my face. Li skuas la kapon, he shakes his head. La patro estas alta, Father is tall. Mi donis gxin al la patro, I gave it to Father.

APPOSITION.

48. English often uses the preposition "of" between two words where no idea of possession really exists, as "the city of Boston." Since nouns used in apposition refer to the same thing, and are in the same grammatical construction, Esperanto does not use a preposition:

La urbo Bostono estas granda, the city (of) Boston is large. Mia amiko Johano estas alta, my friend John is tall. Cxu vi ne konas min, vian amikon? do you not know me, your friend?

VOCABULARY

arabo = arab. meti = to put, to place. baldaux = soon. nazo = nose. Bostono = Boston. nur = only, merely. frato = brother. pusxi = to push. kamelo = camel. trans = across. kapo = head. tuta = whole, entire, all. kolo = neck. urbo = city. korpo = body. varma = warm.

LA ARABO KAJ LA KAMELO.

Arabo sidis en sia domo en la urbo. Apud domo trans la strato li vidis kamelon. La kamelo iris trans la straton gxis la pordo, kaj diris al la arabo, "Frato, mi ne estas varma, mi volas meti nur la nazon en vian varman domon." La arabo skuis la kapon, sed la kamelo metis la nazon tra la pordo en la cxambron. La kamelo komencis pusxi sian tutan vizagxon en la domon. Baldaux li havis la kapon gxis la kolo en la domo. Post la kapo iris la kolo en gxin, kaj baldaux la tuta korpo estis en la domo. La arabo estis kolera, cxar li ne volis havi tutan kamelon en sia domo. Li kuris al la kamelo, kaptis lin, tenis lin, kaj diris, "Frato, vi volis meti nur la nazon en mian domon. La cxambro ne estas granda sed gxi estas la mia, kaj mi preferas sidi en gxi." "Via diro estas bona," diris la kamelo, "via domo ne estas granda, sed gxi estas varma, kaj mi sxatas stari en gxi. Mi preferas stari kaj kusxi en gxi, kaj mi donos al vi mian arbon trans la strato. Cxu vi ne volas iri sub la arbon?" Kaj la kamelo pusxis la arabon de lia domo en la straton de la urbo. La kamelo nun trovis sin en varma cxambro, sed la juna arabo staris trans la strato kaj ne estis varma.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The cat ran across the street. 2. Across the street it found a sparrow. 3. It caught the bird, but began to wash its face, and the sparrow flew to the nest. 4. I went into the garden as far as the large tree. 5. I did not hold my book, and it fell upon the floor. 6. It began to fall under the table, but I seized it. 7. My brother pushed the books into their box, and put it on the table. 8. We went to the city of Boston yesterday and into a beautiful house. 9. The arab shook his head and said, "No." 10. But the camel commenced to go through the door. 11. His remark did not seem to surprise the camel. 12. The camel pushed its head and neck, and soon its whole body into the warm house. 13. It wished to put merely its nose into it. 14. The arab was angry, because it pushed itself into his house. 15. He said, "Brother, the house is mine, and I do not wish to have you in it." 16. But soon after the remark, the whole camel was in the house. 17. He pushed the young arab into the street. 18. He went across the street and stood upon the grass under a tree.



LESSON XI.

POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS.

49. The preposition "de" is used to express possession or connection:

La muroj de la domo, the walls of the house. La koloroj de la floroj, the colors of the flowers. La libro de la knabo, the book of the boy (the boy's book). Brancxo de la arbo, a branch of the tree. La gxardeno de la viroj, the garden of the men (the men's garden).

IMPERSONAL VERBS.

50. Verbs with an impersonal or indeterminate subject, as "it rains," "it is snowing," are called impersonal, because there is no actual subject, the word "it" serving merely as an introductory particle. No such particle is used with impersonal verbs in Esperanto:

Pluvas, it rains, it is raining. Negxis hieraux, it snowed yesterday.

VERBS PRECEDING THEIR SUBJECTS.

51. When the verb in a sentence precedes its subject, English often uses an introductory particle, such as "there," "it." In Esperanto no such particles are needed:

Estas floroj sur la tablo, there are flowers on the table. Estis Johano, ne Alfredo, en la gxardeno, it was John, not Alfred, in the garden. Estas domo en la kampo, there is a house in the field. Estis mi, it was I.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.

