Transcriber's note: The combination "vv" which occurs at some places for "w" and the word "Jonick" used sometimes for "Ionick" has been kept to conserve the original appearance of the book. No changes have been made in the text except the correction of obvious typos.
AN ABRIDGMENT OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF VITRUVIUS.
A System of the whole WORKS of that Author.
Illustrated with divers Copper Plates, curiously engraved; with a Table of Explanation, To which is added in this Edition
The Etymology and Derivation of the Terms used in Architecture.
First done in French by Monsr Perrault, of the Academy of Paris, and now Englished, with Additions.
LONDON: Printed for Abel Small and T. Child, at the Unicorn in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1692.
Article 1. Of the great merits of Vitruvius, and the Excellencies of his Works. Page 1.
Art. 2. Of the method of the Works of Vitruvius, with short Arguments of every Book. 9.
A division of his whole Works into three parts, whereof 1. treats of Building, 2. Gnomonical, 3. Mechanical. A second division into three parts, 1. of Solidity, 2. of Convenience, and 3. of Beauty. The Arguments of the Ten Books. 11, 12, &c.
THE FIRST PART.
Of the Architecture that is common to us with the Ancients.
Chap. I. Of Architecture in general.
Art. 1. Of the Original of Architecture, 17.
The first occasion of Architecture; the Models of the first Architects, 19. The Inventers of the four Orders of Architecture, 20.
Art. 2. What Architecture is, 23.
Definition of it; an Architect ought to have the knowledge of eleven things, viz. Writing, Designing, Geometry, Arithmetick, History, 24. Philosophy, moral and natural, 25. Physick, Law, Astronomy, and Musick. 26.
Art. 3. What the parts of Architecture are, 27.
There are eight parts in Architecture, viz. 1. Solidity, 27. 2. Convenience, 3. Beauty, 4. Order, 5. Disposition, 28. 6. Proportion, 7. Decorum, 8. Oeconomy, 32.
Chap. II. Of the Solidity of Buildings.
Art. 1. Of the choice of Materials, 33.
Vitruvius speaks of five sorts of Materials, 1. Stone, 33. 2. Bricks, 34. 3. Wood, whereof divers sorts are used, as Oak, Fir, Poplar, Alder, 35. Pine, Cypress, Juniper, Cedar, Larch, 36. and Olive; 4. Lime; 5. Sand and Gravel, 37. of which several sorts, Pit, River, and Pozzalane, 38.
Art. 2. Of the use of Materials, 39.
Of the Preparation of Stone, 39. Of Wood, 40. Of Bricks, 41. Lime and Sand, 43.
Art. 3. Of the Foundation, 45.
In Foundations, to take care that the Earth be solid, 45. Of the Masonry, 46.
Art. 4. Of the Walls, 47.
Six sorts of Masonry, 48, 49. Precautions to be used in binding the Walls, to strengthen them with Wood, 50. That they be exact perpendicular, 51. to ease them of their own weight, by Timber or Arches over doors and windows, and by Butresses in the earth, 53.
Art. 5. Of Flooring and Ceiling, 54.
Of Flooring upon the Ground, 54. between Stories, 55. Open to the Air as Terrass, &c. 57. the Roof, 58. Cornice, 59.
Art. 6. Of Plaistering, 59.
For great Walls, For Fresco, 60. for Partitions, 61. For moist places, 61.
Chap. III. Of the Convenience of Fabricks.
Art. 1. Of convenient Scituation, 63.
That a place be convenient, it ought to be fertile, accessible, in a wholsom Air, not on low Ground or marshy, 64. How to know a wholsom Climate, 65.
Art. 2. Of the Form and Scituation of the Building, 65.
The Streets and Houses of a City to be the most advantagiously expos'd in respect to the Heavens and Wind, 65, 66. The scituation of each Room to be according to the use of it; of Dining-rooms, Libraries, Closets, &c. 67, 68.
Art. 3. Of the Dispositions of Fabricks, 68.
The Dispositions of Buildings to be according to the use of the House, either publick or private; of Merchants Houses; of Country Houses; Of the several Apartments, 70. Of Lights, 71.
Art. 4. Of the convenient form of Buildings, 71.
Of the Walls of Cities; Form of publick places, 72. which were different among the Greeks and Romans; of Stairs and Halls, 72.
Chap. IV. Of the Beauty of Buildings.
Art. 1. In what the beauty of Buildings consists, 74.
Two sorts of beauty in Buildings; 1st, Positive, which consists in the Symmetry, Materials, and Performance, 75. 2d. Arbitrary, which is of two sorts; 1. Prudence, 2. Regularity; which consist in the proper providing against Inconveniences, and observing the Laws of Proportion, 76. The beauty is most seen in the proportion of these principal parts, viz. Pillars, Piedments, and Chambrantes, 78. From these things result two other, Gender and Order, 79.
Art. 2. Of the five Genders, or sorts of Fabricks, 80.
The five sorts are Pycnostyle, Systile, 80. Diastyle, Areostyle, Eustyle, 81. The Genders to be always agreable to the Orders of Architecture, 82.
Art. 3. Of the five Orders of Architecture, 84.
The distinction and difference in the several Orders; consists in the Strength and Ornament; Vitruvius speaks but of three Orders, 85.
Art. 4. Of things that are common to several Orders, 85.
There are seven things common to all Orders, viz. Steps, 85. Pedastals, 86. the diminution of Pillars, the Channelings of Pillars, which is of three sorts, 89. the Piedemont, 90. Cornices, and Acroteres, 93.
Art. 5. Of the Tuscane Order, 93.
The Tuscane Order consists in the Proportion of Columns, in which there are three parts, the Base, the Shaft, and the Capital, 94. Of Chambrantes; and of the Piedement, 95.
Art. 6. Of the Dorick Order, 96.
The Dorick Order consists in the proportion; of the Columns, which have been different at diverse times, and in diverse Works, 96, 97. The parts of the Column are the Shaft; the Base which it anciently wanted, but hath since borrowed from the Attic; the proportion of the Base, 97. and the Captial, 98. the Archiatrave, which hath two parts, the Platbands and the Gouttes, 98. the Frise, in which are the Triglyphs and the Metops, 98. the Proportion of them, 99. Of the Cornice, its proportion, 99.
Art. 7. Of the Ionick Order, 101.
The preportion of Pillars of this Order, 101. The Pillars set upon the Bases two ways, perpendicular, and not so, 101. Proportion of the Base, divided into its parts the Plinthus, the Thorus, the Scotia upper and lower, with the Astragals, 102. Of the Capital, its proportion and parts, 103. Of the Architrave, wherein to be considered, the proportion it must have to the Pedestals, and to the heighth of the Column, 105. to the breadth at the bottom, 106. and to the jetting of the Cymatium, 106. Of the Frise and Cornice, 107.
Art. 8. Of the Corinthian Order, 108.
This Order different from the Ionick in nothing but in the Capitals of Pillars, being otherwise composed of the Dorick and Ionick; the proportion of the Capital, 109. in which are to be consider'd its heighth, its breadth at the bottom, the Leafs, Stalks, the Volutes, and the Roses, 109. Of the Ornaments, 110.
Art. 9. Of the Compound Order, 110.
The Compound is not described by Vitruvius, it being a general Design, and borrows the parts of the Capital (which is the only distinction it has) from the Corinthian, Ionick, and Dorick Orders, 111.
THE SECOND PART,
Containing the Architecture that was particular to the Ancients.
Chap. I. Of publick Buildings.
Art. 1. Of Fortresses, 113.
In Fortification four things are consider'd; the disposition of the Ramparts; the Figure of the whole place, 114. the building of the Walls; thickness, materials, and terrass; the figure and disposition of the Towers, 115, 116.
Art. 2. Of Temples, 116.
Temples divided in the Greek and Tuscan Fashion; of the Greek some were round, and some square; in the square Temples of the Greeks three things are to be considered; 1. the Parts, which are five, the Porch, the Posticum, 117. the Middle, the Portico, and the Gates, which were of three sorts, viz. Dorick, 118. Jonick, 120. and Attick, 120. 2. The Proportion, 121. and 3. The Aspect, in respect to the Heavens, 122. and to its own parts, which were different in Temples with Pillars, and those without Pillars; of Temples with Pillars there are eight sorts, 122, 123, 124. Round Temples were of two sorts, Monoptere, 125. Periptere, 126. Temples of the Tuscane Fashion, 126. The Ancients had fourteen sorts of Temples, 127.
Art. 3. Of publick Places, Basilica's, Theatres, Gates, Baths, and Academies, 127.
