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An Icelandic Primer - With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary
by Henry Sweet
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AN ICELANDIC PRIMER

With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary

By Henry Sweet, M.A.

SECOND EDITION

1895



PREFACE

The want of a short and easy introduction to the study of Icelandic has been felt for a long time—in fact, from the very beginning of that study in England. The Icelandic Reader, edited by Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell, in the Clarendon Press Series, is a most valuable book, which ought to be in the hands of every student; but it still leaves room for an elementary primer. As the engagements of the editors of the Reader would have made it impossible for them to undertake such a work for some years to come, they raised no objections to my proposal to undertake it myself. Meanwhile, I found the task was a more formidable one than I had anticipated, and accordingly, before definitely committing myself to it, I made one final attempt to induce Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell to take it off my hands; but they very kindly encouraged me to proceed with it; and as I myself thought that an Icelandic primer, on the lines of my Anglo-Saxon one, might perhaps be the means of inducing some students of Old English to take up Icelandic as well, I determined to go on.

In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere strictly to that adopted in the Reader, for the editors have themselves deviated from it in their _Corpus Poeticum Boreale_, in the way of separating _ from _ö_, etc. My own principle has been to deviate as little as possible from the traditional spelling followed in normalized texts. There is, indeed, no practical gain for the beginner in writing _tme_ for _tmi_, discarding _š_, etc., although these changes certainly bring us nearer the oldest MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in scientific works. The essential thing for the beginner is to have _regular_ forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far as possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective distinctions of the MSS. supplemented by diacritics. I have not hesitated to substitute (Æ) for (“) as the mark of length; the latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusively—in Icelandic as well as in Old English and Old Irish—to represent the actual accents of the MSS.

In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to Noreen's Altisländische Grammatik, which is by far the best Icelandic grammar that has yet appeared—at least from that narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and concentrates itself on phonology and inflections.

The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and representative as possible. With such a language, and such a master of it as Snorri to choose from, this combination is not difficult to realise. The beginner is indeed to be envied who makes his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales of the North, told in an absolutely perfect style. As the death of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader only from the longer recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this book. The story of Aušun is not only a beautiful one in itself, but, together with the preceding piece, gives a vivid idea of the Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the foundation of their whole political system. As the Reader does not include poetry (except incidentally), I have added one of the finest of the Eddaic poems, which is at the same time freest from obscurity and corruption—the song of Thor's quest of his hammer.

In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very inconvenient Scandinavian arrangement, which puts _ž_, _ę_, _, right at the end of the alphabet.

I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the texts and the glossary from Wimmer's Oldnordisk Lęsebog, which I consider to be, on the whole, the best reading-book that exists in any language. So excellent is Wimmer's selection of texts, that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in nearly every case.

In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book makes no pretension to originality of any kind. If it contributes towards restoring to Englishmen that precious heritage—the old language and literature of Iceland—which our miserably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them of, it will have fulfilled its purpose.

HENRY SWEET London, February, 1886



GRAMMAR

1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period, between 1200 and 1350.

PRONUNCIATION

2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the addition of _ž_ and _š_, and of the modified letters _, _, _ų_, which last is in this book written _ö_, _.

Vowels

3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old English. Long vowels were often marked by (“). In this book long vowels are regularly marked by (Æ)[1]. The following are the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.):—

[Footnote 1: Note that the longs of , ö are written ę, , respectively.]

a as in mann (G.) halda (hold) " father rš (advice) e " été (F.) gekk (went) [2] . . . lt (let pret.) " men mnn (men)

[Footnote 2: Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its sound is that of the corresponding short vowel lengthened.]

ę as in there sęr (sea) i " fini (F.) mikill (great) . . . ltill (little) o " beau (F.) orš (word) . . . tk (look) " not hnd (hand) ö " peu (F.) kömr (comes) . . . fra (bring) " peur (F.) gra (make) u " sou (F.) upp (up) . . . hs (house) y " tu (F.) systir (sister) . . . lsa (shine) au " haus (G.) lauss (loose) ei = + i bein (bone) ey = + y leysa (loosen)

4. The unaccented i in systir, etc. (which is generally written e in the MSS.) probably had the sound of y in pity, which is really between i and e. The unacc. u in fru (they went), etc. (which is generally written o in the MSS.) probably had the sound of oo in good.

Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of close and open, thus:

close : e o ö open : ę - -

Consonants

5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced really double, as in Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to drink) must be pronounced like the kc in bookcase, while the k in drki (dragon) is single, as in booking. When final (or followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long, as in munn (mouth acc.), hamarr (hammer nom.), steinn (stone nom.), distinguished from mun (will vb.), and the accusatives hamar, stein.

6. k and g had a more front (palatal) sound before the front vowels e, , i, ö, , y, and their longs, as also before j, as in knna (known), keyra (drive), gra (make), liggja (lie).

7. kkj, ggj were probably pronounced simply as double front kk, gg, the j not being pronounced separately.

8. *f* had initially the sound of our f, medially and finally that of v, as in gefa (give), gaf (gave), except of course in such combinations as ft, where it had the sound of f.

9. *g* was a stopped (back or front—guttural or palatal) cons. initially and in the combination _ng_, the two _g_'s in _ganga_ (go) being pronounced as in _go_. It had the open sound of G. _g_ in _sagen_ medially before the back vowels _a_, _o_, _, _u_, and all conss. except _j_, and finally:—_saga_ (tale), _dgum_ (with days); _sagši_ (he said); _lag_ (he lay). Before the front vowels and _j_ it had the sound of G. _g_ in _liegen_, or nearly that of _j_ (our _y_), as in _sgir_ (says), _sgja_ (to say).

10. Before voiceless conss. (t, s) g seems to have been pronounced k, as in sagt (said), dags (day's).

11. The g was always sounded in the combination ng, as in single, not as in singer.

12. *h* was sounded before j in such words as hjarta (heart) much as in E. hue (= hj). hl, hn, hr, hv probably represented voiceless l, n, r, w respectively, hv being identical with E. wh: hlaupa (leap), hnga (bend), hringr (ring), hvat (what).

13. *j* is not distinguished from i in the MSS. It had the sound of E. y in young: jrš (earth), stja (to set).

14. *p* in pt probably had the sound of f: lopt (air).

15. *r* was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch.

16. *s* was always sharp.

17. *v* (which was sometimes written u and w) had the sound of E. w: vel (well), hggva (hew).

18. *z* had the sound of ts: bztr (best).

19. *ž* and *š* were used promiscuously in the older MS., the very oldest using ž almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic ž is written initially to express the sound of E. hard th, š medially and finally to express that of soft th; as there can be no doubt that this usage corresponds with the old pronunciation, it is retained in this book: žing (parliament), fašir (father), viš (against). In such combinations as the š must of course be pronounced ž.

Stress

20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable.

PHONOLOGY

Vowels

21. The vowels are related to one another in different ways, the most important of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture (brechung), and gradation (ablaut).

Mutation

22. The following changes are *i*-mutations (caused by an older i or j following, which has generally been dropped)[3]:

[Footnote 3: Many of the i's which appear in derivative and inflectional syllables are late weakenings of a and other vowels, as in bani (death) = Old English bana; these do not cause mutation.]

*a* (**) ... ** :— mann (man acc.), mnn (men); hnd (hand), hndr (hands).

** ... *ę* :— ml (speech), męla (speak).

*e* (*ja*, *j*) ... *i* :— veršr (worth), virša (estimate).

*u* (*o*) ... *y* :— fullr (full), fylla (to fill); lopt (air), lypta (lift).

** ... ** :— brn (eyebrow), pl. brnn.

*o* ... *ö* :— koma (to come), kömr (comes).

** ... ** :— fr (went), fra (bring).

*au* ... *ey* :— lauss (loose), leysa (loosen).

*j* (*j*) ... ** :— sjkr (sick), ski (sickness); ljsta (strike), lstr (strikes).

23. The change of _a_ into _ is sometimes the result of a following _k_, _g_, or _ng_, as in _dgi_ dat. sg. of _dagr_ (day), _tkinn_ (taken), _gnginn_ (gone), inf. _taka_, _ganga_. _i_ appears instead of _e_, and _u_ instead of _o_ before a nasal followed by another cons.: cp. _binda_ (to bind), _bundinn_ (bound) with _bresta_ (burst) ptc. prt. _brostinn_.

24. There is also a *u*-mutation, caused by a following u, which has often been dropped:

*a* ... ** :— dagr (day) dat. pl. dgum; land (land) pl. lnd.

25. Unaccented _ becomes _u_, as in _sumur_ pl. of _sumar_ (summer), _kllušu_ (they called), infin. _kalla_.

Fracture

26. The only vowel that is affected by fracture is e: when followed by original a it becomes ja, when followed by original u it becomes j, as in jaršar gen. of jrš (earth)[4]. When followed by original i, the e is, of course, mutated to i, as in skildir plur. nom. of skjldr (shield), gen. skjaldar.

[Footnote 4: Cp. German erde.]

Gradation

27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows:—

*a* ... ** :— fara (go) pret. fr, whence by mut. fra (bring).

*e* (i, ja) ... *a* ... *u* (o) :— bresta (burst), prt. brast, prt. pl. brustu, ptc. prt. brostinn; finna (find), fundinn (found ptc.), fundr (meeting).

*e* ... *a* ... ** ... *o* :— stela (steal), prt. stal, prt. pl. stlu, ptc. prt. stolinn.

*e* ... *a* ... ** ... *e* :— gefa (give), gaf (he gave), gfu (they gave), gefinn (given), gjf (gift), u-fracture of gef-, gęfa (luck) mut. of gf-.

** ... *ei* ... *i* :— skna (shine), skein (he shone), skinu (they shone). sl-skin (sunshine).

*j* (j) ... *au* ... *u* ... *o* :— ljga (tell a lie), prt. laug, prt. pl. lugu, ptc. prt. loginn. lygi (lie sbst.) mut. of lug-. skjta (shoot), skjtr (swift), skotinn (shot ptc.), skot (shot subst.).

Other changes

28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: ž (then), n (now).

29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long accented vowels: cp. ganga (to go) with f (to get), the dat. plurals knjm (knees) with hsum (houses).

30. Vowels are often lengthened before l + cons.: hlfr (half adj.), flk (people); cp. flginn (hidden) with brostinn (burst ptc.).

Consonants

31. v is dropped before o and u: vaxa (to grow), prt. x, vinna (to win), unninn (won ptc.), svelta (to starve), soltinn (starved, hungry).

Final r is often assimilated to a preceding cons.

32. *-lr, *-nr, *-sr always become -ll, -nn, -ss after a long vowel or diphthong, as in stll (chair nom.), acc. stl, steinn (stone nom.), acc. stein, vss (wise masc. nom. sg.), vs fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables, as in the masc. sg. nominatives mikill (great), fem. mikil, borinn (carried), fem. borin, miss (various) fem. mis.

33. Words in which l, n, r, s are preceded by a cons. drop the r entirely, as in the masc. nominatives jarl (earl), hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), žurs (giant), lax (salmon).

34. If l and n are preceded by a short accented vowel, the r is generally kept, as in stelr (steals), vinr, (friend), sr becoming ss, as elsewhere.

35. r is kept after ll, and generally after nn, as in the masc. nom. allr (all), and in brnnr (burns).

36. z often stands for šs as well as ts, as in žr žykkizk (ye seem) = *žykkiš-sk, Vest-firzkr (belonging to the West Firths) = -*firšskr (fršr, firth).

37. Inflectional t is generally doubled after a long accented vowel: fr (few) neut. ftt (cp. allr 'all,' neut. allt), s (I saw), stt 'thou sawest.'

INFLECTIONS

Nouns

38. *Gender*. There are three genders in Icelandic—masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender is partly natural, partly grammatical, generally agreeing with the gender in Old English. Compound words follow the gender of their last element.

39. *Strong and Weak*. All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom. sg. and in most of the other cases as well. Most strong nouns end in a cons. in the nom. sg.

40. *Cases*. There are four cases—nominative, accusative, dative, genitive. All nouns (except a few contractions) have the gen. pl. in -a (fiska, of fishes), and the dat. pl. in -um (fiskum). All strong masculines (fiskr) and some strong feminines (bršr, bride) take r[5] in the nom. sg. Most strong feminines show the bare root in the nom. sg. with u-mutation, if possible (st, favour, fr, journey). The nom. pl. of all strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in r (fiskar, stir). The acc. pl. of fem. nouns is the same as the nom. pl. (stir). The acc. pl. of masc. strong nouns always ends in a vowel (fiska). The plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same as the sing. nom. and acc., except that in the plur. nom. and acc. they take u-mutation, if possible (hs, houses, lnd, lands).

[Footnote 5: Subject, of course, to the assimilations described above.]

41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the acc. plur.

Strong Masculines

(1) a-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. fisk-r (fish) fisk-ar Acc. fisk fisk-a Dat. fisk-i fisk-um Gen. fisk-s fisk-a

42. So also heimr (home, world); konungr (king); Žrr (Thor), acc. Žr, gen. Žrs; steinn (stone), acc. stein, gen. steins, pl. nom. steinar; hrafn (raven), acc. hrafn, pl. nom. hrafnar; žurs (giant), acc. gen. žurs, pl. nom. žursar.

43. Dissyllables in -r, -l, -n generally throw out the preceding vowel before a vowel-inflection: hamarr (hammer), dat. hamri; jtunn (giant), pl. nom. jtnar. ktill (kettle) and lykill (key) show unmutated vowels in the contracted forms, as in the acc. plur. katla, lukla.

