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Annals of Music in America - A Chronological Record of Significant Musical Events
by Henry Charles Lahee
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Transcriber's Note: Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have been preserved. Changes listed in the Errata on Pages 191 and 192 have been made in this e-book. This e-book contains a number of unusual accents. The caron diacritics, which look like a little v, used over R, r and e are represented as Ř, ř and ě.



ANNALS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA



Annals of Music in America

A CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD OF SIGNIFICANT MUSICAL EVENTS, FROM 1640 TO THE PRESENT DAY, WITH COMMENTS ON THE VARIOUS PERIODS INTO WHICH THE WORK IS DIVIDED



BY

HENRY C. LAHEE







BOSTON MARSHALL JONES COMPANY MDCCCCXXII



COPYRIGHT, 1922

BY MARSHALL JONES COMPANY

PRINTED OCTOBER, 1922



THE PLIMPTON PRESS . NORWOOD . MASSACHUSETTS

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



PREFACE

The object of this book is to give as complete a record as possible of the beginning and progress of music in the United States of America.

The first things recorded are regarded as important. Hence such items as the printing of the first book on music, the importation of the first pipe organs, the establishment of the early musical societies are recorded, while similar events of a more recent date are of no special importance.

The first performance of significant works—operas, oratorios, symphonies and other choral and orchestral works—are chronicled as carefully as possible; also the first appearance in America of noted musicians.

It has been practically impossible to find accurate data about the works of the older composers,—Haydn, Mozart and others, for while there are many programs in which their names are mentioned the work played is seldom specified (see Mr. O. G. Sonneck's "Early Concert-Life in America"), and one must wait until the period arrives in which the work performed is specified. Probably some of the works mentioned had earlier performances by small organizations but the performances recorded here are in all probability the first adequate ones.

Among the items recorded are some which cannot be regarded as marking the musical progress of the country, and yet are items of musical interest;—the first performance of "The Star-Spangled Banner" and of "America" do not mark any progress and yet are historic events.

The establishment of Gilmore's Band and Sousa's Band are items of interest rather than of educational progress.

In compiling this work such newspapers as are available have been consulted, also the programs of the leading choral and orchestral societies. Valuable help has been gained from the excellent works of Mr. Oscar G. Sonneck, Mr. E. H. Krehbiel, Mr. Philip Goepp, Mr. George P. Upton, Allston Brown and other writers on the American stage, and above all from the admirable notes of Mr. Philip Hale in the programs of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. It would be ungracious to close this preface without acknowledging with gratitude the valuable assistance of Miss Barbara Duncan of the Boston Public Library.

HENRY C. LAHEE



CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

Preface v

I. 1640-1750 1

II. 1750-1800 5

III. 1800-1825 14

IV. 1825-1850 20

V. 1850-1875 36

VI. 1875-1890 64

VII. 1890-1900 95

VIII. 1900-1921 117

Index of Compositions 193

Miscellaneous Items 280



ANNALS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA



Annals of Music in America



CHAPTER I

1640-1750

The Annals of Music in America during the first hundred years contain very little that would seem to be of any importance to the musicians of today. Nevertheless it is as interesting to note the beginnings of music in this newly settled country as to watch the appearance of the baby's first tooth.

The first settlement at Plymouth took place in 1620, and we find that in 1640 the colonists were already busy with the printing press in Cambridge, Mass., and the second book which came from the press was a reprint of an English Psalm book, printed under the title of the Bay Psalm Book. This was not an original work, but its production shows that music was already a living problem, and was even then part of the life of the colonists.

Practically nothing more of note happened until the importation of the first pipe organ, in 1700. This was quickly followed by other similar instruments in different parts of the country, and even by the building of organs by Americans, the first being by John Clemm in New York, which contained three manuals and twenty-six stops, and the next by Edward Bromfield in Boston. Bromfield's organ had two manuals and 1200 pipes, but was not completed when he died in 1746.

The early history of music in New England, as handed down to us by writers on the subject, seems to have consisted chiefly of church singing, concerning which there were many controversies. The early composers of New England were mainly occupied in composing psalm tunes, and in teaching singing schools.

The accounts of secular music come chiefly from Charleston, S. C., at which place many musicians entered this continent after visiting the West Indies. In fact, the first song recital on record in America took place at Charleston in 1733, while Boston had a concert in 1731 and Charleston had one in 1732. Charleston also claims the first performance of ballad opera on record in America (1735).

It must not, however, be supposed that New England had no secular music. The concert above mentioned goes to show the contrary. Also there is a record of small wind instruments, such as oboes and flageolets, being brought to Boston for the purposes of trade—possibly with the idea that New England shepherds might play to their sheep, as shepherds in other countries are supposed to do.

We know that every farm had its spinning wheel and that clothes were made of the homespun woollens, but neither historian nor poet has ever pictured a New England shepherd with the shepherd's pipe. Imagination has not so far run riot.

Music was in a very elementary stage during the first hundred years. The country was sparsely populated, and music depends on the existence of a community. Even in 1750 the cows, according to tradition, were still occupied, during their daily peregrinations, in laying out the streets of the future city of Boston,—a city which was destined to be one of the leaders in matters musical.

NOTE. When a work is mentioned as "given" or "played" or "presented," it means the first performance in America. When "produced" or "production" or "premiere" is used the first public performance anywhere is indicated.

1640. The "Bay Psalm Book" published, first American book of sacred music. The second book printed in America.

1700. The first pipe organ to reach America from Europe was placed in the Episcopal Church at Port Royal, Va. About 1860 it was removed to Hancock, and later to Shepherdstown, W. Va.