The Fabricks for publick Convenience were of six sorts, I. Market-places of the Greeks of the Romans, 128. their Proportions; II. Basilica's, their Proportions, Columns, Galleries, and Chalcediques, 128. III. Theatres composed of three parts; the Steps or Degrees which enclosed the Orchestra, 125. the Scene which had three parts, the Pulpit, the Proscenium, 130. and the Palascenium, 131. And the Walking-places, 131. IV. Gates, which were either natural or artificial, built three ways, 132. V. Baths, consisting of many Chambers, their Description, 133, 134. VI. Academies composed of three parts, the Peristyle, 134. the Xystile, 135. and the Stadium, 136.
Chap. II. Of Private Buildings.
Art. 1. Of the Courts of Houses, 137.
The Courts of Houses were of five sorts, four whereof were made with jettings out, or Pent-houses of four sorts. the Tuscan, 137. the Corinthian, the Tetrastyle, the Vaulted, 138. the fifth sort uncoverted, 138.
Art. 2. Of the Vestibulum or Entry, 139.
The proportion of the Vestibulum was taken three ways, for the length, breadth, and heighth, 139. Of the Alley in the middle, 140.
Art. 3. Of Halls, 140.
Three sorts of Halls, the Corinthian, the AEgyptian, and the Cyzican, 141.
Art. 4. Of the Distribution of the Apartments among the Ancients, 142.
The Distribution of the Apartments different among the Greeks and Romans; what the Difference was, 141.
Chap. III. Of things that equally appertain to Publick and Private Buildings.
Art. 1. Of Aqueducts, 143.
The manner the Ancients used to take the Level exactly, 143 The Water was brought by Aqueducts, or by Pipes of Lead, or Potters Work, 144.
Art. 2. Of Wells and Cisterns, 145.
The Precautions the Ancients used in digging their Wells, to discover bad Water, and in making their Cisterns, 145.
Art. 3. Of Machines for carrying and lifting up great Stones and Burthens, 146.
Machines for drawing Pillars, 147. Architraves, 147. for raising great Weights, three sorts; first, with a Handmill; second, with a Windlas, 147. third, with several Ropes, to be drawn by Mens Hands, 148.
Art. 4. Of Machines for elevating Waters, 149.
Five sorts; I. The Tympan, 149. II. A Wheel with Boxes. III. A Chain with Buckets. IV. The Vice of Archimedes. V. The Pomp of Cresibius, 151.
Art. 5. Of Water-mills for grinding Corn, 152.
The Water-mills of the Ancients were like ours.
Art. 6. Of other Hydraulick Machines, 153.
Three sorts of Water-Machines; first, for shewing the hour, 153. Second, Organs, 154. Third, for measuring the Way by Water, 154. by Land, 155.
Art. 7. Of Machines of War, 155.
Three kinds; I. To dart Arrows, &c. 155. II. To batter down Walls, 157. III. To cover them in their Approaches to the Walls of the Besieged, 158.
AN ABRIDGMENT OF THE TEN BOOKS OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF VITRUVIUS.
Of the great Merits of Vitruvius, and the Excellencies of his Works.
There are so many things in the Works of Vitruvius that do not directly appertain to Architecture, that one would think they were less fitted to Instruct those that have a design to learn the Precepts of this Art, than to perswade the World that the Author was the most knowing Architect that ever was, and a Person of the greatest Merit: He had the Honour to serve Julius Caesar and Augustus, the two Greatest and most Magnificent Princes of the World, in an Age when all things were come to the highest degree of Perfection.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Preface.]
For one may see in reading his Works, which are full of a wonderful variety of Matters, which he treats of with a singular Erudition, that this great Man had acquired that Profound Knowledge which is necessary for his Profession by more excellent Methods, and more capable of producing something excellent, than the bare exercise and ordinary practice of a Mechanical Art could possibly do; being compleat in all the Liberal Arts and Sciences, and his great Wit being accustomed, even from his Cradle, to understand the most difficult Matters: He had acquired a certain Facility which meer Artizans have not, of penetrating the deepest Secrets, and all the difficulties of so vast an Art, as that of Architecture.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Pref.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Pref.]
Now as it's true that in the Practice and Exercise of Arts, one does not always easily distinguish the Abilities of those that work in them. The great Capacity of Vitruvius before the publishing of his Book, which he Composed when he was in Years, had not all the Esteem it deserved; which he complains of in his Preface, and in the Age he lived; though it was full of the most refined Wits, yet he had the fortune of others, to find few to defend him from the Surprizes and Attacks of false Reasoning, and from the injustice that prejudice creates, to those who apply themselves more to cultivate the Talents they possess, than to make parade of them.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Pref.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Pref.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 3. pref.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 3. Pref.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Pref.]
Vitruvius was a Man, who, as to the exteriour, made a small Figure, and who had not heaped up great Riches by the practice of his Profession; and having, as it were, buried himself in study, and wholly given himself over to the Contemplation of Sciences, understood little of the Arts of the Court, or the Crafty Slights of pushing on his Fortune and making himself considerable; for though he was bestowed upon, and recommended to Augustus, by the Princess Octavia his Sister, we cannot find that he was employed in any Works of great Importance. The Noblest Edifice that we can learn that Augustus caused to be built, was, the Theatre of Marcellus; and this was done by another Architect: And the only Fabrick we can find he was employed in was not at Rome, but at Fano, a very little City; insomuch, that the greatest part of the Architects of that Age, who had gained the general Vogue, being so ignorant, that they did not know even (as himself is forced to declare) the first Principles of their Art: The Quality of a mere Architect was become so Contemptible, that if his Books had not carried all the Marks of an extraordinary Knowledge, and rare abilities, and undeceived the World by taking away the prejudice that his small employ created him, the Precepts he has left us would have wanted that Authority that was necessary to support them.
For Architecture being an Art that has scarce any other Rule to walk by, in performing all those Excellencies her Works are capable of, than what we call a Good Fancy, which truly distinguishes that which is Beautiful and Good from that which is not so; it's absolutely necessary that one be perswaded that the Fancy he follows is better than any other; to the end, that this Perswasion insinuating it self into them that study this Art, it may form in them a Correct and Regular Idea, which without this Perswasion, would be always floating and uncertain; so that to establish this Good Fancy, it's necessary to have one to whom we give great deference, and who has merited great Credit by the Learning that is found in his Writings; and is believed to have had sufficient abilities of chusing well among all Antiquity, that which is most solid and capable of founding the Precepts of Architecture.
The Veneration we have for the first Inventers of Arts, is not only Natural, but it's founded upon Reason; which makes us judge, that he that had the first Thought, and first invented any Thing, must needs have had a fitter Genius, and a better Capacity for it, than all those that afterwards laboured to bring it to its utmost Perfection. The Greeks, who were the Inventers of Architecture, as well as of other Sciences, having left many Works behind them as well in Building as in Books, which were looked upon in the time of Vitruvius, as the Models of what was perfect and accomplished in this Art, Vitruvius chiefly followed and imitated them; and in the Composition of his Book, gathered from them all that was to be found Excellent and Rare in all their Works; which makes us believe, that he has omitted nothing that was necessary, to form the General Idea of Good and Beautiful, since there is not the least probability that any thing could escape so Rare a Wit, Illuminated with so many different Lights.
But because at present the Reputation of Vitruvius is so generally established, that all Ages have placed him in the first Rank of great Wits, and that there is nothing necessary to recommend the Precepts of Architecture, but to prove they were drawn out of his Works: We having here designed to make only an Abridgment of his Works, we thought it would be necessary to cut off many things that this Famous Author has drawn out of an infinity of Writers, whose Works are now lost, and only gives a short Account of the Contents of every Book, in the beginning of this Abridgment; handling only in this Book, those Things that directly belong to Architecture; disposing the Matter in a different Method from that of Vitruvius, who often leaves off the Matter he is treating of, and takes it up again in another place.
The Order we have proposed to our selves in this Abstract, is, That after having given an Account in few words of what is contained in the whole Book; we Explain more particularly what we judge may be serviceable to those that study Architecture. This Treatise is divided into Two Parts; The First contains the Maxims and Precepts that may be accommodated to Modern Architecture; the Second contains all that appertains to the Ancient and Antique Architectures; which, though often affected, have little that's now made use of, may yet nevertheless serve to form the Judgment, and regulate the Fancy, and serve for Examples of things that may be useful.
I make a Distinction between the Ancient Architecture, and the Antique Architecture, and the Modern; for we call that Architecture Ancient of which Vitruvius has writ, and of which we may as yet see many Examples in the Fabricks that remain in Greece. The Architecture which we call Antique, is that which may be found in the Famous Edifices, which, since the Time of Vitruvius, were built at Rome, Constantinople, and many other places. The Modern, is that which being more accommodated to the present use, or for other Reasons, has changed some of the Dispositions and Proportions which were observed by the Ancient and Antique Architects.