44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar in the gen. sing., especially proper names, such as Hkon, gen. Hkonar.

45. Some nouns add v before vowels: sęr (sea), gen. sęvar.

46. The dat. sometimes drops the i: (sea), Žr. dagr (day) mutates its vowel in the dat. dgi.

47. Nouns in -ir keep the i in the sing., and drop it in the plur.:

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. hlli-r (cave) hll-ar Acc. hlli hll-a Dat. hlli hll-um Gen. hlli-s hll-a

48. So also a number of proper names, such as Skrmir, Žrir.

(2) i-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. staš-r (place) staš-ir Acc. staš staš-i Dat. staš stš-um Gen. staš-ar staš-a

49. So also gripr (precious thing), salr (hall).

50. gstr (guest) takes -i in the dat. sg., and -s in the gen. sg.

51. Those ending in g or k (together with some others) insert j before a and u: bkkr (bench), bkk, bkk, bkkjar; bkkir, bkki, bkkjum, bkkja. So also mrgr (marrow), strngr (string).

(3) u-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. skjld-r (shield) skild-ir Acc. skjld skjld-u Dat. skild-i skjld-um Gen. skjald-ar skjald-a

52. So also vndr (twig), vllr (plain), višr (wood). ss (god) has plur. nom. ęsir, acc. su. sonr (son) has dat. sg. syni, plur. nom. synir. It regularly drops its r of the nom. in such compounds as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi).

(4) r-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. ft-r (foot) ft-r Acc. ft ft-r Dat. ft-i ft-um Gen. ft-ar ft-a

53. So also fingr (finger), gen. fingrar, pl. fingr; vetr (winter), pl. vetr. mašr (man) is irregular: mašr, mann, manni, manns; mnn, mnn, mnnum, manna.

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. fašir (father) fšr Acc. fšur fšr Dat. fšur fšrum Gen. fšur fšra

54. So also bršir (brother), pl. bršr.

55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pl., following the weak class in the sg.:

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. bndi (yeoman) bndr Acc. bnda bndr Dat. bnda bndum Gen. bnda bnda

56. So also frndi (kinsman), pl. frndr.

Strong Neuters

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. skip (ship) skip Acc. skip skip Dat. skip-i skip-um Gen. skip-s skip-a

57. So also orš (word), land (land) pl. lnd, sumar (summer) pl. sumur (§ 25).

58. mn (necklace), kyn (race), grey (dog) insert j before a and u: greyjum. hgg (stroke) inserts v before a vowel: hggvi. kn (knee), kn, kn, kns; kn, kn, kjm, knj. So also tr (tree).

59. f (money) is contracted: gen. fjr, dat. f.

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. kvęši (poem) kvęši Acc. kvęši kvęši Dat. kvęši kvęšum Gen. kvęši-s kvęša

60. So also klęši (cloth). Those in k insert j before a and u: mrki (mark), mrkjum, mrkja. So also rki (sovereignty).

Strong Feminines

(1) ar-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. gjf (gift) gjaf-ar Acc. gjf gjaf-ar Dat. gjf gjf-um Gen. gjaf-ar gjaf-a

61. So also mn (mane), gjrš (girdle), r (oar).

62. _ (river) contracts: _, _, _, _r_; _r_, _r_, _m_, _.

63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.: krling (old woman), krling, krlingu, krlingar; krlingar, krlingar, krlingum, krlinga. So also laug (bath).

64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or i) insert j in inflection: ey (island), ey, eyju, eyjar; eyjar, eyjar, eyjum, eyja. So also Frigg, Hl. męr (maid), mey, meyju, meyjar; meyjar, meyjar, meyjum, meyja.

65.

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. heiš-r (heath) heiš-ar Acc. heiš-i heiš-ar Dat. heiš-i heiš-um Gen. heiš-ar heiš-a

(2) ir-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. tš tš-ir Acc. tš tš-ir Dat. tš tš-um Gen. tš-ar tš-a

66. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (arrangement), hfn (harbour) pl. hafnir, and the majority of strong feminines.

67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: sl (sun), sl, slu, slar; slir, slir, slum, sla. So also jrš (earth), stund (period of time).

68. One noun has r in the nom. sg., following heišr in the sg.: bršr (bride), brši, brši, bršar; bršir, bršir, bršum, brša.

(3) r-plurals

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. bk (book) bk-r Acc. bk bk-r Dat. bk bk-um Gen. bk-ar bk-a

69. So also ntt (night) pl. nętr, bt (compensation) pl. btr, tnn (tooth) gen. tannar pl. tnnr.

70. hnd (hand) pl. hndr has dat. sg. hndi.

71. kr (cow) has acc. k, pl. kr.

72. brn (eyebrow) assimilates the r of the pl.: brnn.

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. mšir (mother) mšr Acc. mšur mšr Dat. mšur mšrum Gen. mšur mšra

73. So also dttir (daughter) pl. dtr; systir (sister) pl. systr.

Weak Masculines

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. bog-i (bow) bog-ar Acc. bog-a bog-a Dat. bog-a bog-um Gen. bog-a bog-a

74. So also mni (moon), flagi (companion).

75. hfšingi (chief) and some others insert j in inflection: hfšingja, hfšingjar, hfšingjum.

76. l (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is lj.

77. oxi (ox) has pl. öxn.

78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the sg.

Weak Neuters

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. hjart-a (heart) hjrt-u Acc. hjart-a hjrt-u Dat. hjart-a hjrt-um Gen. hjart-a hjart-na

79. So also auga (eye).

Weak Feminines

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. tung-a (tongue) tung-ur Acc. tung-u tung-ur Dat. tung-u tung-um Gen. tung-u tung-na

80. So also stjarna (star) pl. stjrnur, kirkja (church), gen. plurals stjarna, kirkna.

Sg. Nom. lli (old age) Acc. lli Dat. lli Gen. lli

81. So also glši (joy) and many abstract nouns.

82. lygi (falsehood) has pl. lygar; so also grsimi (precious thing).

Adjectives

83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with partly different endings, together with strong and weak forms.

Strong Adjectives

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. ung-r (young) ung-t ung Acc. ung-an ung-t ung-a Dat. ung-um ung-u ung-ri Gen. ung-s ung-s ung-rar

Pl. Nom. ung-ir ung ung-ar Acc. ung-a ung ung-ar Dat. ung-um ung-um ung-um Gen. ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra

84. So also fagr (fair), fem. fgr, neut. fagrt.

85. Some insert j before a and u: nr (new), njum, njan.

86. Some insert v before a vowel: hr (high), hvan, dökkr (dark), dökkvir, kykr (alive), kykvir.

87. The t of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: ntt, htt. Monosyllables in š, dd, tt form their neut. in -tt: breišr (broad), breitt; leiddr (led), leitt. gšr (good) has neut. gott. sannr (true) has neut. satt. In unaccented syllables or if a cons. precedes, tt is shortened to t: kallašr (called), kallat; blindr (blind), blint, haršr (hard), hart, fastr (firm), fast.

88. l and n assimilate a following r: gamall (old), fem. gmul, fem. acc. gamla, dat. gamalli. vnn (beautiful), gen. pl. vęnna.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. mikill (great) mikit mikil Acc. mikinn mikit mikla Dat. miklum miklu mikilli Gen. mikils mikils mikillar

Pl. Nom. miklir mikil miklar Acc. mikla mikil miklar Dat. miklum miklum miklum Gen. mikilla mikilla mikilla

89. So also ltill (little).

90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in the neut., and -inn in the masc. sg. acc.: tginn (distinguished), tgit, tginn, pl. tgnr. So also kominn (come).

91.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. annarr (other) annat nnur Acc. annan annat ašra Dat. šrum šru annarri Gen. annars annars annarrar

Pl. Nom. ašrir nnur ašrar Acc. ašra nnur ašrar Dat. šrum šrum šrum Gen. annarra annarra annarra

Weak Adjectives

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. ung-i ung-a ung-a Acc. ung-a ung-a ung-u Dat. ung-a ung-a ung-u Gen. ung-a ung-a ung-u

Pl. Nom. ung-u ung-u ung-u Acc. ung-u ung-u ung-u Dat. ung-u ung-u ung-u Gen. ung-u ung-u ung-u

92. So also fagri, hvi, mikli, etc.

Sg. Nom. yngri (younger) yngra yngri Acc. yngra yngra yngri Dat. yngra yngra yngri Gen. yngra yngra yngri

Pl. Nom. yngri yngri yngri Acc. yngri yngri yngri Dat. yngrum yngrum yngrum Gen. yngri yngri yngri

93. So also all comparatives, such as meiri (greater), and pres. partic. when used as adjectives, such as gefandi (giving), dat. pl. gefndum.

Comparison

94. (1) with -ari, -astr: rkr (powerful), rkari, rkastr; gfugr (distinguished), gfgari, gfgastr.

95. (2) with -ri, -str and mutation: langr (long), lngri, lngstr; strr (big), strri, strstr; ungr (young), yngri, yngstr.

96. The following are irregular:

gamall (old) llri lztr gšr (good) btri bztr illr (bad) vrri vrstr ltill (little) minni minstr margr (many) fleiri flestr mikill (great) meiri mestr

Numerals

97.

CARDINAL ORDINAL

1. einn (one) fyrstr (first) 2. tveir annarr 3. žrr žriši 4. fjrir fjrši 5. fimm fimmti 6. sex stti 7. sjau sjaundi 8. tta tti 9. nu nundi 10. tu tundi 11. ellifu ellifti 12. tlf tlfti 13. žrettn žrettndi 14. fjrtn 15. fimmtn 16. sextn 17. sjautn 18. tjn 19. ntjn 20. tuttugu 21. einn ok tuttugu, etc. 30. žrr tigir, etc. 100. tu tigir 110. ellifu tigir 120. hundraš 1200. žsund

einn is declined like other adjectives:—

98.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Nom. einn eitt ein Acc. einn eitt eina Dat. einum einu einni Gen. eins eins einnar

It also has a pl. einir, einar, ein; gen. einna, etc. in the sense of 'some.'

The next three show various irregularities.

99.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Nom. tveir tvau tvęr Acc. tv tvau tvęr Dat. tveim tveim tveim Gen. tvggja tvggja tvggja

Similarly bšir (both):

100.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Nom. bšir bęši bšar Acc. bša bęši bšar Dat. bšum bšum bšum Gen. bggja bggja bggja

101.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Nom. žrr žrj žrjr Acc. žrj žrj žrjr Dat. žrim žrim žrim Gen. žriggja žriggja žriggja

102.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Nom. fjrir fjogur fjrar Acc. fjra fjogur fjrar Dat. fjrum fjrum fjrum Gen. fjogurra fjogurra fjogurra

103. The others are indeclinable up to žrr tigir, etc.; the tigir being declined regularly as a plural strong u-masculine tigir, tigu, tigum, tiga.

104. hundraš is a strong neut.: tvau hundruš (240), tveim hundrušum, etc. It governs the gen. (as also does žsund): fimm hundruš glfa, 'five (six) hundred chambers.'

105. žsund is a strong ir-feminine: tvęr žsundir (2400).

106. hundraš and žsund are rarely = 100 and 1000.

107. Of the ordinals fyrstr and annarr (§ 91) are strong, the others weak adjectives. žriši inserts a j: žrišja, etc.

Pronouns

108.

Personal

Sg. Nom. ek (I) ž (thou) — Acc. mik žik sik (oneself) Dat. mr žr sr Gen. mn žn sn

Dual Nom. vit it — Acc. okkr ykkr sik Dat. okkr ykkr sr Gen. okkar ykkar sn

Pl. Nom. vr (we) žr (ye) — Acc. oss yšr sik (oneselves) Dat. oss yšr sr Gen. vr yšar sn

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. hann (he) žat (it) hon (she) Acc. hann žat hana Dat. honum žv hnni Gen. hans žess hnnar

Pl. Nom. žeir (they) žau žęr Acc. ž žau žęr Dat. žeim žeim žeim Gen. žeira žeira žeira

109. ek was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry, being sometimes added twice over: mętta-k (I might), s-k-a-k (I saw not; a='not'). So also ž: er-tu (art thou), skalt-u (shalt thou) = *skalt-tu.

Possessive

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. minn (my) mitt mn Acc. minn mitt mna Dat. mnum mnu minni Gen. mns mns minnar

Pl. Nom. mnir mn mnar Acc. mna mn mnar Dat. mnum mnum mnum Gen. minna minna minna

110. So also žinn (thy), sinn (his, etc., reflexive).

111. vrr, vrt, vr (our) is regular: acc. masc. vrn, masc. plur. vrir, vra, vrum, vrra, etc.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. yšarr (your) yšart yšur Acc. yšarn yšart yšra Dat. yšrum yšru yšarri Gen. yšars yšars yšarrar

Pl. Nom. yšrir yšur yšrar Acc. yšra yšur yšrar Dat. yšrum yšrum yšrum Gen. yšarra yšarra yšarra

112. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr (your two).

113. hans (his), žess (its), hnnar (her), and žeira (their) are indeclinable.

Demonstrative

114.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. s (that) žat s Acc. žann žat ž Dat. žeim žv žeiri Gen. žess žess žeirar

Pl. Nom. žeir žau žęr Acc. ž žau žęr Dat. žeim žeim žeim Gen. žeira žeira žeira

115. hinn, hitt, hin (that) is inflected like minn (except that its vowel is short throughout): acc. masc. hinn, plur. masc. hinir, hina, hinum, hinna.