52. Words like "aux", "kaj", "nek", "sed", which join words, word-groups, or sentences together are conjunctions. All the conjunctions given so far connect words, phrases, or sentences of similar rank or kind. These are called coordinating conjunctions, and the words, phrases, or sentences connected by them are said to be coordinate:

Cxu vi marsxas aux kuras? ("Aux" connects the verbs.)

Sxi iris, kaj ni estis felicxaj. ("Kaj" connects the sentences.)

Nek vi nek mi vidis gxin. (The second "nek" connects the pronouns, the first being introductory and adverbial.)

Aux li aux sxi perdis la libron. (The second "aux" connects the pronouns, the first being introductory and adverbial.)

Gxi falis sur la segxon, sed ne sur la plankon. ("Sed" connects the phrases.)

Li ne sxatis gxin. Tamen li tenis gxin. ("Tamen" connects the sentences.)

[Footnote: A phrase is a word-group forming an expression, but not containing a verb, as "through the house," "of the man," "before me," etc.]

[Footnote: Coordinating conjunctions may be further classified according to their meaning: "Aux" is disjunctive, connecting alternates, and expressing separation. "Kaj" is copulative, expressing union. "Nek" is disjunctive, expressing separation and also negation. "Sed" is adversative, expressing opposition, contrast, or modification of a previous statement. "Tamen" is adversative, affirming something in spite of a previous objection or concession. "Do," "so, then, consequently," is argumentative, expressing a logical inference or result in a somewhat conversational manner.]

VOCABULARY

akvo = water. porti = to carry. amiko = friend. ricxa = rich, wealthy. ankaux = also. sablo = sand. bezoni = to need. sako = sack, bag. dezerto = desert. seka = dry. fidela = faithful. tamen = nevertheless. mono = money. trinki = to drink. negxi = to snow. veni = to come. pluvi = to rain. vojo = road, way.

LA ARABO EN LA DEZERTO.

Arabo iris trans grandan sekan dezerton. Kamelo, lia fidela amiko, portis lin. La kamelo ankaux portis belajn tapisxojn, cxar la arabo estis ricxa viro. La arabo havis ne nur tapisxojn, sed ankaux sakojn. En la sakoj estis akvo, cxar en la dezerto nek pluvas nek negxas. La viro trinkis akvon, kaj ankaux donis akvon al sia kamelo. La kamelo marsxis kaj marsxis, sed ne venis al la domo de la arabo, cxar ili perdis la vojon. La suno brilis, kaj la sablo de la dezerto sxajnis varma. La arabo ne trovis la vojon, kaj baldaux li ne havis akvon. Tamen la kamelo marsxis kaj marsxis, kaj baldaux la arabo vidis sakon antaux si, sur la seka sablo. Li estis felicxa kaj diris al si "Cxu estas akvo en gxi? Mi volas trinki, kaj volas doni akvon al mia fidela kamelo." Li ankaux volis lavi la tutan vizagxon en la akvo, cxar li estis varma. Post sia diro li kaptis la sakon, kaj komencis rigardi en gxin. Li metis la nazon en gxin, sed ne trovis akvon en la sako. Nek li nek lia fidela kamelo havis akvon, cxar estis nur mono en la sako. La arabo estis kolera, cxar li ne volis monon, li bezonis akvon. Li havis monon en sia domo en la urbo, kaj volis trovi akvon. Cxu li tamen metis la sakon trans la kolon de sia kamelo? Ne, li ne volis meti gxin sur sian kamelon, cxar li estis kolera. Li ne tenis la sakon, sed gxi falis sur la sablon, kaj kusxis apud li. La sako nun kusxas sur la sablo de la granda dezerto, kaj la mono estas en gxi.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Today it is raining, but yesterday it was snowing. 2. Did your friend John carry his chair into the house? 3. I saw your good friends on the way to the city. 4. Is the large sack behind the door theirs? 5. Neither she nor her brother saw the whole city. 6. They went to the city of Boston and lost their way. 7. There are interesting houses across the street. 8. The body of a camel is large, and its neck is long. 9. The camel pushed its head into the house of the arab, and he was angry. 10. On the sand in the desert there lies a sack. 11. In the sack there is money. 12. The arab was warm, and wished to drink water. 13. He also wished to give water to the faithful camel. 14. Nevertheless, he found only money in the sack. 15. He was angry, and did not keep the sack. 16. Yesterday he wished to find money, but today he prefers water. 17. Nevertheless there is only sand in the desert. 18. He wished to come from the dry desert to the house of a faithful friend. 19. Both he and his friends are rich. 20. They went to his house yesterday, and came to theirs today. 21. They do not need money.