The Method of the Works of Vitruvius, with short Arguments of every Book.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 3.]
All his Works are divided into Three Parts: The First Treats of Building; The Second is Gnomonical, and treats at large of Astronomical and Geometrical Affairs. The Third gives Rules and Examples for making Machines or Engines serviceable, either in War or Building. The First Part is treated of in the Eight first Books: The Second in the Ninth: The Third in the Last.
The First Part which relates to Building is twofold, for they are either publick or private. He speaks of private Buildings in the Sixth Book; and as to that which relates to publick Buildings, it's likewise divided into Three Parts, viz. That which has Relation to Security, which consists in Fortifications, described in the Third Chapter of the First Book; That which appertains to Religion, of which he treats in the Third and Fourth Books, and that which relates to publick Conveniencies, as Town-Houses, Theatres, Baths, Academies, Market-places, Gates; of which he treats in the Fifth Book.
The Gnomonical part is treated of in the Ninth Book.
The Third Part which treats of Machines, is treated of in the Tenth and Last Book.
Besides these particular Matters of Architecture, there are Three things that appertain to all sort of Edifices, which are, Solidity, Convenience, and Beauty. He speaks of Solidity in the Eleventh Chapter of the Sixth Book; of Convenience, in the Seventh Chapter of the same Book; and of Beauty through the whole Chapter of the Seventh Book; which contains all the Ornaments that Painting and Sculpture are capable of giving to all sorts of Fabricks; and as to Proportion, which ought to be esteemed one of the principal Foundations of Beauty, it's treated of throughout all his Works.
But to make it better understood, in what Method every Book explains those things, we must tell you, That in the First Book, after having treated of those things that belong to Architecture in General, by the Enumeration of the Parts that compose it, and of those that are required in an Architect, the Author explains in particular what choice ought to be made of the Seat where we ought to Build, as to Health and Convenience; after he speaks of the Foundations and of the Building of Fortifications, and the Form of Towers and Walls of Cities, he dilates himself upon the Air and Healthiness of the Situation.
In the Second Book, he speaks of the Original of Architecture, and what were the first Habitations of Mankind; after he treats of the Materials, viz. of Brick, Sand, Lime, Stones, and Timber: After which he treats of the different Methods of laying, binding, and Masonry of Stones. He Philosophizes upon their Principles, and upon the Nature of Lime, upon the choice of Sand, and the time of cutting of Wood.
The Third Book treats of the Proportion of the Temples, and of seven sorts of them which are those called Antes, Prostyle, Amphiprostyle, Periptere, Pseudiptere, Diptere and Hypaethre. After he speaks of the Different spaces that ought to be betwxit every Pillar, to which he gives the Five Names following, (which in the latter Part of this Book shall be more fully explained, as well as divers Terms of Art) viz. Pycnostyle, Systyle, Diastyle, Araeostyle and Eustyle. After that, he gives in particular the Proportions of the Ionick Order, and demonstrates that it has a Proportion with Humane Bodies.
The Fourth gives the Proportion of the Corinthian and Dorick Orders for Temples, with the Proportions of all the Parts that compose them.
The Fifth treats of Publick Fabricks, viz. of Market-places, Theatres, Palaces, Baths, Schools for Sciences, and Academies for Exercises, and in Conclusion, of Sea-Ports; and after occasionally discourses at large upon Musick, because, speaking of Theatres, he gives an account how the Ancient Architects, were in some places of the Theatre wont to place Vessels of Brass to serve for several sorts of tunable Echo's, and augmenting the Voice of the Comedians.
In the Sixth he teaches what were the Proportions and Forms of private Houses among the Greeks and Romans, as well in the City as Country; and describes all the parts of the House, viz. the Courts, Porches, Halls, Dining Rooms, Chambers, Cabinets and Libraries.
In the Seventh he treats of the manner of making use of Mortar for Plaster and Floors; how Lime and the Powder of Marble ought to be prepared to make Stuck. He speaks likewise of the Ornaments that are common to all sorts of Buildings, as Painting; and all sorts of Colours, as well Natural as Artificial, that the Ancients made use of.
In the Eighth he speaks of Waters, and Rivers, and Fountains; viz. of their Springs, of their Nature, and Properties; how they are to be sought; and of the Conduits that are to bring them to Cities and Villages.
The Ninth is wholly Gnomonical, and teaches the manner of making Sun-Dials, and gives an account of the Rules of Geometry, how to measure solid Bodies. He discourses at large of the Course of the Stars, and the particular Description of those that are called Fixed Stars.
The Last is taken up wholly in the Description of making Machines to lift up great Weights, and others for several uses; viz. for the Elevation of Water for Corn-Mills, Water-Organs and Measuring the Way as well by Sea as by Land; but it chiefly treats of Machines fit for the use of Building and War.
AN ABRIDGMENT OF THE TEN BOOKS OF ARCHITECTURE Written by VITRUVIUS.
Of Architecture that is common to us with the Ancients.
Of Architecture in General.
Of the Original of Architecture.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Chap. 1.]
It's related by Historians, That Men, who in former times inhabited Woods and Caverns like wild Beasts, first assembled themselves to make Houses and Cities, which was occasioned by a Forest that was set on fire, which drew all the Inhabitants together by its novelty and surprizing effects; so that many Men meeting together in the same place, they found out means, by helping one another, to harbour themselves more conveniently, than in Caves and under Trees; so that it is pretended, that Architecture was the Beginning and Original of all other Arts. For Men seeing that they had success in Building, which necessity made them invent, they had the Thoughts and Courage of seeking out other Arts, and applying themselves to them.
[Sidenote: Lib. 4. Chap. 2.]
Now even as they took Trees, Rocks and other Things that Nature her self furnished Beasts to harbour themselves under, which were made use of as Models for the first Houses, which at first were only made of green Turf and broken Branches of Trees, they made use of them afterwards, in the same manner, to arrive at something more perfect. For passing from the Imitation of the Natural to that of Artificial, they invented all the Ornaments of Edifices that were most curiously wrought, in giving them the Form and Shape of those things that are simply necessary to the most natural Buildings: And the Pieces of Timber of which the Roofs and Floors of Houses are made, were the Original of Pillars, Architraves, Frises, Triglyphs, Mutils, Brackets, Corniches, Frontons or Piediments, which are made of Stone or Marble.
The Pillars which are to be smaller at top than at bottom, were made in Imitation of the Boles or Trunks of Trees, and their use was taken from the Carpenters' Posts that are made to support the Building. The Architraves which are laid across many Pillars, represent Summers that join many Posts together. The Frises imitate the Muring that is raised upon the Summers betwixt the ends of the Beams that are laid directly upon the Pillars. The Triglyphs represent the Ceiling or Joyner's work which was made upon the ends of the Beams to conserve them. The Corniches are as it were the extream parts of the Joists. The Modillions represent the ends of the Sheers, and the Dentels represent the ends of the principal Rafter. The Frontons are made in imitation of the Firms or Girders, upon which is laid the Roof of the House.
[Sidenote: Lib. 4. Chap. 2.]
There is likewise another Original of Architecture, which is taken from the Inventers of the several Orders, and those that added the Ornaments to embellish them. For it's the common Opinion, that the first Fabrick that was made, according to any of the Orders, was the Temple that King Dorus built in Honour of Juno in the City Argos. And it obtained the name of the Dorick Order, when Ion the Conducter of a Colony, which he established in Asia, made many Temples be built according to the Model of the Temple built by Dorus in Greece.
But the Ionians having changed some of the Proportions and Ornaments of the Dorick Order, were the Authors of another Order, which was called the Ionick, according to which, they built a Temple in Honour of Diana. The reason of this change was, that this Temple being dedicated to a Divinity, which they represented under the Shape of a Young Lady, they thought it was proper to make their Pillars more tapering, the better to represent the airy Stature of this Goddess, and for this reason they adorned it more delicately, adding Bases which represent the Buskin'd Ornaments of the Legs and Feet, according to the Mode of that time; and Made the Channellings deeper to represent the Foldings and Plaits of a fine light Garment. They put likewise Volutes or Scrowls upon the Capital, pretending that they imitated the Head-Dress of a Young Lady, whose Hair Beautifully descending from the top of her Head, was folded up under each Ear.
Afterwards Calimachus an Athenian, embellished the Capitals of the Pillars, adding to them more Beautiful Volutes or Scrowls, and more in number, enriching them with the Leaves of Brank Ursine and Roses. It's said, That this Capital, which, according to Vitruvius, makes all the Distinction betwixt the Corinthian and Ionick Order, was invented by this ingenious Artisan upon this occasion. Having seen the Leaves of the above-mentioned Plant grow round about a Basket which was set upon the Tomb of a Young Corinthian Lady, and which, as it happened, was set upon the middle of the Plant. He represented the Basket by the Tambour or Vase of the Capital, to which he made an Abacus to imitate the Tile with which the Basket was covered, and that he represented the Stalks of the Herb by the Volutes or Scrowls, which were ever after placed upon the Corinthian Capital. See Table the IXth.
