A SMALLER HISTORY OF ROME,
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EMPIRE.
BY WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D.
WITH A CONTINUATION TO A.D. 479. BY EUGENE LAWRENCE, A.M.
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The present History has been drawn up chiefly for the lower forms in schools, at the request of several teachers, and is intended to range with the author's Smaller History of Greece. It will be followed by a similar History of England. The author is indebted in this work to several of the more important articles upon Roman history in the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography.
The Table of Contents presents a full analysis of the work, and has been so arranged that the teacher can frame from it questions for the examination of his class, the answers to which will be found in the corresponding pages of the volume.
The restoration of the Forum has been designed by Mr. P.W. Justyne.
GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY—EARLY INHABITANTS.
Position of Italy 1
Its boundaries 1
Its two Divisions 1 I. Gallia Cisalpina 2 Liguria 2 Venetia 2 II. Italia, properly so called 2 Etruria 2 Umbria 2 Picenum 2 Sabini 3 Marsi 3 Peligni 3 Vestini 3 Marrucini 3 Frentani 3 Latium: its two senses 3 The Campagna 3 The Pontine Marshes 4 Campania 4 Bay of Naples 4 Samnium 4 Apulia 4 Calabria 4 Lucania 4 Bruttii 4
Fertility of Italy 5
Its productions 5
Its inhabitants 5 I. Italians proper 5 1. Latins 5 2. Umbro-Sabellians 5 II. Iapygians 5 III. Etruscans 5 Their name 5 Their language 5 Their origin 5 Their two confederacies 6 1. North of the Po 6 2. South of the Apennines 6 Foreign races— IV. Greeks 6 Gauls 6
THE FIRST FOUR KINGS OF ROME. B.C. 753-616.
Position of Rome 7
Its inhabitants 7 1. Latins 7 2. Sabines 7 3. Etruscans 7
Remarks on early Roman history 8
Legend of AEneas 8
Legend of Ascanius 8 Foundation of Alba Longa 8
Legend of Rhea Silvia 8
Birth of Romulus and Remus 8
Their recognition by Numitor 9
753. Foundation of Rome 9 Roma Quadrata 9 Pomoerium 9
Death of Remus 10
753-716. Reign of Romulus 9 Asylum 10 Rape of Sabines 10 War with Sabines 10 Tarpeia 10 Sabine women 10 Joint reign of Romulus and Titus Tatius 11 Death of Titus Tatius 11 Sole reign of Romulus 11 Death of Romulus 11 Institutions ascribed to Romulus 12 Patricians & Clients 12 Three tribes—Ramnes, Tities, Luceres 12 Thirty Curiae 12 Three Hundred Gentes 12 Comitia Curiata 12 The Senate 12 The Army 12
716-673. Reign of Numa Pompilius 12 Institutions ascribed to Numa Pompilius 12 Pontiffs 12 Augurs 13 Flamens 13 Vestal Virgins 13 Salii 13 Temple of Janus 13
673-641. Reign of Tullus Hostilius 13 War with Alba Longa 13 Battle of the Horatii and Curiatii 13 War with the Etruscans 14 Punishment of Mettius Fuffetius, Dictator of Alba Longa 14 Destruction of Alba Longa 14 Removal of its inhabitants to Rome 14 Origin of the Roman Plebs 14 Death of Tullus Hostilius 14
640-616. Reign of Ancus Marcius 14 War with the Latins 14 Increase of the Plebs 15 Ostia 15 Janiculum 15 Pons Sublicius 15 Death of Ancus Marcius 15
THE LAST THREE KINGS OF ROME, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE REPUBLIC DOWN TO THE BATTLE OF THE LAKE REGILLUS. B.C. 616-498.
616-578. Reign of Tarquinius Priscus 16 His early history 16 His removal to Rome 16 Becomes king 16 His wars 16 The Cloacae 16 Circus Maximus 17 Increase of the Senate 17 Increase of the Equites 17 Attus Navius 17 Increase of the Vestal Virgins 17 Early history of Servius Tullius 17 Death of Tarquinius Priscus 18
578-534. Reign of Servius Tullius 18 I. Reform of the Roman Constitution 18 1. Division of the Roman territory into Thirty Tribes 18 2. Comitia Centuriata 18 Census 18 Five Classes 19 The Equites 19 Number of the Centuries 19 Three sovereign assemblies—Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Curiata, Comitia Tributa 20 II. Increase of the city: walls of Servius Tullius 20 III. Alliance with the Latins 20 Death of Servius Tullius 22
534-510. Reign of Tarquinius Superbus 22 His tyranny 22 His alliance with the Latins 23 His war with the Volscians 23 Foundation of the temple on the Capitoline Hill 23 The Sibylline books 23 Legend of the Sibyl 23 Capture of Gabii 23 King's sons and Brutus sent to consult the oracle at Delphi 23 Lucretia 24 Expulsion of the Tarquins 25
509. Establishment of the Republic 25
The Consuls 25
First attempt to restore the Tarquins 25 Execution of the sons of Brutus 25 War of the Etruscans with Rome 26 Death of Brutus 26 Defeat of the Etruscans 26
Valerius Publicola 26
Dedication of the Capitoline Temple by M. Horatius 26
508. Second attempt to restore the Tarquins 26 Lars Porsena 26 Horatius Cocles 26 Mucius Scaevola 27 Cloelia 27
498. Third attempt to restore the Tarquins 28 War with the Latins 28 Battle of the Lake Regillus 28
496. Death of Tarquinius Superbus 28
FROM THE BATTLE OF THE LAKE REGILLUS TO THE DECEMVIRATE. B.C. 498-451.
Struggles between the Patricians and Plebeians 29
Ascendency of the Patricians 29
Sufferings of the Plebeians 30
Law of debtor and creditor 30
Ager Publicus 30
Object of the Plebeians to obtain a share in the political power and in the public land 30
494. Secession to the Sacred Mount 30 Fable of Menenius Agrippa 31 Institution of the Tribunes of the Plebs 31
486. Agrarian Law of Sp. Cassius 31
Foreign wars 32 488. I. Coriolanus and the Volscians 32 477. II. The Fabia Gens and the Veientines 33 458. III. Cincinnatus and the AEquians 34
League between the Romans, Latins, and Hernicans 35
THE DECEMVIRATE. B.C. 451-449.
471. Publilian Law transferring the election of the Tribunes from the Comitia of Centuries to those of the Tribes 36
462. Proposal of the Tribune Terentilius Arsa for the appointment of Decemviri 37
460. Seizure of the Capitol by Herdonius the Sabine 37
454. Appointment of three Commissioners to visit Greece 37
452. Their return to Rome 37
451. Appointment of the Decemviri 37 The Ten Tables 37
450. New Decemviri appointed 37 Their tyranny 38 Two new Tables added, making twelve in all 38
449. The Decemviri continue in office 38 Death of Sicinius Dentatus 38 Death of Virginia 39
Second secession to the Sacred Mount 39 Resignation of the Decemvirs 39 Election of ten Tribunes 40
Valerian and Horatian Laws 40
Death of Appius Claudius 40
The Twelve Tables 40
FROM THE DECEMVIRATE TO THE CAPTURE OF ROME BY THE GAULS. B.C. 448-390.
445. Third secession to the Sacred Mount 41 Lex Canuleia for intermarriage between the two orders 41 Institution of Military Tribunes with consular powers 41
443. Institution of the Censorship 41
421. Quaestorship thrown open to the Plebeians 42
440. Famine at Rome 42
Death of Sp. Maelius 42
Foreign wars 42
Roman colonies 43
War with the Etruscans 43
437. Spolia Opima won by A. Cornelius Cossus 43
426. Capture and destruction of Fidenae 43
403. Commencement of siege of Veii 43
Tale of the Alban Lake 43
396. Appointment of Camillus as Dictator 43 Capture of Veii 44
394. War with Falerii 44 Tale of the Schoolmaster 44
Unpopularity of Camillus 44
391. He goes into exile 44
FROM THE CAPTURE OF ROME BY THE GAULS TO THE FINAL UNION OF THE TWO ORDERS. B.C. 390-367.
The Gauls, or Celts 45
391. Attack of Clusium by the Senones 45
Roman ambassadors sent to Clusium 45
They take part in the fight against the Senones 45
The Senones march upon Rome 46
390. Battle of the Allia 46
Destruction of Rome 46
Siege of the Capitol 46 Legend of M. Manlius 47
Appointment of Camillus as Dictator 47
He delivers Rome from the Gauls 47
Rebuilding of the city 47
Further Gallic wars 48
361. Legend of T. Manlius Torquatus 48
349. Legend of M. Valerius Corvus 48
385. Distress at Rome 48
384. M. Manlius comes forward as a patron of the poor 48
His fate 49
376. Licinian Rogations proposed 49
Violent opposition of the Patricians 50
367. Licinian Rogations passed 50
366. L. Sextius first Plebeian Consul 50
Institution of the Praetorship 50
356. First Plebeian Dictator 51
351. First Plebeian Censor 51
336. First Plebeian Praetor 51
300. Lex Ogulnia, increasing the number of the Pontiffs and Augurs, and enacting that a certain number of them should be taken from the Plebeians 51
339. Publilian Laws 51
286. Lex Hortensia 51
FROM THE LICINIAN ROGATIONS TO THE END OF THE SAMNITE WARS. B.C. 367-290.
362. Pestilence at Rome 52
Death of Camillus 52
Tale of M. Curtius 53
The Samnites 53
Their history 53
Division into four tribes 53
Conquer Campania and Lucania 53
Samnites of the Apennines attack the Sidicini 53
Campanians assist the Sidicini 53
They are defeated by the Samnites 53
They solicit the assistance of Rome 53
343-341. FIRST SAMNITE WAR 54 Battle of Mount Gaurus 54 Peace concluded 54 Reasons for the conclusion of peace 54
340-338. THE LATIN WAR 54 The armies meet near Mount Vesuvius 55 Tale of Torquatus 55 Decisive battle 55 Self-sacrifice of Decius 55 Capture of Latin towns 56 Conclusion of the war 56
329. Conquest of the Volscian town of Privernum 56
Origin of the Second Samnite War 56
327. The Romans attack Palaeopolis and Neapolis 56
326-304. SECOND SAMNITE WAR 57 First Period. Roman arms successful 57 325. Quarrel between L. Papirius Dictator and Q. Fabius, his master of the horse 57 321-315. Second Period. Success of the Samnites 57 321. Defeat of the Romans at the Caudine Forks by C. Pontius 68 Ignominious treaty rejected by the Romans 58 314-304. Third Period. Success of the Romans 58 311. War with the Etruscans 58 Defeat of the Etruscans 59 Defeat of the Samnites 59 304. Peace with Rome 59
300. Conquests of Rome in Central Italy 59
Coalition of Etruscans, Umbrians, and Samnites against Rome 59
298-290. THIRD SAMNITE WAR 59 295. Decisive battle of Sentinum 59 Self-sacrifice of the younger Decius 59 292. C. Pontius taken prisoner and put to death 59
FROM THE CONCLUSION OF THE SAMNITE WAR TO THE SUBJUGATION OF ITALY. B.C. 290-265.