1712. First practical instruction book on singing in New England, published by John Tufts of Newbury, Mass.

1713. First pipe organ brought into New England presented to King's Chapel, Boston, by Thomas Brattle. (Now in St. John's Chapel, Portsmouth, N. H.)

1720. First singing societies established in New England.

1716. First mention of the importation of flageolets, hautbois and other instruments, by Edward Enstone, of Boston.

1722. A playhouse existed near the market place, Williamsburg, Va. The first theatre known to exist in America.

1728. A pipe organ placed in Christ Church, Philadelphia.

1731. Dec. First concert recorded in Boston, given at the rooms of Mr. Pelham, near the Sun Tavern.

1732. April. A concert given for the benefit of Mr. Salter, at the Council Chamber, Charleston, S. C.

1733. A pipe organ placed in Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., being the second organ in New England.

1733. Feb. 26. First song recital recorded in America, given at the playhouse in Queen St., Charleston, S. C.

1735. Feb. 8. First performance of ballad opera on record in America—"Flora, or Hob in the Well"—given at the Courtroom, Charleston, S. C.

1735. July 1.—1794. Dec. 25. James Lyon, psalmodist. Probably the second American composer.

1736. Jan. 12. The first concert recorded in New York City, given for the benefit of Mr. Pachelbel. (Probably not the first concert given in that city.)

1737. First Pipe Organ completed in America, built by John Clemm, and placed in Trinity Church, New York City. Three manuals, twenty-six stops.

1737. Sept. 11—1791. May 9. Francis Hopkinson. The first American poet-composer.

1742. Moravian settlement established in Bethlehem, Pa. Became noted in musical matters.

1742. June. First Singstunde held at Bethlehem, Pa. Eighty people present.

1743. Records of this date show that two organs existed in the Moravian Church, Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa., and that stringed instruments were used in the services, also that instruments (violin, viola da braccio, viola da gamba, flutes and French horns) were played for the first time in the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pa.

1745-6. The first pipe organ built in New England, in Boston, by Edward Bromfield. Two manuals and twelve hundred pipes. Bromfield died in 1746 before completing the instrument.

1746. Oct. 7. William Billings, First New England composer, organizer of singing societies, etc. Billings died Sept. 29, 1800.



CHAPTER II

1750-1800

The first item of especial interest in this period is the performance of the "Beggar's Opera" at the "Theatre in Nassau Street," New York. This theatre was a rather tumbledown affair and was not built for the purpose. It had a platform and rough benches. The chandelier was a barrel hoop through which several nails were driven, and on these nails were impaled candles, which provided all the light, and from which the tallow was likely to drip on the heads of such of the audience as had the best seats.

But three years later (in 1753) Lewis Hallam, who had been giving performances with his company in the more southern States, got permission to build a theatre on the site of this old place, and the house was opened in September with a play, "The Conscious Lovers," followed by a ballad farce, "Damon and Phillida."

In 1759 we find the first avowedly musical organization in America, "The Orpheus Club," was in existence in Philadelphia, and concerts were becoming more frequent. We also find a St. Cecilia Society founded in Charleston, S. C., an organization which lasted for a hundred and fifty years.

Other societies followed at short intervals and in widely scattered localities; the "Handel Society" of Dartmouth College, about 1780, the "Stoughton (Mass.) Musical Society," 1786, and "The Musical Society" of New York City, all tend to show that social centres were developing, and the people were finding expression in music.

An indication of what had been growing by degrees is found in the reports of concerts. Mention of instruments such as violins, French horns, oboes, trombones, etc., was made here and there, and especially in connection with the Moravian settlements in Bethlehem, Pa., where was established the first music school.

We find the first mention of an orchestra made in connection with a performance of "The Beggar's Opera" at Upper Marlboro, Md., in 1752, and a few years later (1788) a great concert was given in Philadelphia with an orchestra of fifty and a chorus of two hundred performers.

There is also a record of a concert given in Charleston, S. C., in 1796, when an orchestra of thirty instruments was employed in a performance of Gluck's overture to "Iphegenie en Aulide," and Haydn's "Stabat Mater."

It is quite possible that orchestras were used more or less in other concerts. Mr. Sonneck shows, in his "Early Concert-Life in America," many programs in which orchestral works are mentioned. And it is well to state here that it is almost impossible to locate the first performance in America of many of the works of the older composers, including Haydn and Mozart, because no opus number is mentioned, nor anything to indicate the identity of the work. Pleyel, Gluck and Clementi were much in vogue.

The American composer was beginning to be heard from during this period. Francis Hopkinson, who is generally regarded as the first American composer, wrote, in 1759, a song with the title "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." Some time later, in 1788, a small volume of songs was published under the title "Seven Songs," by the same composer.

Francis Hopkinson was a well-educated man, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the Convention of 1787 which formulated the Constitution of the United States, first Judge of the Admiralty Court in Pennsylvania, and author of many pamphlets and poems.

A man of entirely different calibre was William Billings, who was considered the first composer in New England. His compositions were chiefly "fuguing tunes," and he published several psalm books.

Billings was a tanner by trade, but a great musical enthusiast and organizer. The Stoughton (Mass.) Musical Society, which is the oldest musical society still in existence, was organized by Billings. Lack of education was no bar to his activities, and he accomplished much with very limited means.

It is said that Billings introduced the bass viol into the services of the Church, and thus began to break down the ancient Puritanical prejudices against musical instruments. He was also the first to use the pitch-pipe in order to ensure some degree of certainty in "striking up the tune" in church.