This great Artist likewise invented other Ornaments, as those we call Eggs, because of the Ovals in the Relief which are in the Mouldings of the Corniches and are like Eggs. The Ancients called this Ornament Echinus, which signifies the sharp prickly shell of Chestnuts, because they found these Ovals represented a Chestnut half open, as it is when it's ripe.
[Sidenote: Lib. 3. Chap. 2.]
He likewise makes mention of another Famous Author, who found out the proportion of all the Parts of a Fabrick, which was Hermogenes; to whom he attributes the Invention of the Eustyle, Pseudodiptere, and of all that is beautiful and excellent in Architecture.
What Architecture is.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 1.]
Architecture is a Science which ought to be accompanied with the Knowledge of a great many other Arts and Sciences, by which means it forms a correct Judgment of all the Works of other Arts that appertain to it. This Science is acquired by Theory and Practice. The Theory of Architecture is that Knowledge of this Art which is acquired by study, travelling and discourse. The Practick is that knowledge that is acquired by the Actual Building of great Fabricks. These Two Parts are so necessary, that never any came to any great Perfection without them both. The one being lame and imperfect without the other, so they must walk hand in hand.
Besides, the Knowledge of things that particularly belong to Architecture, there are infinite other things that are necessary to be known by an Architect.
For, First, it's necessary that he be able to couch in writing his intended Building, and to design the Plan, and make an excellent Model of it.
Geometry likewise is very necessary for him in many occasions.
He must also know Arithmetick to make a true Calculation.
He must be knowing in History, and be able to give a reason for the greatest part of the Ornaments of Architecture which are founded upon History. For Example, if instead of Pillars he support the Floors of the House with the figures of Women, which are called Cariatides, he ought to know that the Greeks invented these Figures to let Posterity know the Victories they obtained over the Cariens, whose Wives they made Captives, and put their Images in their Buildings.
It's necessary likewise, that he be instructed in the Precepts of Moral Philosophy; for he ought to have a great Soul, and be bold without Arrogance, just, faithful, and totally exempt from Avarice.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 11.]
The Architect also ought to have a great Docility which may hinder him from neglecting the advice that is given him, not only by the meanest Artist, but also by those that understand nothing of Architecture; for not only Architects, but all the World must judge of his Works.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 2.]
Natural Philosophy is likewise necessary for him for to discover what are the Causes of many things which he must put a remedy to.
He ought also to know something of Physick, to know the qualities of the Air, which makes Places Healthful and Habitable, or the quite contrary.
He should not be ignorant of the Laws and the Customs of Places for the Building of Partition Walls, for prospect and for the conveying of Waters and Sewers.
He ought to know Astronomy, that he may be able to make all sorts of Dials.
It was necessary among the Ancients, that an Architect should have skill in Musick to make and order Catapults and other Machines of War, which were strung with strings made of Guts, whose sound they were to observe, that they might judge of the strength and stiffness of the Beams which were bended with those Strings. Musick was also necessary in those days for the placing musically Vessels of Brass in the Theatres, as we have said before.
What are the Parts of Architecture.
There are Three Things which ought to meet in every Fabrick, viz. Solidity, Convenience and Beauty, which Architecture gives them; by the due ordering and disposition of all the Parts that compose the Edifice, and which she rules by a just Proportion, having regard to a true Decorum, and well regulated Oeconomy; from whence it follows, that Architecture has Eight Parts, viz. Solidity, Convenience, Beauty, Order, Disposition, Decorum, Oeconomy.
Solidity depends upon the goodness of the Foundation, choice of Materials, and the right use of them; which ought to be with a due order, disposition and convenient Proportion of all Parts together, and of one in respect of another.
Convenience likewise consists in the ordering and disposition, which is so good that nothing hinders the use of any part of the Edifice.
Beauty consists in the excellent and agreeable form, and the just proportion of all its parts.
Order is that which makes, that all the parts of an Edifice have a convenient bigness, whether we consider them apart or with Relation to the whole.
Disposition is the orderly Ranging and agreeable Union of all the parts that compose the Work; so that as Order respects the Greatness, Disposition respects Form and Situation, which are Two Things compriz'd under the word Quality, which Vitruvius attributes to Disposition, and opposes to Quantity, which appertains to Order. There are three ways by which the Architect may take a view beforehand of the Fabrick he is to build, viz. First, Ichnography, which is the Geometrical Plan; Orthography, which is the Geometrical Elevation, and Scenography, which is Perspective Elevation.
Proportion, which is also call'd Eurythmy, is that which makes the Union of all parts of the Work, and which renders the Prospect agreeable, when the Height answers the Breadth, and the Breadth the Length; every one having its just measure. It is defin'd, the Relation that all the Work has with its Parts, and which every one of them has separately to the Idea of the whole, according to the measure of any Part. For as in Humane Bodies there is a Relation between the Foot, Hand, Finger and other Parts; so amongst Works that are Perfect, from any particular Part, we may make a certain Judgment of the Greatness of the whole Work: For Example, the Diameter of a Pillar, or the Length of a Triglyph, creates in us a right Judgment of the Greatness of the whole Temple.
And here we must remark, that to express the Relation that many things have one to another, as to their Greatness or different Number of Parts, Vitruvius indifferently makes use of three words, which are Proportion, Eurythmy and Symmetry. But we have thought it proper only to make use of the word Proportion, because Eurythmy is a Greek word, which signifies nothing else but Proportion; and Symmetry, although a word commonly used, does not signifie in the Vulgar Languages what Vitruvius understands by Proportion; for he understands by Proportion, a Relation according to Reason; and Symmetry, in the vulgar Languages, signifies only, a Relation of Parity and Equality. For the word Simmetria signifies in Latin and Greek Relation only. As for Example, as the Relation that Windows of Eight Foot high, have with other Windows of Six Foot, when the one are Four Foot broad, and the other Three: and Symmetry, in the Vulgar Languages, signifies the Relation, for Example, That Windows have one to another, when they are all of an equal height and equal breadth; and that their Number and Distances are equal to the Right and the Left; so that if the distances be unequal of one side, the like inequality is to be found in the other.
Decorum or Decency, is that which makes the Aspect of the Fabrick so correct, that there is nothing that is not approv'd of, and founded upon some Authority. It teaches us to have regard to three things, which are, Design, Custom and Nature.
The Regard to Design makes us chuse for Example, other Dispositions and Propertions for a Palace than for a Church.
The Respect we have to Custom, is the Reason, for Example, That the Porches and Entries of Houses are adorned, when the Inner Parts are Rich and Magnificent.
The Regard we have to the Nature of Places, makes us chuse different Prospects for different Parts of the Fabrick, to make them the wholsomer and the more convenient: For Example, the Bed-Chambers and the Libraries are exposed to the Morning Sun; the Winter Apartments, to the West; the Closets or Pictures and other Curiosities, which should always have equal Light, to the North.
Oeconomy teaches the Architect to have regard to the Expences that are to be made, and to the Quality of the Materials, near the Places where he Builds, and to take his Measures rightly for the Order and Disposition; viz. to give the Fabrick a convenient Form and Magnitude.
These Eight Parts, as we have said, have a Relation to the Three first, viz. Solidity, Convenience, Beauty, which suppose, Order, Disposition, Proportion, Decorum and Oeconomy. This is the reason that we divide this first Part only into Three Chapters; the first is of the Solidity; the second of the Convenience; the third of the Beauty of the Fabrick.
Of the Solidity of Buildings.
Of the Choice of Materials.
The Materials of which Vitruvius speaks are, Stone, Brick, Wood, Lime, and Sand.
All the Stones are not of one sort, for some are soft, some harder, and some extreamly hard.
Those that are not hard are easily cut, and are good for the Inner Parts of the Buildings, where they are cover'd from Rain and Frost which brings them to Powder, and if they be made use of in Buildings near the Sea, the Salt Particles of the Air and Heat destroys them.
Those that are indifferently hard, are fit to bear Weight; but there are some sorts of them, that easily crack with the heat of the Fire.
There is likewise another sort of Stone, which is a kind of Free-Stone; some are Red, some Black, and some White, which are as easily cut with a Saw as Wood.
The best Bricks are those which are only dry'd and not baked in the Fire; but there are many Years required to dry them well: and for this Reason, at Utica, a City of Africa, they made a Law, That none should make use of Bricks which had not been made five Years: For these sort of Bricks, so dry'd, had their Pores so close in their Superficies, that they would swim upon Water like a Pumice-Stone; and they had a particular Lightness, which made them very fit for all sorts of Buildings.
