A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II.
by Bulstrode Whitelocke
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{Transcriber's note:

All material added by the transcriber is surrounded by braces {}. The original has many inconsistent spellings in all the languages used. A few corrections have been made for obvious typographical errors; they have been noted individually. Superscripts in the original are indicated by the ^ character. Side notes are enclosed in brackets and preceded with SN, thus [SN: side note]. Footnotes are numbered with the page on which they start.}







"A wicked messenger falleth into mischief, but a faithful ambassador is health." PROVERBS xiii. 17.




MARCH 1, 1653.

[SN: Whitelocke continues the negotiation.]

Now was the heat of Whitelocke's business, and many cross endeavours used to render all his labours fruitless, and to bring his treaty to no effect. But it pleased God, in whom his confidence was placed, to carry him through all his difficulties, and to give his blessing and success to this negotiation.

Whitelocke gave a visit to the Count de Montecuculi, to give him the welcome home from his journey with the Queen; who said he had commands to kiss the hand of the Prince of Sweden, and took the opportunity of accompanying her Majesty when she went to meet the Prince. He communicated nothing of the business to Whitelocke, nor did he think to inquire it of him.

After Whitelocke returned home, the Resident of France and Woolfeldt met at his house to visit him, and staid with him three hours. They had much discourse of France, and of the Duke of Lorraine, and of the policy of the Spaniard in entertaining that Duke in his service; by means whereof the country where the Duke's soldiers were quartered was better satisfied than with the Spanish forces, so that there was no tax levied for them, only they took free quarter, and sometimes a contribution upon the receiving of a new officer. And Woolfeldt said, that whereas all other Princes give wages to their officers and soldiers, the Duke gives no pay; but when he makes an officer, the officer pays money to the Duke for his commission; and that he knew a captain of horse who gave a thousand crowns for his commission, which the captain afterwards raised upon the country, and the Duke connived at it. He told how he was employed to treat with the Duke for the transportation of five thousand foot and three thousand horse into Ireland, to assist our King; which the Duke undertook on condition to have a hundred thousand crowns in ready money, and ships to transport his men from some haven in France, none of which could be effected.

[SN: Advances from France.]

After Woolfeldt went away, the French Resident asked Whitelocke whether France were comprised in the treaty with Holland. Whitelocke said he had no information thereof. The Resident replied, that his master would willingly entertain a good friendship and correspondence with England; and Whitelocke said, he believed England would be ready to do the like with France. The Resident said, he observed by their discourse that Whitelocke had been in France, and that the late King would have given him the command of a troop of horse in France; and he hoped that Whitelocke would retain a good opinion of that country, and be their friend. Whitelocke replied, that he was very civilly treated in France, and believed that he should have served the late King there, if, by a sudden accident or misfortune, he had not been prevented, and obliged to return for England sooner than he intended; and that he should be always ready (as he held himself engaged) to pay all respects and service to that Crown, as far as might consist with the interest of the Commonwealth whom he served.

March 2, 1653.

[SN: Senator Schuett explains the delay in the negotiation.]

Notwithstanding his great words against the Commonwealth and present treaty, yet Monsieur Schuett was pleased to afford a visit to Whitelocke, and they fell (amongst many other things) upon the following discourse:—

Schuett. My father was formerly ambassador from this Crown in England, where I was with him, which occasioned my desire to be known to you.

Whitelocke. Your father did honour to this country and to ours in that employment, and your Excellence honours me in this visit.

Sch. England is the noblest country and people that ever I saw: a more pleasant, fruitful, and healthful country, and a more gallant, stout, and rich people, are not in the world.

Wh. I perceive you have taken a true measure, both of the country and her inhabitants.

Sch. This is my judgement of it, as well as my affection to it.

Wh. Your country here is indeed more northerly, but your people, especially the nobility, of a much-like honourable condition to ours; which may cause the more wonder at her Majesty's intention of leaving them, who are so affectionate to her.

Sch. Truly her Majesty's purpose of resignation is strange to foreigners, and much more to us, who are her subjects, most affectionate to her.

Wh. It is reported that she hath consulted in this business with the Senators, whereof you are one.

Sch. Three Senators are deputed to confer with the Prince of Sweden, upon certain particulars to be observed in the resignation; and I hope that your Excellence will consider the importance of that affair, and will therefore attend with the more patience the issue thereof, being necessary that the advice of the Prince be had in it.

Wh. Have the three deputed Senators any order to confer with the Prince about my business?

Sch. I believe they have.

Wh. I had been here two months before the Queen mentioned this design of hers to the Council, and have staid here all this time with patience, and shall so continue as my Lord Protector shall command me; and as soon as he requires my return I shall obey him.

Sch. The occasion of the delay hitherto was the uncertainty of the issue of your Dutch treaty; and at this season of the year it was impossible for you to return, till the passage be open.

Wh. I believe the alliance with England meriteth an acceptance, whether we have peace or war with Holland; and for my return, it is at the pleasure of the Protector.

They had much other discourse; and probably Schuett was sent purposely to excuse the delay of the treaty, for which he used many arguments not necessary to be repeated; and he came also to test Whitelocke touching advice to be had with the Prince about this treaty, whereunto Whitelocke showed no averseness.

[SN: Treacherous reports to England.]

Whitelocke received his packet of two weeks from England. In a letter from his wife he was advertised that the Protector had spoken of his voyage to Sweden as if Whitelocke had not merited much by it, though he so earnestly persuaded it; and his wife wrote that she believed one of Whitelocke's family was false to him; and upon inquiry she suspected it to be ——, who gave intelligence to the Protector of all Whitelocke's words and actions in Sweden, to his prejudice, and very unbeseeming one of his family. This Whitelocke, comparing with some passages told him by his secretary of the same person, found there was cause enough to suspect him; yet to have one such among a hundred he thought no strange thing, nor for the Protector to alter his phrase when his turn was served. And though this gave ground enough of discontent to Whitelocke, yet he thought not fit to discover it, nor what other friends had written to him, doubting whether he should be honourably dealt with at his return home; but he was more troubled to hear of his wife's sickness, for whose health and his family's he made his supplication to the great Physician; and that he might be as well pleased with a private retirement, if God saw it good for him, at his return home, as the Queen seemed to be with her design of abdication from the heights and glories of a crown.

Part of the letters to Whitelocke were in cipher, being directions to him touching the Sound. He had full intelligence of all passages of the Dutch treaty, and a copy of the articles, from Thurloe; also the news of Scotland, Ireland, France, and the letters from the Dutch Resident here to his superiors in Holland, copies whereof Thurloe by money had procured. He wrote also of the Protector's being feasted by the City, and a full and large relation of all passages of moment. The Protector himself wrote also his letters to Whitelocke under his own hand, which were thus:—

[SN: Letter from the Protector.]

"For the Lord Ambassador Whitelocke.

"My Lord,

"I have a good while since received your letters sent by the ship that transported you to Gothenburg, and three other despatches since. By that of the 30th of December, and that of the 4th instant, I have received a particular account of what passed at your first audience, and what other proceedings have been upon your negotiation; which, so far as they have been communicated to me, I do well approve of, as having been managed by you with care and prudence.

"You will understand by Mr. Secretary Thurloe in what condition the treaty with the United Provinces is, in case it shall please God that a peace be made with them, which a little time will show; yet I see no reason to be diverted thereby from the former intentions of entering into an alliance with Sweden, nor that there will be anything in the league intended with the Low Countries repugnant thereunto, especially in things wherein you are already instructed fully. And for the matter of your third and fourth private instructions, if the Queen hath any mind thereto, upon your transmitting particulars hither such consideration will be had thereof as the then constitution of affairs will lead unto. In the meantime you may assure the Queen of the constancy and reality of my intentions to settle a firm alliance with her. I commend you to the goodness of God.

"Your loving friend, "OLIVER P. "Whitehall, 3rd February, 1653."

March 3, 1653.

[SN: The son of Oxenstiern formerly sent to England.]

Grave John Oxenstiern, eldest son of the Chancellor, came to visit Whitelocke; a Ricks-Senator, and had been Ricks-Schatz-master, or High Treasurer, a place next in honour to that of his father. He had been formerly ambassador from this Crown to England; but because he was sent by the Chancellor his father, and the other Directors of the affairs of Sweden in the Queen's minority, which King Charles and his Council took not to be from a sovereign prince; and because his business touching the Prince Elect's settlement, and the affairs of Germany relating to Sweden, did not please our King; therefore this gentleman was not treated here with that respect and solemnity as he challenged to be due to him as an ambassador; which bred a distaste in him and his father against the King and Council here, as neglecting the father and the good offices which he tendered to King Charles and this nation, by slighting the son and his quality.

The discourse between this Grave and Whitelocke was not long, though upon several matters; and he seemed to be sent to excuse the delay of the treaty with Whitelocke, for which he mentioned former reasons, as his father's want of health, multiplicity of business, the expected issue of the Dutch treaty, and the like; and the same excuses were again repeated by Lagerfeldt, who came to Whitelocke from the Chancellor for the same purpose.

Whitelocke had occasion to look into his new credentials and instructions from the Protector, which were thus.

[SN: Whitelocke's new credentials and instructions.]

"Oliver, Lord Protector, etc., to the Most Serene and Potent Prince Christina, etc., health and prosperity.