Again, we find the first American ballad operas during this period. Benjamin Carr, an Englishman who had been in America a couple of years, produced in 1796 a ballad opera, "The Archers of Switzerland," and, shortly afterwards, in the same year, with Pellesier (a Frenchman of recent arrival) as librettist, another ballad opera, "Edwin and Angelina," was staged in New York City. Though these works could hardly be called distinctively American, they were the first composed and produced in this country.

During the last decade of the 18th century some French actors and singers invaded the country and made New Orleans their headquarters. From that time on, for many years, New Orleans was prominent in the production of French operas and plays.

Theatres were built in several of the larger cities, and noted singers began to appear from abroad. The first of these appears to have been Miss Broadhurst, who appeared in Philadelphia in 1793, at the Chestnut Street Theatre. She was closely followed by Mrs. Oldmixon.

1750. April 30. "The Mock Doctor," and Dec. 3, "The Beggar's Opera," given at the "Theatre in Nassau St.," New York City. The first performances of ballad opera on record in that city.

1750. A Collegium Musicum was established about this time at Bethlehem, Pa.

1752. Sept. 14. First record of an orchestra being employed, at a performance of "The Beggar's Opera" at Upper Marlborough, Md.

1753. Sept. 13. The first theatre (built for the purpose) in New York City, erected in August and opened in September with "The Conscious Lovers" followed by the ballad farce, "Damon and Phillida," given by Lewis Hallam's company.

1754. First concert hall in Boston opened by Gilbert Deblois, at the corner of Hanover and Courts Sts.

1756. Mar. 16. New organ built by Gilbert Ash, dedicated at the City Hall, New York City, when an organ-concerto by G. A. Hasse was played.

In the same year a new organ was placed in King's Chapel, Boston, replacing the Brattle organ.

1756. The first mention of French horns in America made by Benjamin Franklin, writing of the fine music in the church at Bethlehem, Pa., where flutes, oboes, French horns, and trumpets were accompanied by the organ.

1757. Dr. Arne's "Masque of Alfred" given in Philadelphia by the students of the College of Philadelphia.

1759. The first known American song, "My Days Have Been so Wondrous Free," composed by Francis Hopkinson.

1759. The first avowedly musical organization in America, "The Orpheus Club," existed in Philadelphia, and was probably founded about this time.

1761. Feb. 3. Concert given by Mr. Dipper, organist of King's Chapel, Boston, in which two French horns were used. First mention of this instrument in New England.

1761. "Urania, or a Choice Collection of Psalm Tunes, Anthems, and Hymns, from the most approved Authors," published in Philadelphia, by James Lyon, A.B.

1762. A St. Cecilia Society (which lasted for one hundred and fifty years) formed in Charleston, S. C.

1765. A concert of "Musical Glasses" given in Philadelphia.

1765. June 3. The New York Mercury announced a series of summer concerts (open air) to be given at Ranelagh Gardens. These concerts were continued for four years.

1769. First American spinet made by John Harris, in Boston.

1770. Jan. 9. Handel's "Messiah" performed in part (sixteen numbers) at Trinity Church, New York City.

1770. Milton's "Masque of Comus" given by the Hallam Company, in Philadelphia.

1770. "The New England Psalm Singer" published in Boston, by William Billings.

1770, The pipe organ said to have been used for the first time in a Congregational church in America (Philadelphia).

1774. John Behrent, of Philadelphia, said to have made the first American piano.

1780. (c) The Handel Society of Dartmouth College organized at Hanover, N. H.

1784. A "Harmonic Society" formed about this time at Fredericksburg, Va.

1786. Stoughton (Mass.) Musical Society formed by William Billings, with Squire Elijah Dunbar of Canton as President; probably oldest singing society now in existence in America.

1786. Nov. 9. A society formed in New York City, at Mr. Hulett's rooms, for promoting vocal music.

1787. "Uranian Society" formed in Philadelphia for the improvement of church music. Continued till 1800.

1787. First pipe organ west of the Alleghanies set up in Cookstown (now Fayette City), Pa. Built by Joseph Downer, who was born in Brookline, Mass., 1767 (Jan. 28) and trekked to Pennsylvania with his family. The organ is preserved at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh.

1788. May 4. A great concert given with an orchestra of fifty and a chorus of two hundred, in the Reformed German Church in Philadelphia, Pa.

1788. "The Musical Society" of New York City established.

1788. Publication of a book entitled "Seven Songs" by F. Hopkinson (1737-1791), the first publication in America of songs by a native composer.

1789. May. 15. Concert given at Salem, Mass., by Gottlieb Graupner in which first mention is made of the use of the oboe (hautbois) in New England.

1790. June 4. A company of French comedians gave a performance, in French, of the opera "The Mistress and Maid" at Baltimore, Md.

1790. Oct. 7. First performance in America of Audinet-Gossec's "Le Tonnelier" given at the City Tavern, New York City.

1790-1800. During this period the following musical works were known and performed in New Orleans, Charleston, S. C., Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York City: Rousseau's "Pygmalion" and "Devin du Village"; Dalayrac's "Nina" and "L'Amant Statue"; Monsigny's "Deserteur"; Gretry's "Zemire et Azor," "La Fausse Magic" and "Richard Coeur de Lion," by a company of French comedians.

1791. A "Cecilia Society" formed in New York City. Lasted but a short time. An "Apollo Society" was also in existence.

1792. Oliver Holden, composer of "Coronation" and other well known hymn tunes, published his "American Harmony," and in 1793, "The Union Harmony."

1792-1872. Lowell Mason. Composer, educator in music. First teacher of singing in the public schools. President of the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1793. "Uranian Society" of New York City, organized for sacred vocal music.