The Earth of which these Bricks were usually made was very Fat, and a sort of White Chalky Clay without Gravel or Sand, which made them Lighter and more Durable; they mixed Straw with them to make them better bound and firmer.
The Woods which were made use of in all Buildings, are Oak, Poplar, Beech, Elm, Cypress, Firr; but some of them are not so proper for Building as others.
The Firr, because it has great plenty of Air, and Fire, and but little Earth and Water, is light, and does not easily bend; but is very subject to Worms and Fire.
The Oak which is more Earthy lasts for ever under Ground; but above Ground is apt to cleave.
The Beech which has little of Earthiness, Humidity and Fire, but great plenty of Air, is not very solid and easily breaks.
The Poplar and the Linden Trees are only good for light Work, they are easily cut and so finest for Carving.
The Alder is good to make Piles of in Marshy Places.
The Elm and the Ash have this property, that they do not easily cleave, and that they are pliable.
The Yoke-Elm is likewise pliable, and yet very strong; this is the Reason that they made Yokes for their Oxen of them in Old Time.
The Pine and the Cypress have this defect, that they easily bend under any Weight, because of their great Humidity; but they have this Advantage, that their Humidity does not engender Worms, because of their Bitterness which kills them.
The Juniper and the Cedar have the same Vertue of hindering Corruption: the Juniper by its Gum, which is call'd Sandarax, and the Cedar by its Oil call'd Cedrium.
The Larch-Tree has likewise the same Vertue, but its particular property is, that it will not burn. There is a remarkable Story of this Wood, which is, That when Julius Caesar besieg'd a Castle at the Foot of the Alpes, there was a Tower built of this Wood, which prov'd the Principal Defence of the Place. He thought to take it easily by making a great Fire at the Foot of the Tower, but for all this great Fire, the Tower did not suffer the least Damage.
The Olive-Tree is likewise very serviceable, if it be put in the Foundations, and Walls of Cities; for after it has been singed a little, and interlaced among the Stones, it lasts for ever, and is out of all danger of Corruption.
Lime is made of White Stones or Flinty Pebbles, the harder the Stones are which 'tis made of, the better it is for Building. That which is made of soft Spongy Stones, is proper for Plastring.
There are five sorts of Sand; viz. Sand that is dug out of the Ground, River Sand, Gravel, Sea-Sand, and Pozzolana, which is a Sand peculiar to some Parts of Italy.
The best Sand is that which being rubb'd between the Hands makes a little Noise, which that Sand does not, which is Earthy, because it is not rough. Another Mark of good Sand is, that when 'tis put upon any Thing that is White and shak'd off, it leaves no Mark behind.
The Sand which is dug out of the Earth has all these Qualities, and is esteem'd the best. Vitruvius makes four sorts of it; viz. White, Black, Red, and Bright like a Carbuncle.
If it happen that there be no good Place to dig Sand in, we may make use of Sea-Sand, or River-Sand, which is likewise better for Plastering than the Sand which is digged, which is excellent for Building, because it drys quickly. Gravel likewise is very good, provided the grosser Parts be taken away. Sea-Sand is worst of all, because 'tis long adrying; and for this Reason, where 'tis made use of in Building, they are forc'd to desist sometimes till it dry.
The Sand which is found near Naples call'd Pozzolana is so proper to make good Mortar, if it be mixed with Lime, that not only in the ordinary Fabricks, but even in the very bottom of the Sea it grows into a wonderful hard Body. In Old Times they made use of it for Moles or Ports of the Sea, for after having made with Piles and Boards a Partition, they fill'd up the whole Compass of the Partition with this Mortar, which dry'd of it self in the middle of the Water and became a solid Body.
Of the Use of the Materials.
The first thing we should have a Care of before we begin to build, is, to have the Stones dug out of the Quarry before they be used, and to expose them in some open Place, to the end that those which are endamaged by the Air, during this Time, may be put in the Foundation, and those that prove Durable and Good may be kept for the Walls above Ground.
We must likewise have a great care of the Wood which we make use of; That it be cut in a seasonable Time, which is in Autumn and Winter; for then it is not full of that superfluous Humidity which weakened it in dilating its Fibers, but it is firm and well closed by the Cold. This is so true, that the Wood of Trees which grow and become very great in a little Time, by reason of their great Humidity, is tender and apt to break, and very unfit for Building. Which Experience shows us particularly in those Firrs call'd Supernates, which grow in Italy, on that side the Apennine, towards the Adriatick-Sea, for they are great and beautiful, but their Wood is not good for Building; whereas those on the other side of the Mountain, which are exposed to Heat and Dryness, call'd Infernates, are very good for Building.
This superfluous Humidity endamages Trees so much, that we are sometimes constrain'd to make a hole at the foot of the Tree and let it run out, which is the occasion of the Practice which is observ'd in cutting of Wood for Building, to Tap that Tree at the Foot, cutting not only the Bark, but even some part of the Wood it self, and so leave it for some time before it be Fell'd.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 5.]
It is likewise easie to judge of what great Importance the draining of this superfluous Humidity is for strengthning the Timber, and hindring Corruption, from this, That those Piles which are interlaced among the Stones in the Walls and Fortifications of Towns endure for ever without Corrupting, when they have been burnt a little on the outside.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 11.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Chap. 8.]
Bricks ought not to be made use of but in very thick Walls; for this reason they did not build with Brick in Rome, for to save Ground; they were not permitted to make the Walls of their Houses above a Foot and a Half thick, which Makes about 16 Inches and a half of our Foot.
They likewise never made the top of their Walls with Brick; for the Brick of the Ancients not being baked, this part of the Wall would have been easily endamaged; for this reason they built it with Tiles, a foot and a half high, comprizing the Cornish or Entablature which was made likewise of Tiles to cast off the Water and defend the rest of the Wall. They likewise chose for these Cornishes the best Tiles, viz. those that had been long on the top of the Houses, and given sufficient Proof that they were well baked and made of good Matter.
The Walling with Brick was so much esteem'd among the Ancients, that all their Fabricks, as well publick as private, and their most beautiful Palaces were built with them. But that which principally made this sort of Building be esteem'd, was its great Duration; for when expert Architects were called to make an Estimate of Buildings, they always deducted an 80th. part of what they judged the Building cost for every Year that the Wall had been standing, for they supposed that the Walls could not ordinarily endure more than Fourscore Years; but when they valued Buildings of Brick, they always valued them at what they cost at first, supposing them to be of an Eternal Duration.
To make the right use of Lime and Sand, and to make good Mortar of them, it is necessary that the Lime be first well Quench'd, and that it be kept a long time, to the end that if there be any Piece of it that is not well burnt in the Kiln, it may, being extinguished at leasure, soften as well as the rest. This is of Great Importance particularly in Plastering and Works of Stuck, which is a Composition of Marble finely beaten with Lime. For if any little Pieces remain that are not well baked, when they come to be made use of, they crack and break the Work.
[Sidenote: Lib. 7. Chap. 3.]
The way to know whether the Lime be well Quench'd, is thus: You may thrust a Chip of Wood into it or a Knife, and if the Chip of Wood meet with any Stones, or that the Knife comes out clean without any sticking to it, it signifies the Lime was not will burnt; for when 'tis well Quench'd, it is Fat and will stick to the Knife; but the quite contrary happens to Mortar, for it is neither well prepar'd, nor well mix'd, if it stick to the Trowel.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Chap. 4.]
For to make the right use of Sand, you must first consider what it is to be employ'd in; for if it be Mortar for Plastring, you must not make use of Sand that was lately dug out, for it drys the Mortar too fast, which cracks the Plastring; but quite contrary if it be to be employ'd in Masonry, it must not have been a long time expos'd to the Air, for the Sun and the Moon do so alter it, that the Rain dissolves it, and turns it almost all into Earth.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Chap. 5.]
The Proportion that Sand and Lime ought to have to make good Mortar, should be three parts of Sand that is dug, or two parts of River-Sand or Sea-Sand against one of Lime, and 'twill be yet much better, if you add to the Sand of the Sea and the River a third part of Tiles well beaten.
[Sidenote: Lib. 7. Chap. 3.]
One of the Principal Things that is to be observ'd in making Mortar, is, to mix it well. The Grecian Workmen were so careful of this, that they Tewed it a great while, putting Ten Men to every Vessel wherein they wrought it, which gave so great a hardness to the Mortar, that when any big pieces of Plaster fell off the Old Walls, they made Tables of it.
Of the Foundation.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 11.]
The Foundation is the most important part of the Fabrick; for the Faults committed in it cannot be so easily remedied as in other parts.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 5.]