"Most Serene and Potent Queen,

"God, who is the great Disposer of all things, having been pleased in His unsearchable wisdom to make a change in the Government of these nations since the time that the noble B. Whitelocke, Constable, etc. went from hence, qualified and commissioned as Ambassador Extraordinary from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England unto your Majesty, to communicate with you in things tending to the mutual good and utility of both the nations, we have thought it necessary upon this occasion to assure your Majesty that the present change of affairs here hath made no alteration of the good intentions on this side towards your Majesty and your dominions; but that as we hold ourself obliged, in the exercise of that power which God and the people have entrusted us with, to endeavour by all just and honourable means to hold a good correspondence with our neighbours, so more particularly with the Crown of Sweden, between whom and these nations there hath always been a firm amity and strict alliance; and therefore we have given instructions to the said Lord Whitelocke, answerable to such good desires, earnestly requesting your Majesty to give unto him favourable audience as often as he shall desire it, and full belief in what he shall propound on the behalf of these dominions. And so we heartily commend your Majesty and your affairs to the Divine protection. Given at Whitehall this 23rd of December, Old Style, 1653.

"Your good friend, "OLIVER P."

The following instructions were under the hand and private seal of the Protector:—

"An Instruction for B. Whitelocke, Constable, etc., Ambassador Extraordinary from the Commonwealth of England to the Queen of Sweden.

"Whereas you were lately sent in the quality of Ambassador Extraordinary from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England unto her Majesty the Queen of Sweden, for the renewing and contracting an alliance and confederation with that Queen and Crown, according to the commission and instructions you received from the said Parliament and the then Council of State; And whereas, since your departure hence, the then Parliament hath been dissolved, and the Government is settled and established in such a way that you will understand by letters from Mr. Thurloe, Secretary of the Council, who is directed to give unto you a full account hereof: Now lest the work you are upon (which is so necessary in itself to both the nations, and so sincerely desired on our part) should be interrupted or retarded by reason of the said change of affairs, and the question that may arise thereupon concerning the validity of your commission and instructions, I have thought fit, by advice of the Council, to write unto her Majesty new letters credential, a copy whereof you will receive herewith, which letters you are to present to the Queen. And you are also, by virtue of these presents, to let her Majesty know that the alteration of the Government here hath made no change in the good intentions on this side towards her Majesty and her dominions; but that she shall find the same readiness in me to maintain and increase all good intelligence and correspondence with that Queen and Crown as in any the former governors of these nations. And to that end you are hereby authorized to proceed in your present negotiation, and to endeavour to bring the treaty with her Majesty to a good conclusion according to the tenour and effect of the commission, powers, and instructions you have already received, and which I shall by any further act ratify and confirm according as the nature of the business shall require.

"Before your Lordship deliver these letters credential to the Queen, or make any addresses to her, you are to inform yourself fully of the reception you are like to have, and whether her intentions be to come to a treaty of amity with this State as the Government is now established, that no dishonour may befall us or these dominions in your addresses upon these letters and instructions. Given at Whitehall this 23rd of December, 1653.


Whitelocke made many despatches this day to England.

March 4, 1653.

[SN: The Queen talks of visiting the Protector.]

Whitelocke waited on the Queen and showed her part of the letters which he received from England, whereupon she again asked him if the Protector were sacre? Whitelocke said, No, and that his letters mentioned only a solemnity of entertaining the Protector by the City of London. Whitelocke also communicated to her Majesty the Protector's letter to him, and the expression that Whitelocke should assure her Majesty of the Protector's constant and real intentions to settle a firm alliance with the Queen; which, she said, she was also most ready to make with the Protector.

Whitelocke then said it might be fit to make some progress in his treaty upon his articles, and particularly in those which concerned amity and commerce, and had no dependence on the issue of the treaty with Holland, and therefore might be had in consideration before the other were fully concluded, and the rest of the articles might be considered afterwards; which the Queen said should be done, and that she would send an ambassador to the Protector. She was very inquisitive concerning London and our Universities; by her discourse gave him to imagine she had thoughts of travelling into France, Spain, Italy, and into England; and asked Whitelocke if he thought the Protector would give way to her coming thither. Whitelocke answered, that the Protector would bid her Majesty very welcome thither.

He was alone with her near two hours, and at his taking leave she desired him to come to her again on Monday next, and that then she would read over with him his articles, both in Latin and English, which they would consider together; and such things as she could consent unto she would tell him, and what she could not consent unto he should then know from her, and they might mark it in the margin as they went along. Yet she said she would have him to proceed in his conference with her Chancellor as before, and that nobody should know of that conference between her and Whitelocke; but she would so order the business that what they consented unto should be effected afterwards, and that in two hours they might go over all the articles. Whitelocke told her Majesty he presumed that she would admit of a free debate upon any of them. She said, by all means, that was reasonable; and in case the peace between England and Holland did not take effect, that then the ambassador, whom she intended howsoever to send into England, might conclude upon such other articles as should be thought fit. Whitelocke asked her if she had any thoughts of being included in the Dutch treaty. She said, No, for she had not meddled with the war, and therefore desired not to be included in the peace with them.

[SN: Reports of the Dutch Resident adverse to Whitelocke.]

From the Queen Whitelocke went and visited Piementelle, who showed him a letter he received from a great person in Flanders, mentioning that Beningen had written to his superiors that the English Ambassador and the Spanish Resident were often together, and had showed great respect to each other, which his Highness the Archduke liked very well, and gave Piementelle thanks for it; and though Monsieur Beningen did not like of their being so friendly, yet his superiors endeavoured all they could to have amity with England. When Whitelocke told him of the English fleet at sea, he said it was great pity the same was not employed. He then showed Whitelocke a letter from Beningen to his superiors, wherein he taxed Whitelocke with omitting the ceremony of meeting Prince Adolphus at his door. Whitelocke repeated to Piementelle the carriage of that business as before; and Piementelle said, that neither the Queen nor himself had ever heard the Prince express any dislike of Whitelocke's carriage; and that the Queen, seeing Beningen's letter, said there were many things in it concerning Whitelocke which upon her knowledge were not true. It was also said in the letter that the English Ambassador had many long audiences with her Majesty, and conferences with the Chancellor, but that he could not in the least learn what passed between them; with which Whitelocke had no cause to be displeased.

March 5, 1653.

The Lord's Day.—Whitelocke had two good sermons in his house, at which divers English and Scots, besides those of his family, were present. In the evening the Queen passed through the streets in her coach, with divers other coaches and her servants waiting on her, to take the air, though upon this day; and in the night, many disorderly drunkards were committing debaucheries and insolences in the town, and at Whitelocke's door.

March 6, 1653.

[SN: Further excuses for delay.]

Whitelocke visited Senator Schuett, who spake in excuse of the delay of his business. Whitelocke said—

Whitelocke. I have already staid long in this place, and nothing is yet done in my business.

Schuett. Your stay here hath been of more advantage to England than if they had sent 10,000 men into Holland, who, by your stay here, will be brought on with the greater desire of making peace with you.

Wh. They know nothing of my negotiation.

Sch. That makes them the more jealous; the slowness of one person is the cause that hitherto you have received no satisfaction, and I doubt not but ere long you will have answers to your contentment.

Whilst Whitelocke was with him the Queen sent one of her gentlemen thither to him, to desire him to put off his visit of her Majesty till the next day, by reason she had then extraordinary business; and the messenger being gone, Schuett said,—

Schuett. The Queen is busy in despatching three senators to the Prince, Grave Eric Oxenstiern, Monsieur Fleming, and Monsieur Vanderlin, who are deputed for the business of the Queen's resignation; and I, in a few days, shall be sent to the Prince.

Whitelocke. I pray do me the favour to present my service to his Royal Highness, whom I am very desirous to salute as soon as I can gain an opportunity; and do hope that his resort to this place will be before I shall be necessitated to return, that I may give myself the honour to kiss his hand.

[SN: Whitelocke visits the Chief Justice of Sweden.]

Whitelocke visited the Ricks-Droitset Grave Brahe, who is of the noble family of Tycho Brahe. He was President of the College of Justice, and the First Minister of State of the kingdom: the name of his office is as much as Viceroy, and his jurisdiction is a sovereign court for the administration of justice, and he hath power both civil and military. The office is in effect the same with that ancient officer with us called the Chief Justice of England. The habit of this Chief Justice of Sweden was a coat, and a furred cap of black, a sword and belt, and no cloak; two soldiers sentry at his chamber-door, which Whitelocke had not observed elsewhere but at the Court. They had much discourse of Whitelocke's business, wherein he testified affections to the Commonwealth of England, though Whitelocke had been informed that he was not their friend; but he the rather chose to visit him first, and found him very civil: he spake Latin very readily, and no French, although Whitelocke was told he could speak it well.

He inquired much of the Commonwealth and affairs of England, and government of it, and seemed well pleased by Whitelocke's relation of it. He informed Whitelocke of the Swedish Government, and particularly of his own office. He discoursed much of the Prince of Sweden, which Whitelocke judged the fitter for him to approve, because Prince Adolphus's lady was this Grave's daughter. He told Whitelocke that he had been Governor of Finland ten years together, which province he affirmed to be greater than France, and that the Queen's dominions were larger than France, Spain, Italy, all together. Whitelocke asked him if those countries were well peopled, and flourished with corn and good towns. He answered that Finland was well peopled, and had store of corn, and good towns; but that it was not so with Lapland and other countries further off. But he said that no part of Sweden had such towns as were in England, where he had been when he was a young man, which country he much praised; and Whitelocke had no cause to gainsay it.

Piementelle sent to Whitelocke an atlas, in four great volumes, in acknowledgment of a vessel of Spanish wine which Whitelocke had before sent to him for a present.

March 7, 1653.

The Governor of Upsal, Monsieur Bannier, presented to Whitelocke three Latin books:—1. The Story of Sweden; 2. Of the Laws of Sweden; 3. Of Sea Affairs; which were not ordinarily to be had.

[SN: Whitelocke takes the air with the Queen.]