1793. Miss Broadhurst, a noted singer, made her American debut in Philadelphia.

1793. Jacob Kimball (1761-1826, born Topsfield, Mass.,) published his "Rural Harmony."

1793. A company of French players reached America from San Domingo, remaining three years. They played in Norfolk, Va., in 1793, Charleston, S. C., 1794, Richmond, Va., 1795, Boston, Jan. 1796, and Philadelphia, Dec. 1796.

1793. A "Cecilia Society" was in existence at this time in Newport, R. I.

1794. Paisiello's opera "The Barber of Seville" (English version) was played in Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City and elsewhere.

1794. Mrs. Oldmixon, a noted singer, made her first appearance in America at the Chestnut St. Theatre, Philadelphia, in "Robin Hood."

1796. April 18. "The Archers of Switzerland," an opera by B. Carr, produced in New York City. It is claimed by some authorities that this was the first American opera.

1796. July. Gluck's overture to "Iphegenie en Aulide," and Haydn's "Stabat Mater," given in Charleston, S. C., with an orchestra of about thirty instruments. Mrs. Pownall, J. H. Harris and Mr. Bergman, soloists.

1796. Dec. 19. Production in New York City of "Edwin and Angelina," music by Pellesier. Also said to be the first opera of American composition. (Carr was English, Pellesier French.)

1797. Anniversary meeting of the Concord (N. H.) Musical Society.

1797. Jan. 25. First recorded performance in America of Gretry's opera, "Richard Coeur de Lion," given at the Federal St. Theatre, Boston.

1798. Columbia Garden Summer Concerts established in New York. Lasted till 1800.

1798. Concerts are on record as having been given at Albany, N. Y., April 18; New Brunswick, N. J., Dec. 11; Trenton, N. J., Dec. 18; also an interesting group in Salem, Mass., by Gottlieb Graupner.

1798. Jan. 29. Park Theatre opened in New York City with a performance of a musical piece entitled "The Purse,—or American Tar." This theatre was, for twenty years, important in local musical history.

1798. April 25. First public performance of "Hail Columbia" by Gilbert Fox in Philadelphia. The words were written by Joseph Hopkinson Smith (1770-1842) and sung to the tune of "The President's March." First sung under the title of "Federal Song" but changed a few days later to "Hail Columbia."

1799. A "Musical Society" existed in Baltimore.

1799. "Euterpean Society" formed in New York City.

1799. "The Vintage," an American opera by Pellesier and Dunlap, produced in New York City.



CHAPTER III

1800-1825

In 1800 we find the first mention of the use of the bassoon. This was in Bethlehem, Pa., and it seems to complete the list of instruments for the average orchestra. Notwithstanding the record of the importation of oboes, many years earlier, and the fact that Graupner, one of the leading musicians in Boston about this time, was, or had been an oboeist, some historian has stated that even well into the nineteenth century there was only one oboe player in the United States, and he lived in Baltimore. Surely this must be an error.

In December 1800 we find the first annual concert of the Philharmonic Society in New York City. This society died in a few years, and in 1820 another Philharmonic Society was formed. This society also dwindled, though it did not die, for in 1840 it was reorganized, and has ever since taken a leading part in the musical life of New York.

Many musical societies made a beginning. Few lived long. But of those which lived perhaps the most noted is the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, formed in 1815. This society gave what was claimed to be the first complete performance of Handel's "Messiah," but it is also claimed that this was done in 1801 in the hall of the University of Pennsylvania.

The Handel and Haydn Society also gave what was called the first complete performance of Haydn's "Creation," an honor which is also ascribed to King's Chapel in 1816, while portions had been performed in 1811 at Bethlehem, Pa. Thus it is difficult to fix definitely the first performances of many of the large works. In later days, especially in the case of Wagner's operas, portions were given at concerts long before complete stage performances were essayed.

Another musical society which is in existence at the present day, and which undoubtedly has had much influence on the musical life of America, was the Pierian Sodality of Harvard University, established in 1808 by the undergraduates.

In Philadelphia we find the establishment of the Musical Fund Society, which, for a number of years, did much to promote good music in that city. At its first concert, on April 24, 1821, Beethoven's First Symphony was played for the first time in America. Mr. Goepp gives us a full account of this and tells us that the whole symphony was too severe a task for an audience of that period, so the performance was broken and diversified by vocal and other solos between the movements.

New England possessed several musical societies in 1821, by which performances of oratorio were given. The Sacred Music Society was formed in New York City in 1823 and lasted till 1849. So it may easily be seen that, as the population increased, musical societies were soon established.

Theatres, while not strictly part of the musical life of the country, can hardly be separated from it because they were the home of ballad operas, and all musical stage representations. They were already in existence in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia before the beginning of the nineteenth century, but we find in 1807, the opening of "Le Theatre St. Philippe" in New Orleans with Mehul's one-act opera, "Une Folie." This theatre being burned in 1817, a new one, "Le Theatre d'Orleans," was built and opened in the following year. This theatre was the finest in the country at that time and was the home of opera for a number of years. The record of opera in New Orleans is incomplete, but it is well known that New Orleans was the home of French opera in America long before it became popular in other parts of the country.

But America was gradually edging up to the time of grand opera. Singers were arriving from abroad and brought with them their ambitions. We find that an English version of Rossini's opera, "Il Barbiere," was given at the Park Theatre, New York City, in 1819, with Miss Leesugg as Rosina, and in 1823 an English version of Mozart's "Le Nozze di Figaro" was presented. Again in the early part of 1825, Weber's opera "Der Freyschuetz" was presented, in English, at the Park Theatre, with Miss Kelly and Mrs. de Luce in the leading parts. Similar performances followed in other cities, and the country was thus gradually prepared for the real thing,—grand opera,—in its native language.