To lay the Foundation well, you must dig till you come to solid Ground, and even into the solid as much as is necessary to support the Weight of the Walls; it must be larger below than above the Superficies of the Earth.
[Sidenote: Lib. 3. Chap. 3.]
When you have found firm Earth to make it more solid, you must beat it with a Rammer; but if you cannot arrive at solid Earth, but find it still soft and spungy, you must dig as far as you can, and drive in Piles of Alder, Olive, or Oak, a little singed, near together, and fill up the void Places between the Piles with Coal.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 5.]
In short, you must make all Masonry with the most solid Stone that can be found for this use.
To make the Binding of the Stones the stronger in the Foundation of great Fabricks, you must put Piles of Olive a little singed and placed very thick from one Parement or Course to another, which serves, as it were, for Keys and Braces; for this Wood so prepar'd, is not subject to Worms, and will endure for ever, either in the Earth or in the Water, without the least Damage.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 11.]
When you would make Cellars, the Foundations must be much larger; for the Wall that is to support the Earth requires a greater thickness to resist the strong Efforts that the Earth makes against it in Winter, at which time it swells and becomes more heavy by reason of the Water it has drunk up.
Of the Walls.
[Sidenote: Lib. 4. Chap. 2.]
The right ordering of Stones joined with Mortar, which is call'd Masonry, is sevenfold; there are three of them which are of hewed Stone; viz. that which is in Form of a Net, that which is in Binding, that which is call'd the Greek Masonry. There are likewise three sorts of Masonry of unhewed Stones; viz. that which is of an equal Course; and that which is of an unequal, and that which is fill'd up in the middle; the seventh is compounded of all the rest.
The Net-Masonry is that which is made of Stones perfectly squar'd in their Courses, and are laid so, that the Joints go obliquely, and the Diagonals are the one Perpendicular, and the other Level. This is the most pleasing Masonry to the Sight, but it is apt to crack. See the Figure A. Table I.
The Masonry call'd the Bound-Masonry, is that, as Vitruvius explains it, in which the Stones are plac'd one upon another like Tiles; that is to say, where the Joints of the Beds are Level, and the Mounters are Perpendicular; so that the Joint that mounts and separates two Stones falls directly upon the middle of the Stone which is below.
Some Authors call this sort of Masonry Incertain, but they are mistaken; for they read Incerta instead ofInserta; it is not so Beautiful as the Net-work, but it is more solid and durable. See the Figure BB. Table I.
The Masonry which Vitruvius says is particular to the Greeks, is that, where after we have laid two Stones, each of which make a Parement or Course, another is laid at the end, which makes two Parements or Courses, and all the Building through observe this Order. This may be call'd Double-Binding; for the Binding is not only of Stones of the same Course one with another, but likewise of one Course with another Course. See Figure CC. Table I.
The manner of Walling by unequal Courses call'd Isodomum by the Ancients, differs in nothing from the Masonry call'd Bound-Masonry, but only in this, that the Stones are not hewed. See Figure D. Table I.
The other manner by unequal Courses call'd Pseudisodomum is also made of unhewed Stone, and laid in Bound-Work, but they are not of the same thickness, and there is no equality observ'd, but only in the several Courses, the Courses themselves being unequal one to another. See Figure A. Table I.
The Masonry which is fill'd up in the middle, call'd by the Ancients Emplecton, is likewise made of unhewed Stone and by Courses, but the Stones are only set in order as to the Parements or Courses, but the middle is fill'd up with Stones thrown in carelesly among the Mortar. See Fig. FF, GG, H. Table I.
Among all these sorts of Masonry, that will always be best which is made of Stones of an indifferent size, rather lesser than greater; to the end that the Mortar penetrating them in more parts may bind them faster, and the strength of the Mortar does not so soon decay. For we see that the Mortar which is laid in the Joints or Seams of the greater Stones with time decays and turns to Dust, which never happens to the most Ancient Fabricks which have been built of little Stones. From thence we may conclude, that it is ill Husbandry to be sparing of Mortar.
For this reason Vitruvius proposes another sort of Masonry, which may be call'd the Compound Masonry, for it is all the former together, of Stones hewed and unhewed, and fastned together with Cramp-Irons. The Structure is as follows: The Courses being made of hew'd Stone, the middle place which was left void is fill'd up with Mortar and Pebbles thrown in together; after this they bind the Stones of one Parement or Course to those of another with Cramp-Irons fasten'd with melted Lead. This is done to the end, that the abundance of Mortar which is in the middle may furnish and communicate a sufficient Humidity to the Joints of the great Stones which make the Parements. See the Figure K. Table I.
There are many Precautions to be given to make the Masonry more firm and durable, and these Precautions are common to all the different sorts of Masonry.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 5.]
When you would have the Walls very thick, for great and heavy Buildings, you must strengthen the inner part of the Wall with long Piles of singed Olive, which serves for Keys and Braces, for this Wood being so prepar'd never corrupts.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 11.]
[Sidenote: Vide Index.]
It is likewise of great Importance for the strength of Walls, that all be directly Perpendicular, and that the Chains, the Pillars and Pieds-droits or Piers be so situated, that solid always answer'd to the solid; for if there be any part of the Wall or any Pillar that carrys false, it is impossible the Work should continue long.
There are also two ways of strengthning the Walls, which are either to ease them of their own weight, or of that of the Earth which they are to support.
The first way of easing is in those Places where there are void spaces, as above Doors or Windows. These easements may be made two different ways; the first is to put over the Lintel which supports the Wall, which is over the void space of the Gates and Windows, two Beams, which lying or resting below directly upon Pieds-droits or Piers meet together above.
The other way is, to make directly over the void spaces Vaulted Arches with Stones cut corner-ways and tending to one Center. For the Walls be so strengthned by the means of these easements, that part of the Wall which is below will not sink at all being easied of the load of the part that is above, and if some defect should happen by tract of time, it may be mended without propping that which is above.
The second way of easing, is, for Walls that are made to support the Earth; for, besides the extraordinary thickness which they ought to have, they should have likewise Buttresses on that side next the Earth, so far distant one from another as is the breadth of the Wall; they ought likewise to have an Emparement or large Foundation which must be equal to the height of the Wall, so that they go diminishing by degrees from the bottom to the top, where they come to equal the height of the Wall.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 5.]
The effect of these Buttresses is not only to support the Earth by their Resistance, but likewise to lessen its Efforts when it swells, in dividing it into many parts.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 11.]
And if it be judg'd that these Buttresses be not sufficient, the Wall also which supports the Earth must be strengthned with other Buttresses within.
Of Flooring and Ceiling.
There are four sorts of Flooring, some are upon the Superficies of the Ground, others between two Stories, others make the Roof of the House in Plat-form, and the last is Plat-Fond.
To make those Floors that are upon the Ground, you must first make the Earth smooth and plain, if it be firm and solid, if not, it must be beaten with a Rammer with which they ram down their Piles; and after having cover'd the Earth with the first Lay or Bed, call'd Statumen by the Ancients, which was of Flinty Stones about the bigness of ones Fist, among which was mixed Mortar made of Lime and Sand. Then they laid the second Bed, which they call'd Rudus, which was made of lesser Stones, of which there were three Parts for one of Stone if they were new, for if they were taken out of old Buildings, five parts of Stones or Pibbles would be required for two of Lime.
[Sidenote: Lib. 7. Cap. 4.]
The Greeks had a way of making their Floors in those low places where cold and humidity ordinarily reign, which freed them from these Inconveniences. They digged the Earth two Foot deep, and after having beaten it well, they laid a Bed of Mortar or Cement a little sloping from either side to the Channel, which convey'd the Water under Ground; they laid a Bed of Coal upon the first Mortar, and having beaten them well, they cover'd them with another Cement or Mortar made of Lime, Sand and Ashes, which they made smooth when it was dry with a Polishing-Stone. These Floors presently drank up the Water that fell upon them, that one might walk barefoot without being incommoded by the Cold.
For the Floors which are between two Stories, there must be a particular care taken, that if there be any Partition below it, that it may not touch the Flooring for fear lest if the Flooring came to sink a little, it might be broke upon the Partition which remains firm.
[Sidenote: Vide Index.]
To make these Floorings, the Boards must be nailed at each end upon every Joist, to the end they may not warp; these Boards or Planks being cover'd with Straw, to hinder the Lime from wasting the Timber, the first Bed must be laid, made of a mixture of Mortar and little Stones a hand breadth, which must be beaten a long time with Iron-Levers, and so it must make a solid Crust which must be nine Inches thick; upon it shall be laid the Noyau or Ame, which must be at least six inches thick: It must be made of Cement, with which must be mix'd one part Lime for two parts of Cement. Upon the Ame or Noyau is placed the Parement made with the Rule, afterwards it must be scrap'd and all the Eminences and Inequality taken away: After that must be laid a Composition of Lime, Sand and beaten Marble, to fill equally all the Seams or Joints.