LESSON XII.

INDIRECT STATEMENTS.

53. A statement made indirectly by means of a clause dependent upon a verb meaning "say," "think," "know," "believe," or a similar expression, as in "I know that he came," "I hear that he is good," is called an "indirect statement." (The "direct" statement is "he came," "he is good.") An indirect statement is joined to the main verb or sentence by the subordinating conjunction "ke," that.

Johano diras ke vi venis hieraux, John says that you came yesterday. Sxi opinias ke estas mono en la sako, she thinks that there is money in the bag.

[Footnote: A clause is a group of words including a verb, which is dependent upon or subordinate to a main verb or sentence, as "—that he came," "—when he went," "—that he is good," etc.]

[Footnote: In English the subordinating conjunction may sometimes be omitted, either "I think that he is good," or "I think he is good," being usually permissible. But in Esperanto there is no variation, and the conjunction "ke" is never omitted.]

THE INDEFINITE PERSONAL PRONOUN "ONI".

54. When an indefinite personal pronoun is desired, as in the expressions "one knows," "they say," "people say," "you can see," etc., the indefinite personal pronoun "oni" is used. This pronoun may also be used in translating such expressions as "it is said," "I am told," etc.:

Oni diras ke li estas ricxa, they say (one says) that he is rich. Oni vidas ke ili estas amikoj, one sees that they are friends. Mi opinias ke oni sxatas lin, I think that people like him (that he is liked). Oni diris al mi ke estas sablo en la dezerto, I was told (people said to me) that there is sand in the desert. Oni opinias ke sxi estas felicxa, it is thought (one thinks) that she is happy. Cxu oni vidis nin en la gxardeno? Were we seen (did people see us) in the garden? Oni sxatas agrablajn infanojn, people like agreeable children (agreeable children are liked).

THE FUTURE TENSE.

55. The future tense of the verb expresses an act or state as about to take place, or as one that will take place in future time. The ending of this tense is "-os," as "kuros," will run, "flugos," will fly, "brilos," will shine. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the future tense is as follows:

mi estos = I shall be. mi vidos = I shall see. vi estos = you will be. vi vidos = you will see. li (sxi, gxi) estos = li (sxi, gxi) vidos : he (she, it) will be. he (she, it) will see. ni estos = we shall be. ni vidos = we shall see. vi estos = you (plural) will be. vi vidos = you (plural) will see. ili estos = they will be. ili vidos = they will see.

VOCABULARY

auxdi = to hear. oni = (see 54). blovi = to blow. opinii = to think, to opine. greno = grain (wheat, corn, etc.). orienta = east, eastern. ke = that (conjunction). pluvo = rain. kontraux = against. suda = south, southern. montri = to show, to point out. velki = to wilt, to wither. norda = north, northern. vento = wind. nova = new. ventoflago = weathercock. okcidenta = west, western. vetero = weather.

LA VENTOFLAGO.

Estis varma vetero, la suno brilis, kaj suda vento blovis. Tamen la nova ventoflago sur la domo diris al si, "La sudan venton mi ne sxatas. Mi preferas orientan venton." La vento orienta auxdis la diron kaj gxi venis kontraux la ventoflagon. Pluvis kaj pluvis, kaj oni estis kolera kontraux la ventoflago, cxar gxi montras orientan venton. Gxi diris, "Pluvas nun, sed la greno en la kampoj bezonos sekan veteron. Oni estos kolera kontraux mi, cxar mi montras orientan venton." La okcidenta vento auxdis la ventoflagon, kaj baldaux venis. Gxi ne estis forta, sed gxi estis seka kaj agrabla vento, kaj ne portis pluvon. La viroj, virinoj, kaj junaj infanoj volis trinki, sed ili ne havis akvon. La greno kaj la floroj velkis, kaj la frukto ankaux falis. La nova ventoflago diris, "Oni estos kolera kontraux mi, cxar ne pluvas. Oni opinios ke, cxar mi montras okcidentan venton, la frukto falas, kaj la greno kaj floroj velkas. Mi sxatas montri nek okcidentan nek orientan venton!" Norda vento auxdis kaj venis al la ventoflago. La vetero ne estis agrabla, kaj la virinoj kaj la junaj infanoj ne estis varmaj. Negxis, kaj oni estis kolera. Oni diris "La greno kaj la frukto bezonas varman veteron, sed hodiaux negxas. Ni preferas la sudan venton. Ni havis gxin, antaux la orienta, la okcidenta, kaj la norda ventoj. La ventoflago ne estas fidela amiko al ni. Gxi ne montras bonajn ventojn, kaj ni volas rompi gxin!" Oni kuris al la domo, kaptis la novan ventoflagon, kaj ankaux rompis gxin. Gxi falis, kaj kusxis sur la vojo antaux la domo.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. One can see that the weathercock points-out the winds. 2. They say that the west wind will be a dry wind. 3. The weathercock now shows that an agreeable south wind blows. 4. People will be angry with (against) the weathercock, because it points-out a north wind. 5. A north wind is not warm, and the grain and fruit will need a warm wind. 6. It snowed, and the young children were not warm, because the north wind blew. 7. People will like a south wind, but an east wind will carry rain. 8. Can one find money in the desert? 9. Do you think (that) he is in the house? 10. He is said to be (they say that he is) on the street. 11. It is thought (people think) that the camel is a faithful friend. 12. I am told (people tell me) that the camel has a large body, and a long neck. 13. One can see that it is not beautiful. 14. People do not like to drink warm water. 15. Nevertheless we shall drink warm water in the city. 16. It was beautiful weather yesterday, but today we shall have good weather also. 17. I think that a warm wind will blow soon. 18. My friend has a beautiful new house.