283. War with the Etruscans and Gauls 60
Battle of the Lake Vadimo 60
282. State of Magna Graecia 60
The Romans assist Thurii 60
Their fleet is attacked by the Tarentines 61
Roman embassy to Tarentum 61
281. War declared against the Tarentines 61
They apply for aid to Pyrrhus 61
Pyrrhus arrives in Italy 62
280. His first campaign against the Romans 62
Battle of Heraclea 62
Remarks of Pyrrhus on the victory 62
He attempts to make peace with Rome 62
Failure of his minister Cineas 63
He marches upon Rome and arrives at Praeneste 63
Retires into winter quarters at Tarentum 63 Embassy of Fabricius 63
279. Second campaign of Pyrrhus 64
Battle of Asculum 64
278. Treachery of the physician of Pyrrhus 64
Truce with Rome 64
Pyrrhus crosses over into Sicily 64
276. He returns to Italy 64
274. Defeat of Pyrrhus 65
He returns to Greece 65
272. Subjugation of Tarentum 65
Conquest of Italy 65
273. Embassy of Ptolemy Philadelphus to Rome 65
Three classes of Italian population: I. Cives Romani, or Roman Citizens 66 1. Of the Thirty-three tribes 66 2. Of the Roman Colonies 66 3. Of the Municipal Towns 66 II. Nomen Latinum, or the Latin name 66 III. Socii, or Allies 66
312. Censorship of Appius Claudius 67
His dangerous innovation as to the Freedmen 67
304. Repealed in the Censorship of Q. Fabius Maximus and P. Decius Mus 67
312. The Appian Way 67
The Appian Aqueduct 67
Cn. Flavius 67
THE FIRST PUNIC WAR. B.C. 264-241.
814. Foundation of Carthage 68
Its empire 68
Its government 68
Its army 68
Its foreign conquests 68
Conquest of Messana by the Mamertini 69
Hiero attacks the Mamertini 69
They apply for assistance to Rome 69
264. The Consul Ap. Claudius crosses over to Sicily to aid them 70
He defeats the forces of Syracuse and Carthage 70
263. Hiero makes peace with the Romans 70
262. Capture of Agrigentum by the Romans 70
260. The Romans build a fleet 70
Naval victory of the Consul Duilius 71
256. The Romans invade Africa 72
Their naval victory 72
Brilliant success of Regulus in Africa 72
The Carthaginians sue in vain for peace 72
255. Arrival of the Lacedaemonian Xanthippus 72
He restores confidence to the Carthaginians 73
Defeat and capture of Regulus 73
Destruction of the Roman fleet by a storm 73
The Romans build another fleet 73
253. Again destroyed by a storm 73
The war confined to Sicily 73
250. Victory of Metellus at Panormus 73
Embassy of the Carthaginians to Rome 73
Heroic conduct of Regulus 74
250. Siege of Lilybaeum 74
249. Defeat of the Consul Claudius at sea 75
Destruction of the Roman fleet a third time 75
247. Appointment of Hamilcar Barca to the Carthaginian command 75
He intrenches himself on Mount Hercte, near Panormus 75
He removes to Mount Eryx 75
241. Victory off the AEgatian Islands 76
Peace with Carthage 76
End of the War 76
EVENTS BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND PUNIC WARS. B.C. 240-219.
240-238. War of the Mercenaries with Carthage 77
She owes her safety to Hamilcar 77
238. The Romans seize Sardinia and Corsica 77
Hamilcar goes to Spain 78
235. Temple of Janus closed 78
Completion of the Thirty-five Roman Tribes 78
229. ILLYRIAN WAR 78 Conquest of Teuta, queen of the Illyrians 78
223. Honors paid to the Romans in the Grecian cities 78
232. Agrarian law of the Tribune Flaminius 78
225. GALLIC WAR 78 Defeat of the Gauls at Telamon in Etruria 79 224. Conquest of the Boii 79 223. The Romans cross the Po 79 222. Conquest of the Insubres 79 Marcellus wins the Spolia Opima 79
220. The Via Flaminia from Rome to Ariminum 79
218. Foundation of Colonies at Placentia and Cremona 79
219. SECOND ILLYRIAN WAR 79
235. Hamilcar in Spain 80
Oath of Hannibal 80
229. Death of Hamilcar 80
Hasdrubal succeeds him in the command 80
227. Treaty with Rome 80
221. Death of Hasdrubal 80
Hannibal succeeds him in the command 80
219. Siege of Saguntum 80
Its capture 81
War declared against Carthage 81
THE SECOND PUNIC WAR: FIRST PERIOD, DOWN TO THE BATTLE OF CANNAE B.C. 218-216.
218. Preparations of Hannibal 82
His march to the Rhone 83
Arrival of the Consul Scipio at Massilia 83
Hannibal crosses the Rhone 83
Scipio sends his brother to Spain, and returns himself to Italy 83
Hannibal crosses the Alps 83
Skirmish on the Ticinus 84
Battle of the Trebia 84
Defeat of the Romans 84
217. Hannibal's march through Etruria 86
Battle of the Lake Trasimenus 86
Great defeat of the Romans 86
Q. Fabius Maximus appointed Dictator 87
His policy 87
Rashness of Minucius, the Master of the Horse 87
216. Great preparations of the Romans 88
Battle of Cannae 88
Great defeat of the Romans 88
Revolt of Southern Italy 88
Hannibal winters at Capua 89
Note on Hannibal's passage across the Alps 90
SECOND PUNIC WAR: SECOND PERIOD, FROM THE REVOLT OF CAPUA TO THE BATTLE OF THE METAURUS. B.C. 215-207.
215. Plan of the War 91
Hannibal's repulse before Nola 92
214. He attempts in vain to surprise Tarentum 92
213. He obtains possession of Tarentum 93
WAR IN SICILY— 216. Death of Hiero 93 Succession of Hieronymus 93 His assassination 93 214. Arrival of Marcellus in Sicily 93 He takes Leontini 93 He lays siege to Syracuse 93 Defended by Archimedes 93 212. Capture of Syracuse 94
WAR IN SPAIN— 212. Capture and death of the two Scipios 95
Siege of Capua 95
211. Hannibal marches upon Rome 95
Is compelled to retreat 96
The Romans recover Capua 96
Punishment of its inhabitants 93
209. The Romans recover Tarentum 96
208. Defeat and death of Marcellus 97
207. Hasdrubal marches into Italy 97
He besieges Placentia 97
March of the Consul Nero to join his colleague Livius in Umbria 97
Battle of the Metaurus 98
Defeat and death of Hasdrubal 98
SECOND PUNIC WAR: THIRD PERIOD, FROM THE BATTLE OF THE METAURUS TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE WAR. B.C. 206-201.
Character and early life of Scipio 99
210. He is elected Proconsul for Spain 100
He takes New Carthage 100
206. He subdues Spain 101
He crosses over into Africa and visits Syphax 101
He returns to Rome 102
205. His Consulship 102
He prepares to invade Africa 102
His project is opposed by Fabius and others 102
204. He arrives in Africa 103
203. He defeats the Carthaginians and Syphax 103
Masinissa and Sophonisba 103
The Carthaginians recall Hannibal 104
202. Battle of Zama, and defeat of Hannibal 104
Terms of peace 105
201. Conclusion of the war 105
Triumph of Scipio 105
WARS IN THE EAST: THE MACEDONIAN, SYRIAN, AND GALATIAN WARS. B.C. 214-188.
State of the East 106 Syria 106 Pontus 106 Galatia 106 Pergamus 106 Egypt 107
State of Greece 107 Macedonia 107 Achaean League 107 AEtolian League 107 Rhodes 107 Sparta 107
214-205. FIRST MACEDONIAN WAR— Its indecisive character 108 211. Treaty of the Romans with the AEtolian League 108 205. Conclusion of the war 108 Philip's hostile acts 108 He assists the Carthaginians at the battle of Zama 108 His conduct in Greece 108
200-196. SECOND MACEDONIAN WAR— 200. First campaign: the Consul Galba 108 199. Second campaign: the Consul Villius 109 198. Third campaign: the Consul Flamininus 109 197. Battle of Cynoscephalae 109 196. Declaration of Grecian independence at the Isthmian Games 109
191-190. SYRIAN WAR— Antiochus the Third 110 Intrigues of the AEtolians in Greece 110 They Invite Antiochus to Greece 110 Hannibal expelled from Carthage 110 He arrives in Syria 110 His advice to Antiochus 110 192. Antiochus crosses over to Greece 110 191. The Romans defeat him at Thermopylae 110 He returns to Asia 110 190. The Romans invade Asia 111 Battle of Magnesia 111 Defeat of Antiochus by Scipio Asiaticus 111 Terms of peace 111 Hannibal flies to Prusias, king of Bithynia 111
189. AETOLIAN WAR— Fulvius takes Ambracia 111 Terms of peace 111
189. GALATIAN WAR— Manlius attacks the Galatians without the authority of the Senate or the People 112 187. He returns to Rome 113
Effects of the Eastern conquests upon the Roman character 113
WARS IN THE WEST: THE GALLIC, LIGURIAN, AND SPANISH WARS. B.C. 200-175.
200. THE GALLIC WAR— The Gauls take Placentia and lay siege to Cremona 113 Conquest of the Insubres and Cenomani 114
191. Conquest of the Boil 114
190. Colony founded at Bononia 114
180. Via AEmilia 114
200. THE LIGURIAN WAR— Continued with intermissions for nearly 80 years 114 Character of the war 114
198. TWO PROVINCES FORMED IN SPAIN 114
195. THE SPANISH WAR— The Consul M. Porcius Cato sent into Spain 114 His success 115 The Spaniards again take up arms 115 180. The war brought to a conclusion by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus 115
178. THE ISTRIAN WAR 115
177-175. THE SARDINIAN AND CORSICAN WAR 115
THE ROMAN CONSTITUTION AND ARMY.
Review of the history of the Roman Constitution 116
Political equality of the Patricians and Plebeians 116
I. THE MAGISTRATES— The Lex Annalis 117 1. The Quaestors 117 2. The AEdiles 117 3. The Praetors 117 4. The Consuls 118 5. The Dictators 118 6. The Censors 118 (a) The Census 118 (b) Control over the morals of the citizens 119 (c) Administration of the finances of the state 119
II. THE SENATE— Its number 119 Its mode of Election 119 Its power and duties 119
III. THE POPULAR ASSEMBLIES— 1. The Comitia Curiata 120 2. The Comitia Centuriata: change in its constitution 120 3. The Comitia Tributa 121 The Tribunes 121 The Plebiscita 121
IV. FINANCES— Tributum 121 Vectigalia 121
V. THE ARMY— Number of the Legion 122 1. First Period—Servius Tullius 122 2. Second Period—The Great Latin War, B.C. 340 122 Hastati 122 Principes 122 Triarii 122 Rorarii and Accensi 123 3. Third Period—During the wars of the younger Scipio 123 Two legions assigned to each Consul 123 Division of the legion 123 The Maniples 123 The Cohorts 123 The Tribuni Militum 123 The Horse-soldiers 123 Infantry of the Socii 123 4. Fourth Period—From the times of the Gracchi to the downfall of the Republic 123 Changes introduced by Marius 124 Triumphs 124
INTERNAL HISTORY OF ROME DURING THE MACEDONIAN AND SYRIAN WARS. CATO AND SCIPIO.