116.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. žessi (this) žetta žessi Acc. ženna žetta žessa Dat. žessum žessu žessi Gen. žessa žessa žessar

Pl. Nom. žessir žessi žessar Acc. žessa žessi žessar Dat. žessum žessum žessum Gen. žessa žessa žessa

Definite

The prefixed definite article is declined thus:

117.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. inn it in Acc. inn it ina Dat. inum inu inni Gen. ins ins innar

Pl. Nom. inir in inar Acc. ina in inar Dat. inum inum inum Gen. inna inna inna

118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short (un-accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the eye), but keeps it after a long vowel, as in -in (the river), tr-it (the tree). The dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere; not, however, after the -ar, -r, of the gen. sg., nor in mnninir (men, nom.), mnn-ina (men, acc.). The -m of the dat. pl. is dropped before the suffixed -num.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. fiskr-inn skip-it gjf-in Acc. fisk-inn skip-it gjf-ina Dat. fiski-num skipi-nu gjf-inni Gen. fisks-ins skips-ins gjafar-innar

Pl. Nom. fiskar-nir skip-in gjafar-nar Acc. fiska-na skip-in gjafar-nar Dat. fisku-num skipu-num gjfu-num Gen. fiska-nna skipa-nna gjafa-nna

Sg. Nom. bogi-nn auga-t tunga-n Acc. boga-nn auga-t tungu-na Dat. boga-num auga-nu tungu-nni Gen. boga-ns auga-ns tungu-nnar

Pl. Nom. bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar Acc. boga-na augu-n tungur-nar Dat. bogu-num augu-num tungnu-num Gen. boga-nna augna-nna tungna-nna

Relative

119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable er, often preceded by s: s er = he who, who, s er who fem.

Interrogative

120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess, dat. hv, which last is chiefly used as an adverb = 'why.'

121.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. hvrr (which hvrt hvr of two) Acc. hvrn hvrt hvra Dat. hvrum hvru hvrri Gen. hvrs hvrs hvrrar

Pl. Nom. hvrir hvr hvrar Acc. hvra hvr hvrar Dat. hvrum hvrum hvrum Gen. hvrra hvrra hvrra

122.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. hvrr (which, hvrt hvr who) Acc. hvrn hvrt hvrja Dat. hvrjum hvrju hvrri Gen. hvrs hvrs hvrrar

Pl. Nom. hvrir hvr hvrjar Acc. hvrja hvr hvrjar Dat. hvrjum hvrjum hvrjum Gen. hvrra hvrra hvrra

Indefinite

123. einn-hvrr, eitthvrt, einhvr (some one) keeps an invariable ein- in the other cases, the second element being inflected as above.

124. sumr (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective.

125.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. nakkvarr nakkvat nkkur (some) Acc. nakkvarn nakkvat nakkvara Dat. nkkurum nkkuru nakkvarri Gen. nakkvars nakkvars nakkvarrar

Pl. Nom. nakkvarir nkkur nakkvarar Acc. nakkvara nkkur nakkvarar Dat. nkkurum nkkurum nkkurum Gen. nakkvarra nakkvarra nakkvarra

126.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

Sg. Nom. engi (none, ekki engi no) Acc. engan ekki enga Dat. engum engu engri Gen. engis engis engrar

Pl. Nom. engir engi engar Acc. enga engi engar Dat. engum engum engum Gen. engra engra engra

127. In hvr-tvggja (each of the two, both) the first element is declined as above, the second is left unchanged.

Verbs

128. There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. Strong verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by adding š (d, t).

129. The š of the 2 pl. is dropt before žit (ye two) and žr (ye): gefi žr, gfu žit.

130. There is a middle voice, which ends in -mk in the 1 pers. sg. and pl., the rest of the verb being formed by adding sk to the active endings, r being dropt, the resulting ts, šs being written z (§ 36): kvezk (active kvešr 'says'), žu fekkzk (fekkt 'gottest').

131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb gefa (give), which will show those endings which are common to all verbs:

Active

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Present sg. 1. gef gef-a 2. gef-r gef-ir 3. gef-r gef-i

pl. 1. gef-um gef-im 2. gef-iš gef-iš 3. gef-a gef-i

Preterite sg. 1. gaf gęf-a 2. gaf-t gęf-ir 3. gaf gęf-i

pl. 1. gf-um gęf-im 2. gf-uš gęf-iš 3. gf-u gęf-i

Imperative sg. 2 gef; pl. 1 gef-um, 2 gef-iš. Participle pres. gef-andi; pret. gef-inn. Infin. gefa.

Middle

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. sg. 1. gef-umk gef-umk 2. gef-sk gef-isk 3. gef-sk gef-isk

pl. 1. gef-umk gef-imk 2. gef-izk gef-izk 3. gef-ask gef-isk

Pret. sg. 1. gf-umk gęf-umk 2. gaf-zk gęf-isk 3. gaf-sk gęf-isk

pl. 1. gf-umk gęf-imk 2. gf-uzk gęf-izk 3. gf-usk gęf-isk

Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pl. 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk. Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret. gef-izk neut. Infin. gef-ask.

Strong Verbs

132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally has a different vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of the middle voice always has the vowel of the pl. pret.: gfumk. The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur. mutated: skaut (he shot), skutu (they shot), skyti (he might shoot). But there is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: hljpi, inf. hlaupa (leap).

133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three persons: ek skt, ž sktr, hann sktr, infin. skjta (shoot). e however is not mutated: ek gef, ž gefr. The inflectional r is liable to the same modifications as the r of nouns (§ 32): sknn, vx, infin. skna (shine), vaxa (grow).

134. Verbs in ld change the d into t in the 1, 3 sg. pret. indic. and in the imper. sg.: helt (held), halt (hold!), infin. halda. nd becomes tt, and ng becomes kk under the same conditions: binda (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt, gekk, imper. bitt, gakk.

135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long accented vowel: ž stt (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret. indic. ends in t or š, the 2 sg. ends in zt: lt (I let), ž lzt, bauš (I offered) ž bauzt.

136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the characteristic vowels of their preterites.

137.

I. 'Fall'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

falla (fall) fllr fell fellu fallinn lta (let) lętr lt ltu ltinn rša (advise) ręšr rš ršu ršinn heita (call) heitr ht htu heitinn halda (hold) hldr helt heldu haldinn ganga (go) gngr gekk gengu gnginn f (get) fęr fekk fengu fnginn ————————- auka (increase) eykr jk jku aukinn ba (dwell) br bj bjoggu binn hggva (hew) hggr hj hjoggu hggvinn hlaupa (leap) hleypr hljp hljpu hlaupinn

138. The following have weak preterites in r:

gra (grow) grr gröri gröru grinn ra (row) rr röri röru rinn sna (twist) snr snöri snöru sninn

139. heita in the passive sense of 'to be named, called' has a weak present: ek heiti, ž heitir.

140.

II. 'Shake'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

fara (go) frr fr fru farinn grafa (dig) grfr grf grfu grafinn hlaša (load) hlšr hlš hlšu hlašinn vaxa (grow) vx x xu vaxinn standa (stand) stndr stš stšu stašinn aka (drive) kr k ku kinn taka (take) tkr tk tku tkinn draga (draw) drgr dr drgu drginn fl (flay) flęr fl flgu flginn sl (strike) slęr sl slgu slginn

141. The following have weak presents:

hfja (lift) hfr hf hfu hafinn deyja (die) deyr d d dinn hlęja (laugh) hlęr hl hlgu hlginn

142.

III. 'Bind'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

bresta (burst) brestr brast brustu brostinn hverfa (turn) hverfr hvarf hurfu horfinn svelga (swallow) svelgr svalg sulgu slginn verša (become) veršr varš uršu oršinn skjlfa (shake) skelfr skalf skulfu skolfinn drekka (drink) drekkr drakk drukku drukkinn finna (find) finnr fann fundu fundinn vinna (win) vinnr vann unnu unninn binda (bind) bindr batt bundu bundinn springa (spring) springr sprakk sprungu sprunginn stinga (pierce) stingr stakk stungu stunginn bregša (pull) bregšr br brugšu brugšinn sökkva (sink) sökkr skk sukku sokkinn stökkva (spring) stökkr stkk stukku stokkinn

143. The following have weak presents (which makes however no difference in their conjugation):

brnna (burn) brnnr brann brunnu brunninn rnna (run) rnnr rann runnu runninn

144.

IV. 'Bear'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

bera (carry) berr bar bru borinn nema (take) nemr nam nmu numinn fela (hide) felr fal flu flginn koma (come) kömr kom kvmu kominn sofa (sleep) söfr svaf svfu sofinn

145.

V. 'Give'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

drepa (kill) drepr drap drpu drepinn gefa (give) gefr gaf gfu gefinn kveša (say) kvešr kvaš kvšu kvešinn meta (estimate) metr mat mtu metinn reka (drive) rekr rak rku rekinn eta (eat) etr t tu etinn sj (see) sr[6] s s[7] snn

[Footnote 6: s, sr, sr; sjm, sš, sj. Subj. s, sr, s; sm, sš, s.]

[Footnote 7: sm, siš, s.]

146. The following have weak presents:—

bišja (ash) bišr baš bšu bešinn sitja (sit) sitr sat stu setinn liggja (lie) liggr l lgum leginn žiggja (receive) žiggr ž žgu žeginn

147.

VI. 'Shine'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

bta (bite) btr beit bitu bitinn drfa (drive) drfr dreif drifu drifinn grpa (grasp) grpr greip gripu gripinn lša (go) lšr leiš lišu lišinn lta (look) ltr leit litu litinn rša (ride) ršr reiš rišu rišinn sga (sink) sgr seig sigu siginn slta (tear) sltr sleit slitu slitinn stga (advance) stgr steig stigu stiginn bša (wait) bšr beiš bišu beišnn

148. The following has a weak present:

vkja (move) vkr veik viku vikinn

149.

VII. 'Choose'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

bjša (offer) bšr bauš bušu bošinn brjta (break) brtr braut brutu brotinn fljta (float) fltr flaut flutu flotinn hljta (receive) hltr hlaut hlutu hlotinn kjsa (choose) kss kaus kusum kosinn njta (enjoy) ntr naut nutu notinn skjta (shoot) sktr skaut skutu skotinn drjpa (drop) drpr draup drupu dropinn ljga (tell lies) lgr laug lugu loginn lka (close) lkr lauk luku lokinn lta (bend) ltr laut lutu lotinn fljga (fly) flgr fl flugu floginn

Weak Verbs

150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs. All those of the first conjugation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form their pret. with š (d, t): heyra (hear), heyrša. Those of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have unmutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have) hafša. Those of the third form their pret. in -aša: kalla (call), kallaša.

I. 'Hear'-conjugation

Active

151.

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. sg. 1. heyr-i heyr-a 2. heyr-ir heyr-ir 3. heyr-ir heyr-i

pl. 1. heyr-um heyr-im 2. heyr-iš heyr-iš 3. heyr-a heyr-i

Pret. sg. 1. heyr-ša heyr-ša 2. heyr-šir heyr-šir 3. heyr-ši heyr-ši

pl. 1. heyr-šum heyr-šim 2. heyr-šuš heyr-šiš 3. heyr-šu heyr-ši

Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pl. 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-iš. Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret. heyr-šr. Infin. heyr-a.

Middle

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. sg. 1. heyr-umk heyr-umk 2. heyr-isk heyr-isk 3. heyr-isk heyr-isk

pl. 1. heyr-umk heyr-imk 2. heyr-izk heyr-izk 3. heyr-ask heyr-isk

Pret. sg. 1. heyr-šumk heyr-šumk 2. heyr-šisk heyr-šisk 3. heyr-šisk heyr-šisk

pl. 1. heyr-šumk heyr-šimk 2. heyr-šuzk heyr-šizk 3. heyr-šusk heyr-šisk

Imper. sg. 2. heyr-sk; pl. 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk. Partic. pres. heyr-andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut. Infin. heyr-ask.

A. Without vowel-change

152. The inflectional š becomes d after long syllables ending in l or n: sigla (sail), siglda; nfna (name), nfnda, nfndr.

153. -šš becomes dd: leiša (lead), leidda.

154. š after s and t becomes t: reisa (raise), reista; mta (meet), mtta. Also in a few verbs in l, n: męla (speak), męlta; spnna (buckle), spnta.

155. After nd and pt it is dropped: snda (send), snda, sndr; lypta (lift), lypta.

156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: dma (judge), dmša; fra (lead), frša; hrša (harden), hrša; hleypa (gallop), hleypša.

B. With vowel-change

157. All these verbs have j preceded by a short syllable (tlja), or a long vowel without any cons. after it (dja), or gg (lggja); the j being kept before a and u, as in the pres. ind. of spyrja (ask): spyr, spyrr, spyrr; spyrjum, spyriš, spyrja, pres. subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja; they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spurša, spuršr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. spyrša, spyršir, etc. The ptc. pret. often has an i before the š.

brja (strike) barša baršr lggja (lay) lagša lag(i)šr tlja (tell) talša tal(i)šr vkja (wake) vakša vakšr flytja (remove) flutta fluttr dja (shake) dša dšr

158. The following keep the mutated vowel throughout:

slja (sell) slda sldr stja (set) stta sttr

C.

159. The following are irregular:

skja (seek) stta sttr žykkja (seem) žtta žttr

Subj. pret. stta, žtta.

160. The following has an adj. for its partic. pret.:

gra (make) grša grr.