The Queen sent one of her servants to invite Whitelocke to take the air with her in the fields; and being come to the castle, she excused her not being yet ready to confer with him upon his articles, as she had promised, but told him that she had ordered something to be written down on that subject to show to him. She took him into her coach, where was the "Belle Comtesse," the Countess Gabriel Oxenstiern, Prince Adolphus, Piementelle, Montecuculi, Tott, and Whitelocke. The Queen was very merry, and they were full of cheerful discourse. Being returned to the castle at night, she desired to hear Whitelocke's music, whom he sent for to the castle; and they played and sang in her presence, wherewith she seemed much pleased, and desired Whitelocke to thank them in her name. She said she never heard so good a concert of music, and of English songs; and desired Whitelocke, at his return to England, to procure her some to play on those instruments which would be most agreeable to her.

[SN: The Chancellor falls ill.]

Lagerfeldt came to Whitelocke in the Court, and told him that the Chancellor intended to have had a meeting with him this day, but was hindered by falling sick of an ague; but in case his health would not permit him to meet, that then his son Eric Oxenstiern, by the Queen's appointment, would meet and confer with Whitelocke about the treaty in place of his father. But Whitelocke was not glad of this deputation, wishing much rather to confer with the old man upon this subject, who was good-natured, civil, and affectionate to Whitelocke, than with the son, Grave Eric, who was of a more rugged and self-conceited humour, and not so soon gained by reason and convinced by arguments as the good old man his father used to be.

March 8, 1653.

[SN: The Chancellor's son resumes the negotiation.]

Grave Eric Oxenstiern visited Whitelocke, and spake much to excuse the delay of his treaty; and said that his father was very sick of an ague, and he believed the Queen would depute some other to confer with him, in case his father's health would not permit him that liberty.

Whitelocke. I am very sorry for the indisposition of your{1} father, and for the delay of my business. I have been here about three months, and nothing is yet concluded.

Gr. Eric. The uncertainty of your Dutch affair, and the Queen's desire to know the issue of it, hath occasioned this delay.

Wh. As the points of amity and commerce, they concern not our Dutch treaty.

Gr. Eric. You will be sure to receive all satisfaction and contentment on that subject; but there are many particulars of the commerce to be considered.

Wh. I cannot say much upon those particulars; but I was sent hither by my Lord Protector to testify his respect to the Queen and kingdom of Sweden, and to offer to them the amity of England, which I suppose that wise and experienced persons as you are will accept of; and for commerce my proposals are general.

Gr. Eric. I confess the particulars thereof may more conveniently be treated on by merchants; and we do not so much desire a confederation with any nation as with England.

It was supposed by Whitelocke, that by the deferring of his business here, the Hollanders would be in the more suspense and doubt of the issue of it, and might thereby come on the more freely in their treaty with England; whereas, if the issue of his business here were known, it might perhaps seem less to them than it was now suspected to be. Upon this ground, though he spake of the delay, yet he did not so much press for a positive answer, but that he imagined the Dutch treaty might be brought to an issue; he intended to put on his business here, and the default hitherto rested on their part, as was acknowledged by their own excuses.

[SN: Discourse with the Chief Justice.]

Whilst Eric was with Whitelocke, the Chief Justice came in. And after Grave Eric was gone the Chief Justice discoursed much concerning the Protector and his family, his extraction and pedigree, his former quality and condition, and his present state and manner of living: to which Whitelocke answered truly, and with honour to the Protector; and as to his present post, attendants, and ceremonies of his Court, he could not give so punctual an account, it being altered since his coming from England. He also inquired particularly concerning the Parliament, the forms of their summons, sitting, debating, voting, power, and authority; in all which Whitelocke was the better able to satisfy him, having been a Member of Parliament for almost thirty years together: and then the Chief Justice inquired further:—

Chief Justice. What opinions of Calvin are most in estimation in England? and what is the state of your religion there?

Whitelocke. Neither Calvin's opinion nor Luther's are esteemed in England further than they are agreeable to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, which are the rules and contain the state of religion professed in England. But by what state of religion is the profanation of the Lord's Day, and of images and crucifixes in churches, permitted?

Ch. Just. No recreations or works are permitted on Sundays till after divine service ended, and then Calvin permits them; and Luther is of opinion for the historical use of images and crucifixes, but not to pray to them.

Wh. Herein both the opinion of Calvin and that of Luther are expressly contrary to the Holy Scripture, and therefore not esteemed in these points in England.

The Chief Justice eagerly asserted these opinions not to be contrary to the Scripture, but alleged no proof, either from thence or out of human authors, to make good his assertion. After much argumentation hereupon, the Chief Justice offered to Whitelocke that he would move the Queen for a speedy despatch of his business; and said, he did not doubt but that satisfaction would be given him therein.

Whitelocke was the more desirous to get a conclusion of his business while Piementelle was here, because of his great favour with the Queen; which, with her respects to Montecuculi, both great Papists, caused Whitelocke to have the more doubt of her inclinations.

Prince Adolphus made a great entertainment for Montecuculi, Piementelle, and most of the grandees in town; but Whitelocke was omitted, his humour and principles as to their jollities and drinking of healths not being agreeable to theirs; and he held this neglect no affliction to him.

March 9, 1653.

Whitelocke visited the Ricks-Admiral Oxenstiern, the Chancellor's brother, who received him with great civility; and they discoursed very much of Whitelocke's business to the effect as others did.

[SN: Whitelocke visits the Chancellor's eldest son.]

He also visited Grave John Oxenstiern, the Chancellor's eldest son, whose carriage was elated. Two of his pages were sons of Earls, and had the title of Earls; his servants were some of them set at his outer door to receive Whitelocke; himself vouchsafed to meet him at the inner door, and, with supercilious reservedness of state, descended to say to Whitelocke that he was welcome. They discoursed of England, where this Grave had been, as is before remembered, and the distaste he there received, which possibly might cause his greater neglect of Whitelocke, who took little notice of it. He took upon him to be fully instructed in the affairs of England, and of the laws and government there; wherein Whitelocke presumed to rectify some of his mistakes.

When he offered to move the Queen for despatch of Whitelocke's business, he answered, that he had done it himself already, and there would be no need to trouble any other. This occasioned some discourse about the treaty, to which, with great gravity, this General declared his judgement concerning contraband goods, that great care was to be taken therein, not to give any interruption to trade. Whitelocke said, that concerned England much more than Sweden. Then he took care that the English rebels and traitors might have favour in his country; but Whitelocke, knowing that he was neither employed nor versed in the business of his treaty, spent the fewer words in answer to his immaterial objections.

[SN: Whitelocke confers with the Queen on the articles.]

In the afternoon, Whitelocke attended the Queen, who excused her not having conferred with him about his treaty. Whitelocke told her, that, if it were now seasonable, he had them ready, and they might read them over together; whereunto she consented, and he read them to her.

She took out a paper of notes, written with her own hand in Latin, her observations upon the articles.

1. After Whitelocke had read the first article, she said there was nothing therein which needed explanation.

2. The second, she said, would require consideration, and read out of her notes the words "communis interesse," which she desired Whitelocke to explain what was meant by them. He told her those words included matter of safety and matter of traffic. She then demanded why the Baltic Sea was named as to free navigation, and not other seas likewise. Whitelocke said the reason was, because at present navigation was not free in the Baltic Sea; but if she pleased to have other seas also named, he would consent to it. She asked if he would consent to freedom of navigation in America. Whitelocke told her he could not, and that the treaties of the Commonwealth were comprehended within the bounds of Europe. She asked him what he thought the Protector would do in case she demanded that liberty. He said, his Highness would give such an answer as should consist with the interest of England, and show a due regard to her Majesty.

3. This third article she said she would agree unto, but she thought it necessary that a form should be agreed upon for certificates and letters of safe-conduct, that ships might pass free upon showing of them. Whitelocke said, he thought there would be no need of them, especially if the peace with the Dutch were concluded. She replied, that if the war continued it would be necessary.

4. She said she thought there would be no need of this article, and read another which she herself had drawn in Latin to this effect—"That if any hereafter should commit treason, or be rebels in one country, they should not be harboured in the other." Whitelocke said, the article was already to that purpose, and he thought it necessary for the good of both nations. She said, it would be too sharp against divers officers who had served her father and herself, and were now settled in Sweden. Whitelocke offered that amendment which he before tendered to the Chancellor, which when she read, she told Whitelocke, that might include all those men whom she mentioned before. Whitelocke said, that, upon inquiry into it, he found not one excepted by name from pardon. She said, for anything to be done hereafter, it was reasonable, and she would consent to it. Whitelocke said, that if any hereafter should come into her country, who were excepted from pardon, it was also reasonable to include them in this article.

5. She said that this and the second article would require further consideration; because if she should consent thereunto, it would declare her breach of the neutrality which she had hitherto kept. Whitelocke told her, if the peace were concluded with the Dutch, that neutrality would be gone; and if the war continued, he presumed she would not stick to declare otherwise then that neutrality. She said that was true, but she desired that this and the second article might be let alone until the issue of the Dutch treaty.

6. The sixth article, she said, was reasonable.

7. She took exception to the words "bona a suis cujusque inimicis direpta," which, she said, was a breach of her neutrality. To that Whitelocke answered as before upon the fifth article; and she desired it might be passed over as the second and fifth articles, till the issue of the Dutch treaty were known. She said she would desire the liberty of fishing for herrings. Whitelocke told her that upon equal conditions he presumed his Highness would consent to that which should be fit. She asked what conditions he would demand. Whitelocke said, those matters of commerce would be better agreed upon with the advice of merchants.