Effect of the Roman conquests in the East 126
Debasement of the Roman character 126
192. Infamous conduct of L. Flamininus 127
193. Worship of Bacchus 127
Gladiatorial exhibitions 127
Rise of the new nobility 127
191. Law against bribery 127
Decay of the peasant proprietors 128
M. Porcius Cato 128
234. His birth 128
His early life 128
204. His Quaestorship 129
198. His Praetorship 129
195. His Consulship 129 Repeal of the Oppian Law 130
191. Cato serves in the battle of Thermopylae 130
Prosecution of the two Scipios 130
Haughty conduct of Scipio Africanus 130
Condemnation of Scipio Asiaticus 130
Prosecution of Scipio Africanus 130
He leaves Rome 131
188. His death 131
Death of Hannibal 132
184. Censorship of Cato 132
He studies Greek in his old age 132
His character 133
THE THIRD MACEDONIAN, ACHAEAN, AND THIRD PUNIC WARS. B.C. 179-146.
179. Death of Philip and accession of Perseus 134
172. Murder of Eumenes, king of Pergamus 135
171-168. THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR— 168. Battle of Pydna 135 Defeat of Perseus by L. AEmilius Paullus 135
167. AEmilius Paullus punishes the Epirotes 135
His triumph 135
His domestic misfortunes 136
Haughty conduct of Rome in the East 136
Embassy to Antiochus Epiphanes 136
Treatment of Eumenes, king of Pergamus 136
Mean conduct of Prusias, king of Bythinia 136
Treatment of the Rhodians 136
167. One thousand Achaeans sent to Italy 136
151. The survivors allowed to return to Greece 137
140. A pretender lays claim to the throne of Macedonia 137
He is defeated and taken prisoner 137
147-146. THE ACHAEAN WAR— 146. Corinth taken by L. Mummius 138 Final conquest of Greece 138
Rome jealous of Carthage 139
Advice of Scipio 139
War between Masinissa and Carthage 139
Conduct of the Romans 140
149-146. THIRD PUNIC WAR— 147. Scipio Africanus the younger, Consul 140 His parentage and adoption 140 His character 140 146. He takes Carthage 142
Formation of the Roman province of Africa 142
Later history of Carthage 142
SPANISH WARS, B.C. 153-133. FIRST SERVILE WAR, B.C. 134-132.
153. War with the Celtiberians 143
152. Peace with the Celtiberians 143
151. War with the Lusitanians 143
150. Treacherous murder of the Lusitanians by Galba 144
Success of Viriathus against the Romans 144
The Celtiberians again take up arms—the Numantine War 144
140. Murder of Viriathus 145
138. Brutus conquers the Gallaeci 145
137. The Consul Hostilius Mancinus defeated by the Numantines 145
He signs a peace with the Numantines 145
The Senate refuse to ratify it 145
142. Censorship of Scipio Africanus 145
134. Consul a second time 145
He carries on the war against Numantia 146
133. He takes Numantia 146
Increase of slaves 146
They rise in Sicily 146
They elect Eunus as their leader 146
Eunus assumes the title of king 146
134. He defeats the Roman generals 147
132. Is himself defeated and taken prisoner 147
133. Death of Attalus, last king of Pergamus 147
He bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans 147
131. Aristonicus lays claim to the kingdom of Pergamus 147
130. Is defeated and taken prisoner 147
129. Formation of the province of Asia 147
Extent of the Roman dominions 147
THE GRACCHI. B.C. 133-121.
Necessity for reform 148
Early life of Tiberius Gracchus 149
137. Quaestor in Spain 149
133. Elected Tribune 150
Brings forward an Agrarian Law 150
Opposition of the landowners 150
The Tribune Octavius puts his veto upon it 150
Deposition of Octavius 151
The Agrarian Law enseted 151
Three Commissioners elected 151
Distribution of the treasures of Pergamus among the Roman people 151
Renewed opposition to Tiberius 151
He becomes a candidate for the Tribunate a second time 151
Death of Tiberius 152
132. Return of Scipio to Rome 152
He opposes the popular party 153
129. Death of Scipio 153
126. Expulsion of the Allies from Rome 154
125. M. Fulvius Flaccus proposes to give the franchise to the Italians 154
Revolt and destruction of Fregellae 154
126. C. Gracchus goes to Sardinia as Quaestor 154
124. He returns to Rome 157
123. He is elected Tribune 157
His legislation 157 I. Laws for improving the condition of the people 157 1. Extension of the Agrarian Law 157 2. State provision for the poor 157 3. Soldiers equipped at the expense of the Republic 157 II. Laws to diminish the power of the Senate 157 1. Transference of the judicial power from the Senators to the Equites 157 2. Distribution of the Provinces before the election of the Consuls 158
122. C. Gracchus Tribune a second time 158
Proposes to confer the citizenship upon the Latins 158
Unpopularity of this proposal 158
The Tribune M. Livius Drusus outbids Gracchus 158
Foundation of a colony at Carthage 159
Decline of the popularity of Gracchus 159
121. His murder 160
Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi 160
JUGURTHA AND HIS TIMES. B.C. 118-104.
C. MARIUS 161 134. Serves at the siege of Numantia 161 Attracts the notice of Scipio Africanus 161 119. Tribune of the Plebs 162 115. Praetor 162
149. Death of Masinissa 162
Accession of Micipsa 162
134. Jugurtha serves at the siege of Numantia 162
118. Death of Micipsa 162
Jugurtha assassinates Hiempsal 163
War between Jugurtha and Adherbal 163
117. Roman commissioners divide Numidia between Jugurtha and Adherbal 163
Fresh war between Jugurtha and Adherbal 163
Siege of Cirta 163
112. Death of Adherbal 163
111. The Romans declare war against Jugurtha 163
Jugurtha bribes the Consul Calpurnius Bestia 163
Indignation at Rome 163
Jugurtha comes to Rome 164
111. He murders Massiva 164
Renewal of the war 164
110. Incapacity of the Consul Sp. Postumius Albinus 164
Defeat of his brother Aulus 164
109. Bill of the Tribune C. Mamilius 164
Many Romans condemned 164
The Consul Q. Caecilius Metellus lands in Africa 164
Accompanied by Marius as his lieutenant 165
Metellus defeats Jugurtha 165
Ambitious views of Marius 165
108. He quits Africa and arrives in Rome 166
Is elected Consul 166
Attacks the nobility 166
Campaign of Metellus as Proconsul 166
The people give Marius command of the Numidian War 166
107. First Consulship of Marius 166
He arrives in Africa 166
He defeats Jugurtha and Bocchus, king of Mauritania 167
106. Bocchus surrenders Jugurtha to Sulla, the Quaestor of Marius 167
Early history of Sulla 167
His character 167
104. Triumph of Marius 168
His second Consulship 168
THE CIMBRI AND TEUTONES, B.C. 113-101. SECOND SERVILE WAR IN SICILY, B.C. 103-101.
Invasion of the Cimbri and Teutones 169
Their probable origin 169
113. Defeat of the Consul Cn. Papirius Carbo 169
109. Defeat of the Consul M. Junius Silanus 169
107. Defeat of the Consul L. Cassius Longinus 169
105. Defeat of the Consul Cn. Mallius Maximus and the Proconsul Cn. Servilius Caepio 170
104. Second Consulship of Marius 170
The Cimbri invade Spain 170
103. Third Consulship of Marius 170
102. Fourth Consulship of Marius 170
The Cimbri return from Spain 170
102. Marius takes up his position near Arles 170
The Cimbri enter Italy by the Pass of Tridentum 170
Great defeat of the Teutones by Marius at Aquae Sextiae 171
101. Fifth Consulship of Marius 171
Great defeat of the Teutones at Vercellae by Marius and the Proconsul Catulus 171
Triumph of Marius and Catulus 171
103-101. Second Servile War in Sicily 171
Tryphon king of the Slaves 172
Succeeded by Athenio as king 172
101. The Consul Aquillius puts an end to the war 172
INTERNAL HISTORY OF ROME, FROM THE DEFEAT OF THE CIMBRI AND TEUTONES TO THE SOCIAL WAR. B.C. 100-91.
100. Sixth Consulship of Marius 173
His league with the demagogues Saturninus and Glaucia 173
Agrarian Law of Saturninus 174
Banishment of Metellus 174
Saturninus declared a public enemy 174
He is put to death 175
Marius visits the East 175
92. Condemnation of Rutilius Lupus 175
91. Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus 175
His measures 176
Proposes to give the franchise to the Italian allies 176
His assassination 176
THE SOCIAL OR MARSIC WAR. B.C. 90-89.
90. The Allies take up arms 178
The war breaks out at Asculum in Picenum 178
Corfinium the new capital of the Italian confederation 178
Q. Pompaedius Silo, a Marsian, and C. Papius Mutilus, a Samnite, the Italian Consuls 178
Defeat and death of the Roman Consul P. Rutilius Lupus 179
Exploits of Marius 179
The Lex Julia 179
89. Success of the Romans 180
The Lex Plautia Papiria 180
The franchise given to the Allies 180
All the Allies lay down their arms except the Samnites and Lucanians 180
Ten new Tribes formed 180
FIRST CIVIL WAR. B.C. 88-86.
88. Consulship of Sulla 181
Receives the command of the Mithridatic War 181
The Tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus 182
He proposes to distribute the Italians among the thirty-five Tribes 182
Sulla flies from Rome to Nola 182
The people give Marius the command of the Mithridatic War 182
Sulla marches upon Rome 182
Sulpicius put to death 183
Marius flies from Rome 183
His adventures 183
Is seized at Minturnae 183
Escapes to Africa 184
Sulla sails to the East 184
87. Riots at Rome 185
The Consul Cinna invites the assistance of Marius 185
Marius and Cinna march upon Rome 185
They enter the city 185
Proscription of their enemies 185
86. Seventh Consulship of Marius 185
His death 185
FIRST MITHRIDATIC WAR. B.C. 88-84.