If a Flooring be to be made in the open Air, as upon Terrasses, that may endure Rain or Frost without any Damage; you must nail upon the Joists two Ranks of Boards across, one above the other; and having laid the first Bed, as is said before, it must be Paved with great Square Bricks two Foot Square, which must be hollow'd in the Ends in the Form of a half-Channel, the breadth of an Inch, which must be fill'd with Lime mixed with Oil. These Square Bricks must be higher in the middle, sloping two Inches for every six Foot; that is to say, a Forty-eighth Part. Upon these Square Bricks must be laid the Ame; upon which, after it has been well beaten, as well as the rest, must be put great Square Stones; and to hinder the Moisture from hurting the Boards, it is good to pour as much of the Lees of Oil as they will soak up.
[Sidenote: Lib. 5. Chap. 10.]
The under part of the Flooring, and the Plat-Fonds, must be made also with great Care. To make the Plat-Fonds or Flat-roofs, in the Form of a Vault, you must nail to the Joists of the Boards, or to the Rafters of the Roof, from two Foot to two Foot pieces of crooked Timber, and Choice must be made of Timber that is not apt to rot; such as, viz. Cypress, Box, Juniper, and Olive; no Oke must be made use of, because it will warp and crack the Work. The Joists being fastened to the Summers, you must fix to them Spanish-Broom with Greek-Reeds well beaten. These Reeds are in stead of Laths, which at present are made use of to make the Eaves of Houses; over these Reeds must be laid a Plaster of Mortar, made of Sand, to hinder the Drops of Water which may fall from above from endamaging these Plat-Fonds. After which, the under part must be Plaster'd pretty thick, making all Places equal with Mortar made of Lime and Sand, that it may be afterwards Polished with Mortar made with Lime and Marble.
[Sidenote: Lib. 5. Chap. 10.]
The Ancients sometimes made double Vaults, when they were afraid that the Humidity which is engender'd, by the Vapours which mount up might rot the Wood which is upon the Vaults. This Method they principally made use of in their Baths.
The Corniches which are made use of under the Plat-Fonds, ought to be little, lest their great Jetting out, or Projecture should make them heavy, and apt to fall. For this Reason they ought to be made of pure Stuck of Marble, without any Plaster, that all the Work drying at the same time, may be less apt to break.
To make Plaster that it may continue a long time, and not crack; you must take Care to lay it on Walls that are very Dry; for if the Walls be Moist, the Plastering being expos'd to the Air, and drying faster than the Walls, will crack.
To do this Methodically, it must be laid, Bed after Bed, or Lay after Lay, having a great Care not to lay one Bed till the other be almost dry. The Ancients put six Lays, three of Mortar made of Lime and Sand, and three of Stuck. The first Lays or Beds were always thicker than the last, and they were very careful to make use of no Mortar made either of Sand or Stuck in their Plastring, that had not been a long time beaten and mix'd together; especially the Stuck, which must be beaten and mix'd till it will not stick to the Trowel.
They took likewise a great deal of Pains to run several times over and beat the Plaster, which gave it a Hardness, a Whiteness, and Polish'd it so well, that it shin'd like a Mirror.
These Plasterings so made, serve to Paint in Fresco upon; for the Colours being laid upon the Mortar before it was dry, pierced it, and Embodied with it; so that the Painting could not be defaced though it were wash'd; which would easily be wash'd off if the Mortar were dry.
They likewise laid these Plasterings upon Partitions of Wood filled with fat Earth, nailing Reeds to them, as we do Laths, and daubing it over with Clay, and then putting on another row of Reeds across upon the former, and another Bed of fat Earth or Clay, upon which they laid Beds of Mortar and Stuck, as we have said before.
[Sidenote: Lib. 7. Chap. 4.]
For the Plastering of low and moist places, they had a great many other Precautions, especially within the House; for as what belonged to the Out-part of the House, they contented themselves to Plaster from the Bottom of the Wall to the height of three Feet, with Cement.
But as to the Inward-parts of the House, when the Ground without was higher than the lowermost Flooring; they run up a little narrow Wall against the great one, leaving betwixt the two Walls only the distance of a Channel or Sewer, which they made lower than the Flooring, to receive the Water which might be gather'd against the Walls, and let it run out; and to the End they might hinder the gathering of much Water, by the Vapours which might be enclosed between these two Walls, they made towards the top of the little Wall Vents to let it out, and this little Wall was Plastered on the Out-side with Mortar and Stuck, as we have said before.
When the Place was too narrow to permit those Counter-Walls to be made within, they put hollow Tiles one upon another against the Wall, and placed and plaster'd them over with Mortar and Stuck. These Tiles which were Pitch'd over within, and were Demi-Channels, let the Water fall down into the Sewer, which sweat from the great Wall, and so let all the Vapours, which were engendred by Humidity, go out at the Vents.
Of the Convenience of Fabricks.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Praes.]
One of the Principal Things the Architect ought to consider, is the Convenience of the place where he would Build the Fabrick. This is the reason that Dinocrates was blamed by Alexander, for having propos'd him an Excellent Design for Building a City in a Barren place, and incapable of Nourishing those who were to Inhabit it.
We must then choose a place that is fertile, and hath abundance of every thing; and which hath likewise Rivers and Ports capable of furnishing it with all the Product and Commodities of the adjacent Countries.
The Third thing to be considered is, whether the Air be wholesome; and for this End, we must choose a high situated place, that it may be less Subject to Fogs and Mists; it must be likewise far from all Morasses, because the Corruption that may be caused by the infectious Breath of Venomous Beasts which commonly are ingendred there, makes the place very unwholsom, unless these Morasses be near the Sea, and situated high, that the Water may fall easily from them into the Sea, and that the Sea may likewise sometimes overflow them, and by its Saltness kill all the Venomous Beasts.
It is likewise to be remark'd, That a City situated upon the Sea, must needs have an unwholsom Air, if it be towards the South or the West; for generally the Heat weakens Bodies, and the Cold strengthens them; and so we see by Experience, that those who go out of a Cold Country into an Hot, have great difficulty to keep themselves in Health; whereas on the contrary, the Inhabitants of Hot Countries who go into Colder, have generally good Health.
The Ancients were accustomed to judge of the Quality of the Air, Water and Fruits, which might render a place wholsome by the Constitution of the Bodies of those Beasts which were nourished there, and to this End they consulted their Entrails; for if the Liver was Corrupted, they conjectured that the same thing must happen to Men that should Inhabit in that place.
Of the Form and Situation of the Building.
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 6.]
After having chosen a wholsome place, the Streets must be laid out according to the most Advantageous Aspect of the Heavens, and the best way will be to lay the Streets out so, that the Wind may not come directly into them, especially where the Winds are great and cold.
The Prospect of Private Mens Houses is made more or less Commodious, by the Openings which are differently made, to receive the Air and the Light according to the Quality of the Parts that are in the Fabrick.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 9.]
For the Cellars, Granaries, and generally all places that we wou'd Lock up, or keep any thing in, should be exposed to the North, and receive very few Rays of the Sun.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 7.]
The different Use of the Parts which Compose the Buildings, do likewise require different Situations; for the Dining-Rooms in Winter, and the Baths among the Ancients, were always turned to the West, for that Situation made them warmer, because the Sun then shone upon them, about the time they were wont to make use of those Apartments.
The Libraries ought to be turned to the rising Sun, because they are generally made use of in the Morning; besides, the Books are not so much damnified in Libraries so situated, as in those which are turned to the South and West, which are subject to Worms and a certain Humidity which engenders Moldiness, and consequently destroys the Books.
The Dining-Rooms for the Spring and Autumn, should be turned towards the East, to the end, that being covered from the great force the Sun hath when it is near Setting, they may be cooler about the time they are to be made use of.
The Summer Apartments must be turned to the North, that they may be fresher and cooler.
This Situation is likewise very proper for Closets, which are adorn'd with Pictures for the Light which is always equal, represents the Colours always alike.
There must likewise great respect be had to the difference of Climates, for the Excess of Heat and Cold, require different Situations and Structures; for the Houses in the Northern parts of the World, ought to be Vaulted, and have few Openings, and turn'd to the South; On the contrary in Hot Countries there must be great Openings and turn to the North; to the End that Art and Industry may remedy the Defects of the place.
Of the Disposition of Fabricks.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 6.]