8. The eighth article she said was equal.

9. There was no difference upon it.

10. She judged fit to be agreed upon.

11. She made some short observations, which by explanation Whitelocke cleared, and she agreed.

12. The like as upon the eleventh article.

13. To this article she read in Latin an objection to the proviso, and said it was reasonable that, if they did break bulk, they should pay custom for so much only as they sold. Whitelocke told her that objection showed that there were great men merchants in Sweden, and that the objection was more in favour of the merchants than of herself. She said the merchants were crafty indeed; and she did not much insist upon it.

14. The last article which Whitelocke had given in. To this she said it was fit that the men-of-war that should come into the other ports should be to a number ascertained, to avoid suspicion. Whitelocke said he would agree thereunto, with a caution, as in the first article, to be added: if they should be driven by tempest, force, or necessity, then to be dispensed with.

Whitelocke desired her Majesty to give him a copy of her objections. She told him, they were only a few things which she had written with her own hand, upon her apprehension of the articles, and that he should have them in writing; but she desired him not to acquaint any person here with this conference.

March 10, 1653.

[SN: Whitelocke's despatches to England.]

Upon yesterday's conference with the Queen, Whitelocke wrote the passages thereof at large to Thurloe, to be communicated to the Council in England, and to pray their direction in some points which are set down thus in his letters:—

"I shall desire to know the pleasure of my Lord Protector and Council, whether, in case I shall conclude those articles of amity and commerce, omitting the second, fifth, and seventh articles, if his Highness will be pleased to approve thereof. I confess my humble opinion is (unless I receive commands to the contrary) that in case the peace be concluded between us and Holland, and Denmark included, it will be no disadvantage to us to conclude the alliance here, omitting the second, fifth, and that part of the seventh article against which her Majesty objected, if she shall insist upon it.

"Another point wherein I pray direction is upon the sixteenth article of your treaty with the Dutch, that either Commonwealth shall be comprehended, if they desire it, in treaties with other Princes, and notice to be given of such treaties; whether in case your treaty with the Dutch shall be agreed, that then notice ought to be given to them of the treaty with the Queen of Sweden, and the Dutch to be offered to be comprehended therein; or whether, the treaty here being begun before that with the Dutch concluded, there will be any cause to give such notice to them, or to give notice to the Queen of your treaty with the Dutch; which you will be pleased to consider.

"I am very willing to hasten homewards when I may obtain my Lord's order; and that it will be no prejudice here to your service, as I conceive such a conclusion would not at all be.

"I presume you have heard of the news at Antwerp, which is very fresh here this week, that the Archduke hath imprisoned the Duke of Lorraine in the castle of Antwerp, which caused the gates of the town to be shut; and that hath occasioned to your friends here the loss of the comfort of this week's letters from England, the post being stayed there, as I was certified from your Resident at Hamburg."

Many despatches were made by Whitelocke to his friends in England, as his constant course was.

March 11, 1653.

[SN: Admiral Oxenstiern visits Whitelocke.]

The Ricks-Admiral visited Whitelocke. He discoursed of the treaty here, and said that the Queen had not yet informed the Council of it in particular. He much inquired of the nobility of England, of the Earls and Barons, and of their privileges, and what rank their children had, and of the several orders of knights, and of their original; in which matters Whitelocke was able to give him some satisfaction. He told Whitelocke that the Duke of Lorraine was imprisoned for conspiring with the Count de Bassigni to betray three strong towns to the King of France.

[SN: Interview with Prince Adolphus.]

Whitelocke visited Prince Adolphus, who also discoursed of his business, as others did. Whitelocke told him of his long being here without any answer. The Prince said, the Queen's designs to introduce a mutation might cause it. Whitelocke said he believed that the amity of England deserved so much regard as to be embraced; and that it would be all one whether the treaty should be agreed upon by the Queen or by her successor, for it concerned the people and State of both nations; and he presumed that if the Queen should consent to it, that his Highness's brother would have the like good opinion of it. The Prince said it would be most agreeable to his brother, who very much respected the English nation, as generally the Swedish people did. He said that he never was present at the Council, nor did meddle with any public business; but he doubted not but that Whitelocke would receive contentment. Whitelocke said he promised himself so much, being the Protector had sent him hither to testify his respects to the Queen and to the kingdom of Sweden, and to offer them the amity of England.

The Prince also discoursed of the late King of England, and of the proceedings between him and the Parliament, with great dislike thereof; to which Whitelocke gave him an account, and a modest answer declining that argument with the Prince, and telling him that every nation had their particular rights and laws, according to which they were governed. He testified great respect to Whitelocke; and when he took his leave the Prince conducted him as far as the great court, which he used not to do to others of Whitelocke's quality.

March 12, 1653.

[SN: The treaty delayed by reason of the Queen's abdication.]

Mr. Bloome—who had been formerly a servant to the old Duke of Buckingham in England, and after that coming to Sweden, was entertained by the Chancellor, and his great creature, and had been employed by him as a public minister—did the honour to Whitelocke to be often with him, and now, after dinner, discoursed much of the revolution which was likely to happen in this country by the Queen's resignation; upon which subject Whitelocke thought not fit to speak much in company.

Afterwards in private Whitelocke asked Mr. Bloome if he had heard the Chancellor speak of deferring his business till the Prince were crowned. Bloome confessed he heard the Chancellor say that he thought it would be more convenient to have Whitelocke's business resolved after the King should be crowned than at present. Whitelocke told him (which he supposed Bloome would again relate to the Chancellor) that all acts of such nature concluded by the Queen before her resignation would be held authentic by her successor. Bloome said he believed so, but, being the change would be so soon, he thought it might be better to have the business put into the hands of the new King. Whitelocke said it would require a long time to expect the new King's settlement, before which he believed his return home might be commanded. Bloome said the business would be soon done after the meeting of the Ricksdag, which did not use to sit long. By this and other discourses Whitelocke found that there was a purpose in some to defer the conclusion of his treaty to the King, which he therefore prepared to prevent.

La Belle Comtesse made a great entertainment and ball for Montecuculi and the rest of the gallants this night, though it were the Lord's Day; but Whitelocke nor none of his company were present at it.

March 13, 1653.

[SN: Whitelocke confers with Count Eric Oxenstiern on the articles.]

Grave Eric came to Whitelocke to confer about his treaty, and said to him.

Grave Eric. The Queen hath commanded me to come to you and to have some conference with you about your proposals, wherein she is pleased to make use of my service, because at this time my father is very ill of an ague, and is not able himself to meet with you; and his former indisposition of health and extraordinary affairs hath been some occasion of hindrance of the despatch of your business, as have also the uncertainty of the issue of your treaty with Holland, and our great business of the Queen's intentions here.

Whitelocke. I have long expected some answer to be given in my business, the greatest part whereof hath no dependence upon the treaty with Holland, and the Queen's intentions here have been but lately made known. I have been three months in this place without any answer to my business, although I presume that the amity of England is grateful to this nation, and may merit the acceptance.

Gr. Eric. So is the friendship of Sweden.

Wh. My Lord Protector hath testified that by sending me hither.

Gr. Eric. The Queen hath likewise sent several public ministers to England, and Mr. Lagerfeldt was a long time there without effecting anything.

Wh. He had answers to his proposals very often, and it was on his part that a conclusion was not had with him. But if you please to proceed to a conference upon my proposals, I am ready to treat with you, as I have always been to treat with my Lord Chancellor, your father, for whose ill-health I am heartily sorry.

Gr. Eric. I am ready in the same way of secresy as it hath been carried with my father, so that Mr. Beningen in his letters to his superiors saith that the English Ambassador did treat with none but the Queen alone, and sometimes alone with the Chancellor, whereby he could not possibly give any account of those transactions; for he thought that not one person in Sweden, except the Queen and the Chancellor, knew what they were.

Wh. The gentleman hath done me an honour in that expression.

Gr. Eric. My coming to your Excellence is to proceed in your business; and I desire a consideration may be had of the great losses which the Queen's subjects have sustained by the seizing and detaining of their ships by the English.

Wh. This is a new objection, and I am neither empowered nor have ability to cast up such accounts or to take such examinations; but there is a court of justice in England, which I presume has done, and will do, right to any who have cause to complain; and I know that my Lord Protector will command that justice shall be done to all the Queen's subjects; and if any of them have received any injury, they ought to receive a just satisfaction from the parties that did them wrong; and, if you please, I shall mention these things in my letters to England, and when I come thither myself I will personally endeavour that the same may be had fully.

Gr. Eric. I hope a just satisfaction will be given herein, without which there can be no solid foundation of amity between the two nations and their people.

Wh. The same is reasonably and mutually to be expected; and I make no question but my Lord Protector will order right to be done therein.

Gr. Eric. The Queen's subjects have received great losses under colour of contraband goods, when the same hath not been proved.

Wh. And many of our allies have been found to colour our enemies' goods to the damage of England; but these matters will be proper for an examination elsewhere.

They proceeded to the particular articles.

1. This, Eric said, was equal.

2. He made the same objections as the Queen had done, and Whitelocke gave the same answers; and Eric said that this article depended upon our treaty with the Dutch.

3. Eric desired an explanation of the words "omnibus in locis quibus hactenus commercium exercebatur,"—whether that were not intended to include the English plantations in America, because traffic thither, without special license, was prohibited by our Commonwealth; and he said it would be unequal for the English to have the full traffic in the Queen's dominions, and her subjects not to have the like in our Commonwealth. Whitelocke answered, that the English desired no traffic in any of the Queen's dominions out of Europe, and therefore it was equal not to consent to their traffic in America; and that the opinion of the Council of State in England had been made known to Mr. Lagerfeldt in England, in this point; which paper Whitelocke then showed, and the Grave urged many other arguments, but Whitelocke kept himself to the paper of the Council.