Kingdom of Pontus 186
Its history 186
120. Accession of Mithridates VI 186
His early life 186
His attainments 187
His conquests 187
His disputes with the Romans 187
88. He invades Cappadocia and Bithynia 187
He invades the Roman province of Asia 188
Massacre of Romans and Italians 188
87. The Grecian states declare in favor of Mithridates 188
Sulla lands in Epirus 188
He lays siege to Athens and the Piraeus 188
86. Takes these cities 188
Defeats Archelaus, the general of Mithridates, at Chaeronea 188
85. Again defeats Archelaus at Orchomenus 189
84. Peace with Mithridates 189
Sulla attacks Fimbria, the Marian general, in Asia 189
83. He returns to Italy 189
SECOND CIVIL WAR—SULLA'S DICTATORSHIP, LEGISLATION, AND DEATH. B.C. 83-78.
84. Consulship of Cinna and Carbo 190
Death of Cinna 190
83. Consulship of Scipio and Norbanus 190
Preparations for war 191
The Italians support the Marian party 191
Sulla marches from Brundusium to Campania 191
Defeats the Consul Norbanus 191
Pompey, Metellus Pius, Crasus, and others, join Sulla 192
83. Consulship of Papirus Carbo and the younger Marius 192
Defeat of Marius, who takes refuge in Praeneste 192
Murder of Senators in Rome by order of Marius 192
Great battle before the Colline gate at Rome between Sulla and the Samnites 192
Defeat of the Samnites 193
Surrender of Praeneste 193
Death of Marius 193
End of the war 193
Sulla master of Rome 193
Dreadful scenes 194
81. Sulla dictator 194
He celebrates his triumph over Mithridates 194
His reforms in the constitution 194
His military colonies 194
73. He resigns the Dictatorship 195
He retires to Puteoli 195
73. His death 195
His funeral 196
LEGES CORNELLAE— I. Laws relating to the Constitution 196 Deprive the Comitia Tribute of their legislative and judicial powers 196 Increase the power of the Senate 197 Increase the number of the Quaestors and Praetors 197 Deprive the Tribunes of all real power 197 II. Laws relating to the Ecclesiastical Corporations 197 Repeal of the Lex Domitia 197 Increase of the number of Pontiffs and Augurs 197 III. Laws relating to the Administration of Justice 197 Quaestiones Perpetuae 197 Transference of the Judicia from the Equites to the Senators 198 IV. Laws relating to the improvement of Public Morals 198
FROM THE DEATH OF SULLA TO THE CONSULSHIP OF POMPEY AND CRASSUS. B.C. 78-70.
78. Consulship of Lepidus and Catulus 199
Lepidus attempts to repeal the laws of Sulla 199
Is opposed by Catulus 199
Is defeated at the Mulvian Bridge 199
Retires to Sardinia 200
His death 200
82. Sertorius in Spain 200
79. Carries on war against Metellus 200
CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS 200 His birth 200 89. Fights against the Italians under his father 200 83. Joins Sulla 200 82. Is sent into Sicily and Africa 200 80. Enters Rome in triumph 201 78. Supports the aristocracy against Lepidus 201 76. Is sent into Spain to assist Metellus 201
72. Assassination of Sertorius by Perperna 202
71. Pompey finishes the war in Spain 202
73. War of the Gladiators: Spartacus 202
72. Spartacus defeats both Consuls 202
71. Crassus appointed to the command of the war against the Gladiators 202
Defeats and slays Spartacus 203
Pompey cuts to pieces a body of Gladiators 203
70. Consulship of Pompey and Crassus 203
Pompey restores the Tribunitian power 203
Law of L. Aurelius Cotta, transferring the Judicia to the Senators, Equites, and Tribuni AErarii 204
THIRD OR GREAT MITHRIDATIC WAR. B.C. 74-61.
83. SECOND MITHRIDATIC WAR—
Murena invades Pontus 205
83. Mithridates defeats Murena 205
End of the Second Mithridatic War 205
Preparations of Mithridates 206
71. THIRD MITHRIDATIC WAR—
Mithridates defeats the Consul Cotta 206
He lays siege to Cyzicus 206
73. The siege is raised by Lucullus 207
Lucullus defeats Mithridates 207
71. Mithridates takes refuge in Armenia 207
70. Lucullus settles the affairs of Asia 207
69. He invades Armenia and defeats Tigranes 208
68. Lucullus defeats Tigranes and Mithridates, and lays siege to Nisibis 208
67. Mithridates returns to Pontus and defeats the generals of Lucullus 208
Mutiny in the army of Lucullus 208
The command of the Mithridatic War given to Glabrio 209
WAR WITH THE PIRATES— Account of the Pirates 209 Command of the war given by the Gabinian Law to Pompey 210 Success of Pompey 210 He finishes the war 210
66. THIRD MITHRIDATIC WAR CONTINUED 210
Command of the Mithridatic War given by the Manilian Law to Pompey 210
It is opposed by the aristocracy 211
It is supported by Cicero 211
Pompey defeats Mithridates 211
Mithridates retires into the Cimmerian Bosporus 211
Pompey invades Armenia 212
Submission of Tigranes 212
65. Pompey pursues Mithridates 212
He advances as far as the River Phasis 212
He returns to Pontus, which he reduces to the form of a Roman province 212
64. He marches into Syria, which he makes a Roman province 212
63. He subdues Phoenicia and Palestine 212
He takes Jerusalem 212
Preparations of Mithridates 213
Conspiracy against him 213
His death 213
Pompey settles the affairs of Asia 213
62. He returns to Italy 213
INTERNAL HISTORY, FROM THE CONSULSHIP OF POMPEY AND CRASSUS TO THE RETURN OF POMPEY FROM THE EAST: THE CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE. B.C. 69-61.
C. JULIUS CAESAR— 100. His birth 214 His early history 214 Proscribed by Sulla 215 81. He serves in Asia 215 77. Accuses Dolabella 215 Taken by the Pirates 215 75. Studies in Rhodes 215 68. Quaestor 215 65. Curule AEdile 216 Restores the statues of Marius 216
M. TULLIUS CICERO— 106. His birth 216 80. Serves in the Social War 216 81. His speech for P. Quintius 216 80. His speech for Sex. Roscius of Ameria 216 79. He goes to Athens 216 78. He studies in Rome 216 77. He returns to Rome 216 76. Quaestor in Sicily 217 70. He accuses Verres 217 68. AEdile 217 66. Praetor 217 He speaks on behalf of the Manilian law 217
65. First conspiracy of Catiline 217
History of Catiline 218
63. Consulship of Cicero 219
Second conspiracy of Catiline 219
Catiline quits Rome 220
Cicero seizes the conspirators 220
They are put to death 221
62. Defeat and death of Catiline 221
Popularity of Cicero 221
Remarks upon the punishment of the conspirators 221
FROM POMPEY'S RETURN FROM THE EAST TO CICERO'S BANISHMENT AND RECALL. B.C. 62-57.
62. Pompey arrives in Italy 223
61. Triumph of Pompey 223
State of parties in Rome 224
60. The Senate refuses to sanction Pompey's measures in Asia 224
63. Praetorship of Caesar 224
61. Propraetor in Spain 224
60. His victories in Spain 224
He returns to Rome 225
FIRST TRIUMVIRATE 225
59. Consulship of Caesar 225
Agrarian Law for the division of the Campanian land 225
Ratification of Pompey's acts in Asia 225
Marriage of Julia, Caesar's daughter, with Pompey 225
Caesar gains over the Equites 225
Vatinian Law, granting to Caesar the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for five years 226
Transalpine Gaul added 226
62. Clodius profanes the rites of the Bona Dea 226
61. His trial and acquittal 227
His enmity against Cicero 227
58. Tribune of the Plebs 227
He accuses Cicero 227
Banishment of Cicero 227
57. Riots at Rome between Clodius and Milo 227
Return of Cicero from banishment 228
CAESAR'S CAMPAIGNS IN GAUL. B.C. 58-51.
58. First Campaign 229 He defeats the Helvetii 229 He defeats Ariovistus and the Germans 230
57. Second Campaign 230 The Belgic War 230 Great victory over the Nervii 230
55. Third Campaign 230 He defeats the Veneti 231 He defeats the Morini and Menapii 231
55. Fourth Campaign 231 Caesar crosses the Rhine 231 His first invasion of Britain 231
54. Fifth Campaign 232 His second invasion of Britain 232 Revolt of the Eburones 232 They destroy the detachment of T. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta 232 They attack the camp of Q. Cicero 232
53. Sixth Campaign 232 Caesar puts down the revolt in Gaul 233 He crosses the Rhine a second time 233
52. Seventh Campaign 233 Revolt of all Gaul 233 Headed by Vercingetorix 233 Caesar takes Alesia and Vercingetorix 234
51. Eighth Campaign 234 Pacification of Gaul 234
INTERNAL HISTORY FROM THE RETURN OF CICERO FROM BANISHMENT TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CIVIL WAR: EXPEDITION AND DEATH OF CRASSUS. B.C. 57-50.
57. Cicero supports the Triumvirs 235
56. Pompey and Crassus meet Caesar at Luca 236
Fresh arrangements for the continuance of their power 236
55. Second Consulship of Pompey and Crassus 236
The Trebonian Law, giving the two Spains to Pompey and Syria to Crassus, and prolonging Pompey's government for five years more 236
Dedication of Pompey's theatre 236
54. Crassus crosses the Euphrates 237
He winters in Syria 237
53. He again crosses the Euphrates 237
Is defeated and slain near Carrhae 237
54. Death of Julia 237
53. Riots in Rome 238
52. Murder of Clodius by Milo 238
Pompey sole Consul 238
Trial and condemnation of Milo 238
51. Rupture between Caesar and Pompey 239
Pompey joins the aristocratical party 239
49. Proposition that Caesar should lay down his command 240
The Senate invest the Consuls with dictatorial power 240
The Tribunes Antony and Cassius fly to Caesar's camp 240
Commencement of the Civil War 240
THE BEGINNING OF THE SECOND CIVIL WAR TO CAESAR'S DEATH, B.C. 49-44.
49. Caesar at Ravenna 241
He crosses the Rubicon 241
His triumphal progress through Italy 241
Pompey and his party fly from Rome to Brundusium 242
They are pursued by Caesar 242
They embark for Greece 242
Caesar goes to Rome 242
He sets out for Spain 242
He conquers L. Africanus and M. Petreius, Pompey's lieutenants in Spain 243
Is appointed Dictator, which office he holds only eleven days 243
He takes Massilia 243
48. He sails from Brundusium to Greece 243
He besieges Pompey at Dyrrhachium 244
Is compelled to retire 241
Battle of Pharsalia, and defeat of Pompey 244
Pompey flies to Egypt 245
His death 245
Caesar is appointed Dictator a second time 245
The Alexandrine War 245
47. Conclusion of the Alexandrine War 246
Caesar marches into Pontus and defeats Pharnaces 246
He sails to Africa 246
46. Battle of Thapsus, and defeat of the Pompeians 246
Siege of Utica 247
Death of Cato 247
Caesar returns to Rome 247
His triumph 247
His reformation of the Calendar 247
Insurrection in Spain 248
Caesar sets out for Spain 248
45. Battle of Munda, and defeat of the Pompeians 248
Caesar returns to Rome 248
He is undisputed master of the Roman world 248
Honors conferred upon him 248
Use he made of his power 248
His vast projects 249
44. Conspiracy against Caesar's life 249
Brutus and Cassius 249
Assassination of Caesar on the Ides of March 250
Reflections on his death 250
His character and genius 250
FROM THE DEATH OF CAESAR TO THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI. B.C. 44-42.