LESSON XIII.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "TIU".

56. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu", that, is used to indicate a person or a definitely specified thing. The plural is "tiuj", those:

Tiu estas la via, kaj mi volas tiun, that is yours, and I wish that one. Tiuj estos koleraj kontraux vi, those will be angry with you. Li auxdis tiujn, he heard those (persons, or things).

57. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is also used as a "pronominal adjective", in agreement with a noun:

Tiu vento estos varma, that wind will be warm. Mi vidas tiun ventoflagon, I see that weathercock. Tiuj infanoj estas junaj, those children are young. Mi trovos tiujn librojn, I shall find those books.

TENSES IN INDIRECT QUOTATIONS.

58. The verb in an indirect statement (53) or an indirect question remains in the same tense in which it would be if the statement or question were direct. (In English this is true only if the introductory verb is present or future, since after an introductory past tense the tense of the indirect quotation is changed, and "am, is, are, have, will" become "was, were, had, would," etc.)

Mi diras ke li estas bona, I say that he is good. " diris " " " " , I said that he was good. " diros " " " " , I shall say that he is good. Li miras cxu mi auxdas, he wonders whether I hear. " miris " " " , he wondered whether I heard. " miros " " " , he will wonder whether I hear. Mi opiniis ke gxi estas bona, I thought that it was good (I thought "it is good"). Oni miris cxu li venos, they wondered whether he would come (they wondered "will he come?").

[Footnote: An indirect question is introduced by "cxu", whether, after verbs meaning "ask," "wonder," "know," etc.: "Mi miras cxu li venis", I wonder whether he came. "Oni demandas cxu li estas ricxa", people ask whether he is rich.]

FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS.

59. Feminine nouns corresponding to distinctly masculine nouns such as "frato", "knabo", "viro", may be formed from these by inserting the suffix "-in-" just before the noun-ending "-o":

fratino = sister patrino = mother (from frato, brother). (from patro, father). knabino = girl virino = woman (from knabo, boy). (from viro, man).

[Footnote: Cf. English names similarly formed from masculine names, as "Pauline, Josephine, Ernestine, Geraldine," etc., also German "Koenigin", queen, from "Koenig", king; "Loewin", lioness, from "Loewe", lion, etc.]

VOCABULARY

almenaux = at least. paroli = to talk, to speak. cxapelo = hat. parko = park. cxielo = sky, heaven. preskaux = almost. filo = son. pri = concerning, about. konstrui = to build. promeni = to take a walk. miri = to wonder. super = above. morgaux = tomorrow. timi = to fear, to be afraid (of). nubo = cloud. tiu = that (56). ombrelo = umbrella. zorga = careful.

EN LA PARKO.