Eric said, those transactions of Lagerfeldt were remitted to Whitelocke's Embassy. Whitelocke said, that whatever his instructions might warrant, yet it would not become him to do anything contrary to that wherein the Council of State had declared their judgement. The same answer Whitelocke gave him concerning the herring-fishing, which Eric much insisted upon; and as to the pre-emption of the commodities of Sweden, mentioned in the Council's paper, which Whitelocke showed him, Eric said that could not be, because those commodities were of very great value, and belonged to several private persons; and he demanded of Whitelocke if he thought England would be contented to give a pre-emption of all their cloth.

Whitelocke said, the cloth of England was likewise of very great value, and there would hardly be found one stock to buy it all, and there were several staples in other countries to vent it at; and he said he thought the best way would be, first to agree upon the general amity and commerce between the two nations, and afterwards, if Sweden held it fit, when they sent an ambassador to England, or otherwise, to propound anything concerning the fishing for herrings or the traffic in America, or touching a staple at Narva, Revel, or Gothenburg (which Eric likewise discoursed of at large), that the Protector would give a fair and just answer.

4. Eric made the same objections that the Queen had done, and had the same answers.

5. The like discourse was upon this article.

6. The sixth, Eric said, was the same in effect with the fourth article, and might be adjoined to it. Whitelocke showed him the difference, chiefly in the beginning of this article; and so they passed on.

7. They had many arguments touching contraband goods, wherein Whitelocke held himself to the paper given by the Council to Lagerfeldt; and Eric passed it over, as depending upon the success of the treaty with Holland, especially in the words "bona a suis cujusque inimicis direpta."

8. This, Eric thought, would need explanation of the words "in quolibet suorum marium." Whitelocke told him that was intended in Europe only.

9. Eric said the words "armatis vel inermibus" were not necessary, because by the law of Sweden any might carry their arms with them. Whitelocke told him that it was not permitted in England for so many together without license.

10. Eric made no objection to this article.

11. Nor any to this article.

12. Nor was anything objected to this article.

13. Eric said the proviso needed explanation as to the point of breaking bulk, as the Queen had objected; and Whitelocke gave the same answer.

14. The like objections and answers as before, and consent to the like amendment.

Eric and much other good company dined with Whitelocke, and after dinner they had further discourse on the same subject. And Eric promised to give his objections to Whitelocke in writing, and to let him know the Queen's pleasure upon their conference; which Whitelocke intended to know also from the Queen herself.

The company being gone, Whitelocke visited Piementelle, who discoursed much touching the Duke of Lorraine, and of the insolencies of his soldiers, for which the Duke would give no right; but if a poor countryman complained to him, that his wife had been ravished by his soldiers, and his goods taken away, the Duke would laugh at the poor man, and say to him, "It is my condition: the King of France hath ravished my wife and my estate, and I have got another wife, and maintain myself with the goods of others; and I advise thee to do the same as I have done." Piementelle informed Whitelocke of a carriage of Beningen of much more incivility towards the Queen than that which he attributed to Whitelocke towards Prince Adolphus; and Whitelocke imparted to Piementelle some passages between Grave Eric and Whitelocke, supposing he would tell it to the Queen.

March 14, 1653.

[SN: Interview with General Wrangel.]

Four of the Queen's servants did Whitelocke the honour to dine with him; and after they were gone, Whitelocke visited the Field-Marshal Wrangel, a gentleman of an ancient noble family in this country, son to General Wrangel, of whom so often and so honourable mention is made in the German wars under Gustavus Adolphus, the Queen's father.

This Field-Marshal was about thirty-five years of age; his person proper and burly, his countenance martial and ingenuous, and his discourse answerable; his behaviour courteous, and full of cheerfulness in his words and actions. His education was liberal; some time he had spent in foreign parts, and had attained languages and the military part of learning. He was full of knowledge of the mathematics, and well read in story. His genius led him most to warfare, and the sea affairs seemed most suitable to his affections; whereof he would much discourse with Whitelocke, and admired his relations of the English fleets and havens. His valour and conduct had commonly the best associate, good success, which he used to improve, not parting with the least advantage. This brought him to the favour of his Queen and honour of his country, wherein he was a Ricks-Senator, and as a Field-Marshal commanded the army, and was Ricks-Vice-Admiral, which charge he attained in the late war with Denmark; and he it was that took the King of Denmark's ships in the late fight with them. Whitelocke gave him thanks for his favours to Whitelocke's son at Stockholm; they discoursed of the English navy, whereof Wrangel knew many of the ships by name. He told Whitelocke that Middleton was arrived in Scotland with two hundred officers and six thousand arms, which he brought from the Low Countries.

From Wrangel Whitelocke went to visit Woolfeldt, to congratulate his recovery of health. He told Whitelocke that, by letters which he received from one of his servants in the Low Countries, he was advertised that the States had sold above twenty of their ships of war, and that his servant heard the Admiral de Witt speak of it. He also told Whitelocke that he had spoken with many officers of the army, and found all of them wish that the war between England and Holland might continue; by which they hoped they should join with the English, and gain advantage by it, and themselves good employment and plunder. But he said that the Chancellor and his sons, and their party, desired that a peace might be between the two Commonwealths, because they were rich enough, and had an interest in trade, and were no soldiers; and that the Queen desired peace among all her neighbours, and although she was very courageous, yet she loved not the wars.

March 15, 1653.

[SN: Further conference with the Queen.]

Whitelocke waited on the Queen, and gave her an account of the conference between Grave Eric and him. The Queen said that Grave Eric had told her the same things. Whitelocke replied, that her Majesty should never find other than truth from him. Upon the point of damages she seemed satisfied, though she were informed that those matters were remitted to Whitelocke's negotiation. To which he answered as he had done before to Eric; and she was contented, and said she would send an ambassador to England, by whom the affairs touching the herring-fishing and the erection of a staple and the trade in America might be concluded; and she told Whitelocke that she had ordered those things which she judged fit to be added to his articles, to be written down and given to him.

She asked Whitelocke by what way he purposed to return to England. He said he was doubtful of going by land, and thought the passage from Stockholm to Luebeck would be the shortest and most convenient for him. She replied, that would be his best way, and that she would give order for some of her ships to be ready to transport him; for which Whitelocke thanked her Majesty.

She discoursed much of England, and asked many questions about the Thames and other rivers of England, and of their havens and armies; whereof Whitelocke gave her a full account. She asked him in how many days one might go from Plymouth to St. Sebastian, and many other things on that subject. They also discoursed of religion and the worship and service of God; wherein Whitelocke spake plainly and freely to her Majesty, and told her that those who made a mock at religion, and were Atheists in their opinion, were not only most miserable in their own condition, but brought others likewise into misery; and all of them would find that God would not be mocked, nor such conversation be excused, but would be brought into a sad account in the end; and that there was no foundation in any such people, or in their opinions, but what was sandy and would fail, and all building thereupon would totter and fall down and become rubbish; that the only solid comfort and true wisdom lay in the sincere worship and service of God, which was not only agreeable to the doctrine of truth, but to reason itself. To this, and much of the like discourse, the Queen was very attentive, and seemed pleased with it.

March 16, 1653.

[SN: Despatches from England.]

Whitelocke received his letters from England, and in those from Thurloe he writes thus:—

"The particular account your Excellence gives of your negotiation is very acceptable here, as is also your dexterous management thereof. The paper you were pleased to send to me shall be represented to the Council; and your Excellence may be assured that a due care will be taken of that business, as well for justice' sake as that your present business be not hindered by things of this kind. The bales of the Queen's goods shall also be taken care of, and any omissions which have been therein rectified; and I do assure your Excellence that the Queen's Commissary here hath such speedy and effectual despatches in everything he makes application for, that I know he cannot but give notice of it to the Queen."

Then he gives in his letters a full relation of the state of the Dutch treaty, and all particulars of it, and the likelihood of its taking effect; and gives intelligence of the French news; and sends copies of Beningen's letters from Upsal to the States, and of the posture of affairs in England, Scotland, and Ireland: and concludes,—

"Therefore, with my humble thanks for your Excellence's favour to me of your weekly letters, and hearty wishes for your safe and honourable return to your friends and relations here, I rest,

"Your Excellence's most humble and faithful servant,

"JO. THURLOE. "February 16, 1653."

Whitelocke received many letters from his private friends, his brothers-in-law, Mr. Hall, Mr. Cokaine, Mr. Eltonhead, Sir Charles Woolsey, Colonel Sydenham, and one from Mr. Selden, which for the extraordinary respect thereof, and the person's sake (of whom the Queen made often inquiry), is fit to be remembered, and was thus:—

[SN: Letter from Selden.]

"To his Excellence the Lord Whitelocke, Lord Ambassador to her Most Excellent Majesty of Sweden.

"May it please your Excellence,

"There is nothing happens here that can be worthy of your knowledge but you meet with it doubtless long before I could send it,—indeed, I think, long before I know it,—so that I cannot present you with any English news: my still keeping in from the open cold air makes me a mere winter stranger in my own country. The best news I have heard since I had the honour to see you, and that which brought me with it an ample store of gladness, was the assurance of your Excellence's safety, which a false rumour with great confidence had utterly destroyed here. There is none living can with more hearty affection wish all happiness to you, and good success in your great employment there, and a safe and timely return, than doth most really,

"Your Excellence's most obliged "and most humble servant, "J. SELDEN. "Whitefriars, February 10, 1653."