44. Proceedings of the conspirators 252
Antony and Lepidus 253
Pretended reconciliation 253
Caesar's will 253
His funeral 253
Popular indignation against the conspirators 253
They fly from Home 253
OCTAVIUS, Caesar's nephew, at Illyricum 253
Is made Caesar's heir 253
He proceeds to Rome 254
His opposition to Antony 254
He courts the Senate 254
Antony proceeds to Cisalpine Gaul, and lays siege to Mutina 254
43. Cicero's second Philippic 254
Octavian and the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa march against Antony 255
They attack Antony 255
Death of Hirtius and Pansa 255
Antony is defeated, and crosses the Alps 255
Octavian marches to Rome 255
Is declared Consul 255
Breaks with the Senate, and outlaws the murderers of Caesar 255
Marches against Antony and Lepidus 255
Is reconciled with them 256
SECOND TRIUMVIRATE 256
The Triumvirs enter Rome 256
Dreadful Scenes 256
Death of Cicero 257
Sextus Pompey master of Sicily and the Mediterranean 257
He defeats the fleet of the Triumvirs 257
Brutus obtains possession of Macedonia 258
Cassius, of Syria 258
Their proceedings in the East 258
They plunder Asia Minor 258
42. They return to Europe to meet the Triumvirs 258
Battle of Philippi 261
Death of Brutus and Cassius 261
FROM THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI TO THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM. B.C. 41-30.
41. Antony remains in the East 262
He meets Cleopatra at Tarsus 262
He accompanies her to Alexandria 263
Octavian returns to Rome 263
Confusion in Italy 263
Confiscation of lands 263
Fulvia, the wife of Antony, and L. Antonius, his brother, rise against Antony 263
They take refuge in Perusia 263
40. Capture of Perusia, and end of the war 263
The Parthians invade Syria 264
Antony joins Sextus Pompey and lays siege to Brundusium 264
Reconciliation between Antony and Octavian 264
Fresh division of the Roman world 264
Antony marries Octavia 264
39. Peace with Sextus Pompey at Misenum 264
Ventidius, the Legate of Antony, defeats the Parthians 265
38. He again defeats the Parthians 265
Death of Pacorus 265
War with Sextus Pompey 265
He destroys the fleet of Octavian 265
37. Antony comes to Tarentum 266
Triumvirate renewed for another period of five years 266
36. Renewal of the war with Sextus Pompey 266
His defeat 266
He flies to Asia 266
Lepidus deprived of his Triumvirate 266
35. Death of Pompey 266
30. Antony joins Cleopatra 267
His infatuation 267
He invades Parthia 267
His disastrous retreat 267
34. He invades Armenia 267
Octavian subdues the Dalmatians 267
His prudent conduct 267
33. Rupture between Octavian and Antony 267
32. War against Cleopatra 268
31. Battle of Actium 268
Defeat of Antony 268
He flies to Alexandria 268
30. Death of Antony and Cleopatra 269
Egypt made a Roman province 269
End of the Republic 269
29. Triumph of Octavian 269
27. He receives the title of Augustus 270
His policy 270
SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE DEATH OF AUGUSTUS.
Saturnian Metre 272
Commencement of Roman Literature 272
The Drama— 240. M. Livius Andronicus 272 235. Cn. Naevius 273 239-169. Q. Ennius 273 254-184. T. Maccius Plautus 273 195-159. P. Terentius Afer 274 160. Q. Caecilius 274 100. L. Afranius 274 220-180. M. Pacuvius 275 170-90. L. Accius 275
Comoediae Togatae 274
Comoediae Palliatae 274
Comoediae Praetextatae 275
Atellanae Fabulae 275
Mimes 275 50. Dec. Laberius 275 P. Syrus 275
Fescennine Songs 276
Satire 276 148-103. C. Lucilius 276 95-51. T. Lucretius Carus 276 87-47. Valerius Catullus 276 70-19. P. Virgilius Maro 277 65-8. Q. Horatius Flaccus 278 30. Albius Tibullus 280 Aurelius Propertius 280 B.C. A.D. 43-18. P. Ovidius Naso 281
B.C. PROSE WRITERS—
The Annalists 282 210. Q. Fabius Pictor 282 L. Cincius Alimentus 282 234-140. M. Porcius Cato 282 106-43. M. Tullius Cicero 282 117-28. M. Terentius Varro 283 100-41. C. Julius Caesar 283 86-34. C. Sallustius Crispus 284 Cornelius Nepos 284 B.C. A.D. 53-17. Titus Livius 284
THE REIGN OF AUGUSTUS CAESAR. B.C. 31-A.D. 14.
Conduct of Augustus 286
His friends 286
Police of Rome 286
Condition of the empire 287
Italy, Gaul, and Spain 287
Egypt and Greece 288
Boundaries of the empire 289
The Praetorian guard 290
Army and navy 290
Augustus in Spain 291
His family 291
His wife, Livia 292
Marcellus, Julia, Tiberius 292
Cains and Lucius Caesar 293
Birth of the Savior 293
Death of Augustus 294
His character and personal appearance 294
FROM THE ACCESSION OF TIBERIUS, A.D. 14-37, TO DOMITIAN, A.D. 96.
Accession of Tiberius 295
His death 296
The Lex Majestas 297
The Delatores 297
Death of Sejanus 298
Death of Tiberius 299
His conduct 300
The Emperor Nero 301
His crimes 301
Fall of Jerusalem 303
Reign of Titus 304
The Colosseum 304
Reign of Domitian 305
He persecutes the Christians 305
PROSPERITY OF THE EMPIRE, A.D. 96.—COMMODUS, A.D. 180.—REIGN OF M. COCCEIUS NERVA, A.D. 96-98.
The Emperor Nerva 306
Prosperity of the empire 306
His wise administration 307
The Dacian war 308
Conquests in the East 308
Trajan's public works 309
Reign of Hadrian 309
His travels 310
His death 312
Antoninus Pius 313
His excellent character 313
Marcus Aurelius 314
His conduct 315
He defeats the Barbarians 316
The depraved Commodus 316
His vices 316
Is assassinated 316
FROM PERTINAX TO DIOCLETIAN. A.D. 192-284.
Pertinax made emperor 319
Is assassinated 319
Didius Julianus 319
His severe rule 320
Geta and Caracalla 321
Papinian executed 321
Cruelties of Caracalla 322
Alexander Severus 322
The Goths invade the empire 324
Thirty tyrants 325
The Emperor Tacitus 326
Frugal habits of Carus 326
FROM DIOCLETIAN, A.D. 284, TO CONSTANTINE'S DEATH, A.D. 337.
His colleagues 328
Persecution of the Christians 329
Abdication of Diocletian 329
Constantine the Great 330
His administration 331
The Council of Nice 332
Its magnificence 333
The praefectures 334
Christianity the national religion 334
Family of Constantine 335
He is baptized and dies 335
FROM THE DEATH OF CONSTANTINE, A.D. 337, TO ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS, A.D. 476.
The three sons of Constantine 336
Constantius jealous of Julian 337
Julian becomes emperor 337
Attempts to restore Paganism 337
The Huns appear in Europe 338
The Goths cross the Danube 338
Theodosius the Great 339
Alaric enters Italy 340
Luxury of the Romans 340
Sack of Rome 341
Arcadius and Honorius 341
The Vandals 342
The Huns 342
Romulus Augustulus 343
Extinction of the Empire of the West 343
ROMAN LITERATURE UNDER THE EMPIRE. A.D. 14-476.
Decline of letters 344
Epic poetry—Lucan 344
Silius Italicus 344
Persius, Juvenal 345
History—Velleius Paterculus 346
Valerius Maximus 346
Quintus Curtius 347
Rhetoric—Seneca the elder 348
The elder Pliny 349
His nephew 350
Legal writers—Gains 350
Science and art 351
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
The Roman Forum FRONTISPIECE Puteal on a Coin of the Scribonia Gens TITLE-PAGE Map of Italy Temple of Janus vi Julius Caesar vii Virgil xxx Tivoli, the ancient Tibur 1 Gate of Arpinum 6 The Alban Hills 7 Plan of the City of Romulus 11 Salii carrying the Ancilia 13 Arch of Volaterrae 15 Pons Sublicius, restored by Canina 16 Cloaca Maxima 17 Map of Rome, showing the Servian Wall and the Seven Hills 21 Coin representing the children of Brutus led to death by Lictors 23 The Campagna of Rome 29 The Environs of Rome 33 Tarpeian Rock 36 View in the neighborhood of Veii 41 Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus restored 45 Ruins at Capua 52 Coin of Pyrrhus 60 Temple of Vesta 67 Mount Ercta in Sicily 68 Columna Rostrata 71 Plan of Mount Ercta 76 Coin of Carthage 77 Coin of Hiero 81 Lake Trasimenus 82 Map of the coasts of the Mediterranean, illustrating the history of the Punic Wars 85 Route of Hannibal 89 Plain of Cannae 91 Hannibal 99 The Capitoline Wolf 105 Coin of Antiochus the Great 106 Roman Soldiers 113 Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 115 Lictors 116 A Roman general addressing the soldiers 125 Scipio Africanus 126 Island in the Tiber, with the Fabrician and Cestian Bridges 134 Plan of Carthage 141 Personification of the River Tiber 143 Stairs of the modern Capitol 148 The Forum in its present state 155 Temple of Saturn at Rome 160 A Roman Trophy 161 Soldiers blowing Tubae and Cornua 168 Caius Marius 169 Fasces 172 Tomb of Metella Caecilia 173 Beneventum in Samnium 177 Coin of the Eight Italian Nations taking the Oath of Federation 178 Terracina 181 Mount Argaeus in Cappadocia 186 Coin of Nicomedes III., king of Bithynia 189 Brundusium 190 Coin of Sulla 198 Cn. Pompeius Magnus 199 Temple of Pudicitia Patricia at Rome 204 Coin of Mithridates 205 Coin of Tigranes 207 Cicero 214 Coin of Pompey 222 Julius Caesar 223 Temple of Hercules at Rome 228 Temple of Nemausus (Nimes), now called the Maison Carree 229 Ruins on the Esquiline 235 Marcus Brutus 241 Coin of Julius Caesar 250 Statue of a Roman, representing the Toga 251 M. Antonius 252 Philippi 259 Coin of Antony and Cleopatra 261 M. Agrippa 262 Plan of Actium 268 Map of the Provinces of the Roman Empire 271 Horace 272 Maecenas 285 Aureus of Augustus Caesar 288 Gold Coin of Agrippa 292 The Carpentum or Chariot 293 Medal of Augustus 294 Medal of Nero 295 Roman Galley 299 Copper Coin of Antoninus Pius 306 Trajan's Pillar 308 Hadrian's Mausoleum restored 311 Reverse of a Brass Coin of Antoninus Pius 313 Commodus 317 Pertinax 318 Septimius Severus 319 Caracalla 321 Alexander Severus 323 Court-yard of Diocletian's Palace at Spolatro 327 Constantino and Fausta 330 Arch of Constantine 331 Map of the Propontis, Hellespont, and Bosphorus 333 Map of Constantinople 333 Julian the Apostate 336 Juvenal 351 Coin of Augustus 361
HISTORY OF ROME.
GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY—EARLY INHABITANTS.
Italy is the central one of the three great peninsulas which project from the south of Europe into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded on the north by the chain of the Alps, which form a natural barrier, and it is surrounded on other sides by the sea. Its shores are washed on the west by the "Mare Inferum," or the Lower Sea, and on the east by the Adriatic, called by the Romans the "Mare Superum," or the Upper Sea. It may be divided into two parts, the northern consisting of the great plain drained by the River Padus, or Po, and its tributaries, and the southern being a long tongue of land, with the Apennines as a back-bone running down its whole extent from north to south. The extreme length of the peninsula from the Alps to the Straits of Messina is 700 miles. The breadth of northern Italy is 350 miles, while that of the southern portion is on an average not more than 100 miles. But, till the time of the Empire, the Romans never included the plain of the Po in Italy. To this country they gave the general name of GALLIA CISALPINA, or Gaul on this (the Roman) side of the Alps, in consequence of its being inhabited by Gauls. The western-most portion of the plain was peopled by Ligurian tribes, and was therefore called LIGURIA, while its eastern extremity formed the Roman province of VENETIA.
The name ITALIA was originally applied to a very small tract of country. It was at first confined to the southern portion of Calabria, and was gradually extended northward, till about the time of the Punic wars it indicated the whole peninsula south of the Rivers Rubicon and Macra, the former separating Cisalpine Gaul and Umbria, the latter Liguria and Etruria. Italy, properly so called, is a very mountainous country, being filled up more or less by the broad mass of the Apennines, the offshoots or lateral branches of which, in some parts, descend quite to the sea, but in others leave a considerable space of level or low country. Excluding the plain of the Po, it was divided into the following districts:
1. ETRURIA, which extended along the coast of the Lower Sea from the River Macra on the north to the Tiber on the south. Inland, the Tiber also formed its eastern boundary, dividing it first from Umbria, afterward from the Sabines, and, lastly, from Latium. Its inhabitants were called Etrusci, or Tusci, the latter form being still preserved in the name of Tuscany. Besides the Tiber it possesses only one other river of any importance, the Arnus, or Arno, upon which the city of Florence now stands. Of its lakes the most considerable is the Lacus Trasimenus, about thirty-six miles in circumference, celebrated for the great victory which Hannibal there gained over the Romans.
2. UMBRIA, situated to the east of Etruria, and extending from the valley of the Tiber to the shores of the Adriatic. It was separated on the north from Gallia Cisalpina by the Rubicon, and on the south by the AEsis from Picenum, and by the Nar from the Sabines.
3. PICENUM extended along the Adriatic from the mouth of the AEsis to that of the Matrinus and inland as far as the central ridge of the Apennines. It was bounded on the north by Umbria, on the south by the Vestini, and on the west by Umbria and the Sabini. Its inhabitants, the Picentes, were a Sabine race, as is mentioned below.
4. The SABINI inhabited the rugged mountain-country in the central chain of the Apennines, lying between Etruria, Umbria, Picenum, Latium, and the country of the Marsi and Vestini. They were one of the most ancient races of Italy, and the progenitors of the far more numerous tribes which, under the names of Picentes, Peligni, and Samnites, spread themselves to the east and south. Modern writers have given the general name of Sabellians to all these tribes. The Sabines, like most other mountaineers, were brave, hardy, and frugal; and even the Romans looked up to them with admiration on account of their proverbial honesty and temperance.
5. The MARSI, PELIGNI, VESTINI, and MARRUCINI inhabited the valleys of the central Apennines, and were closely connected, being probably all of Sabine origin. The MARSI dwelt inland around the basin of the Lake Fucinus, which is about thirty miles in circumference, and the only one of any extent in the central Apennines. The PELIGNI also occupied an inland district east of the MARSI. The VESTINI dwelt east of the Sabines, and possessed on the coast of the Adriatic a narrow space between the mouth of the Matrinus and that of the Aternus, a distance of about six miles. The MARRUCINI inhabited a narrow strip of country on the Adriatic, east of the Peligni, and were bounded on the north by the Vestini and on the south by the Frentani.
6. The FRENTANI dwelt upon the coast of the Adriatic from the frontiers of the Marrucini to those of Apulia. They were bounded on the west by the Samnites, from whom they were originally descended, but they appear in Roman history as an independent people.
7. LATIUM was used in two senses. It originally signified only the land of the Latini, and was a country of small extent, bounded by the Tiber on the north, by the Apennines on the east, by the sea on the west, and by the Alban Hills on the south. But after the conquest of the Volscians, Hernici, AEquians, and other tribes, originally independent, the name of Latium was extended to all the country which the latter had previously occupied. It was thus applied to the whole region from the borders of Etruria to those of Campania, or from the Tiber to the Liris. The original abode of the Latins is of volcanic origin. The Alban Mountains are a great volcanic mass, and several of the craters have been filled with water, forming lakes, of which the Alban Lake is one of the most remarkable. The plain in which Rome stands, now called the Campagna, is not an unbroken level, but a broad undulating tract, intersected by numerous streams, which have cut themselves deep channels through the soft volcanic tufa of which the soil is composed. The climate of Latium was not healthy even in ancient times. The malaria of the Campagna renders Rome itself unhealthy in the summer and autumn; and the Pontine Marshes, which extend along the coast in the south of Latium for a distance of thirty miles, are still more pestilential.
8. CAMPANIA extended along the coast from the Liris, which separated it from Latium, to the Silarus, which formed the boundary of Lucania. It is the fairest portion of Italy. The greater part of it is an unbroken plain, celebrated in ancient as well as in modern times for its extraordinary beauty and fertility. The Bay of Naples—formerly called Sinus Cumanus and Puteolanus, from the neighboring cities of Cumae and Puteoli—is one of the most lovely spots in the world; and the softness of its climate, as well as the beauty of its scenery, attracted the Roman nobles, who had numerous villas along its coasts.
9. SAMNIUM was an inland district, bounded on the north by the Marsi and Peligni, on the east by the Frentani and Apulia, on the west by Latium and Campania, and on the south by Lucania. It is a mountainous country, being entirely filled with the masses of the Apennines. Its inhabitants, the Samnites, were of Sabine origin, as has been already mentioned, and they settled in the country at a comparatively late period. They were one of the most warlike races in Italy, and carried on a long and fierce struggle with the Romans.
10. APULIA extended along the coast of the Adriatic from the Frentani on the north to Calabria on the south, and was bounded on the west by the Apennines, which separated it from Samnium and Lucania. It consists almost entirely of a great plain, sloping down from the Apennines to the sea.
11. CALABRIA formed the heel of Italy, lying south of Apulia, and surrounded on every other side by the sea. It contains no mountains, and only hills of moderate elevation, the Apennines running to the southwest through Lucania and the Bruttii.
12. LUCANIA was bounded on the north by Campania and Samnium, on the east by Apulia, and on the south by the Bruttii. The Apennines run through the province in its whole extent. The Lucanians were a branch of the Samnite nation, which separated from the main body of that people, and pressed on still farther to the south.
13. The BRUTTII inhabited the southern extremity of Italy, lying south of Lucania; and, like Lucania, their country is traversed throughout by the chain of the Apennines.
Italy has been in all ages renowned for its beauty and fertility. The lofty ranges of the Apennines, and the seas which bathe its shores on both sides, contribute at once to temper and vary its climate, so as to adapt it for the productions alike of the temperate and the warmest parts of Europe. In the plains on either side of the Apennines corn is produced in abundance; olives flourish on the southern slopes of the mountains; and the vine is cultivated in every part of the peninsula, the vineyards of northern Campania being the most celebrated in antiquity.
The early inhabitants of Italy may be divided into three great classes—the Italians proper, the Iapygians, and the Etruscans, who are clearly distinguished from each other by their respective languages.
(1.) The Italians proper inhabited the centre of the peninsula. They were divided into two branches, the Latins and the Umbro-Sabellians, including the Umbrians, Sabines, Samnites, and their numerous colonies. The dialects of the Latins and Umbro-Sabellians, though marked by striking differences, still show clearest evidence of a common origin, and both are closely related to the Greek. It is evident that at some remote period a race migrated from the East, embracing the ancestors of both the Greeks and Italians—that from it the Italians branched off—and that they again were divided into the Latins on the west and the Umbrians and Sabellians on the east.
(2.) The Iapygians dwelt in Calabria, in the extreme southeast corner of Italy. Inscriptions in a peculiar language have here been discovered, clearly showing that the inhabitants belonged to a different race from those whom we have designated as the Italians. They were doubtless the oldest inhabitants of Italy, who were driven toward the extremity of the peninsula as the Latins and Sabellians pressed farther to the south.
(3.) The Etruscans, or, as they called themselves, Rasena, form a striking contrast to the Latins and Sabellians as well as to the Greeks. Their language is radically different from the other languages of Italy; and their manners and customs clearly prove them to be a people originally quite distinct from the Greek and Italian races. Their religion was of a gloomy character, delighting in mysteries and in wild and horrible rites. Their origin is unknown. Most ancient writers relate that the Etruscans were Lydians who had migrated by sea from Asia to Italy; but this is very improbable, and it is now more generally believed that the Etruscans descended into Italy from, the Rhaetian Alps. It is expressly stated by ancient writers that the Rhaetians were Etruscans, and that they spoke the same language; while their name is perhaps the same as that of Rasena, the native name of the Etruscans. In more ancient times, before the Roman dominion, the Etruscans inhabited not only the country called Etruria, but also the great plain of the Po, as far as the foot of the Alps. Here they maintained their ground till they were expelled or subdued by the invading Gauls. The Etruscans, both in the north of Italy and to the south of the Apennines, consisted of a confederacy of twelve cities, each of which was independent, possessing the power of even making war and peace on its own account. In Etruria proper Volsinii was regarded as the metropolis.
Besides these three races, two foreign races also settled in the peninsula in historical times. These are the Greeks and the Gauls.
(4.) The Greeks planted so many colonies upon the coasts of southern Italy that they gave to that district the name of Magna Graecia. The most ancient, and, at the same time, the most northerly Greek city in Italy, was Cumae in Campania. Most of the other Greek colonies were situated farther to the south, where many of them attained to great power and opulence. Of these, some of the most distinguished were Tarentum, Sybaris, Croton, and Metapontum.