Miaj junaj amiko kaj amikino, kaj ankaux ilia patrino, iris hieraux al la parko. La infanoj diris al la patrino ke la parko estas agrabla, kaj ke ili volas promeni en gxi. La knabino parolis al sia frato pri la belaj floroj. Sxi diris al li ke la floroj velkas, kaj ke la herbo en preskaux la tuta parko bezonas pluvon. La knabo diris hodiaux al mi ke hieraux li kaj lia fratino auxdis la birdojn en la arboj super siaj kapoj. Li diris ke li miris pri tiuj birdoj, tamen li opinias ke la birdoj baldaux konstruos siajn nestojn en tiuj arboj. La infanoj promenis, kaj baldaux ili vidis ke grizaj nuboj venas sur la cxielon, kaj mia juna amikino timis ke pluvos. Sxi parolis al la patrino pri la nuboj kaj la pluvo, montris al sxi la grizajn nubojn, kaj diris ke si volas iri al la domo. Ili komencis marsxi al la strato, kaj preskaux kuris, cxar ili ne havis ombrelon. Tra la fenestroj de la domoj oni rigardis ilin, kaj la knabo miris cxu li kaj liaj patrino kaj fratino amuzas tiujn virojn kaj virinojn. Tamen la patrino diris ke sxi ne timas ke sxi amuzos tiujn, sed ke sxi timas la pluvon. Sxi kaj la filino volas esti zorgaj pri almenaux la novaj cxapeloj. La filo diris al sxi ke li ankaux estas zorga, sed ke li opinias ke ne pluvos. Baldaux la patro venis al ili, kaj portis ombrelojn, cxar li ankaux timis la pluvon. Li miris cxu la infanoj kaj ilia patrino havas ombrelojn. Baldaux pluvis, sed ili estis sekaj, cxar ili havis la ombrelojn. Morgaux ili ne promenos en la parko, sed iros al la urbo.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The east wind is dry and the south wind will be too warm. 2. A west wind blew against the weathercock, but the grain needed a south wind. 3 A north wind is blowing and I think that it will soon snow. 4. It (51) will be beautiful weather tomorrow, because a pleasant wind is now blowing. 5. The flowers will wither because those children gathered them. 6. They are talking about that park, but I do not wish to take-a-walk, because there are clouds in (on) the sky. 7. At least we shall take an umbrella, and my brother will hold it over our heads. 8. My sister said "Mother and I are-afraid that it will rain." 9. My young sister will be careful about that new umbrella. 10. I wonder whether she will take-a-walk tomorrow. 11. That park is pleasant and the grass is soft and green. 12. The birds are building their nests now, in those branches above our heads. 13. The sky above us is blue, and a west wind is beginning to blow. 14. I can see that weathercock, on that large house near the park. 15. Mother says that my sister will have a new hat tomorrow. 16. She will be careful of (about) that hat. 17. My father's friend is very careful of his son. 18. One sees that he is not a strong boy.

LESSON XIV.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "CXI TIU".

60. The demonstrative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) meaning "this" is formed by using with "tiu" (56) the word "cxi", which expresses the general idea of nearness or proximity. (Consequently the literal meaning of "cxi tiu" is "that one nearby", "that one here".) The word "cxi" may either precede or follow the pronoun:

Cxi tiu estas la mia, this is mine. Mi vidis cxi tiun, I saw this one. Cxu vi volas tiujn cxi? Do you wish these? Cxi tiu knabino estas mia fratino, this girl is my sister. Mi vidis cxi tiujn cxapelojn, I saw these hats. Cxi tiuj amikoj promenos, these friends will take a walk.

61. The words "tiu" and "cxi tiu" may be used to distinguish between persons or things "previously" mentioned and "just" mentioned:

Gertrude kaj Mario estas en la parko. Tiu rigardas la florojn, cxi tiu kolektas ilin.

Gertrude and Mary are in the park. The former (that one) looks at the flowers, the latter (this one) gathers them.

POSSESSIVE FORM OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN.

62. To express possession, the demonstrative pronouns "tiu" and "cxi tiu" have the special possessive or genitive forms "ties", that one's, and "cxi ties", this one's. The use of "ties" and "cxi ties" to mean "the former" and "the latter" is similar to the use of "tiu" and "cxi tiu" shown in 61:

Mi iris al ties domo, I went to that one's house. Cxi ties filoj estas junaj, this person's (this one's) sons are young. Mi sxatas ties koloron, sed preferas cxi tiun floron, I like that one's color, but prefer this flower. La patro kaj lia amiko parolas pri siaj domoj. Ties estas nova, sed cxi ties sxajnas bela. Father and his friend are talking about their houses. The former's is new, but the latter's seems beautiful.

THE SUFFIX "-IL-".

63. Names of instruments, tools or utensils may be formed by adding the suffix "-il-" (followed by the ending "-o") to roots whose meaning permits:

flugilo, wing (from flugi, to fly). kaptilo, snare, trap (from kapti, to catch). kudrilo, needle (from kudri, to sew). montrilo, indicator, (clock) hand (from montri, to point out, show). tenilo, handle (from teni, to hold).