The Disposition or Distribution of Fabricks contributes much to their Convenience, when each thing is so plac'd, that it is in a Proper place for the Use for which the Fabrick is Design'd; and for this reason the Town-House and the Market-Place ought to be in the Middle of the City, unless it happen that there be a Port or a River; for the Market ought not to be far distant from those places where the Merchandize is.
The Houses of Private Men, ought to be differently disposed, according to the divers Conditions of those that Dwell in them: For in the Houses of Great Men, the Apartments of the Lord, must not be at the Entry, where ought to be nothing but Portico's, Courts, Peristyles, Halls, and Gardens to receive the great Number of those who have Business with them, and make their Court to them.
The Houses of Merchants ought to have at the Entry their Shops and Magazines, and all other places where Strangers are to come about their Business.
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 9.]
The Country Houses ought to have a different Order and Disposition from those of the City.
For the Kitchen ought to be near the Ox-house, so that from their Cratches they may see the Chimney and the rising Sun; for this makes the Oxen more Beautiful, and makes their Hair lie better.
The Baths ought likewise to be near the Kitchen, that the Water may be more conveniently heated.
The Press ought not to be far from the Kitchen, for that will much facilitate the Service that is necessary for the Preparation of Olives. If the Press be made of Wooden Beams, it ought to have at least for 16 Foot Breadth, 40 Foot of Length, if there be but one; or 24, if there be 2.
Not far from the Press, must the Cellar be plac'd, whose Windows must be turned to the North, because the heat spoils the Wine.
On the contrary, the Place where the Oil is kept, ought to be turned to the South; to the End, the gentle heat of the Sun may keep the Oil from freezing.
The Houses for Sheep and Goats ought to be so large, that each of them may at least have 4 Foot for his place.
The Stables must likewise be Built near the House in a warm place, but not turned towards the Chimney; for Horses that often see the Fire, are generally ill Coated.
The Barns and Granaries, as likewise the Mills, ought to be at a pretty distance from the House, because of the Danger of Fire.
In all sorts of Fabricks, a particular Care must be taken that they be well lighted; but the Light is principally necessary in the Stair-Cases, Passages, and Dining-Rooms.
Of the Convenient Form of Buildings.
When we are assur'd of the Convenience of the place where the City is to be Built, by the Knowledge we have of the goodness of the Air, of its Fertility, Rivers and Ports, care must be taken to make Fortifications, which do not only consist in the Solidity of the Walls and Ramparts, but principally in their Form.
The Figure or Form of a place ought neither to be Square, nor Composed of Angles too far advanc'd, but it must have a great number of Corners, to the end the Enemy may be seen from all Parts; for the Angles that are so far advanc'd, are ill to be defended, and more favourable to the Besiegers than the Besieged. The Approach to the Walls must be made as difficult as possible.
The most Convenient Form of Publick Places, is to have in their Breadth 2 Thirds of their Length; The Greeks made about their Publick places Double Portico's, with Pillars near together, which Supported the Galleries above.
But the Romans finding this great number of Pillars to be inconvenient, placed them at a greater distance one from another, that they might have Shops well lighted.
[Sidenote: Lib. 5. Chap. 3.]
The Stair-Cases of all Publick Buildings, ought to be large and streight, and to have many Entrances, to the End the People may come in and out conveniently; but we shall speak of this more largely in another place.
[Sidenote: Lib. 5. Chap. 2.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 6.]
The Halls where great Assemblies are to meet, ought to have their Ceiling very high, and to give them their true Proportion, we must unite the Length and Breadth, and give the half of the whole for the height of the Ceiling. The Halls where the Ceiling is not so high, must have only their breadth, and half of their length for their height.
[Sidenote: Lib. 5. Chap. 2.]
In vast and high places, to remedy the Inconvenience of the noisy Echo, about the middle of the height of the Wall, must be made a Cornish round about to break the course of the Voice; which without that, beating against the Walls, would beat a Second time against the Ceiling, and cause a troublesom double Echo.
Of the Beauty of Buildings.
In what the Beauty of Building Consists.
Buildings may have two sorts of Beauty, the one Positive, and the other Arbitrary. Positive Beauty, is that which necessarily pleaseth of her self; Arbitrary, is that which doth not necessarily please of her self, but her agreeableness depends upon the Circumstances that accompany her.
Positive Beauty, consists in Three principal Things; viz. In the Equality of the Relation that the Parts have one to another, which is called Symmetry, in the Richness of the Materials, in the Properness, Neatness, and Exactness of the Performance.
[Sidenote: Lib. 2. Chap. 8.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 1. Chap. 2.]
[Sidenote: Lib. 6. Chap. 11.]
As to what regards the Relation of the Parts of the Fabrick one to another, Vitruvius hath not spoke of it, but only where he prefers the Netway of Walling before all other sorts of Masonry, because of the Uniformity that is in that Figure, and the laying of the Stones; As to the Richness of the Materials, he leaves the Disposition to him that is at the Expences of the Building; and he acknowledges that the Beauty of the Performance depends wholly upon the Dexterousness and Industry of the Workmen.
The second sort of Beauty, which only pleases by the Circumstances that accompany it, is of two sorts; The one is called Wisdom, and the other Regularity. Wisdom consists in the reasonable use of Positive Beauties, which result from the use and convenient ranking of the Parts; for the Perfection of which, to a rich and precious Material, is given an Equal and Uniform Figure, with all the Property and Correctness possible.
Vitruvius gives us two Examples of this sort of Beauty; The first is, When Bosses or Relievo's are made to hide the Joynts, putting them directly under the Bosses which hide them by their jetting or projecture, for this gives them great Beauty and an agreeable Aspect.
The second is, When we consider the Winter-Appartments, that we have a care, that upon the Ceiling there be little or no Carving, and that the Ornaments be not made of Stuck, because it hath a shining whiteness, which will not endure the least nastiness; for it is impossible to hinder the smoak of the Fire and Candles which are lighted in the Winter, from tarnishing the beautiful Colour of the Work to which the Filth will stick, and enter into the Crevises of the Carving, which cannot be wiped out.
The Regularity depends upon the Observation of the Laws which are Established for the Proportions of all the Parts of Architecture, the Observation of these Laws extreamly pleases those that understand Architecture, who love these Proportions for two Reasons.
The First is, That they are for the most part founded upon Reason; which requires, for example, that the parts that support and are under, be stronger than those above; as we see in Pedestalls, which are broader than the Pillars they support, and they are broader at the bottom than the top.
The other Motive is Prevention, which is one of the most usual Foundations of the Beauty of all things, for even as we love the Fashion of the Cloaths which the Courtiers wear, although this mode have no Positive Beauty, but only for the Positive Merit of the Persons that wear them; so we are accustomed to love the Proportions of the Members of Architecture, rather because of the great Opinion that we have of them that Invented them, than for any Positive Beauty which is found in the Works of the Ancients, where these Proportions are observ'd; for often these Proportions are against Reason; as we may see in the Thorus of the Ionick Base, in the Faces of Architraves and Chambranles, or Door-Cases, with their Mouldings, where the Strong is supported by the Weak, and many other things, which Custom only hath made supportable.
These Proportions appertain to Three principal Members, which are Pillars, Piedements, Chambranles; the Pillars taken Generically, and as opposite to Piedements, and Chambranles or Door-Cases, have Three parts, viz. The Pedestal, the Pillar, and the Ornaments. Every one of these Parts is likewise divided into Three other Parts, for the Pedestal is composed of the Basis, its Die and its Cornish; the Pillar Comprehends its Base, Shaft and Capital. The Ornaments consist in the Architrave, Frise, and Corniche.
The Piedement or Fronton, has likewise Three Parts, viz. The Tympan, the Corniches, and the Acroteres. The Chambranle or Door-Case is composed of two Pieds-droits, or Piers, and the Lintel which also supports a Frise, which has likewise its Cornich.
The Disposition, Form, and different Proportions of all the Parts make two things, to which all that is Beautiful in Building hath a Relation, which is Gender and Order.
Gender depends of the Proportion, which is between the thickness of the Pillars and the space betwixt them.
Order, doth likewise depend in part upon the Proportion which is between the thickness of the Pillars, and their height; but we must likewise joyn to this Proportion many other things that appertain to the principal Parts of the Pillars, and other Parts which accompany it, such as are the Gates, the Chambranles, or Door-Cases; and other things which are different in different Orders.
Of the Five sorts of Fabricks.
There are Five sorts of Fabricks; The First is called Pycnostyle, viz. where the Pillars are very close one to another, in such a Proportion that there is but from one Pillar to another, the space of a Diameter and half of the Pillar. See the Fig. AA. Tab. 2.
The Second is called Systile, viz. where the Pillars seem to be joyned together, are notwithstanding a little more distant one from another than in the Pycnostile; for the intercolumniation is two Diameters of the Pillars.