(5.) The Gauls, as we have already said, occupied the greater part of northern Italy, and were so numerous and important as to give to the whole basin of the Po the name of Gallia Cisalpina. They were of the same race with the Gauls who inhabited the country beyond the Alps, and their migration and settlement in Italy were referred by the Roman historian to the time of the Tarquins.
[Footnote 1: The description which follows in the text must be compared with the map of Italy given in this work.]
[Footnote 2: The name "Bruttium," given to the country by modern writers on ancient geography, is not found in any classical author.]
THE FIRST FOUR KINGS OF ROME. B.C. 753-616.
The history of Rome is that of a city which originally had only a few miles of territory, and gradually extended its dominions at first over Italy and then over the civilized world. The city lay in the central part of the peninsula, on the left bank of the Tiber, and about fifteen miles from its mouth. Its situation was upon the borders of three of the most powerful races in Italy, the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans. Though originally a Latin town, it received at an early period a considerable Sabine population, which left a permanent impression upon the sacred rites and religious institutions of the people. The Etruscans exercised less influence upon Rome, though it appears nearly certain that a part of its population was of Etruscan origin, and that the two Tarquins represent the establishment of an Etruscan dynasty at Rome. The population of the city may therefore be regarded as one of mixed origin, consisting of the three elements of Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, but the last in much smaller proportion than the other two. That the Latin element predominated over the Sabine is also evident from the fact that the language of the Romans was a Latin and not a Sabellian dialect.
The early history of Rome is given in an unbroken narrative by the Roman writers, and was received by the Romans themselves as a faithful record of facts. But it can no longer be regarded in that light. Not only is it full of marvelous tales and poetical embellishments, of contradictions and impossibilities, but it wants the very foundation upon which all history must be based. The reader, therefore, must not receive the history of the first four centuries of the city as a statement of undoubted facts, though it has unquestionably preserved many circumstances which did actually occur. It is not until we come to the war with Pyrrhus that we can place full reliance upon the narrative as a trustworthy statement of facts. With this caution we now proceed to relate the celebrated legends of the foundation and early history of Home.
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AEneas, son of Anchises and Venus, fled after the fall of Troy to seek a new home in a foreign land. He carried with him his son Ascanius, the Penates or household gods, and the Palladium of Troy. Upon reaching the coast of Latium he was kindly received by Latinus, the king of the country, who gave him his daughter Lavinia in marriage. AEneas now built a city, which he named Lavinium, in honor of his wife. But Lavinia had been previously promised to Turnus, the leader of the Rutulians. This youthful chief, enraged at the insult, attacked the strangers. He was slain, however, by the hands of AEneas; but in a new war which broke out three years afterward the Trojan hero disappeared amid the waters of the River Numicius, and was henceforward worshiped under the name of Jupiter Indiges, or "god of the country."
Ascanius, who was also called Iulus, removed from Lavinium thirty years after its foundation, and built Alba Longa, or the "Long White City," on a ridge of the Alban Mount about fifteen miles southeast of Rome. It became the most powerful city in Latium, and the head of a confederacy of Latin cities. Twelve kings of the family of AEneas succeeded Ascanius. The last of these, named Procas, left two sons, Numitor and Amulius. Amulius, the younger, seized the kingdom; and Numitor, who was of a peaceful disposition, made no resistance to his brother. Amulius, fearing lest the children of Numitor might not submit so quietly to his usurpation, caused his only son to be murdered, and made his daughter, Rhea Silvia, one of the vestal virgins, who were compelled to live and die unmarried. But the maiden became, by the god Mars, the mother of twins. She was, in consequence, put to death, because she had broken her vow, and her babes were doomed to be drowned in the river. The Tiber had overflowed its banks far and wide; and the cradle in which the babes were placed was stranded at the foot of the Palatine, and overturned on the root of a wild fig-tree. A she-wolf, which had come to drink of the stream, carried them into her den hard by, and suckled them; and when they wanted other food, the woodpecker, a bird sacred to Mars, brought it to them. At length, this marvelous spectacle was seen by Faustulus, the king's shepherd, who took the children home to his wife, Acca Larentia. They were called Romulus and Remus, and grew up along with the sons of their foster-parents on the Palatine Hill.
A quarrel arose between them and the herdsmen of Numitor, who stalled their cattle on the neighboring hill of the Aventine. Remus was taken by a stratagem, and carried off to Numitor. His age and noble bearing made Numitor think of his grandsons; and his suspicions were confirmed by the tale of the marvelous nurture of the twin brothers. Soon afterward Romulus hastened with his foster-father to Numitor; suspicion was changed into certainty, and the old man recognized them as his grandsons. They now resolved to avenge the wrongs which their family had suffered. With the help of their faithful comrades they slew Amulius, and placed Numitor on the throne.
Romulus and Remus loved their old abode, and therefore left Alba to found a city on the banks of the Tiber. But a dispute arose between the brothers where the city should be built, and after whose name it should be called. Romulus wished to build it on the Palatine, Remus on the Aventine. It was agreed that the question should be decided by the gods; and each took his station on the top of his chosen hill, awaiting the pleasure of the gods by some striking sign. The night passed away, and as the day was dawning Remus saw six vultures; but at sunrise, when these tidings were brought to Romulus, twelve vultures flew by him. Each claimed the augury in his own favor; but the shepherds decided for Romulus, and Remus was therefore obliged to yield.
1. REIGN OF ROMULUS, B.C. 753-716.—Romulus now proceeded to mark out the boundaries of his city. He yoked a bullock and a heifer to a plow, and drew a deep furrow round the Palatine. This formed the sacred limits of the city, and was called the Pomoerium. To the original city on the Palatine was given the name of Roma Quadrata, or Square Rome, to distinguish it from the one which subsequently extended over the seven hills.
Rome is said to have been founded on the 21st of April, 753 years before the Christian era.
On the line of the Pomoerium Romulus began to raise a wall. One day Remus leapt over it in scorn; whereupon Romulus slew him, exclaiming, "So die whosoever hereafter shall leap over my walls." Romulus now found his people too few in numbers. Accordingly, lie set apart on the Capitoline Hill an asylum, or a sanctuary, in which homicides and runaway slaves might take refuge. The city thus became filled with men, but they wanted women, and the inhabitants of the neighboring cities refused to give their daughters to such an outcast race. Romulus accordingly resolved to obtain by force what he could not obtain by treaty. He proclaimed that games were to be celebrated in honor of the god Consus, and invited his neighbors, the Latins and Sabines, to the festival. Suspecting no treachery, they came in numbers with their wives and children, but the Roman youths rushed upon their guests and carried off the virgins. The parents returned home and prepared for vengeance. The inhabitants of three of the Latin towns, Caenina, Antemnae and Crustumerium, took up arms one after the other, but were defeated by the Romans. Romulus slew with his own hand Acron, king of Caenina, and dedicated his arms and armor, as spolia opima, to Jupiter. These were offered when the commander of one army slew with his own hand the commander of another, and were only gained twice afterward in Roman history. At last Titus Tatius, the king of Cures, the most powerful of the Sabine states, marched against Rome. His forces were so great that Romulus, unable to resist him in the field, was obliged to retire into the city. Besides the city on the Palatine, Romulus had also fortified the top of the Capitoline Hill, which he intrusted to the care of Tarpeius. But his daughter Tarpeia, dazzled by the golden bracelets of the Sabines, promised to betray the hill to them "if they would give her what they wore on their left arms." Her offer was accepted. In the night-time she opened a gate and let in the enemy, but when she claimed her reward they threw upon her the shields "which they wore on their left arms," and thus crushed her to death. One of the heights of the Capitoline Hill preserved her name, and it was from the Tarpeian Rock that traitors were afterward hurled down. On the next day the Romans endeavored to recover the hill. A long and desperate battle was fought in the valley between the Palatine and the Capitoline. At one time the Romans were driven before the enemy, when Romulus vowed a temple to Jupiter Stator, the Stayer of Flight, whereupon his men took courage and returned again to the combat. At length the Sabine women, who were the cause of the war, rushed in between them, and prayed their husbands and fathers to be reconciled. Their prayers were heard; the two people not only made peace, but agreed to form only one nation. The Romans dwelt on the Palatine under their king Romulus, the Sabines on the Capitoline under their king Titus Tatius. The two kings and their senates met for deliberation in the valley between the two hills, which was hence called Comitium, or the place of meeting, and which afterward became the Roman Forum. But this union did not last long. Titus Tatius was slain at Lavinium by some Latins to whom he had refused satisfaction for outrages committed by his kinsmen. Henceforward Romulus ruled alone over both Romans and Sabines. He reigned, in all, thirty-seven years. One day, as he was reviewing his people in the Campus Martius, near the Goat's Fool, the sun was suddenly eclipsed, and a dreadful storm dispersed the people. When daylight returned Romulus had disappeared, for his father Mars had carried him up to heaven in a fiery chariot. Shortly afterward he appeared in more than mortal beauty to the senator Proculus Sabinus, and bade him tell the Romans to worship him under the name of the god Quirinus.
As Romulus was regarded as the founder of Rome, its most ancient political institutions and the organization of the people were ascribed to him by the popular belief.
(i.) The Roman people consisted only of Patricians and their Clients. The Patricians formed the Populus Romanus, or sovereign people. They alone had political rights; the Clients were entirely dependent upon them. A Patrician had a certain number of Clients attached to him personally. To these he acted as a Patronus or Patron. He was bound to protect the interests of the Client both in public and private, while the Client had to render many services to his patron.
(ii.) The Patricians were divided by Romulus into three Tribes; the Ramnes, or Romans of Romulus; the Tities, or Sabines of Titus Tatius; and the Luceres, or Etruscans of Caeles, a Lucumo or Etruscan noble, who assisted Romulus in the war against the Sabines. Each tribe was divided into 10 curiae, and each curiae into 10 gentes. The 30 curiae formed the Comitia Curiata, a sovereign assembly of the Patricians. This assembly elected the king, made the laws, and decided in all cases affecting the life of a citizen.
To assist him in the government Romulus selected a number of aged men, forming a Senate, or Council of Elders, who were called Patres, or Senators. It consisted at first of 100 members, which number was increased to 200 when the Sabines were incorporated in the state. The 20 curiae of the Ramnes and Tities each sent 10 members to the senate, but the Luceres were not yet represented.
(iii.) Each of the three tribes was bound to furnish 1000 men for the infantry and 100 men for the cavalry. Thus 3000 foot-soldiers and 300 horse-soldiers formed the original army of the Roman state, and were called a Legion.
2. REIGN OF NUMA POMPILIUS, B.C. 716-673.—On the death of Romulus, the Senate, at first, would not allow the election of a new king. The Senators enjoyed the royal power in rotation as Inter-reges, or between-kings. In this way a year passed. But the people at length insisted that a king should be chosen, and the Senate were obliged to give way. The choice fell upon the wise and pious Numa Pompilius, a native of the Sabine Cures who had married the daughter of Tatius. The forty-three years of Numa's reign glided away in quiet happiness without any war or any calamity.