[Footnote: The root of a word is that part of it which contains the essential meaning, and to which the verb endings "-i", "-as", "-is", "-os", the noun ending "-o", the adjective ending "-a", etc., are attached, when no suffix intervenes. Thus, "vir-" is the root of "viro" and of "virino"; "kur-" is the root of "kuri", etc.]

THE EXPRESSION OF MEANS OR INSTRUMENTALITY.

64. The means or instrumentality through which an act is accomplished is expressed by use of the preposition "per":

Oni kudras per kudrilo, one sews by means of (with) a needle. La birdoj flugas per flugiloj, the birds fly by (with) wings. Li amuzas sin per tiuj bildoj, he amuses himself with (by) those pictures. Mi trovis gxin per via helpo, I found it by (through) your help.

VOCABULARY

busxo = mouth. per = by means of (64). dekstra = right (not left). supo = soup. cxi (see 60). telero = plate. forko = fork. terpomo = potato. helpo = help. ties = that one's (62). kafo = coffee. trancxi = to cut. kulero = spoon. tre = very, exceedingly. mano = hand. viando = meat.

LA MANGXO.

Hieraux mi miris cxu mi havos bonan mangxon en la domo de mia amiko. Sed mi opiniis ke mi havos tre bonan mangxon, cxar mia amiko sxatas doni bonajn mangxojn al siaj amikoj. Oni metis tre bonan supon antaux mi, kaj mi mangxis tiun per granda kulero. Post la supo mi havis viandon. Cxi tiun mi tenis per forko, kaj trancxis per akra trancxilo. La forko, trancxilo kaj kulero estas mangxiloj. Mi havis ne nur viandon, sed ankaux novajn terpomojn. Mi trancxis tiujn cxi per la trancxilo, sed mi metis ilin en la busxon per forko. Mi tenis la forkon en la dekstra mano, kaj metis la trancxilon trans mian teleron. Oni bezonas akran trancxilon, sed oni ne bezonas tre akran forkon. Post la viando kaj la terpomoj, oni donis al mi fresxajn maturajn cxerizojn. Ili kusxis sur granda telero, kaj havis belan koloron. Ilia gusto estis ankaux bona. Mi preskaux ne diris ke mi ankaux havis kafon. Mi parolos morgaux al mia amiko pri lia kafo, kaj lauxdos gxin. Post la mangxo, najbaro de mia amiko venis en cxi ties domon, kaj ili parolis al mi pri siaj novaj domoj. Per la helpo de sia patro, mia amiko konstruos grandan domon. Lia najbaro volas konstrui belan sed ne tre grandan domon. Ties nova domo estos bela, sed mi opinias ke mi preferos cxi ties domon. Mia amiko volis doni almenaux kafon al sia najbaro, sed li diris ke li ne volas trinki kafon. Tamen li volis persikon. Li tenis tiun en la mano, kaj mangxis tiun.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The birds have very strong wings on their bodies, but they do not have hands. 2. They will build their nests, and sing about the young birds. 3. Those children were talking to me yesterday about their cat. 4. They said that it likes to catch and eat sparrows. 5. Tomorrow it will hide (itself) behind a tree, and will catch a young sparrow. 6. The children will gather peaches in that-person's garden, and will put them upon a plate. 7. They will shake the whole tree by means of a branch. 8. The sweet fruit above them will fall upon the soft green grass. 9. The children wondered whether the cherries were ripe. 10. They seem almost ripe, and tomorrow the children will pick (gather) them, with the help of their father. 11. It is said (54) that the grain in that-man's field very [much] needs rain. 12. People also think that the flowers will wither, for (because) it did not rain yesterday or today. 13. My careful young friend will carry an umbrella in his hand tomorrow, because he fears the rain. 14. He sees those gray clouds in (on) the sky. 15. He holds the umbrella by its handle. 16. The weathercock is an indicator concerning the weather. 17. One eats meat with a fork, and soup with a spoon. 18. One holds the spoon in the right hand. 19. A knife is sharp, but one does not need a sharp fork. 20. We shall have a very good meal, and also very good coffee.



LESSON XV.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE.

65. The demonstrative adjective related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" (56) is "tia", that kind of, that sort of, such:

Tia floro estas bela, that kind of a flower is beautiful. Mi sxatas tian viandon, I like that sort of meat. Tiaj najbaroj estas agrablaj, such (that kind of) neighbors are pleasant. Mi volas auxdi tiajn birdojn, I wish to hear such birds.