II. 'Have'-conjugation

161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of conj. I, except that some of them have imperatives in -i: vaki, žfi; uni. lifa, sgja have imper. lif, sg. They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (ynša). Their partic. pret. generally occurs only in the neut.; sometimes the a is dropped.

lifa (live) lifi lifša lifat una (be contented) uni unša unat skorta (be wanting) skorti skorta skort žola (endure) žoli žolša žolat žora (dare) žori žorša žorat n (attain) ni nša nšr, nit

162. The following show mutation:

sgja (say) sgi sagša sagšr žgja (be silent) žgi žagša žagat hafa (have) hfi hafša hafšr kaupa (buy) kaupi keypta keyptr

163. The present indic. of the first three is as follows:

Sing. 1. hfi sgi žgi 2, 3. hfir sgir žgir

Plur. 1. hfum sgjum žgjum 2. hafiš sgiš žgiš 3. hafa sgja žgja

164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres. subj. hafa, hafir, hafi; hafim, hafiš, hafi. Pret. indic. hafša, hafšir, hafši; hfdum, hfšuš, hfšu. Pret. subj. hfša, hfšir, hfši; hfšim, hfšiš, hfši. Imper. haf, hfum, hafiš. Ptc. hafandi, hafšr.

III. 'Call'-conjugation

Active

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. sg. 1. kall-a kall-a 2. kall-ar kall-ir 3. kall-ar kall-i

pl. 1. kll-um kall-im 2. kall-iš kall-iš 3. kall-a kall-i

Pres. sg. 1. kall-aša kall-aša 2. kall-ašir kall-ašir 3. kall-aši kall-aši

pl. 1. kll-ušum kall-ašim 2. kll-ušuš kall-ašiš 3. kll-ušu kall-aši

Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur. 1. kll-um, 2. kall-iš. Partic. pres. kall-andi; pret. kallašr (neut. kallat). Infin. kalla.

Middle

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. sg. 1. kll-umk kll-umk 2. kall-ask kall-isk 3. kall-ask kall-isk

pl. 1. kll-umk kall-imk 2. kall-izk kall-izk 3. kall-ask kall-isk

Pret. sg. 1. kll-ušumk kll-ušumk 2. kall-ašisk kall-ašisk 3. kall-ašisk kall-ašisk

pl. 1. kll-ušumk kall-ašimk 2. kll-ušuzk kall-ašizk 3. kll-ušusk kall-ašisk

Imper. sing. 2. kall-ask; pl. 1. kll-umk, 2. kall-izk. Partic. pres. kall-andisk; pret. kall-azk neut. Infin. kall-ask.

165. So also byrja (begin), hrja (make war), vakna (awake).

Strong-Weak Verbs

166. These have old strong preterites for their presents, from which new weak preterites are formed.

INFIN. PRES. SG. PRES. PL. PRT. PTC.

eiga (possess) eigu tta ttr kunna (can) kann kunnu kunna kunnat n. mega (can) m megu mtta mtt n. muna (remember) man munu munša munat n. munu (will) mun munu munša —— skulu (shall) skal skulu skylda skyldr žurfa (need) žarf žurfu žurfta žurft n. unna (love) ann unnu unna unnt n. vita (know) veit vitu vissa vitašr

167. Of these verbs munu and skulu have preterite infinitives: mundu, skyldu.

Anomalous Verbs

168. Vilja (will):

Present

Sing. Plur.

1. vil viljum 2. vill viliš 3. vill vilja

Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda. Ptc. prt. viljat.

169. Vera (be):

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. sg. 1. em s 2. ert sr 3. er s

pl. 1. erum sm 2. eruš sš 3. eru s

Pret. sg. 1. var vęra 2. vart vęrir 3. var vęri

pl. 1. vrum vęrim 2. vruš vęriš 3. vru vęri

Imper. sg. ver; pl. veriš. Ptc. prt. verit n.

COMPOSITION

170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic. Thus by the side of skip-stjrn (ship-steering) we find skips-brot (ship's breaking, shipwreck), skipa-hrr (army of ships, fleet). Genitival composition often expresses possession, as in konungs-skip (king's ship).

DERIVATION

Prefixes

171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old English.

*al-* 'quite,' 'very': al-binn 'quite ready,' al-snotr 'very clever.'

*all-* 'all,' 'very': all-valdr 'all-ruler, monarch,' all-haršr 'very hard,' all-strum 'very greatly.'

*and-* 'against': and-lit 'countenance' (lita, look), and-svar 'answer.'

*fjl-* 'many': fjl-mnni 'multitude' (mašr, man).

*mis-* 'mis-': mis-lka 'displease.'

*-* 'un-': -frišr 'war' (frišr, peace), -happ 'misfortune' (happ luck).

Endings

(a) Nouns

Personal

172. *-ingr*, *-ingi*, *-ing*: vkingr 'pirate,' hfšingi 'chief,' krling 'old woman.'

Abstract

173. *-š*, fem. with mutation: fgrš 'beauty' (fagr, fair), frš 'journey' (fara, go), lngš 'length' (langr, long).

*-ing*, fem.: svipting 'pulling,' vking 'piracy,' viršing 'honour.'

*-leikr*, masc.: kr-leikr 'affection' (hrr, dear), skjt-leikr 'speed' (skjtr, swift).

*-an*, *-un*, fem.: skipan 'arrangement,' skmtun 'amusement.'

(b) Adjectives

174. *-ugr*: ršugr 'sagacious,' žršugr 'strong.'

*-ttr*: kollttr 'bald,' ndttr 'fierce.'

*-lauss* '-less': f-lauss 'moneyless,' tta-lauss 'without fear.'

*-ligr* '-ly': undr-ligr 'wonderful,' sann-ligr 'probable' (sannr, true).

*-samr*: lkn-samr 'gracious,' skyn-samr 'intelligent.'

*-veršr* '-ward': ofan-veršr 'upper.'

(c) Verbs

175. *-na*: brotna 'be broken' (brotinn, broken), hvtna 'become white,' vakna 'awake.' Used to form intransitive and inchoative verbs of the third conj.

(d) Adverbs

176. *-liga* '-ly': undar-liga 'wonderfully,' strk-liga 'strongly' (strkr, strong).

*-um*, dat. pl.: strum 'greatly' (strr, great).

SYNTAX

177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has several peculiarities of its own.

Concord

178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: allir mnn vru bnir 'all the men were ready,' allir vru drepnir 'all were killed.'

179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of different (natural or grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: ž gekk hann upp, ok meš honum Loki (masc.), ok Žjlfi (masc.), ok Rskva (fem.). ž er žau (neut.) hfšu ltla hriš gngit... 'he landed, and with him L., and Ž., and R. When they had walked for some time...'

Cases

180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very characteristic of Icelandic: whenever the direct object of a verb can be considered as the instrument of the action expressed by the verb, it is put in the dative, as in kasta spjti 'throw a spear' (lit. 'throw with a spear'), hann helt hamarskaptinu 'he grasped the handle of the hammer,' heita žv 'promise that,' jta žv 'agree to that.'

Adjectives

181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the definite article, žessi and other demonstratives. annarr (other) is always strong.

182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to denote part of it: eiga hlft drit 'to have half of the animal,' nnur žau 'the rest of them,' of mišja ntt 'in the middle of the night.'

Pronouns

183. s is often put pleonastically before the definite article inn, both before and after the subst.: s inn ungi mašr 'that young man,' hafit žat it djpa 'the deep sea.'

184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or else einn, einnhvrr is used.

185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a dual pron. of the first and second persons, or a plur. of the third person: žit flagar, 'thou and thy companions,' meš žeim ka 'with him and ki.' Similarly stndr Žrr upp ok žeir flagar 'Thor and his companions get up.'

186. The plurals vr, žr are sometimes used instead of the singulars ek, ž, especially when a king is speaking or being spoken to.

187. sik and sr are used in a strictly reflexive sense, referring back to the subject of the sentence, like se in Latin: Žorr bauš honum til matar meš sr 'Thor asked him to supper with him.'

Verbs

188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active, and all those of the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries skal (shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with the infin. and ptc. pret., much as in modern English.

189. The historical present is much used, often alternating abruptly with the preterite.

190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense: spara 'spare,' sparask 'spare oneself, reserve one's strength.' (2) intransitively: ba 'prepare,' bask 'become ready, be ready'; stja 'set,' stjask 'sit down'; sna 'show,' snask 'appear, seem.' (3) reciprocally: brja 'strike,' brjask 'fight'; hitta, 'find,' hittask 'meet.' In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often emphasizing the idea of energy or effort: koma 'come,' komask 'make one's way.'

191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in Icelandic: rak storm (acc.) fyrir žeim 'a storm was driven in their face.'

192. The indef. 'one' is expressed in the same way by the third pers. sg., and this form of expression is often used when the subject is perfectly definite: ok freista skal žessar žrttar 'and this feat shall be tried (by you).'

193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration is very common: Haraldi konungi var sagt at žar var komit bjarndri, 'ok slnzkr mašr,' 'King Harold was told that a bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it.' The direct narration is also used after at (that): hann svarar at 'ek skal rša til Hljar' 'he answers that he will ride to Hel.'



TEXTS

[Note: The asterisks are to help find the spots mentioned in the notes. (I took out the line numbers to keep the line width as close to 65 characters as possible.) —B.C.]

I. THOR

Žrr er sanna framastr, s er kallašr er sa-žrr eša ku-žrr; hann er strkastr allra gušanna ok manna. Hann žar rki er Žrš-vangar heita, en hll hans heitir [*] Bilskrnir; žeim sal eru fimm hundruš glfa ok fjrir tigir; žat er hs mest, sv at mnn hafa grt. [*]

Žrr hafra tv, er sv heita, Tann-gnjstr ok Tann- grisnir, ok reiš ž er hann kr, en hafrarnir draga reišina; žv er hann kallašr kužrr. Hann ok žrj kost-gripi. Einn žeira er hamarrinn Mjllnir, er hrm-žursar ok berg- risar knna, ž er hann kömr lopt, ok er žat eigi undarligt: hann hfir lamit margan haus fšrum eša fręndum žeira. Annan grip hann bztan, mgin-gjaršar; ok er hann spnnir žeim um sik, ž vx honum s-mgin hlfu. En [*] žrišja hlut hann žann er mikill gripr er , žat eru jrn- glfar; žeira m hann eigi missa viš hamarskaptit. En engi er sv fršr at tlja kunni ll str-virki hans.

II. THOR AND GARŠALOKI

Žat er upp-haf žessa mls at kužrr fr meš hafra sna [*] ok reiš, ok meš honum s ss er Loki er kallašr; koma žeir at kveldi til eins bnda ok f žar ntt-staš. En um kveldit tk Žrr hafra sna, ok skar bša; ptir žat vru žeir flgnir ok bornir til ktils; en er sošit var, ž sttisk [*] Žrr til ntt-veršar ok žeir lags-mnn. Žrr bauš til matar meš sr bndanum, ok konu hans, ok brnum žeira; sonr bnda ht Žjlfi, en Rskva dttir. Ž lagši Žrr hafr- stkurnar utar fr eldinum, ok męlti at bndi ok heima-mnn hans skyldu kasta hafrstkurnar beinunum. Žjlfi, sonr bnda, helt lęr-lgg hafrsins, ok sprtti knfi snum, ok [*] braut til mrgjar. Žrr dvalšisk žar of nttina; en ttu [*] fyrir dag stš hann upp, ok klęddi sik, tk hamarinn Mjllni ok br upp, ok vgši hafrstkurnar; stšu ž upp hafrarnir, ok var ž annarr haltr ptra fti. Žat fann Žrr, ok talši at bndinn eša hans hjn mundi eigi skynsamliga hafa farit meš beinum hafrsins: knnir hann at brotinn var lęrlggrinn. Eigi žarf langt fr žv at sgja: vita mgu žat allir hvrsu hręddr bndinn mundi vera, er hann s at Žrr lt sga brnnar ofan fyrir augun; en žat er s augnanna, [*] ž hugšisk hann falla mundu fyrir sjninni einni samt; hann [*] hrši hndrnar at hamar-skaptinu sv at hvtnušu knarnir. En bndinn grši sem vn var, ok ll hjnin: kllušu ka- fliga, bšu sr frišar, bušu at fyrir kvęmi alt žat er žau ttu. En er hann s hręzlu žeira, ž gekk af honum mšrinn, ok sefašisk hann; ok tk af žeim sętt brn žeira, Žjlfa ok Rsku, ok gršusk žau ž skyldir žjnustu- mnn Žrs, ok fylgja žau honum jafnan sšan.