The occasion of that passage in his letter of a false rumour was news brought into England that Whitelocke was stabbed and murdered in Sweden; and thus his death was with much confidence reported from several hands, and from divers intelligences out of several parts of Christendom. Whitelocke's friends were much startled at this news, and the more because of former intelligences of designs of that nature against him, whereof they wrote him word; and he was glad to read the news, and that, through the goodness of God, he was able to confute those reports. They were kept from Whitelocke's wife by the care of his friends, till one in gladness came to give her joy that the ill news of her husband was not true; which brought the whole matter to her knowledge, and herself to great perplexity upon the sudden apprehension and fright of it, though there was no truth in it.

Whitelocke, that he might not seem wholly to neglect the Queen's favour, had sent a packet of his letters which had no secrets unto Monsieur Bonele, the Queen's Commissary in England, who wrote back an account to Whitelocke of his care of them, and of the command he had received from the Queen so to do, and prayed Whitelocke to speak to the Queen on Bonele's behalf.

March 17, 1653.

[SN: Prince Adolphus visits Whitelocke.]

Prince Adolphus visited Whitelocke, and they discoursed much of England and of Whitelocke's business; whom the Prince persuaded to stay in patience for an answer, and he doubted not but that he would receive satisfaction. Whitelocke said that hitherto he had been very patient, and would continue so, and not importune anybody to speed his answer, being it concerned both nations; and he believed that Sweden would be as well disposed to entertain the amity of England as England had been in the offer of it. But Whitelocke thought fit to inform the Prince and some others that he thought his residence here would not be long, and that as soon as my Lord Protector should send his letter for his return to England (which he expected in a short time), he would presently take his journey. They discoursed also touching his brother, who was to succeed, and of the brotherly affection between them; as also of the proposal which had been heretofore made in the Ricksdag of the Queen to marry his Royal Highness, and the Council's advice and endeavours to further the same; and how it was not brought to pass, the Queen being wholly adverse to marriage, but causing the succession of the Prince Palatine to be enacted by the Ricksdag after her Majesty, if she had no children. And in these particulars the Prince was free in his discourse, but Whitelocke thought not fit for him to be so.

[SN: Letter of Jonathan Pickes.]

Whitelocke communicated to some of his company a letter which he received from a member of a congregation in London, which was thus:—

"For his Excellence the Lord Ambassador Whitelocke at Sweden.

"My Lord,

"The wise and holy carriage of Solomon before the Queen of Sheba are more lasting monuments of his praise than his targets of gold, or magnificent temple. The glory of saints is a glorious name, by which, though dead, yet they speak. God will not be ungrateful, nor unfaithful to forget or not to recompense any labour of love. The interest of Christ,—what greater jewel in the world! and yet how little liked and loved by the world! All seek their own, not the things of Jesus Christ. The best, the noblest, the most lasting, yet not minded: our own things, poor, low, uncertain, unsatisfactory, yet pursued. The heart runneth after the wedge of gold, and the mind seeks for greatness. Give me honour, or else I die: a crown here is more desired than heaven hereafter. Divine love hath great danger accompanying it, but the recompense is answerable: 'Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.' Learned Paul counts all things but dung and dross to holy Christ; and Moses esteemed reproaches for Christ, and afflictions with the people of Christ, greater riches than the treasures of Egypt or the honours at Court. And now, Sir, will you have the meaning of all? It is only a Christian motive to you to eye the highest Lord and the best interest with the greatest industry; that his honour, which is best of all, be dearer to you than all country honour: life, world, are not to be named in the day of his glory. Oh mind him who will not forget you in the least! There's none in heaven like him: can there be anything on earth compared to him? Two things are chiefly to be minded in all actings,—the springs from whence, and the centre to which, all moves. If love to God be the spring of all, and glory for God the centre of all, then the heart is upright in all. Remember the blessed sound, 'Well done, thou good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful in a little, but thou shalt be enjoyer of much; enter into thy Lord's joy.' And truly, Sir, you have been not a little in my thoughts to God for you; so hath it emboldened me thus to speak to God for you. My soul and many more have been set a-praising God on your behalf, for that noble Christian testimony and dislike of that wicked custom of cup-health pledging; whereas a Christian's health is God, and his cup salvation. And blessed be the Lord, that did give you to dislike the ball of pleasure, and that the Lord of that day was so precious. Go on nobly for the Lord; give your testimony against the wicked customs of a strange country or dying world; bear his image in all your transactions, and follow his steps who was the most glorious Ambassador that ever was; and in this motion the Lord fill your sails with his gales, make you holily successful, and give you to see your land and relations full of heavenly fruition, is the humble and hearty desire of one of the least sons of Zion, ready to serve the Lord in you or yours.


March 18, 1653.

Doctor Whistler made a copy of Latin verses upon the Queen's abdication, which, for the ingenuity and fancy, were worthy the sight of a Prince; and Whitelocke sent them to the Queen, who was much taken with them. Whitelocke was so pleased with those verses that, having a little leisure, himself turned them into English.[41]

Whitelocke having sent to know if the Queen were at leisure that he might wait upon her, she returned an excuse that she was not well: she came away sick from the public schools, where she had been to grace the disputations of a young Swedish Baron with her presence.

[SN: Effect of the peace with Holland.]

Senator Bundt visited Whitelocke, and discoursed with him in English, which he spake indifferently well, and was the only Swede he conversed with in that language. Part of their discourse was to this effect:—

Bundt. Mr. Beningen, the Holland Resident in this Court, acquainted me that his superiors have concluded the agreement with England: only some provinces desire a more express inclusion of the King of Denmark than is yet contained in the articles; and they are much troubled that, being upon the conclusion of the treaty, you make so great preparations of war, and have so powerful a fleet at sea; and we here do much wonder what should be your design to have so strong a fleet, and so soon out at sea.

Wh. The design is for the defence of the Commonwealth; and it is our custom not to trust to the success of any treaties, which is uncertain, but to prepare for all events. If the treaty be agreed, it will be religiously observed on our part, and the navy will be employed to scour the seas of pirates and enemies, that trade may be free and safe; and we always use in time of peace to have a fleet at sea; and if the war continue, we shall be the more ready, by the blessing of God, to maintain our right. But what suspicion have you here of our navy?

Bundt. We suppose it may be employed to open the passage of the Sound, and make the trade and navigation there free.

Wh. The hindrance of navigation there is more prejudicial{2} to Sweden than to England. We can have our commodities at Gothenburg and in other places, without passing the Baltic Sea.

Bundt. Many amongst us know not what to think of your fleet, and it troubles some.

Wh. I hope we shall be in nearer amity, and then you will be pleased at it. Have the Senators consulted about the matters of my treaty, or of remitting it to the new King?

Bundt. We have not advised any such thing, but believe the best way for effecting your business will be by the Queen herself; and if any tell you the contrary, they are much mistaken in the affairs of this kingdom, and do not give you a right understanding of them.

This being wholly contrary to what was informed by Monsieur Bloome, the Chancellor's creature, caused Whitelocke the more to mind it, and endeavour to obviate that prejudice of delay to his business; and finding by this discourse with Bundt how much the Dutch Resident and others here were amused at the English fleet now at sea, he made use thereof, and gave advice of it to his superiors in England.

March 19, 1653.

[SN: Intrigues of the Dutch Resident against Whitelocke.]

Whitelocke sent to inquire of the Queen's health; and it being the Lord's Day, she was in her chapel. Divers English and Scots of the town came to Whitelocke's house to hear sermons there; and among them was Monsieur Ravius, who acquainted Whitelocke that one of the Queen's chaplains asked Ravius how long Whitelocke intended to stay in Sweden. Ravius said he would shortly return to his own country. The chaplain replied, he did not believe that, but he thought Whitelocke would stay here a long time, and that he durst not return to England because of the displeasure of the Protector against him. And when he was answered that Whitelocke came hither not in the posture of a man out of favour, and that the Protector since his accession to the Government had sent him new credentials, and expressed much favour to him, and sent to be certified what respect the Queen gave him, the chaplain replied that Whitelocke was sent hither purposely to be removed out of England, and because he had been of the former Parliament; to which Ravius said, that many who were of the former Parliament were now in public offices, as Whitelocke was.

There was cause to believe that this and many the like stories were feigned by the Holland Resident and other enemies of the Commonwealth, to asperse Whitelocke and his business, and to give some obstruction to it; but Whitelocke took little notice of such things, only he thanked Monsieur Ravius for his defence of Whitelocke and of the truth.

It was also related to Whitelocke that the inauguration of his Royal Highness could not probably be performed till the feast of St. John the Baptist, and that then nothing could be concluded in his business till the feast (as they expressed it) of the Holy Archangel St. Michael next following, because it was fit to be remitted to the Prince for his final agreement thereunto; and so the treaty must necessarily receive a deferring till that time, which, they said, would be best for Whitelocke's affairs. Whitelocke told them that it would be somewhat difficult to persuade him that such a delay of his business would be best; he was sufficiently convinced of the contrary, and that such an obstruction would render his treaty wholly fruitless both to England and Sweden, and that he hoped to be himself in England long before the time which they prefixed for the beginning of his treaty with the new King; and that he daily expected the commands of the Protector touching his return home, which he should readily and willingly obey, whether his treaty here should be concluded or not. He spake the more to this effect, and the oftener, that the same might come to the ear of the Chancellor and other senators.

March 20, 1653.

[SN: Peace signed between England and the United Provinces.]

Whitelocke visited Piementelle, who communicated to him the news of the Duke of Lorraine, and that the United Provinces of the Netherlands had ratified the articles with England. Whitelocke asked if Groningen had consented. He said yes, but with this restriction, that the Prince of Orange should be comprised in the treaty, which might yet cause some obstruction in it. Whitelocke imparted to him some of his news, and imparted such passages of his conferences and business as he desired might by him be related to the Queen.