ADVERBS DEFINED AND CLASSIFIED.

66. An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, another adverb, or phrase. It may express manner, time, degree, negation, etc. Adverbs are either primary, as "now," "almost," or derived, as "glad-ly," "sweet-ly," The Esperanto primary adverbs given in this and in preceding lessons may be classified as follows:

(a) Temporal Adverbs (expressing time).

baldaux = soon. morgaux = tomorrow. hieraux = yesterday. nun = now. hodiaux = today. tuj = immediately.

(b) Adverbs of Degree.

almenaux = at least. preskaux = almost. nur = merely. tre = very, much.

(c) Adverbs Expressing Other Ideas.

addition: ankaux = also. emphasis: ecx = even. interrogation: cxu, (30). affirmation: jes = yes. proximity: cxi, (60). negation: ne = not, no, (27).

a. An adverb usually precedes, but may also follow, the word or words which it modifies. It must be so placed as to leave no doubt about which of two words or word-groups it is intended to modify. Thus, "mi preskaux volis havi tiun" clearly means "I almost wished to have that"; but "mi volis preskaux havi tiun" might mean either "I almost wished to have that," or more probably "I wished almost to have that." An example of permissible variation in the position of adverbs is shown in questions to which an affirmative answer is expected. Such questions may be put in the form of a statement, followed by "cxu ne" (instead of having "cxu" introduce the sentence, with "ne" in its normal position):

Li venos, cxu ne? He will come, will he not? La vetero estas bela, cxu ne? The weather is beautiful, is it not? Vi auxdis tiun diron, cxu ne? You heard that remark, did you not?

FORMATION OF OPPOSITES.

67. If the meaning of a word is such that it can have a direct opposite, such opposite may be formed from it by use of the prefix "mal-":

malalta = low, short (from "alta", high, tall). malamiko = enemy (from "amiko", friend). maldekstra = left (from "dekstra", right). malhelpi = to hinder (from "helpi", to help). maljuna = aged, old (from "juna", young). malnova = old, not new (from "nova", new).

[Footnote: Cf. English "malcontent", "discontented," "maladroit", "clumsy."]

VOCABULARY

dum = during. povi = to be able. ecx = even. preni = to take. gardi = to guard. propono = proposal. helpi = to help, to aid. respondi = to answer. honti = to be ashamed. ruza = sly, cunning. kara = dear. sxteli = to steal. kontenta = satisfied. tia = that kind of (65). kuragxa = courageous. tuj = immediately. nokto = night. vocxo = voice.

LA RUZA JUNA VIRO.

Ruza juna viro kaj bona maljuna viro iris trans dezerton. Tiu havis nigran cxevalon, cxi tiu havis blankan cxevalon. "Vi gardos niajn cxevalojn dum la nokto, cxu ne?" diris la juna viro per dolcxa vocxo al sia amiko, "Cxar dum la nokto oni ne povos vidi mian nigran cxevalon, sed malamikoj povos tuj vidi vian blankan cxevalon. Oni povos sxteli tian cxevalon, cxar vi estas maljuna kaj malforta, kaj ne povos malhelpi malamikojn." Tia propono ne sxajnis agrabla al la maljuna viro. Li ne estis kontenta, tamen li ne volis perdi sian cxevalon, cxar li estis malricxa. Li diris al si ke li donos sian blankan cxevalon al la juna viro, kaj prenos ties nigran cxevalon. Tuj li diris al cxi tiu "Sed per via helpo mi ne perdos mian cxevalon: mi donos la mian al vi, kaj prenos vian cxevalon. La via estas malbela, sed gxi estas almenaux nigra; vi donos gxin al mi, cxu ne?" "Jes," respondis la ruza juna viro, kaj li donis sian nigran cxevalon al tiu, kaj prenis la blankan cxevalon. "Nun," diris la maljuna viro, "Vi estas kuragxa kaj forta, kaj vi gardos la cxevalojn, cxu ne? Vi povos malhelpi malamikojn per tiu granda akra trancxilo, kaj oni ne povos sxteli vian blankan cxevalon." La ruza juna viro ne hontis. Li respondis "Mia kara amiko, mi nun dormos, cxar oni ne sxtelos blankan cxevalon. Mi povos vidi tian cxevalon dum la nokto, kaj malhelpi malamikojn. Sed tiu cxevalo via ("that horse of yours") havas la koloron de la nokto, kaj ecx nun oni povas sxteli gxin." La malkontenta maljuna viro diris per kolera vocxo "Cxu vi ne hontas pri tia propono?" Tamen la ruza juna viro tuj komencis dormi, kaj la maljuna viro gardis la cxevalojn dum la tuta nokto.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. (Words to be formed with the prefix "mal-" are quoted.)