Lt hann žar ptir hafra, ok byrjaši fršina austr Jtun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok ž fr hann t yfir hafit žat it djpa; en er hann kom til lands, ž gekk hann upp, ok meš honum Loki, ok Žjlfi, ok Rskva. Ž er žau hfšu ltla hrš gngit, varš fyrir žeim mrk str; gengu žau žann dag allan til myrkrs. Žjlfi var allra manna [*] ft-hvatastr; hann bar kl Žrs, en til vista var eigi gott. Ž er myrkt var oršit, leitušu žeir sr til nttstašar, ok [*] fundu fyrir sr skla nakkvarn mjk mikinn, vru dyrr nda, ok jafn-breišar sklanum; žar leitušu žeir sr ntt- bls. En of mišja ntt varš land-skjlfti mikill, gekk jršin undir žeim skykkjum, ok skalf hsit. Ž stš Žrr upp, ok ht lagsmnn sna; ok leitušusk fyrir, ok fundu af-hs til hgri handar i mišjum sklanum, ok gengu žannig; sttisk Žrr dyrrin, en nnur žau vru innar fr honum, ok vru žau hrędd, en Žrr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugši at vrja sik; ž heyršu žau ym mikinn ok gn. En er kom at dagan, ž gekk Žrr t, ok sr hvar l mašr skamt fr [*] honum skginum, ok var s eigi ltill; hann svaf, ok hraut strkliga. Ž žttisk Žrr skiIja hvat ltum verit hafši of nttina; hann spnnir sik mgingjršum, ok x honum smgin; en žv vaknar mašr s, ok stš skjtt upp; en ž er sagt at Žr varš bilt einu sinni at sl hann meš ham- [*] rinum; ok spurši hann at nafni, en s nfndisk Skrmir: [*] 'en eigi žarf ek,' sagši hann, 'at spyrja žik at nafni: knni ek at ž ert sažrr; en hvrt hfir ž drgit braut hanzka minn?' Seildisk ž Skrmir til, ok tk upp hanzka sinn; sr Žrr ž at žat hafši hann haft of nttina fyrir skla, en afhsit žat var žumlungrinn hanzkans. Skrmir spurši ef Žrr vildi hafa fru-neyti hans, en Žrr jtti žv. Ž tk Skrmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bjsk til at eta dgurš, en Žrr šrum staš ok hans flagar. Skrmir bauš ž at žeir lgši mtu-neyti sitt, en Žrr jtti žv; ž batt Skrmir nest žeira alt einn bagga, ok lagši bak sr; hann gekk fyrir of daginn, ok steig hldr strum, en sšan at kveldi leitaši Skrmir žeim nttstašar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli. Ž męlti Skrmir til Žrs at hann vill lggjask nišr at sofna; 'en žr takiš nest-baggann, ok biš til ntt-veršar [*] yšr.' Žv nęst sofnar Skrmir, ok hraut fast; en Žrr tk nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en sv er at sgja, sem -trligt mun žykkja, at engi knt fekk hann leyst, ok engi lar- ndann hreyft, sv at ž vęri lausari en šr. Ok er hann sr at žetta verk m eigi ntask, ž varš hann reišr, greip ž hamarinn Mjllni tveim hndum, ok steig fram šrum fti at žar er Skrmir l, ok lstr hfuš honum; en Skrmir vaknar, ok spyrr hvrt laufs-blaš nakkvat felli hfuš honum, eša hvrt žeir hfši ž matazk, ok s bnir til rkkna. Žrr sgir at žeir munu ž sofa ganga. Ganga žau ž undir ašra eik. Er žat žr satt at sgja, at ekki var [*] ž ttalaust at sofa. En at mišri ntt ž heyrir Žrr at Skrmir hrtr, ok söfr fast, sv at dunar skginum. Ž stndr hann upp, ok gngr til hans, reišir hamarinn ttt ok hart, ok lstr ofan mišjan hvirfil honum; hann knnir at hamars-mušrinn sökkr djpt hfušit. En žv bili vaknar Skrmir, ok męlti: 'hvat er n? fell akarn nakkvat hfuš mr? eša hvat er ttt um žik, Žrr?' En Žrr gekk aptr skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var ž nvaknašr, sagši at ž var miš ntt, ok enn vęri ml at sofa. Ž hugsaši Žrr žat, ef hann kvęmi sv fri at sl hann it žrišja hgg, at aldri skyldi hann sj sik sšan; liggr n ok gętir ef Skrmir [*] sofnaši fast. En ltlu fyrir dagan ž heyrir hann at Skrmir mun sofnat hafa; stndr ž upp, ok hleypr at honum, reišir ž hamarinn af llu afli ok lstr žunn-vangann žann er upp vissi; sökkr ž hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En Skr- mir sttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok męlti: 'hvrt munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja trnu yfir mr? mik grunaši, er ek vaknaša, at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli hfuš mr; hvrt vakir ž, Žrr? Ml mun vera upp at standa ok klęšask, en ekki eigu žr n langa leiš fram til borgar- innar er klluš er t-garšr. Heyrt hfi ek at žr hafiš kvisat milli yšvar at ek vęra ekki ltill mašr vxti, en sj skulu žr žar strri mnn, er žr komiš tgarš. N mun ek rša yšr heil-ręši: lti žr eigi strliga yfir yšr, ekki munu hiršmnn tgarša-loka vel žola žvlkum kgur- sveinum kpur-yrši; en at šrum kosti hverfiš aptr, ok žann ętla ek yšr btra af at taka. En ef žr viliš fram [*] fara, ž stfni žr austr, en ek n noršr leiš til fjalla žessa er n munu žr sj mega.' Tkr Skrmir nest-bag- garm, ok kastar bak sr, ok snr žvrs braut skginn fr žeim, ok er žess eigi getit at ęsirnir bęši ž heila [*] hittask.

Žrr fr fram leiš ok žeir flagar, ok gekk fram til mišs dags; ž s žeir borg standa vllum nkkurum, ok sttu [*] hnakkann bak sr aptr, šr žeir fengu st yfir upp; ganga til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hlišinu, ok lokin aptr. Žrr gekk grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er žeir žreyttu at komask borgina, ž smugu žeir milli spalanna ok kmu sv inn; s ž hll mikla, ok gengu žannig; var huršin opin; ž gengu žeir inn, ok s žar marga mnn tv bkki, ok flesta rit stra. Žv nęst koma žeir fyrir [*] konunginn, tgaršaloka, ok kvddu hann, en hann leit seint til žeira, ok glotti um tnn, ok męlti: 'seint er um langan [*] veg at spyrja tšinda, eša er annan veg en ek hygg, at žessi [*] svein-stauli s kužrr? en meiri muntu vera en mr lzk ž; eša hvat žrtta er žat er žr flagar žykkizk vera viš bnir? Engi skal hr vera meš oss s er eigi kunni nakkvars konar list eša kunnandi um fram flesta mnn.' Ž sgir s er sšast gekk, er Loki heitir: 'kann ek ž žrtt, er ek em al-binn at reyna, at engi er hr s inni er skjtara skal eta [*] mat sinn en ek.' Ž svarar tgaršaloki: 'žrtt er žat, ef ž fnir, ok freista skal ž žessar žrttar;' kallaši utar [*] bkkinn at s er Logi heitir skal ganga glf fram, ok freista sn mti Loka. Ž var tkit trog eitt, ok borit inn hallar- glfit, ok fylt af sltri; sttisk Loki at šrum nda, en Logi at šrum, ok t hvrr-tvggja sem tšast, ok mttusk mišju troginu; hafši ž Loki etit sltr alt af beinum, en Logi hafši ok etit sltr alt ok beinin meš, ok sv trogit; ok sndisk n llum sem Loki hfši ltit leikinn. Ž spyrr tgaršaloki hvat s inn ungi mašr kunni leika. En Žjlfi sgir at hann mun freista at rnna skeiš nkkur viš einn-hvrn žann er tgaršaloki fęr til. Hann sgir, tgaršaloki, at žetta er gš žrtt, ok kallar žess meiri vn at hann s vel at sr [*] binn of skjtleikinn, ef hann skal žessa žrtt inna; en ž lętr hann skjtt žessa skulu freista. Stndr ž upp tgarša- loki, ok gngr t, ok var žar gott skeiš at rnna ptir slttum vlli. Ž kallar tgaršaloki til sn sveinstaula nakkvarn, er nfndr er Hugi, ok baš hann rnna kpp viš Žjlfa. Ž taka žeir it fyrsta skeiš, ok er Hugi žv framar at hann snsk aptr mti honum at skeišs nda. Ž męlti tgarša- loki: 'žurfa muntu, Žjlfi, at lggja žik meir fram, ef ž skalt vinna leikinn; en ž er žat satt, at ekki hafa hr komit žeir mnn er mr žykkja fthvatari en sv.' Ž taka žeir [*] aptr annat skeiš, ok ž er Hugi er kominn til skeišs nda, ok hann snsk aptr, ž var langt klf-skot til Žjlfa. Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'vel žykkir mr Žjlfi rnna; en eigi tri ek honum n at hann vinni leikinn, en n mun reyna, er žeir rnna it žrišja skeišit.' Ž taka žeir nn skeiš; en er Hugi er kominn til skeišs nda ok snsk aptr, ok er [*] Žjlfi eigi ž kominn mitt skeišit; ž sgja allir at reynt er um ženna leik. Ž spyrr tgaršaloki Žr, hvat žeira žrtta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir žeim, sv miklar sgur sem mnn hafa grt um strvirki hans. Ž męlti Žrr at hlzt vill hann žat taka til, at žreyta drykkju viš einnhvrn mann. tgaršaloki sgir at žat m vel vera; ok gngr inn hllina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, bišr at hann taki vtis-horn žat, er hiršmnn eru vanir at drekka af. Žv nęst kömr fram skutilsveinn meš horninu, ok fęr Žr hnd. Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'af horni žessu žykkir ž vel drukkit, ef einum drykk gngr af, en sumir mnn drekka af tveim drykkjum, en engi er sv ltill drykkju- mašr, at eigi gangi af žrimr.' Žrr ltr hornit, ok snisk ekki mikit, ok er ž hldr langt, en hann er mjk žyrstr; tkr at drekka, ok svelgr allstrum, ok hyggr at eigi skal žurfa at lta optar at sinni hornit. En er hann žraut [*] örindit, ok hann laut r horninu, ok sr hvat leiš drykkinum, [*] ok lzk honum sv, sem all-ltill munr mun vera at n s lęgra horninu en šr. Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'vel er drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k tra, ef mr vęri sagt fr, at sažrr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en ž veit ek at ž munt vilja drekka af šrum drykk.' Žrr svarar engu, str hornit munn sr, ok hyggr n at hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok žreytir drykkjuna, sem honum vannsk til örindi, ok sr nn at stikillinn hornsins vill ekki upp sv mjk sem honum lkar; ok er hann tk hornit af munni sr ok sr, lzk honum n sv, sem minna hafi žorrit en inu fyrra sinni; er n gott beranda borš horninu. Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'hvat er n, Žrr? muntu n eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en žr mun hagr vera? Sv lzk mr, ef ž skalt n drekka af horninu inn žrišja drykkinn, sem žessi mun mestr ętlašr; en ekki [*] muntu mega hr meš oss heita sv mikill mašr sem ęsir kalla žik, ef ž grir eigi meira af žr um ašra leika en mr lzk sem um ženna mun vera.' Ž varš Žrr reišr, str hornit munn sr, ok drekkr sem kafligast m hann, ok žreytir sem lngst drykkinn; en er hann s hornit, ž hafši n hlzt nakkvat munr fngizk, ok ž bšr hann upp hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira. Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'auš-st er n at mttr žinn er ekki sv mikill sem vr hugšum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika? Sj m n, at ekki ntir ž hr af.' Žrr svarar: 'freista m ek nn of nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mr žykkja, ž er ek var heima meš sum, ef žvlkir drykkir vęri sv ltlir kallašir. En hvat leik vili žr n bjša mr?' Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'žat gra hr ungir sveinar er ltit mark mun at žykkja, at hfja upp af jršu ktt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at męla žvlkt viš sažr, ef ek hfša eigi st fyrr at ž ert miklu minni fyrir žr en ek hugša.' Žv nęst hljp fram kttr einn grr hallarglfit, ok hldr mikill; en Žrr gekk til, ok tk hndi sinni nišr undir mišjan kvišinn, ok lypti upp, en kttrinn beygši knginn, sv sem Žrr rtti upp hndina; en er Žrr seildisk sv langt upp sem hann mtti lngst, ž ltti kttrinn einum fti, ok fęr Žrr eigi framit ženna leik. Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'sv fr žessi leikr sem mik varši; kttrinn er hldr mikill, en Žrr er lgr ok ltill hj str- mnni žv sem hr er meš oss.' Ž męlti Žrr: 'sv ltinn sem pr kalliš mik, ž gangi n til einnhvrr, ok fisk viš mik; n em ek reišr.' Ž svarar tgaršaloki, ok litask um bkkina, ok męlti: 'eigi s ek žann mann hr inni, er eigi mun ltil-ręši žykkja at fsk viš žik;' ok nn męlti hann: 'sjm fyrst, kalli mr hingat krlinguna, fstru mna [*] lli, ok fisk Žrr viš hana, ef hann vill; flt hfir hon ž mnn er mr hafa litizk eigi -strkligri en Žrr er.' Žv nęst gekk hllina krling ein gmul. Ž męlti tgar- šaloki, at hon skal taka fang viš sažr. Ekki er langt um. at gra: sv fr fang žat at žv haršara er Žrr knšisk at fanginu, žv fastara stš hon; ž tk krling at leita til žragša, ok varš Žrr ž lauss ftum, ok vru žęr svip- tingar all-haršar, ok eigi lngi šr en Žrr fell kn šrum fti. Ž gekk til tgaršaloki, baš žau hętta fanginu, ok sagši sv, at Žrr mundi eigi žurfa at bjša fleirum mnnum fang hans hll; var ž ok lišit ntt, vsaši tgaršaloki Žr ok žeim flgum til sętis, ok dvljask žar ntt-langt gšum fagnaši.