As Romulus was the founder of the political institutions of Rome, so Numa was the author of the religious institutions. Instructed by the nymph Egeria, whom he met in the sacred grove of Aricia, he instituted the Pontiffs, four in number, with a Pontifex Maximus at their head, who had the general superintendence of religion; the Augurs, also four in number, who consulted the will of the gods on all occasions, both private and public; three Flamens, each of whom attended to the worship of separate deities—Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus; four Vestal Virgins, who kept alive the sacred fire of Vesta brought from Alba Longa; and twelve Salii, or priests of Mars, who had the care of the sacred shields. Numa reformed the calendar, encouraged agriculture, and marked out the boundaries of property, which he placed under the care of the god Terminus. He also built the temple of Janus, a god represented with two heads looking different ways. The gates of this temple were to be open during war and closed in time of peace.
3. REIGN OF TULLUS HOSTILIUS, B.C. 673-641.—Upon the death of Numa an interregnum again followed; but soon afterward Tullus Hostilius, a Roman, was elected king. His reign was as warlike as that of Numa had been peaceful. The most memorable event in it is the destruction of Alba Longa. A quarrel having arisen between the two cities, and their armies having been drawn up in array against each other, the princes determined to avert the battle by a combat of champions chosen from each army. There were in the Roman army three brothers, born at the same birth, named Horatii; and in the Alban army, in like manner, three brothers, born at the same birth, and called Curiatii. The two sets of brothers were chosen as champions, and it was agreed that the people to whom the conquerors belonged should rule the other. Two of the Horatii were slain, but the three Curiatii were wounded, and the surviving Horatius, who was unhurt, had recourse to stratagem. He was unable to contend with the Curiatii united, but was more than a match for each of them separately. Taking to flight, he was followed by his three opponents at unequal distances. Suddenly turning round, he slew, first one, then the second, and finally the third. The Romans were declared the conquerors, and the Albans their subjects. But a tragical event followed. As Horatius was entering Rome, bearing his threefold spoils, his sister met him, and recognized on his shoulders the cloak of one of the Curiatii, her betrothed lover. She burst into such passionate grief that the anger of her brother was kindled, and, stabbing her with his sword, he exclaimed, "So perish every Roman woman who bewails a foe." For this murder he was condemned by the two judges of blood to be hanged upon the fatal tree, but he appealed to the people, and they gave him his life.
Shortly afterward Tullus Hostilius made war against the Etruscans of Fidenae and Veii. The Albans, under their dictator Mettius Fuffetius, followed him to the war as the subjects of Rome. In the battle against the Etruscans, the Alban dictator, faithless and insolent, withdrew to the hills, but when the Etruscans were defeated he descended to the plain, and congratulated the Roman king. Tullus pretended to be deceived. On the following day he summoned the two armies to receive their praises and rewards. The Albans came without arms, and were surrounded by the Roman troops. They then heard their sentence. Their dictator was to be torn in pieces by horses driven opposite ways; their city was to be razed to the ground; and they themselves, with their wives and children, transported to Rome. Tullus assigned to them the Caelian Hill for their habitation. Some of the noble families of Alba were enrolled among the Roman patricians, but the great mass of the Alban people were not admitted to the privileges of the ruling class. They were the origin of the Roman Plebs, who were thus quite distinct from the Patricians and their Clients. The Patricians still formed exclusively the Populus, or Roman people, properly so called. The Plebs were a subject-class without any share in the government.
After carrying on several other wars Tullus fell sick, and sought to win the favor of the gods, as Numa had done, by prayers and divination. But Jupiter was angry with him, and smote him and his whole house with fire from heaven. Thus perished Tullus, after a reign of thirty-two years.
4. REIGN OF ANCUS MARCIUS, B.C. 640-616.—Ancus Marcius, the successor of Tullus Hostilius, was a Sabine, being the son of Numa's daughter. He sought to tread in the footsteps of his grandfather by reviving the religious ceremonies which had fallen into neglect; but a war with the Latins called him from the pursuits of peace. He conquered several of the Latin cities, and removed many of the inhabitants to Rome, where he assigned them the Aventine for their habitation. Thus the number of the Plebeians was greatly enlarged. Ancus instituted the Fetiales, whose duty it was to demand satisfaction from a foreign state when any dispute arose, to determine the circumstances under which hostilities might be commenced, and to perform the proper religious rites on the declaration of war. He also founded a colony at Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber, built a fortress on the Janiculum as a protection against the Etruscans, and united it with the city by a bridge across the Tiber, called the Pons Sublicius, because it was made of wooden piles, and erected a prison to restrain offenders. He died after a reign of twenty-four years.
[Footnote 3: The Palladium was a statue of Pallas, or Minerva, which was said to have fallen from heaven, and was preserved at Rome with the most sacred care.]
[Footnote 4: The Sabines were called Quirites, and this name was afterward applied to the Roman people in their civil capacity.]
[Footnote 5: The Flamen of Jupiter was called Flamen Dialis.]
[Footnote 6: These shields were called Ancilia. One of these shields is said to have fallen from heaven; and Numa ordered eleven others to be made exactly like it, that it might not be known and stolen.]
THE LAST THREE KINGS OF ROME, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE REPUBLIC DOWN TO THE BATTLE OF THE LAKE REGILLUS. B.C. 616-498.
5. REIGN OF LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, or the ELDER TARQUIN, B.C. 616-578.—The fifth king of Rome was an Etruscan by birth, but a Greek by descent. His father Demaratus was a wealthy citizen of Corinth, who settled in the Etruscan city of Tarquinii, where he married an Etruscan wife. Their son married Tanaquil, who belonged to one of the noblest families in Tarquinii, and himself became a Lucumo or a noble in the state. But he aspired to still higher honors; and, urged on by his wife, who was an ambitious woman, he resolved to try his fortune at Rome. Accordingly, he set out for this city, accompanied by a large train of followers. When he had reached the Janiculum an eagle seized his cap, and, after carrying it away to a great height, placed it again upon his head. Tanaquil, who was skilled in the Etruscan science of augury, bade her husband hope for the highest honors. Her predictions were soon verified. He took the name of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and gained the favor both of Ancus Marcius and the people. Ancus appointed the stranger guardian of his children; and, when he died, the senate and the people unanimously elected Tarquin to the vacant throne.
The reign of Tarquin was distinguished by great exploits in war and by great works in peace. He defeated the Sabines, and took their town Collatia, which he placed under his nephew Egerius, who was thence called Collatinus. He also captured many of the Latin towns, and became the ruler of all Latium; but the important works which he executed in peace have rendered his name still more famous. The great cloacae, or sewers, by which he drained the lower parts of the city, still remain, after so many ages, with not a stone displaced. He laid out the Circus Maximus, and instituted the great or Roman games performed in the circus. He also made some changes in the constitution of the state. He added to the Senate 100 new members, taken from the Luceres, the third tribe, and called patres minorum gentium, to distinguish them from the old Senators, who were now termed patres majorum gentium. To the three centuries of equites established by Romulus he wished to add three new centuries, and to call them after himself and two of his friends. But his plan was opposed by the augur Attus Navius, who said that the gods forbade it. The tale runs that the king, to test the augur, asked him to divine whether what he was thinking of could be done. After consulting the heavens, the augur replied that it could; whereupon the king said, "I was thinking that thou shouldst cut this whetstone with a razor." Navius, without a moment's hesitation, took a razor and cut it in twain. In consequence of this miracle, Tarquin gave up his design of establishing new centuries; but with each of the former centuries he associated another under the same name, so that henceforth there were the first and second Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres. The number of Vestal Virgins was also increased from four to six, the two new vestals being probably taken from the Luceres.
Tarquin had a favorite, Servius Tullius, said to have been the son of a female slave taken at the capture of the Latin town Corniculum. His infancy was marked by prodigies which foreshadowed his future greatness. On one occasion a flame played around his head, as he was asleep, without harming him. Tanaquil foresaw the greatness of the boy, and from this time he was brought up as the king's child. Tarquin afterward gave him his daughter in marriage, and left the government in his hands. But the sons of Ancus Marcius, fearing lest Tarquin should transmit the crown to his son-in-law, hired two countrymen to assassinate the king. These men, feigning to have a quarrel, came before the king to have their dispute decided, and while he was listening to the complaint of one, the other gave him a deadly wound with his axe. But the sons of Ancus did not reap the fruit of their crime; for Tanaquil, pretending that the king's wound was not mortal, told them that he would soon return, and that he had, meantime, appointed Servius to act in his stead. Servius forthwith proceeded to discharge the duties of king, greatly to the satisfaction of the people; and when the death of Tarquin could no longer be concealed, he was already in firm possession of the regal power. Tarquin had reigned thirty-eight years.
6. SERVIUS TULLIUS, B.C. 578-534.—Servius thus succeeded to the throne without being elected by the Senate and the Assembly of the Curiae. The reign of this king is almost as barren of military exploits as that of Numa. His great deeds were those of peace; and he was regarded by posterity as the author of the later Roman constitution, just as Romulus was of the earlier. Three important acts are assigned to Servius by universal tradition. Of these the greatest was:
I. The reform of the Roman Constitution. In this reform his two main objects were to give the Plebeians political rights, and to assign to property that influence in the state which had previously belonged exclusively to birth. To carry his purpose into effect he made a twofold division of the Roman people, one territorial and the other according to property.
a. It must be recollected that the only existing political organization was that of the Patricians into 3 tribes, 30 curiae, and 300 gentes; but Servius now divided the whole Roman territory into Thirty Tribes, and, as this division was simply local, these tribes contained Plebeians as well as Patricians. But, though the institution of the Thirty Tribes gave the Plebeians a political organization, it conferred upon them no political power, nor any right to take part in the elections, or in the management of public affairs. At a later time the tribes assembled in the forum for the transaction of business, and were hence called Comitia Tributa. The Patricians were then excluded from this assembly, which was summoned by the Tribunes of the Plebs, and was entirely Plebeian.
b. The means by which Servius gave the Plebeians a share in the government was by establishing a new Popular Assembly, in which Patricians and Plebeians alike voted. It was so arranged that the wealthiest persons, whether Patricians or Plebeians, possessed the chief power. In order to ascertain the property of each citizen, Servius instituted the Census, which was a register of Roman citizens and their property. All Roman citizens possessing property to the amount of 12,500 asses and upward were divided into five great Classes. The First Class contained the richest citizens, the Second Class the next in point of wealth, and so on. The whole arrangement was of a military character. Each of the five Classes was divided into a certain number of Centuries or Companies, half of which consisted of Seniores from the age of 46 to 60, and half of Juniores from the age of 17 to 45. All the Classes had to provide their own arms and armor, but the expense of the equipment was in proportion to the wealth of each Class. The Five Classes formed the infantry. To these five Classes were added two centuries of smiths and carpenters, and two of trumpeters and horn-blowers. These four centuries voted with the Classes. Those persons whose property did not amount to 12,500 asses were not included in the Classes, and formed a single century.