[SN: Senator Schuett affects to be favourable to the treaty.]

Senator Schuett visited Whitelocke, and staid with him above two hours. They discoursed of many things unnecessary to be remembered; some was thus:—

Schuett. I am sorry that the business of your treaty goes on so slowly; but I hope you will excuse it, in regard the Chancellor is not quick in despatches, and affects long deliberations in great matters.

Whitelocke. That is an argument of his prudence and well weighing of things before he come to a resolution; and certainly he hath had sufficient time of deliberation in my business.

Sch. The Chancellor sometimes may take more time than is necessary for one business, and borrow it for another; he knows the advantages of times and seasons, and how to improve them.

Wh. I have found it so; but methinks my business should have been so acceptable as to have prevented such great delays.

Sch. Your negotiation as to the amity with England was in consideration with the Council here before your arrival; and all of us agreed that it was more desirable than any other.

Wh. I believe it would be agreeable to you, who are persons of great experience, knowing the interest of your own country, and how considerable the English nation is; and this caused a belief in me that I might promise myself an answer to my proposals before my departure from hence.

Sch. The great affairs of this kingdom, and the change likely to happen, have put a stop to all other business; and in case your negotiation cannot be brought to a conclusion during your stay here, yet it may be agreed upon afterwards by an ambassador to be sent from hence to England.

Wh. My Lord Protector having testified so much respect to the Queen, as he hath done in sending me Ambassador hither, for me, after four or five months' residence and negotiation in this place, to be sent home again without any conclusion of my business, but the same to be remitted to the sending of an ambassador from hence to England, would be no answer to the respect of the Protector in sending me hither.

Sch. The Parliament sent your Excellence hither, as I understood, and not the Protector.

Wh. My coming hither was at first by my Lord Protector's desire, he being then General, and without his earnest request to me I had not undertaken it; and since his access to the Government I have received new credentials from him, by virtue whereof only I have negotiated, and am the first public Minister employed by his Highness.

Sch. It is a very great respect which the Protector hath manifested to you, and by you to our Queen and nation, and that which you say carries reason with it. I shall do all that possibly may lie in my power to testify my respects and service to his Highness and Commonwealth of England, and to your Excellence their honourable Ambassador.

Wh. You are pleased to express a great honour and esteem for my Lord Protector and for his servant, whereof I shall not fail, by any service in my power, to make acknowledgment to your Excellence.

There were many other compliments and discourses between them; and the Senator fell into a relation of Russia, where he had been, and of the Great Duke's bringing at one time into the field an army of 200,000 men, divided into three parties, whereof one part fell upon Poland, and had lately taken divers considerable places in that kingdom; and much more he spake of this exploit, which is omitted.

March 21, 1653.

[SN: Senator Schuett's duplicity.]

Whitelocke was somewhat surprised by the carriage of Senator Schuett to him yesterday, and with his freedom of discourse, which showed him either to be a courtier and versed in the art of simulation, or the reports made of him to Whitelocke to be untrue. Now he seemed clearly for the league with England; before, he expressed himself against it; now he showed civility and respect to Whitelocke and to his superiors; before, he spake disdainfully of them and their affairs.

But an ambassador must hear and see many things, and yet take no notice of them; must court an enemy to become a friend, as he believed he had done to Schuett, who, after acquaintance between him and Whitelocke, became very friendly. But Whitelocke held it requisite to keep at somewhat more distance with him than with others, because he had been informed that there was not much of kindness between the Chancellor and this gentleman, which was confirmed by discourse this day with Lagerfeldt.

Lagerfeldt. I entreat your Excellence's excuse for my long absence, which hath been occasioned by an employment lately bestowed on me by her Majesty, which takes up my time in the discharge of it.

Whitelocke. I do congratulate the honour and favour of the Queen towards you, in this part of a reward for your good service in England, whereof I was a witness and have affirmed it to her Majesty. What is the office she hath given you?

Lag. It is the Vice-President of the College of Trade.

Wh. I suppose the office is profitable as well as honourable.

Lag. A competent salary is annexed to the office, and with us no person doth serve in any office or public employment, but he hath a salary for it from the State.

Wh. That is honourable, and for the advantage of the State. One of your Ricks-Senators was here with me yesterday, and I had much discourse with him about my business.

Lag. Which of them was with your Excellence?

Wh. The Senator Schuett, whom I saw not before.

Lag. I wonder at his visit; did he express much respect to your Commonwealth?

Wh. As much as any I have met with.

Lag. I much wonder at it; but shall advise your Excellence not to depend much upon this gentleman, nor to be over-free in your discourse with him; for he hath been under a cloud, and is very intimate with the Holland Resident.

Wh. I thank you for your caution; but I have communicated nothing to him but what might be published.

Lag. My Lord Eric Oxenstiern hath, by the Queen's command, some papers touching your business to be imparted to you.

Wh. Do you remember the effect of them?

Lag. They contain some explanation of the articles given in by your Excellence, and some additions offered to them, but not much differing from those exhibited by you.

They had much discourse about these additions and explanations, whereof Whitelocke endeavoured to get as much knowledge from Lagerfeldt as he could beforehand, that he might be the better prepared to debate upon them when they should be produced; and he declared his sense positively against some of them to Lagerfeldt, which proved an advantage. Some of those additions mentioned by Lagerfeldt, being upon his report to Grave Eric of Whitelocke's judgement upon them, were left out of Grave Eric's paper.

[SN: Further conference with Grave Eric Oxenstiern.]

In the afternoon Grave Eric came to Whitelocke, and they had this discourse together:—

Gr. Eric. Here is a paper, which I shall read unto you, containing some matters wherein I desire your consideration, being they relate to the treaty, as touching contraband goods; that there may be such a liberty, that trade be not impeached, that prizes may not be brought into the ports of friends, nor enemies admitted into the havens of the friends and allies of either nations; that the fishing for herrings and the trade in America may be free for the Swedes, and that they may have satisfaction for the wrongs done to them by the English at sea.

Whitelocke. Here is very much in these particulars to which I have formerly given my answer, and can give no other. England hath had no reason to give a liberty of contraband goods when their enemies deny it, and it were hard to forbid friends to bring prizes into the ports of friends, being no prejudice to the owner of the port, but a discourtesy to the friend; neither is it reason to deny a friend to enter into my harbour because he is an enemy to another that is my friend also, whose quarrel I am not bound to wed. For the liberty of herring-fishing, it may be had from our Commonwealth upon reasonable conditions; and for the trade in America, I am not instructed to assent to anything therein, but I supposed it had been intended to send from hence to the Protector about it. And for satisfaction of wrongs, I know none done by the English to the Queen's subjects, and imagined that her Majesty had been satisfied in these points.

Gr. Eric. I have order to acquaint you with these particulars, and to confer with you about them, being esteemed by us just and reasonable.

Wh. After my attendance here three or four months without any answer to my proposals, I did not expect to receive new ones from you so different from those which I gave in with equal respect to the good of both nations; and I having offered the friendship of England to you in general, you answer that it will be accepted, but upon particular and hard conditions.

Gr. Eric. I confess there hath been too much delay in your business, but it hath been occasioned by the uncertainty of the issue of your treaty with Holland.

Wh. The issue of that treaty is not yet known, and the articles given in by me had no relation thereunto, and were proposed three months since.

Gr. Eric. At present we take it for granted that the peace is concluded between you and Holland, and that now you are good friends.

Wh. I wish we may be so; and if that peace be concluded, there is the less need of your proposals touching prizes, contraband{3} goods, etc.

Gr. Eric. Though the peace be concluded between you, yet it is prudent to make those provisions, in case of a new war with them or others.

Wh. I shall desire a copy of your particulars.

Gr. Eric. You shall have them; and I desire you to read this paper, which is an order of the Council of State in England, delivered to Mr. Lagerfeldt when he was there, whereby these particulars are remitted to your negotiation.

Wh. This paper bears date after my departure from England, and I never saw it before, nor received any particular instructions on this subject.

Gr. Eric. If you are not satisfied touching the point of damages sustained by her Majesty's subjects in the taking of their ships and goods by the English, there may be witnesses examined here for proof thereof.

Wh. I cannot erect a Court or Commissioners, or consent to examination of witnesses, in this place and upon this occasion; nor can I take accounts of merchants; I confess my ignorance.

Gr. Eric. It may be contained in the treaty that justice shall be done, and satisfaction given to my countrymen for the wrongs done to them.

Wh. That cannot be so expressed without accusing our Commonwealth, and at least confessing wrongs done, and implying that justice hath not been done; but I can assure you that the Commonwealth hath done, and will do, justice to their friends and to all persons, and I shall do all that lies in my power for that end.

Gr. Eric. I shall inform the Queen what hath passed in our conference, and know her Majesty's pleasure therein.

March 22, 1653.

Monsieur Lyllicrone informed Whitelocke that Prince Adolphus had taken a solemn leave of the Queen, and was gone into the country. Whitelocke asked if it was upon any discontent; Lyllicrone said he knew not. Whitelocke asked if he would not be at the Ricksdag; Lyllicrone said he believed the Prince did not intend to be at it, but to travel incognito with a few servants into France and Italy.

[SN: The French advances resumed.]

The French Resident visited Whitelocke in the afternoon, and seeing his coaches and horses ready to go abroad to take the air, offered, with many compliments, to bear Whitelocke company, which he could not refuse. The Resident acquainted Whitelocke that Monsieur Bordeaux, now in London, had received a commission from the King of France to be his Ambassador to the Protector, and that Bordeaux had written to this gentleman here, to salute Whitelocke on his part, and to signify to him that Bordeaux would be willing to entertain a correspondence with Whitelocke, and had expressed much affection to his person. Whitelocke answered that he should be ready to testify all respect and service to Monsieur Bordeaux, and desired the Resident to testify the same to him at his next opportunity. Lagerfeldt came to Whitelocke, who had some trouble in discourse with them both together,—the Resident speaking only French, and Lagerfeldt only Latin, and he must answer them in their respective languages.