While the record of items during the period 1800 to 1825 is not very long it still shows considerable progress. The people grew up in a country where there was little musical cultivation, where there were small communities, and where the struggle for existence had been the first consideration. They responded warmly to the efforts of the country singing teacher, the choral society promoter, and later to the producer of opera, and if history shows many failures, it may be pointed out that these failures could not have taken place if no effort had been made. Perhaps efforts in many cases were premature. Also there was much to learn in the management of masses of people. The virtues of a true democracy are nowhere more necessary than in a choral society.

1800. Bassoon used in Bethlehem, Pa.

1800. Dec. 23. First Annual Concert of the Philharmonic Society given at Tontine Hall, Broadway, New York City.

1801. Handel's "Messiah" given in the hall of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

1802. "Harmonic Society" founded in Philadelphia.

1803. Benjamin Crehore of Milton, Mass., made the first pianoforte in New England.

1807. Massachusetts Musical Society formed in Boston for improving the mode of performing sacred music. Ceased to exist in 1820.

1807. "Le Theatre St. Philippe" opened in New Orleans with a one-act opera by Mehul,—"Une Folie."

1808. The Pierian Sodality, half musical, half social club organized by the undergraduates of Harvard University.

1809. Haydn Society formed in Philadelphia.

1811. John Davis, from San Domingo, opened the "Theatre d'Orleans" in New Orleans.

1811. Haydn's "Creation" and "The Seasons" performed in part at Bethlehem, Pa.

1813-1893. John S. Dwight, editor, critic, member of Brook Farm community, and founder in 1852 of "Dwight's Journal of Music," the first publication of its kind in America.

1814. Sept. 14. The words of "The Star-Spangled Banner" written by Francis Scott Key during the bombardment of Fort Henry. They were published next day as a "Broadside" and on the 20th appeared in the "Baltimore Patriot." The tune of "Anacreon in Heaven" was adapted by the author.

1815. April 20. Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, organized with Thomas S. Webb as President. At the first concert the chorus consisted of about one hundred, of whom ten were women. Orchestra a dozen instruments, and organ.

1816. First complete performance of Haydn's "Creation" given at King's Chapel, Boston.

1817. Charles B. Incledon, noted English tenor singer, visited America.

1818. New Theatre d'Orleans, the finest in the United States, opened in New Orleans. The old theatre was burned in 1817. The new theatre was the home of opera for some years.

1818. Dec. 25. The Handel and Haydn Society of Boston gave what is called the first complete performance of Handel's "Messiah" in America. (Philip Goepp states that the "Messiah" was given in 1801, in the hall of the University of Pennsylvania.)

1819. "Haydn Society" formed in Cincinnati, O.

1819. Feb. 16. First complete performance of Haydn's "Creation" given by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston. (This was claimed also in 1816 for a performance at King's Chapel.)

1819. An English version of Rossini's "Barber of Seville" given in New York City, with Miss Leesugg as Rosina, at the Park Theatre.

1820. Philharmonic Society organized in Bethlehem, Pa. (Originally the Collegium Musicum of 1750.)

1820. Two musical societies formed in New York City, viz.,—the Philharmonic, and the Euterpean.

The Philharmonic used to engage prominent artists. It gradually dwindled but was reorganized in 1840.

The Euterpean gave concerts which were usually followed by a supper and a ball. It ceased to exist about 1845.

1820. Aug. 30. George F. Root, noted American song-writer. Died Aug. 6, 1895.

1820. The Philadelphia Musical Fund Society established. Gave its first concert April 24, 1821, when Beethoven's First Symphony was played for the first time in America. (Between the movements vocal and other solos were given by sundry artists.)

1821. New England musical matters on record of this year are: An oratorio given by the Psallion Society of Providence, R. I.;

A performance of music by the New Hampshire Musical Society at Hanover, N. H.;

The existence of a Beethoven Society in Portland, Me.

1823. Production in New York City of "Clari, the Maid of the Mill," ballad opera by Sir Henry Bishop and J. Howard Payne. This opera contains the song, "Home, Sweet Home." Was presented in London on May 23.

1823. May 23. Mozart's opera, "The Marriage of Figaro" (Bishop's English version), presented in New York City at the Park Theatre.

1823. The pianoforte manufacturing house of Jonas Chickering established in Boston.

1823-1849. Sacred Music Society, New York City.

1824. St. Cecilia Society formed in Philadelphia.



CHAPTER IV

1825-1850

During these twenty-five years the list of items on record is far greater than during any preceding period of similar time. Possibly this may be accounted for by the greater facilities for travel both by sea and land. Railroads were gradually spreading out through the country, and helping to develop distant trading stations into towns and cities. Steamships were making the voyage from Europe a more feasible adventure. We shall see this as we proceed.

In what we may call the domestic side of music we find the establishment of more singing societies in all the eastern cities. There was practically no "west" in 1825, but Chicago shows up in 1834 with "The Old Settlers' Harmonic Society." The story of Chicago's early musical days may be read in Mr. George P. Upton's book of reminiscences. The remarkable part of it seems to be that Chicago grew phenomenally, and today stands as a rival to New York in all matters musical, although in 1825 Chicago was merely a trading post and New York was already a city of some size.

The musical convention came into being. The first is said to have been held at Concord, N. H., in September 1829. There is also a claim that the first musical convention was held in Montpelier, Vt., in 1839 but this is not quite correct. It may have been the first convention in Vermont. Musical conventions became popular and frequent and are so even to the present day, though the methods and matter have changed with the times.