En at morgni, žegar dagaši, stndr Žrr upp ok žeir flagar, klęša sik, ok eru bnir braut at ganga. Ž kom žar tgaršaloki, ok lt stja žeim borš; skorti ž eigi gšan fagnaš, mat ok drykk. En er žeir hafa matazk, ž snask žeir til fršar. tgaršaloki fylgir žeim t, gngr meš žeim braut r borginni; en at skilnaši ž męlti tgar- šaloki til Žrs, ok spyrr hvrnig honum žykkir frš sn oršin, eša hvrt hann hfir hitt rkara mann nakkvarn en sik. Žrr svarar at eigi mun hann žat sgja, at eigi hafi hann mikla -smš farit žeira viš-skiptum; 'en ž veit [*] ek at žr munuš kalla mik ltinn mann fyrir mr, ok uni ek žv illa.' Ž męlti tgaršaloki: 'n skal sgja žr it sanna, er ž ert t kominn r borginni—ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k rša, ž skaltu aldri optar hana koma; ok žat veit tra mn, at aldri hfšir ž hana komit, ef ek hfša vitat šr at ž hfšir sv mikinn krapt meš žr, ok ž hafšir sv nęr haft oss mikilli -fru. En sjn-hvrfingar hfi ek grt žr, sv at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann žik skginum, kom ek til fundar viš yšr; ok ž er ž skyldir leysa nestbaggann, ž hafša-k bundit meš gres-jrni, en ž fannt eigi hvar upp skyldi lka. En žv nęst laust ž mik meš hamrinum žrj hgg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var ž sv mikit, at mr mundi ndask til bana, ef hfši komit; en žar er ž stt hj hll minni set-berg, ok žar stt-u ofan žrj dala fer- skeytta ok einn djpastan, žat vru hamarspor žin; setber- ginu br ek fyrir hggin en eigi stt ž žat. Sv var ok of leikana, er žr žreyttuš viš hiršmnn mna. Ž var žat it fyrsta, er Loki grši; hann var mjk soltinn, ok t ttt; en s er Logi ht, žat var villi-eldr, ok brndi hann eigi seinna sltrit en trogit. En er Žjlfi žreytti rsina viš žann er Hugi ht, žat var hugi minn, ok var Žjlfa eigi vęnt at žreyta skjt-fri viš hann. En er ž drakkt af horninu, ok žtti žr seint lša,—en žat veit tra mn, at ž varš žat undr, er ek munda eigi tra at vera mętti; annarr ndir hornsins var t hafi, en žat sttu eigi; en n, er ž kömr til sęvarins, ž mun-tu sj mega, hvrn žurš ž hfir drukkit sęnum.' Žat eru n fjrur kallašar. Ok nn męlti hann: 'eigi žtti mr hitt minna vera vert, er ž lyptir upp kt- tinum, ok žr satt at sgja, ž hręddusk allir žeir er s, er ž lyptir af jršu einum ftinum; en s kttr var eigi sem žr sndisk; žat var Mišgaršs-ormr, er liggr um lnd ll, ok vannsk honum varliga lngšin til, at jršina tki sporšr ok hfuš; ok sv langt seildisk ž upp at skamt var ž til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er ž fekkzk viš lli; fyrir žv at engi hfir s oršit, ok engi mun verša, ef sv gamall er at lli bšr, at eigi komi llin llum til falls. Ok er n žat stt at sgja, at vr munum skiljask, ok mun ž btr hvrratvggju handar at žr komiš eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun nn annat sinn vrja borg mna meš žvlkum vlum eša šrum, sv at ekki vald munu žr mr f.' En er Žrr heyrši žessa tlu, greip hann til hamarsins, ok bregšr lopt; en er hann skal fram reiša, ž sr hann žar hvrgi tgaršaloka, ok ž snsk hann aptr til borgarinnar, ok ętlask ž fyrir at brjta borgina; ž sr hann žar vllu vša ok fagra, en enga borg. Snsk hann ž aptr, ok frr leiš sina, til žess er hann kom aptr Žrš- vanga.

III. BALDER

Annarr sonr šins er Baldr, ok er fr honum gott at sgja: hann er bztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er sv fagr -litum ok bjartr sv at lsir af honum; ok eitt gras er sv hvtt at jafnat er til Baldrs brr, žat er allra grasa hvtast; ok žar ptir mttu marka hans fgrš, bęši hr ok lki; hann er vitrastr sanna, ok fgrstr tališr ok lknsamastr. En s nttra fylgir honum at engi m haldask dmr hans. [*] Hann br žar sem heitir Breiša-blik, žat er himni; žeim staš m ekki vera -hreint, sv sem hr sgir:

Breišablik heita, žar er Baldr hfir sr of grva sali; žv landi er ek liggja veit fęsta feikn-stafi.

IV. THE DEATH OF BALDER

Žat er upphaf žessar sgu, at Baldr inn gša dreymši drauma stra ok hęttliga um lf sitt. En er hann sagši sunum draumana, ž bru žeir saman rš sn, ok var žat grt at beiša griša Baldri fyrir alls konar hska; ok Frigg tk svardaga til žess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, jrn ok alls konar mlmr, steinar, jršin, viširnir, sttirnar, drin, fuglarnir, eitr, ormar. En er žetta var grt ok vitat, ž var žat skmtun Baldrs ok sanna at hann skyldi standa upp žingum, en allir ašrir skyldu sumir skjta hann, sumir hggva til, sumir brja grjti. En hvat sem at var grt, sakaši hann ekki, ok žtti žetta llum mikill frami. En er [*] žetta s Loki Laufeyjar-son, ž lkaši honum illa er Baldr sakaši ekki. Hann gekk til Fn-salar til Friggjar, ok br sr konu lki; ž spyrr Frigg ef s kona vissi hvat ęsir hfšusk at žinginu. Hon sagši at allir skutu at Baldri, ok žat, at hann sakaši ekki. Ž męlti Frigg: 'eigi munu vpn eša višir granda Baldri; eiša hfi ek žgit af llum žeim.' Ž spyrr konan: 'hafa allir hlutir eiša unnit at eira Baldri?' Ž svarar Frigg: 'vx višar-teinungr einn fyrir vestan Val-hll; s er Mistilteinn kallašr; s žtti mr ungr [*] at krfja eišsins.' Žv nęst hvarf konan braut; en Loki tk Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til žings. En Hšr stš utarliga mannhringinum, žv at hann var blindr. Ž męlti Loki viš hann: 'hv sktr ž ekki at Baldri?' Hann svarar: 'žv at ek s eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok žat annat, at ek em vapnlauss.' Ž męlti Loki: 'gr-šu ž lking annarra, manna, ok veit Baldri smš sem ašrir mnn; ek mun vsa žr til, hvar hann stndr; skjt at honum vndi žessum.' Hšr tk Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvsun Loka; flaug skotit ggnum hann, ok fell hann daušr til jaršar; ok hfir žat mest -happ verit unnit meš gošum ok mnnum. [*] Ž er Baldr var fallinn, ž fellusk llum sum orš-tk, ok sv hndr at taka til hans; ok s hvrr til annars, ok vru [*] allir meš einum hug til žess er unnit hafši verkit; en engi mtti hfna: žar var sv mikill griša-stašr. En ž er ęsirnir freistušu at męla, ž var hitt ž fyrr, at grtrinn [*] kom upp, sv at engi mtti šrum sgja meš oršunum fr snum harmi. En šinn bar žeim mun vrst ženna skaša, sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hvrsu mikil af-taka ok missa sunum var fr-falli Baldrs. En er gošin vitkušusk, ž męlti Frigg ok spurši, hvrr s vęri meš sum, er eignask vildi allar stir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann rša hl-veg [*] ok freista ef hann fi fundit Baldr, ok bjša Hlju t-lausn, ef hon vill lta fara Baldr heim s-garš. En s er nfndr Hrmšr inn hvati, sonr šins, er til žeirar farar varš. Ž var tkinn Sleipnir, hestr šins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig Hrmšr žann hest, ok hleypši braut.

En ęsirnir tku lk Baldrs ok fluttu til sęvar. Hring- horni ht skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann vildu gošin fram stja, ok gra žar bl-fr Baldrs; en skipit gekk hvrgi fram. Ž var snt Jtunheima ptir ggi žeiri er Hyrrokin ht; en er hon kom, ok reiš vargi, ok hafši hgg-orm at taumum, ž hljp hon af hestinum, en šinn kallaši til ber-srki fjra at gęta hestsins, ok fengu žeir eigi haldit, nema žeir fldi hann. Ž gekk Hyrrokin [*] fram-stafn nkkvans, ok hratt fram fyrsta viš-bragši, sv at eldr hraut r hlunnunum, ok lnd ll skulfu. Ž varš Žrr reišr, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi ž brjta hfuš hnnar, šr en gošin ll bšu hnni frišar. Ž var borit t skipit lk Baldrs; ok er žat s kona hans, Nanna, Neps dttir, ž sprakk hon af harmi, ok d; var hon borin blit, ok slgit eldi. Ž stš Žrr at, ok vgši blit meš Mjllni; en fyrir ftum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, s er Litr nfndr; en Žrr spyrndi fti snum hann, ok hratt honum eldinn, ok brann hann. En at žessi brnnu stti margs konar žjš: fyrst at sgja fr šni, at meš honum fr Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr k krru meš glti žeim er Gullin-bursti heitir eša Slšrug-tanni; en Heimdallr reiš hesti žeim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja kttum snum. Žar kömr ok mikit flk hrmžursa, ok berg- risar. šinn lagši blit gullhring žann er Draupnir heitir; honum fylgši sšan s nttra, at hina nundu hvrja ntt drupu af honum tta gullhringar jafn-hfgir. Hestr Baldrs var leiddr blit meš llu reiši.

En žat er at sgja fr Hrmši, at hann reiš nu nętr dökkva dala ok djpa, sv at hann s ekki, fyrr en hann kom til rinnar Gjallar, ok reiš Gjallar-brna; hon er žkš lsi-gulli. Mšgušr er nfnd męr s er gętir brar- innar; hon spurši hann at nafni eša ętt, ok sagši at hinn fyrra dag rišu um brna fimm fylki daušra manna; 'en eigi dynr brin minnr undir einum žr, ok eigi hfir ž lit daušra manna; hv ršr ž hr hlveg?' Hann svarar at 'ek skal rša til hljar at leita Baldrs, eša hvrt hfir ž nakkvat st Baldr hlvegi?' En hon sagši at Baldr hafši žar rišit um Gjallarbr; 'en nišr ok noršr liggr hlvegr.' Ž reiš Hrmšr žar til er hann kom at hl-grindum; ž steig hann af hestinum, ok gyrši hann fast, steig upp, ok keyrši hann sporum, en hestrinn hljp sv hart, ok yfir grindina, at hann kom hvrgi nęr. Ž reiš Hrmšr heim til hallar- [*] innar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn hllina, s žar sitja ndvegi Baldr, bršur sinn; ok dvalšisk Hrmšr žar um nttina. En at morgni ž beiddisk Hrmšr af Hlju at Baldr skyldi rša heim meš honum, ok sagši hvrsu mikill grtr var meš sum. En Hl sagši at žat skyldi sv reyna, [*] hvrt Baldr var sv st-sęll sem sagt er; 'ok ef allir hlutir heiminum, kykvir ok daušir, grta hann, ž skal hann fara til sa aptr, en haldask meš Hlju, ef nakkvarr męllr viš, eša vill eigi grta.' Ž stš Hrmšr upp, en Baldr leišir hann t r hllinni, ok tk hringinn Draupni, ok sndi šni til minja, en Nanna sndi Frigg ripti ok nn fleiri gjafar, Fullu fingr-gull. Ž reiš Hrmšr aptr leiš sna, ok kom sgarš, ok sagši ll tšindi žau er hann hafši st ok heyrt.

Žv nęst sndu ęsir um allan heim örind-reka, at bišja at Baldr vęri grtinn r hlju; en allir gršu žat, mnninir, ok kykvendin, ok jršin, ok steinarnir, ok tr, ok allr mlmr; sv sem ž munt st hafa, at žessir hlutir grta, ž er žeir koma r frosti ok hita. Ž er sndi-mnn fru heim, ok hfšu vel rekit sn örindi, finna žeir hlli nkkurum hvar [*] ggr sat; hon nfndisk Žkk. Žeir bišja hana grta Baldr r hlju. Hon svarar:

'Žkk mun grta žurrum trum Baldrs blfarar; kyks n daušs naut-k-a-k karls sonar; [*] haldi Hl žv es hfir!'

En žess geta mnn, at žar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son, er flest hfir ilt grt meš sum.

V. HEŠINN AND HGNI

Konungr s er Hgni er nfndr tti dttur, er Hildr ht. Hana tk at hr-fangi konungr s er Hšinn ht, Hjarranda- son. Ž var Hgni konungr farinn konunga-stfnu; en er hann spurši at hrjat var rki hans, ok dttir hans var braut tkin, ž fr hann meš snu liši at leita Hšins, ok spurši til hans at Hšinn hafši siglt noršr meš landi. Ž [*] er Hgni konungr kom Noreg, spurši hann at Hšinn hafši siglt vestr um haf. Ž siglir Hgni ptir honum allt til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann kom žar sem heitir H-ey, ž [*] var žar fyrir Hšinn meš liš sitt. Ž fr Hildr fund fšur sns, ok bauš honum mn at sętt af hndi Hšins, en šru orši sagši hon at Hšinn vęri binn at brjask, ok ętti Hgni af honum engrar vęgšar vn. Hgni svrar stirt dttur sinni; en er hon hitti Hšin, sagši hon honum, at Hgni vildi enga sętt, ok baš hann bask til orrostu, ok sv gra žeir hvrir-tvggju, ganga upp eyna, ok fylkja lišinu. Ž kallar Hšinn Hgna, mg sinn, ok bauš honum sętt ok mikit gull at btum. Ž svarar Hgni: 'of sš bauzt-u žetta, ef ž vill sęttask, žv at n hfi ek drgit Dins-leif, er dvergarnir gršu, er manns bani skal verša, hvrt sinn er brt er, ok aldri bilar hggvi, ok ekki sr grr, ef žar skeinisk af.' Ž svarar Hšinn: 'sverši hlir ž žar, en eigi sigri; žat kalla ek gott hvrt er drttin- holt er.' Ž hfu žeir orrostu ž er Hjašninga-vg er kallat, ok bršusk žann dag allan, ok at kveldi fru konungar til skipa. En Hildr gekk of nttina til valsins, ok vakši upp meš fjlkyngi alla ž er daušir vru; ok annan dag gengu konungarnir vg-vllinn ok bršusk, ok sv allir žeir er fellu hinn fyrra daginn. Fr sv s orrosta hvrn dag ptir annan, at allir žeir er fellu, ok ll vpn žau er lgu vgvlli, ok sv hlfar, uršu at grjti. En er dagaši, stšu upp allir daušir mnn, ok bršusk, ok ll vpn vru ž n. Sv er sagt kvęšum, at Hjašningar skulu sv bša ragna-rökrs.