After the Resident was gone, Lagerfeldt discoursed with Whitelocke about the treaty, particularly of the new proposals showed him by Grave Eric. Whitelocke gave the same answers to Lagerfeldt as he had done to Eric: then Lagerfeldt said, that by command of the Queen, he was to tender to Whitelocke a copy of articles. Whitelocke asked if they were the same that Grave Eric yesterday imparted to him, and whether Lagerfeldt had any speech with the Queen this day about them. Lagerfeldt said they were altered in some part, so as to make them the more acceptable to Whitelocke, and that he had a few words with the Queen about them.

This caused Whitelocke to marvel that the Queen should pretend to him that she was sick, and therefore put off the audience which he desired this day, and yet her Majesty found herself well enough to peruse and debate with Lagerfeldt these articles; but he said nothing thereof to others, only made thereof his own observations and use, as he saw occasion. Lagerfeldt and he perused these new articles, and had much discourse upon them, and in effect the same as with Grave Eric.

[SN: Whitelocke's amusements in his household.]

In the long winter-nights here, Whitelocke thought fit to give way to some passages of diversion to please his people, and to keep them together in his house, and from temptations to disorder and debauchery in going abroad, besides the danger of the streets in being late out. He therefore had music, both instrumental and vocal, in concert, performed by those of his own family, who were some of them excellent in that art, and himself sometimes bore his part with them. He also gave way to their exercise and pleasure of dancing in his great chamber, that he might be present at it, and admitted no undecent postures, but seemly properties of habits in their shows. He encouraged public disputations in Latin among the young men who were scholars, himself present in the great chamber, and appointing a moderator; and this exercise they found useful and pleasant, and improving their language. To this end likewise they had public declamations in Latin, himself giving them the question, as "an quodcunque evenerit sit optimum," etc., so that his house was like an academy.

March 23, 1653.

[SN: Whitelocke again negotiates with the Queen.]

Whitelocke attended the Queen; and after some discourses of pleasantries, they fell upon the treaty, and Whitelocke said to her:—

Whitelocke. My business, Madam, is now brought to a conclusion.

Queen. Is it to your liking?

Wh. Pardon me, Madam, if I say it is not at all to my liking; for in the articles which Grave Eric sent me there were many particulars to which I could not agree, and I much wondered to receive such articles from him, being persuaded that your Majesty was before satisfied by me in most of the particulars in them.

Qu. What are those particulars?

The articles Whitelocke had in readiness with him, and his observations upon them, having taken pains this morning to compare their articles with his own, and to frame his objections upon them. The Queen wrote down the objections with her own hand, and then entered into a debate with Whitelocke upon the whole, and seemed to be satisfied in most of the points insisted on by Whitelocke; but was stiff upon the law relating to ships of war which is mentioned in her eleventh article, and upon some other particulars. After the debate, she desired that Whitelocke would the next morning bring to her his objections in writing; and then she said, "We will not be long before we come to a conclusion of this business."

Whitelocke thought it convenient to make his addresses to the Queen herself, and, as much as he could, to decline conferences with her Commissioner Grave Eric, whom he found more than others averse and cross to him in his treaty. And the Queen was pleased to admit Whitelocke to this way, and was not displeased to have applications in this and other affairs of the like nature to be made upon her person; whereof Whitelocke had private information before from Piementelle, Woolfeldt, and others, whose advice he pursued herein with good success.

Her Majesty also permitted Whitelocke to have a free debate with her upon the points controverted, and would return answers to every argument with as much reason and ingenuity as any of her Ministers of State, and be sooner than they satisfied with what was reason. She told Whitelocke that she marvelled that he, having received those long articles but late the last night, should be able to make objections, and to enter into a debate upon all of them this day, when her people had much longer time to frame these articles. Whitelocke answered, "Yes, by two or three months." After some other discourse, Whitelocke left her in a pleasant humour.

Being returned home, Lagerfeldt came again to him to sift him, and to know what answer the Queen had given to his objections upon the new articles. But Whitelocke fitted his inquiry, and thought not convenient to communicate to him more than what might advantage his business to be reported to Grave Eric; and because, in all conferences with the Queen, no person was admitted to be present with them, not her own Commissioners for the treaty, or any of the Senators, for the secresy of the business, which was much to the liking of Whitelocke, and furtherance of the treaty. They had much discourse upon the new articles, to the same effect as formerly; and Lagerfeldt said he doubted not but the Queen would in a short time conclude it to Whitelocke's satisfaction.

After this discourse Whitelocke inquired of Lagerfeldt how the Chancellor's health was, and what physicians were about him. Lagerfeldt said he was still sick of his ague, and had no physician attending him but one who had been a chirurgeon in the army, and now constantly lived in the house with the Chancellor as a humble friend, sat at his table, and had a pension from him of four hundred rix-dollars a year; who had some good receipts, especially for the stone, which agreed with the Chancellor's constitution, which this chirurgeon only studied and attended. And so it was generally in this great and large country. Whitelocke met with no doctor of physic or professed physician in any town or country, not any attending the person of the Queen herself; but there are many good women, and some private persons, who use to help people that are diseased by some ordinary known medicines; and their diseases are but few, their remedies generally communicated, and they live many of them to a great age.

[SN: Letters and despatches from England.]

Whitelocke received letters from England, which were always welcome, especially bringing the good news of the welfare of his relations. He received very respectful letters from the Earl of Clare, Sir Charles Woolsey, Colonel Sydenham, the Master of the Rolls, Mr. Reynolds, Lord Commissioner Lisle, and divers others, besides his usual letters from his wife, Mr. Hall, Mr. Cokaine, his brothers-in-law, and divers other friends. In those from Thurloe he had the particular passages of the Dutch treaty, and that he believed the peace with them would be concluded; and in those letters Thurloe also writes thus:—

"Your Excellence's of the 27th of January I communicated to his Highness and to the Council, who, although they do not by this transaction of the Queen very well understand her intentions as to the peace, yet they are very much satisfied with the management thereof on your part, and commit the issue thereof unto the Lord, who will either bless your endeavours by bringing things to a desired issue, or otherwise dispose of this affair to the glory of God, the good of the Commonwealth, and the comfort of yourself who are employed in it.

"The Council, upon consideration of the whole matter, did not find it necessary to give you any further directions, nor did his Highness, especially seeing his last letters but one did express his sense upon that treaty, and nothing hath occurred since which hath given any cause of alteration.

"The French King and Cardinal, seeing themselves disappointed at the Hague as to their inclusion in that treaty, endeavour to effect it here; and to that purpose the Cardinal sent hither one Monsieur Le Baas to congratulate his Highness, and to assure him of the friendship of the King; and that, if he pleased, the King would banish Charles Stuart and his family out of his dominions, and proclaim the Protector in France; and hath since sent a Commissioner to Monsieur Bordeaux to be Ambassador.

"The Spanish Ambassador doth also very much court his Highness and the present Government. Don Francisco Romero, Captain of the Guard to the Archduke, arrived here the last night, to congratulate his Highness in the Duke's name.

"I have moved the Council in the two papers your Excellence trusted to my care. What order the Council hath been pleased to make thereupon you will see by their enclosed order, and my care shall not be wanting to see an effectual execution thereof.

"Your Excellence's humble and faithful servant, "JO. THURLOE. "24th February, 1653."

The Council's Order was this:—


"Friday, 24th of February, 1653.

[SN: Order in Council on the Swedish prizes.]

"On consideration of several papers which came enclosed in a letter from the Lord Ambassador Whitelocke, and were this day presented to the Council, containing some complaints made by divers of the subjects of her Majesty of Sweden, viz. concerning a Swedish galliot called the 'Land of Promise,' and a ship called the 'Castle of Stockholm,' and certain goods taken out of the 'Gold Star' of Hamburg, and claimed as belonging to Alexander Ceccony, gentleman, principal officer of the Queen's wardrobe: Ordered, That several copies of the said papers be forthwith sent to the Judges of the Court of Admiralty and to the Commissioners for Prize Goods, to whom it is respectively referred, diligently to inform themselves of the true state of the said ship and goods, and what proceedings have been had in the Court of Admiralty or Prize Office touching the same or any of them, and thereof to make report to the Council. And it is especially recommended and given in charge to the said Judges that both in these and in all matters concerning the said Queen or her subjects, which do or shall depend before them, all right and fair respect be given upon all occasions; and that whatsoever of the said goods belonging to her Majesty's servant they shall discover, be by them ordered to be forthwith delivered.

"Ex^r W. JESSOP, "Clerk of the Council."

This Order Whitelocke caused to be translated into Latin, and sent copies of it to the Chancellor, to Grave Eric, to Mr. Ceccony, and to others; and he showed it to the Queen, and all were pleased with it, hoping for further fruit of it, and esteeming Whitelocke to be in good credit with his superiors.

March 24, 1653.

[SN: Reports of the negotiation to England.]

Whitelocke made his despatches for England, and wrote above twenty letters to several of his friends there, finding it grateful to them to receive letters from him at such a distance; and that answers to letters are expected, and ill taken if neglected; that they cost little, and please much. He was hindered by Woolfeldt, who made a long visit to him, though upon the post day; at which he wondered, in regard Woolfeldt had been himself often employed as a public minister, and knew so well what belonged to the making of despatches.

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