Another item which may come under the head of domestic music is the beginning of music teaching in the public schools. This was effected by Lowell Mason, as an experiment, in 1838. At the present day chorus singing in the public schools has become an important matter, and is almost universal.

In 1838 we find a Philharmonic Society in St. Louis, showing that St. Louis was not far behind Chicago in getting into the musical world.

In Boston an Academy of Music was established by Lowell Mason in 1833. It had a large number of pupils, and there was an orchestra in connection with it, which gave several concerts. But the Harvard Musical Association, which was founded in 1837, seems to have been the chief propelling power to orchestral music in Boston, until the formation of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In New York the Philharmonic Society was reorganized and was, as it has been ever since, the most prominent orchestral organization of that city.

In 1848 two complete orchestras came to America, Gungl's, which gave a number of concerts, chiefly of light music, and the Germania, which consisted of a number of refugees from the German government. These men gave concerts of a finer type than had yet been given in America. Their career as an organization was not long, and it ended in disaster, but many of the members became prominent in musical matters in various cities, and in this way the Germania orchestra had a beneficial and lasting effect upon music in this country.

In the forties began the stream of violin and piano virtuosi which has continued in ever-increasing volume to the present day. Ole Bull, violinist, in 1843, Vieuxtemps and Artot, violinists, and Leopold von Meyer, pianist, in 1844, were the first.

Perhaps the development of opera may be considered of greater interest than other musical items. In 1825 Manuel Garcia arrived in New York, and gave the first performances of Italian opera. In his company were his daughter Maria, who married one Malibran and remained in New York for about two years. At the end of this time she left her husband and returned to Europe, where she had a short but very brilliant career. Young Garcia, the son, who also sang, afterwards became one of the greatest singing teachers in Europe, and invented the laryngoscope. Pauline, who became Madame Viardot, and lived to a great age, was too young to participate in Garcia's performances in New York. For many years she was one of the great singing teachers in Paris.

Garcia did not stay very long in New York, but he began the efforts to present Italian opera, which were continued by many others from time to time, usually with disaster. Nevertheless, the history of the period from 1825 to 1850 is full of first performances of Italian opera. In 1848 the Havana Company visited the United States, and was considered the finest company that had been heard until that time.

In the same year Max Maretzek appeared in New York and at once entered the operatic field, with which he was prominently occupied during the next period.

Before finishing the review of this period we must not forget the production William Henry Fry's opera, "Leonora." This was the first grand opera written and produced by an American. It had several representations, but does not seem to have lived long. The same, however, may be said of many of the Italian operas which were presented during this and later periods. A careful perusal of the list will show the names of operas long since defunct, so far as the American public is concerned. Yet there are many, which were first presented to the American public in this period, and which are as popular today as ever,—in fact no good opera company can afford to be without them. Opera was well started by 1850.

1825. Mar. 12. Weber's opera "Der Freyschuetz" presented in English at the Park Theatre, New York City, with Miss Kelly and Mrs. de Luce in the leading parts.

1825. Nov. 26. First season of Italian grand opera in America opened in New York city with a performance of Rossini's "Il Barbiere," by Manuel Garcia's company.

This company included Manuel Garcia, his son Manuel (later a renowned vocal teacher, and inventor of the laryngoscope), his daughter, Maria Felicite (the great Malibran), his daughter Pauline (later Madame Viardot, one of the great vocal teachers of Paris) and others of less note.

The other operas presented during this season were:

1825. Dec. 31. "Tancredi," Rossini. 1826. April 25. "Semiramide," Rossini. 1826. May 23. "Don Giovanni," Mozart. 1826. Dec. 27. "L'Amante Astuto," Garcia. Also (dates uncertain): "La Figlia del Aria," Garcia. "Il Turco in Italia," Rossini. "La Cenerentola," Rossini.

1826-1864. Stephen Foster. Noted song writer.

1827. July 13. The French Opera Company from New Orleans, which visited Philadelphia, and several other cities, opened a season at the Park Theatre, New York City, with Rossini's "La Cenerentola." They also presented "Jean de Paris," "La Dame Blanche," "Joconde," "Les Visilandines," etc.

1827. Sept. 28. Boieldieu's opera "Jean de Paris" presented in New York City, with Malibran. Later in the season the same composer's "Caliph of Bagdad" was given.

1827. Oct. 9. Weber's opera "Oberon" presented in Philadelphia.

1827. Oct. 9. Farewell of Madame Malibran (Maria Felicite Garcia) at the Bowery Theatre, after two years' residence in New York City.

1828. An English version of "Il Barbiere di Seviglia," and "Der Freyschuetz" given in Boston with Miss George, Mrs. Papanti, Mr. Comer, and Mr. Horn as leading singers.

1829. Sept. First musical convention held under the auspices of the Central Musical Society of Concord, N. H.

1829. May 8.-1869. Dec. 18. Louis Moreau Gottschalk, brilliant pianist. Born in New Orleans.

1829. Jan. 24.-1908. July 14. William Mason, noted American pianist and teacher.

1831. Sept. 6. American debut of Miss Hughes at the Park Theatre, New York City, in "The Marriage of Figaro."

1832. Mar. 17. Mozart's opera "Die Zauberfloete" presented in Philadelphia.

1832. July 4. The National Hymn "America" first sung in public at a children's celebration of Independence Day, at the Park St. Church, Boston, The words were written in February by the Rev. Samuel F. Smith, and were sung to the tune of "God Save the King."