VI. THE DEATH OF OLAF TRYGGVASON

Sveinn konungr tjgu-skgg tti Sigrši hina str-ršu. Sigršr var hinn mesti -vinr lfs konungs Tryggva-sonar; ok fann žat til saka at lfr konungr hafši slitit einka-mlum viš hana, ok lostit hana and-lit. Hon ggjaši mjk Svein konung til at halda orrostu viš lf konung Tryggvason, ok kom hon sv snum for-tlum at Sveinn konungr var full- kominn at gra žetta rš. Ok snimma um vrit sndi Sveinn konungr mnn austr til Sv-žjšar fund lfs konungs Sva-konungs, mgs sns, ok Eirks jarls; ok lt sgja žeim at lfr, Noregs konungr, hafši leišangr ti, ok ętlaši at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands. Fylgši žat orš-snding Dana-konungs, at žeir Svakonungr ok Eirkr jarl skyldi hr ti hafa, ok fara til mts viš Svein konung, skyldu žeir ž allir samt lggja til orrostu viš lf konung Tryggva- son. En lfr Svakonungr ok Eirkr jarl vru žessar fršar al-bnir, ok drgu ž saman skipa-hr mikinn af Sva- vldi, fru žv liši sušr til Dan-markar ok kvmu žar sv, [*] at lfr konungr Tryggvason hafši šr austr siglt. Žeir Svakonungr ok Eirkr jarl heldu til fundar viš Danakonung, ok hfšu ž allir saman -grynni hrs.

Sveinn konungr, ž er hann hafši snt ptir hrinum, ž sndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at njsna um frš lfs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra sv til, at fundr žeira Sveins konungs mętti verša. Frr ž Sigvaldi jarl leiš sna, ok kom fram Vindlandi, fr til Jmsborgar, ok sšan fund lfs konungs Tryggvasonar. Vru žar mikil vinttu-ml žeira mešal, kom jarl sr hinn mesta kęrleik viš lf konung. stršr kona jarls, dttir Burizleifs konungs, var vinr mikill lfs konungs, ok var žat mjk af hinum fyrrum tngšum, er lafr konungr hafši tt Geiru, systur [*] hnnar. Sigvaldi jarl var mašr vitr ok ršugr; en er hann kom sr rša-grš viš lf konung, ž dvalši hann mjk fršina hans austan at sigla, ok fann til žess mjk msa hluti. [*] En liš lfs konungs lt geysi illa, ok vru mnn mjk heim-fsir, er žeir lgu albnir, en vešr byr-vęn. Sigvaldi jarl fekk njsn leyniliga af Danmrk, at ž var austan kominn hrr Svakonungs, ok Eirkr jarl hafši ž ok binn sinn hr, ok žeir hfšingjarnir mundu ž koma austr undir Vindland, ok žeir hfšu kvešit, at žeir mundu bša lfs konungs viš ey ž er Svlšr heitir, sv žat, at jarl skyldi sv til stilla [*] at žeir mętti žar finna lf konung.

Ž kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Dana- konungr hfši hr ti, ok gršisk brtt s kurr, at Sveinn Danakonungr mundi vilja finna lf konung. En Sigvaldi jarl sgir konungi: 'ekki er žat rš Sveins konungs at lggja til bardaga viš žik meš Dana-hr einn saman, sv mikinn hr sem žr hafiš. En ef yšr er nakkvarr grunr žv, at -frišr muni fyrir, ž skal ek fylgja yšr meš mnu [*] liši, ok žtti žat styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem Jms-vkingar fylgšu hfšingjum; mun ek f žr ellifu skip vel skipuš.' Konungr jtti žessu. Var ž ltit vešr ok hag-sttt; lt konungr ž leysa flotann, ok blsa til brott-lgu. Drgu mnn ž segl sn, ok gengu meira sm-skipin ll, ok sigldu [*] žau undan haf t. En jarl sigldi nęr konungs-skipinu, ok kallaši til žeira, baš konung sigla ptir sr: 'mr er kunnast,' sgir hann, 'hvar djpast er um eyja-sundin, en žr munuš žess žurfa meš žau in stru skipin.' Sigldi ž jarl fyrir meš snum skipum. Hann hafši ellifu skip, en konungr sigldi ptir honum meš sinum str-skipum, hafši hann žar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr hrrinn sigldi t hafit. En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at Svlšr, ž röri mti žeim skta ein. Žeir sgja jarli at hrr Dana- konungs l žar hfninni fyrir žeim. Ž lt jarl hlaša seglunum, ok ra žeir inn undir eyna.

Sveinn Danakonungr ok lfr Svakonungr ok Eirkr jarl vru žar ž meš allan hr sinn; ž var fagrt vešr ok bjart sl-skin. Gengu žeir n upp hlminn allir hfšingjar meš miklar sveitir manna, ok s er skipin sigldu t hafit mjk mrg saman. Ok n sj žeir hvar siglir eitt mikit skip ok glęsiligt; ž męltu bšir konungarnir: 'žetta er mikit skip ok kafliga fagrt, žetta mun vera Ormrinn langi.' Eirkr jarl svarar ok sgir: 'ekki er žetta Ormr hinn langi.' Ok sv var sem hann sagši; žetta skip tti Eindriši af Gimsum. Ltlu sšar s žeir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu meira en hit fyrra. Ž męlti Sveinn konungr: 'hręddr er lfr Tryggvason n, eigi žorir hann at sigla meš hfušin skipi snu.' Ž sgir Eirkr jarl: 'ekki er žetta konungs skip, knni ek žetta skip ok seglit, žv at stafat er seglit, žat Erlingr Skjlgsson; ltum sigla ž, btra er oss skarš ok missa flota lfs konungs en žetta skip žar sv bit.' En stundu sšar s žeir ok kndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku žan žannig at hlmanum. Ž s žeir hvar sigldu žrj skip, ok var eitt mikit skip. Męlti ž Sveinn konungr, bišr ž ganga til skipa sinna, sgir at žar frr Ormrinn langi. Eirkr jarl męlti: 'mrg hafa žeir nnur str skip ok glęsilig en Orm hinn langa, bšum nn.' Ž męltu mjk margir mnn: 'eigi vill Eirkr jarl n brjask, ok hfna fšur sns; žetta er skmm mikil, sv at spyrjask mun um ll lnd, ef vr liggjum hr meš jafn-miklu liši, en lfr konungr sigli hafit t hr hj oss sjlfum.' En er žeir hfšu žetta talat um hrš, ž s žeir hvar sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af žeim var drki all-mikill ok mjk gull-binn. Ž stš upp Sveinn konungr, ok męlti: 'htt mun Ormrinn bera mik kveld, honum skal ek stra.' Ž męltu margir, at Ormrinn var furšu mikit skip ok frtt, ok rausn mikil at lta gra slkt skip. Ž męlti Eirkr jarl, sv at nakkvarir mnn heyršu: 'žtt lfr konungr hfši ekki meira skip en žetta, ž mundi Sveinn konungr žat aldri f af honum meš einn saman Danahr.' Dreif ž flkit til skipanna, ok rku af tjldin, ok ętlušu at bask skjtliga. En er hfšingjar rddu žetta milli sn, sem n er sagt, ž s žeir, hvar sigldu žrj skip all-mikil, ok fjrša sšast, ok var žat Ormrinn langi. En žau hin stru skip, er šr hfšu siglt, ok žeir hugšu at Ormrinn vęri, žat var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit sšara Ormrinn skammi. En ž er žeir s Orminn langa, kndu allir, ok męlti ž engi mt, at žar mundi sigla lfr Tryggvason; gengu ž til skipanna, ok skipušu til at- lgunnar. Vru žat einkaml žeira hfšingja, Sveins konungs, lfs konungs, Eirks jarls, at sinn žrišjung Noregs skyldi eignask hvrr žeira, ef žeir fldi lf konung Tryggvason; en s žeira hfšingja er fyrst gengi Orminn, skyldi eignask alt žat hlut-skipti er žar fengisk, ok hvrr žeira žau skip er sjlfr hryši. Eirkr jarl hafši barša einn geysi mikinn, er hann var vanr at hafa viking; žar var skgg ofan- veršu baršinu hvrutvggja, en nišr fr jrn-spng žykk ok sv breiš sem baršit, ok tk alt sę ofan.

Ž er žeir Sigvaldi jarl röru inn undir hlminn, ž s žat žeir Žorkll dyšrill af Trananum ok ašrir skip-stjrn- ar-mnn, žeir er meš honum fru, at jarl snöri skipum undir hlmann; ž hlšu žeir ok seglum, ok röru ptir honum, ok kllušu til žeira, spuršu, hv žeir fru sv. Jarl sgir, at hann vill bša lfs konungs: 'ok er meiri vn at frišr s fyrir oss.' Ltu žeir ž fljta skipin, žar til er Žorkll nfja kom meš Orminn skamma, ok žau žrj skip er honum fylgšu. Ok vru žeim sgš hin smu tšindi; hlšu žeir ž ok snum seglum, ok ltu fljta, ok bišu lfs konungs. En ž er konungrinn sigldi innan at hl- manum, ž röri allr hrrinn t sundit fyrir ž. En er žeir s žat, ža bšu žeir konunginn sigla leiš sna, en lggja eigi til orrostu viš sv mikinn hr. Konungr svarar htt, ok stš upp lyptingunni: 'lti ofan seglit, ekki skulu mnir mnn hyggja fltta, ek hfi aldri flit orrostu, rši Guš fyrir lfi mnu, en aldri mun ek fltta lggja.' Var sv grt sem konungr męlti.

lfr konungr lt blsa til sam-lgu llum skipum snum. Var konungs skip mišju liši, en žar annat borš Ormrinn skammi, en annat borš Traninn. En ž er žeir tku at tngja stafna Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma, ok er konungr s žat, kallaši hann htt, baš ž lggja fram btr hit mikla skipit, ok lta žat eigi aptast vera allra skipa hrinum. Ž svarar lfr hinn rauši: 'ef Orminn skal žv lngra fram lggja, sem hann er lngri en nnur skip, ž mun -vint verša um sxin dag.' Konungr sgir: 'eigi vissa ek at ek ętta stafnbann bęši raušan ok ragan.' lfr męlti: 'vr ž eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun stafninn.' Konungr helt boga, ok lagši r strng, ok snöri at lfi. lfr męlti: 'skjt annan veg, konungr žannig sem meiri er žrfin; žr vinn ek žat er ek vinn.'

lfr konungr stš lyptingu Orminum, bar hann htt [*] mjk; hann hafši gyltan skjld ok gull-rošinn hjlm; var hann auš-kndr fr šrum mnnum: hann hafši raušan kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En er lfr konungr s at rišlušusk flotarnir, ok upp vru stt mrki fyrir hfšingjum, ž spyrr hann: 'hvrr er hfšingi fyrir liši žv er ggnt oss er?' Honum var sagt at žar var Sveinn konungr tjguskgg meš Danahr. Konungr svarar: 'ekki hręšumk vr bleyšur žęr, engi er hugr Dnum. En hvrr hfšingi fylgir žeim mrkjum er žar eru t fr hgra veg?' Honum var sagt at žar var lfr konungr meš Sva-hr. lfr konungr sgir: 'btra vęri Svum heima at sleikja um blt- bolla sna en ganga Orminn undir vpn yšur. En hvrir eigu žau hin stru skip, er žar liggja t bak-borša Dnum?' 'Žar er,' sgja žeir 'Eirkr jarl Hkonar-son.' Ž svaraši lfr konungr: 'hann mun žykkjask eiga viš oss skapligan fund, ok oss er vn snarpligrar orrostu af žv liši; žeir eru Norš-mnn, sem vr erum.'

Sšan greiša konungar at-ršr. Lagši Sveinn konungr sitt skip mti Orminum langa, en lfr konungr Snski lagši t fr, ok stakk stfnum at yzta skipi lfs konungs Tryggvasonar, en šrum megin Eirkr jarl. Tksk žar ž hrš orrosta. Sigvaldi jarl lt skotta viš sn skip, ok lagši ekki til orrostu.

Žessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-skš. Fram- byggjar Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum fršu akkeri ok stafn-lj skip Sveins konungs, en ttu vpnin at bera nišr undir ftr sr; hrušu žeir ll žau skip er žeir fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok žat liš er undan komsk flši nnur skip, ok žar nęst lgšu žeir fr r skot-mli. Ok fr žessi hrr sv sem gat lfr konungr Tryggvason. Ž lagši žar at stašinn lfr Svakonungr; ok žegar er žeir koma nęr strskipum, ž fr žeim sem hinum, at žeir ltu liš mikit ok sum skip sn, ok lgšu fr viš sv bit. En Eirkr jarl s-byrši Baršanum viš hit yzta skip lfs konungs, ok hrauš hann žat, ok hj žegar žat r tngslum, en lagši ž at žv, er žar var nęst, ok baršisk til žess er žat var hrošit. Tk ž lišit at hlaupa af hinum smęrum skipunum, ok upp strskipin. En Eirkr jarl hj hvrt r tngslunum, sv sem hrošit var. En Danir ok Svar lgšu ž skotml ok llum megin at skipum lfs konungs, en Eirkr jarl l valt sbyrt viš skipin, ok tti hgg-orrostu. En sv sem mnn fellu skipum hans, ž gengu ašrir upp stašinn, Svar ok Danir. Ž var orrosta hin snarpasta, ok fell ž mjk lišit, ok kom sv at lykšum, at ll vru hrošin skip lfs konungs Tryggvasonar nema Ormrinn langi; var žar ž alt liš komit, žat er vgt var hans manna. Ž lagši Eirkr jarl Baršanum at Orminum langa sbyrt, ok var žar hggorrosta.

Eirlkr jarl var fyrir-rmi skipi snu, ok var žar fylkt meš skjald-borg. Var ž bęši hggorrosta, ok spjtum lagit, ok kastat llu žv er til vpna var, en sumir skutu boga-skoti eša hand-skoti. Var ža sv mikill vpnaburšr Orminn, at varla mtti hlfum viš koma, er sv žykt flugu spjt ok rvar; žv at llum megin lgšu hrskip at Orminum. En mnn lfs konungs vru ž sv šir, at žeir hljpu upp boršin, til žess at n meš sveršs-hggum at drepa flkit. En margir lgšu eigi sv undir Orminn, at žeir vildi hggorrostu vera. En lfs mnn gengu flestir t af boršunum, ok gšu eigi annars en žeir bršisk slttum vlli, ok sukku nišr meš vpnum snum.

Einarr žambar-sklfir var Orminum aptr krappa-rmi; hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna harš-skeytastr. Einarr skaut at Eirki jarli, ok laust stris-hnakkann fyrir ofan hfuš jarli, ok gekk alt upp reyr-bndin. Jarl leit til, ok spurši ef žeir vissi, hvrr skaut. En jafn-skjtt kom nnur r sv nęr jarli, at flaug milli sšunna ok handarinnar, ok sv aptr hfša-fjlina, at langt stš t broddrinn. Ž męlti jarl viš mann žann er sumir nfna Finn, en sumir sgja at hann vęri Finskr, s var hinn mesti bog-mašr: 'skjt-tu mann žann hinn mikla krapparminu!' Finnr skaut, ok kom rin boga Einars mišjan, žv bili er Einarr dr it žrišja sinn bogann. Brast ž boginn tv hluti. Ž męlti lfr konungr: 'hvat brast žar sv htt?' Einarr svarar: 'Noregr r hndi žr, konungr!' 'Eigi mun sv mikill brestr at oršinn,' sgir konungr, 'tak boga minn, ok skjt af,' ok kastaši boganum til hans. Einarr tk bogann, ok dr žegar fyrir odd rvarinnar, ok męlti: 'ofveikr, ofveikr allvalds boginn!' ok kastaši aptr boganum; tk ž skjld sinn ok sverš, ok baršisk.

lfr konungr Tryggvason stš lypting Orminum, ok skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum gaflkum, ok jafnan tveim snn. Hann s fram skipit, ok s sna mnn reiša sveršin ok hggva ttt, ok s at illa bitu; męlti ž htt: 'hvrt reiši žr sv slęliga sveršin, er ek s at ekki bta yšr?' Mašr svarar: 'sverš vr eru slę ok brotin mjk.' Ž gekk konungr ofan fyrirrmit ok lauk upp hsętis-kistuna, tk žar r mrg sverš hvss, ok fekk mnnum. En er hann tk nišr hinni hgri hndi, ž s mnn at blš rann ofan undan bryn-stkunni; en engi vissi hvar hann var srr.

Mest var vrnin Orminum ok mannskšust af fyrirrms- mnnum ok stafnbum; žar var hvrttvggja, valit mest mann-flkit ok hęst boršin. En liš fell fyrst um mitt skipit. Ok ž er ftt stš manna upp um siglu-skeiš, ž rš Eirkr jarl til upp-gngunnar, ok kom upp Orminn viš fimtnda [*] mann. Ž kom mt honum Hyrningr, mgr lfs konungs, meš sveit manna, ok varš žar inn haršasti bardagi, ok lauk sv, at jarl hrkk ofan aptr Baršann; en žeir mnn er honum hfšu fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir vru sęršir. Žar varš nn in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu ž margir mnn Orminum. En er žyntisk skipan Orminum til varnarinnar, ž rš Eirkr jarl annat sinn til uppgngu Orminn. Varš ž nn hrš viš-taka. En er žetta s stafnbar Orminum, ž gengu žeir aptr skipit, ok snask til varnar mti jarli, ok veita harša vištku. En fyrir žv at ž var sv mjk fallit liš Orminum, at vša vru auš boršin, tku ž jarls mnn vša upp at ganga. En alt žat liš er ž stš upp til varnar Orminum stti aptr skipit, žar sem konungr var.

Kolbjrn stallari gekk upp lypting til konungs; žeir hfšu mjk lkan klęša-bnaš ok vpna, Kolbjrn var ok [*] allra manna mestr ok fršastr. Varš n nn fyrirrminu in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir ž sk at ž var sv mikit flk komit upp Orminn af liši jarls sem vera mtti skipinu, en skip hans lgšu at llum megin utan at Orminum, en ltit fjl-mnni til varnar mti sv miklum hr, n žtt žeir mnn vęri bęši strkir ok frknir, ž fellu n flestir ltilli stundu. En lfr konungr sjlfr ok žeir Kolbjrn bšir hljpu ž fyrir borš, ok sitt borš hvrr. En jarls mnn hfšu lagt utan at sm-sktur, ok drpu ž er kaf hljpu. Ok ž er konungr sjlfr hafši kaf hlaupit, vildu žeir taka hann hndum, ok fra Eirki jarli. En lfr konungr br yfir sik skildinum, ok steypšisk kaf; en Kolbjrn stallari skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlfši sr sv viš vpnum er lagt var af skipum žeim er undir lgu, ok fell hann sv sęinn at skjldrinn varš undir honum, ok komsk hann žv eigi kaf sv skjtt, ok varš hann hand-tkinn ok drginn upp sktuna, ok hugšu žeir at žar vęri konungrinn. Var hann ž leiddr fyrir jarl. En er žess varš jarl varr at žar var Kolbjrn, en eigi lfr konungr, ž vru Kolbirni griš gefin. En žessi svipan hljpu allir fyrir borš af Orminum, žeir er ž vru lfi, lfs konungs mnn; ok sgir Hall- frešr vandręša-skld, at Žorkll nfja, konungs bršir, hljp sšast allra manna fyrir borš.

Sv var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til fruneytis viš lf konung Vindlandi, ok hafši tu skip, en žat hit ellifta, er vru mnn stršar konungs-dttur, konu jarls. En ž er lfr konungr hafši fyrir borš hlaupit, ž pši hrrinn allr sigr-p, ok ž lustu žeir rum sę Sigvaldi jarl ok hans mnn, ok röru til bardaga. En s Vinda- snkkjan, er stršar mnn vru , röri brott ok aptr undir Vindland; ok var žat margra manna ml žegar, at lfr konungr mundi hafa steypt af sr brynjunni kafi, ok kafat sv t undan langskipunum, lagizk sšan til Vindasnkkj- unnar, ok hfši mnn stršar flutt hann til lands. Ok eru žar margar fr-sagnir um fršir lfs konungs grvar sšan af sumum mnnum. En hvrn veg sem žat hfir verit, ž kom lfr konungr Tryggvason aldri sšan til rkis Noregi.

VII. AUŠUN

Mašr ht Aušun, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok f-ltill; hann fr utan vestr žar fjršum meš um-rši Žorsteins bnda gšs, ok Žris stri-manns, er žar hafši žegit vist of vetrinn meš Žorsteini. Aušun var ok žar, ok starfaši fyrir honum Žri, ok ž žessi laun af honum—utan-fršina ok hans um-sj. Hann Aušun lagši mestan hluta fjr žess er var fyrir mšur sna, šr hann stigi skip, ok var kvešit žriggja vetra bjrg. Ok n fara žeir utan hešan, ok frsk žeim vel, ok var Aušun of vetrinn ptir meš Žri strimanni; hann tti b Mri. Ok um sumarit ptir fara žeir t til Grn-lands, ok eru žar of vetrinn. Žess er viš getit at Aušun kaupir žar bjarn-dri eitt, grsimi mikla, ok gaf žar fyrir alla eigu sna. Ok n of sumarit ptir ž fara žeir aptr til Noregs, ok verša vel reiš-fara; hfir Aušun dr sitt meš sr, ok ętlar n at fara sušr til Danmrkr fund Sveins konungs, ok gefa honum drit. Ok er hann kom sušr landit, žar sem konungr var fyrir, ž gngr hann upp af [*] skipi, ok leišir ptir sr drit, ok leigir sr hr-brgi. Haraldi konungi var sagt brtt at žar var komit bjarndri, grsimi mikil, 'ok s-lnzkr mašr.' Konungr sndir žegar mnn ptir honum, ok er Aušun kom fyrir konung, kvšr hann konung vel; konungr tk vel kvšju hans, ok spurši sšan: 'ttu grsimi mikla bjarndri?' Hann svarar, ok kvezk eiga drit eitthvrt. Konungr męlti: 'villtu slja oss drit viš slku verši sem ž keyptir?' Hann svarar: 'eigi vil ek žat, herra!' 'Villtu ž,' sgir konungr, 'at ek gefa žr tvau [*] verš slk, ok mun žat rttara, ef ž hfir žar viš gefit alla žna eigu.' 'Eigi vil ek žat, herra!' sgir hann. Konungr męlti: 'villtu gefa mr ž?' Hann svarar: 'eigi, herra!' Konungr męlti: 'hvat villtu ž af gra?' Hann svarar: 'fara,' sgir hann, 'til Danmrkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.' Haraldr konungr sgir: 'hvrt er, at ž ert mašr sv vitr at ž hfir eigi heyrt friš žann er milli er landa žessa, eša ętlar ž giptu žna sv mikla, at ž munir žar komask meš grsimar, er ašrir f eigi komizk klakk-laust, ž at nauš-syn eigi til?' Aušun svarar: 'herra! žat er yšru valdi, en engu jtum vr šru en žessu er vr hfum šr ętlat.' Ž męlti konungr: 'hv mun eigi žat til, at ž farir leiš žna, sem ž vill, ok kom ž til mn, er ž frr aptr, ok sg mr, hvrsu Sveinn konungr launar žr drit, ok kann žat vera, at ž sr gęfu-mašr.' 'Žv heit ek žr,' sagši Aušun.

Hann frr n sšan sušr meš landi, ok Vk austr, ok ž til Danmrkr; ok er ž uppi hvrr pnningr fjrins, ok veršr hann ž bišja matar bęši fyrir sik ok fyrir drit. Hann kömr fund r-manns Sveins konungs, žess er ki ht, ok baš hann vista nakkvarra bęši fyrir sik ok fyrir drit: 'ek ętla,' sgir hann, 'at gefa Sveini konungi drit.' ki lzk slja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi. Aušun kvezk ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; 'en ek vilda ž,' sgir hann, 'at žetta kvęmisk til leišar at ek mętta drit fra konungi.' 'Ek mun f žr vistir, sem it žurfiš til konungs fundar; en žar mti vil ek eiga hlft drit, ok mttu žat lta, at drit mun deyja fyrir žr, žars it žurfuš vistir miklar, en f s farit, ok er bit viš at ž hafir ž ekki drsins.' Ok [*] er hann ltr žetta, snisk honum nakkvat ptir sem [*] rmašrinn męlti fyrir honum, ok sęttask žeir žetta, at hann slr ka hlft drit, ok skal konungr sšan meta alt saman. Skulu žeir fara bšir n fund konungs; ok sv gra žeir: fara n bšir fund konungs, ok stšu fyrir boršinu. Konungr hugši, hvrr žessi mašr myndi vera, er hann kndi eigi, ok męlti sšan til Aušunar: 'hvrr er-tu?' sgir hann. Hann svarar: 'ek em slnzkr mašr, herra,' sgir hann, 'ok kominn n utan af Grnlandi, ok n [*] af Noregi, ok ętlaša-k at fra yšr bjarndri žetta; keypta-k žat meš allri eigu minni, ok n er ž oršit mikit fyrir mr; ek n hlft eitt drit,' ok sgir konungi sšan, hvrsu farit hafši meš žeim ka rmanni hans. Konungr męlti: 'er žat satt, ki, er hann sgir?' 'Satt er žat,' sgir hann. Konungr męlti: 'ok žtti žr žat til liggja, žar sem ek stta-k žik mikinn mann, at hpta žat eša tlma er mašr gršisk til at fra mr grsimi, ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok s žat Haraldr konungr at rši at lta hann fara friši, ok er hann vrr vinr? Hygg ž at ž, hv sannligt žat var žinnar handar, ok žat vęri makligt, at ž vęrir drepinn; en ek mun n eigi žat gra, en braut skaltu fara žegar r landinu, ok koma aldri aptr sšan mr aug-sn! En žr, Aušun! kann ek slka žkk, sem ž gefir mr alt drit, ok ver hr meš mr.' Žat žkkisk hann, ok er meš Sveini konungi um hrš.

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