1. Does one eat potatoes and meat with a fork or a spoon? 2. One puts soup into the mouth by means of a spoon. 3. One cuts fruit with a knife, and puts the fruit upon a plate. 4. The coffee was "cold", and I was much "dissatisfied". 5. My knife was "dull", nevertheless I almost immediately cut my (the) "left" hand. 6. I was ashamed, but I think that the handle of that knife was very "short". 7. The grass is "wet" today, and I fear that we shall not be able to take a walk, even in that "small" park. 8. I "dislike" to go-walking upon the "hard" streets. 9. The courageous young man and his "aged" friend talked about their "enemies". 10. They wished to be careful about their horses. 11. The young man was very sly, and wished to sleep during the night. 12. He said that one can steal a black horse during the "dark" night. 13. He said that either (aux) he or the "old" man would guard the horses. 14. The "old" man answered that he would give to him his [own] white horse. 15. He took that one's black horse. 16. He was ashamed, and was very angry at his "faithless" friend. 17. But he "stayed-awake", and guarded the horses.



LESSON XVI.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE.

68. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the pronouns "tiu" and "cxi tiu" are "tie", there, in (at) that place, and "cxi tie", here, in (at) this place:

La telero estas tie, the plate is there (in that place). La libroj kusxas cxi tie, the books lie here (in this place). Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie cxi, I found you there and him here. Tie la vetero sxajnas tre agrabla, there the weather seems very pleasant.

69. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "tie" or "cxi tie", the ending "-n" is added to the adverb (46), forming "tien", thither, there, and "cxi tien", hither, here:

Li iros tien, he will go there (thither). Mi venis cxi tien, I came here (hither). Ni estis tie, kaj venis cxi tien, we were there and came here (hither).

ACCOMPANIMENT.

70. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the preposition "kun", with, along with:

La viro venis kun sia amiko, the man came with his friend. Mi promenos kun vi, I shall go walking with you. La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato, the boy with that man is his brother.

[Footnote: "Kun" must not be confused with "per" (64), which expresses instrumentality, although per may often be translated by English "with." The English preposition "with" may be said to have three rather clearly defined different meanings. In the linguistic history of this word, the original meaning was "against," still shown in "fight with, strive with, contend with, withstand", etc. (Cf. German "widerstreiten", to strive with, "widerhalten", to resist, etc.) Gradually this word "with" usurped the meaning of the original preposition "mid," expressing association or accompaniment (cf. German "mit", with, which it crowded out of the language except in one unimportant compound). The word "by" was also encroaching upon "mid" from another direction, and so "mid's" successor "with" came to be interchangeable with "by" in expressing instrumentality. Thus, English "with" indicates opposition, accompaniment, or instrumentality, for which three senses Esperanto has the three prepositions "kontraux", "kun", and "per", respectively.]

THE ADVERB "FOR".

71. The adverb "for", away, may be used independently, as "Li iris for de mi", he went away from me, but it is more frequently used as a prefix to give a sense of departure, loss or somewhat forcible removal:

foriri = to go away, to depart. forkuri = to run away, to escape. forlasi = to leave alone, to abandon, to desert. formangxi = to eat away, to eat up. forpreni = to take away, to remove. fortrinki = to drink away, to drink up.

[Footnote: Cf. the prefix "for-" in English "forfend," to keep away, to avert, "forbid," to exclude from, to command against, "forbear," to refrain from, etc.]

THE MEANING OF "POVI".

72. The verb "povi", to be able, is used to translate English "can", which is defective, that is, does not occur in all of the forms a verb may have:

Mi povas paroli, I am able to talk, I can talk. Mi povis paroli, I was able to talk, I could talk. Mi povos paroli, I shall be able to talk, ———. Mi volas povi paroli, I wish to be able to talk, ———.

VOCABULARY

el = out of, out. peli = to drive, to chase. cxirkaux = around, roundabout. posxo = pocket. for = away (71). rajdi = to ride. frua = early. rapidi = to hasten. glavo = sword. resti = to remain, to stay. horo = hour. sagxa = wise. kun = with (70). tie = there (68). lasi = to leave. voki = to call.

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