1832. Sept. 25. First appearance, in concert, of an Italian opera company organized by Lorenzo da Ponte, Italian poet and librettist, at Niblo's Garden, New York City. The leading singers were Signora Pedrotti and Signori Fornisari and Montresor. The opera performances were given at the Bowery Theatre. Sig. Rapetti, conductor.

1832. Oct. 19. Mercadante's opera "Elisa e Claudio" presented in New York City with Pedrotti (debut) and Salvione (debut).

1832. Nov. 5. Rossini's opera "L'Italiana in Algeri" given in New York City with Verducci, Fanetti, Fornisari, etc.

1832. Dec. 5. Bellini's opera "Il Pirata" by same company.

1832. Dec. 22. Rossini's sacred opera "Mose in Egitto" by same company.

1833. Mar. 13-20. Rossini's opera "Othello" presented twice during this week, in New York City, by same company.

1833. June 20. Auber's opera "Fra Diavolo" presented at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1833. Sept. 4. American debut of Mr. and Mrs. Wood in "Cinderella" at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1833. Nov. 18. Verdi's opera "La Gazza Ladra" given in New York City, at the Bowery Theatre, by the Italian Opera Company.

1833. Academy of Music founded in Boston by Lowell Mason. Enrolled twenty-two hundred pupils the first year.

1834. Mar. 21. Rossini's opera "La Donna del Lago" given at the Bowery Theatre, New York City, with Clotilde and Rosina Fanti, Marozo, Raviglia and Sapignoli.

1834. Mar. 22. Salvioni's opera "La Casa dei Vendere."

1834. Mar. 24. Rossini's "Matilda de Shabran" with Fanti.

1834. April 7. Meyerbeer's opera "Roberto il Diavolo," presented in English at the Park Theatre, New York City, by Mr. and Mrs. Wood.

1834. July 9. First music school in Chicago opened by Miss Wyeth.

1834. July 12. Pacini's opera "Gli Arabi nelli Gallie" given at the Bowery Theatre, New York City, with C. Fanti, R. Fanti, Bordogni, Raviglia, Sapignoli.

1834. Nov. 10 Bellini's opera "La Straniera" given in New York City, with C. and R. Fanti, Porto, Montresor, Sapignoli.

1834. Nov. 25. Rossini's opera "Edoardo e Cristina" given in New York City, with Fanti, Fabj, Porto, Sapignoli.

1834. Dec. 12. Rossini's opera "L'Inganno Felice" given in New York City by the Italian Opera Company.

1834. Dec. 11. "Old Settlers' Harmonic Society" organized in Chicago.

1834-1901. Charles R. Adams, noted tenor and vocal teacher. One of the first American singers to make a career in Europe.

1834-1891. Eben Tourjee, noted organizer of musical affairs. Began class-system of pianoforte-teaching in America at Providence, R. I., in 1851. Founded a Musical Institute at East Greenwich, R. I., in 1859, and the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, 1867. Was one of the chief organizers of the Peace Jubilee, and one of the founders of the Music Teachers' National Association.

1835. Feb. 6. Rossini's opera "L'Assedio di Corinto" given in New York City with Fanti, Julia Wheatley, Ravaglia. During this season Rossini's "Turco in Italia" and Cimarosa's "Il Matrimonio Segreto" are said to have been presented by this Italian company.

1835. April 8. Charlotte Cushman, noted actress, made her first public appearance as a singer in a performance of "The Marriage of Figaro" in Boston, with Mr. and Mrs. Wood.

1835. Nov. 13. Bellini's opera "La Sonnambula" given in English with Mr. and Mrs. Wood in the leading parts, in New York City.

1835. German Maennerchor of Philadelphia (the oldest German singing society in America) founded by Philip Wolsifer.

1835. Oliver Ditson began publishing music in his own name in Boston, but the firm of O. Ditson and Company can be traced back to 1783, when E. Batelle opened the Boston Book Store at 8 State Street.

1835-1905. Theodore Thomas, noted musician and conductor of:

1862-1891 Brooklyn Philharmonic Society. 1864-1878 New York Symphony Society. 1865-1891 New York Summer Garden Concerts. 1873-1894 Cincinnati Festivals. 1877-1890 Chicago Summer Night Concerts. 1877-1891 Philharmonic Society, New York. 1882-1891 Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra. 1891-1905 Chicago Symphony Orchestra.

1837. Harvard Musical Association organized in Boston.

1837. The pianoforte manufacturing house of Knabe established in Baltimore.

1837. Oct. 30. American debut of Madame Caradori-Allan, noted soprano, in Rossini's opera "Il Barbiere di Seviglia" at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1837. An orchestra organized by the Academy of Music in Boston. It remained in existence until 1847.

1838. Philharmonic Society formed in St. Louis.

1838. The Sacred Music Society of New York City, gave a performance of Mendelssohn's oratorio "St. Paul," two years after it had been produced at Dusseldorf.

1838. June. 18. Donizetti's opera "L'Elisir d'Amore" presented at the Park Theatre, New York City, with Madame Caradori-Allan, Placide, Morley, Macklin and Jones.

1838. Mr. and Mrs. Seguin, noted singers, arrived in New York City and organized an English Opera Company, which traveled extensively till 1847.

1838. Music first taught in the public schools in Boston by Lowell Mason.

1839. April 29. Meyerbeer's opera "Les Huguenots" presented in New Orleans.

1839. The first Musical Convention held in Montpelier, Vt., under the direction of G. S. Prouty and Moses E. Cheney.

1839. Sept. 9. Beethoven's opera "Fidelio" presented in English at the Park Theatre, New York City, with Miss Poole, Giubelei, Manvers and Martyn.

1839-1906. John Knowles Paine. American composer. First professor of music at Harvard University. Appointed in 1876 (instructor 1872).

1839-1909. Dudley Buck. Noted musician. First American composer to gain general recognition.

1840. Mar. 20. Herold's opera "Zampa" presented in New York City.

1840. Mar. 30. Adam's opera "Le Postillon de Longjumeau" presented in New York City.

1840. Mendelssohn's oratorio "Elijah" sung by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1840. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony given by the Musical Fund Society in Philadelphia.

1840. John Braham, noted English tenor, visited America.

1841. The Hutchinson family—camp-meeting singers, known all over the United States for many years—began their career.

1841. Jan. 11. Bellini's opera "Norma" presented by the Woods at the Chestnut St. Theatre, Philadelphia.

1853. Jan. 11. Schumann's First Symphony given by the Musical Fund Society (G. Suk, conductor) in Boston.

1841. Dec. 28. Donizetti's opera "Lucia di Lammermoor" given in New Orleans.

1842. The Chicago Sacred Music Society formed. It was short-lived.

1842. Jan. 15. Beethoven's Sixth (Pastoral) Symphony given in Boston, at a concert of the Academy of Music. Also Cherubini's overture to "Les deux Journees."

1842. Feb. 26. C. M. von Weber's "Jubilee" overture given at a concert of the Academy of Music, Boston.

1842. Mar. 20. Spohr's oratorio "The Last Judgment" given in Boston by the Handel and Haydn Society.

1842. Oct. 31. Handel's oratorio "Israel in Egypt" (music by Handel and Rossini) given by the Seguin Opera Company at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1842. Nov. 12. Beethoven's Second Symphony (D) given at the Academy of Music, Boston.

1842. Nov. 22. Handel's oratorio "Acis and Galatea" given by the Seguin Company at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1842. Dec. 7. First concert of the New York Philharmonic Society, given at the Apollo rooms, New York City.

Program: Beethoven Symphony No. 5 (conducted by U. C. Hill). Weber, Scene from "Oberon" (Mme. Otto). Hummel, Quintet for piano and strings. Weber, Overture to "Oberon" (conducted by Mr. Etienne). Rossini, Duet from "Armida" (Mme. Otto and C. E. Horn). Beethoven, Scene from "Fidelio" (C. E. Horn). Mozart, Aria from "Belmont and Constance" (Mme. Otto). Kalliwoda, New Overture in D (Conducted by Mr. Timm). Beethoven's "Eroica" was played at the second concert, Feb. 18, 1843. There were only three concerts in the first season.

1842. Dec. 13. Rossini's opera "Guillaume Tell" presented by the French Company in New Orleans.

1843. Jan. 7. Haydn's "Military" Symphony (G major) played at the Academy of Music, Boston.

1843. Feb. 9. Donizetti's opera "La Favorita" presented by the French Company in New Orleans.

1843. Feb. 18. Beethoven's Third Symphony, "Eroica," given by the Philharmonic Society, at the Apollo rooms, New York City. (This work was played as a Septet by the Musical Fund Society in New York City, in 1828.)

1843. Feb. 26. Rossini's "Stabat Mater" given by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1843. Mar. 6. Donizetti's opera "La Fille du Regiment" presented by the French Company in New Orleans.

1843. May 25. Auber's opera "L'Ambassadrice,"

1843. June 17. Auber's opera "Le Domino Noir," and

1843. July 3. Auber's opera "Pre aux Clerc" presented in New York City, at Niblo's Gardens, by the French Company from New Orleans.

1843. Oct. 3. Donizetti's opera "Gemma di Vergi" presented at Niblo's Gardens, New York City, with Majocchi, prima donna, and Perozzi.

1843. Nov. 25. Ole Bull, noted Norwegian violinist, made his American debut at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1843. Dec. 15. Donizetti's opera "Marino Faliero" presented at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1843-1863. Philharmonic Concerts, Boston.

1844. Jan. 15. Mozart's "Jupiter" Symphony (Fourth, in C) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1844. Feb. 2. Bellini's opera "I Puritani" presented at Palmo's Opera House, New York City, with Signora Borghese.

1844. Mar. 16. Spohr's First Symphony (D minor) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1844. Mar. 18. Bellini's opera "Beatrice di Tenda" presented at Palmo's Opera House, New York City, with Majocchi, prima donna.

1844. April 27. Donizetti's opera "Lucrezia Borgia" presented in New Orleans.

1844. May 6. Donizetti's opera "Anne Boleyn" presented in English by the Seguin Company at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1844. Nov. 16. Ricci's opera "Chiara de Rosenberg" presented at Palmo's Opera House, New York City, with Borghese, Antignone, Valtellina, and Sanquirico.

1844. Nov. 16. Beethoven's "Egmont" overture given at the Academy of Music, Boston.

1844. Nov. 16. Mendelssohn's "Hebrides" overture and Beethoven's Eighth Symphony (F major) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, G. Loder conducting.

1844. Nov. 25. Balfe's opera "The Bohemian Girl" given by the Seguin Company in New York City.

1844. Nov. 28. Donizetti's opera "Belisario" presented at Palmo's Opera House, New York City, with Borghese, Pico, Perozzi and Tomaso.

1844. Dec. 14. Beethoven's "Battle of Waterloo" (Wellington) Symphony given at the Tabernacle, Broadway, New York City, by a "powerful and sufficient orchestra" under U. B. Hill, in aid of a fund for the French Free School.

1844. Dec. 15. Henri Vieuxtemps, noted Belgian violinist, made his American debut at a concert at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1844. Alexandre Artot, French violinist, and Leopold von Meyer, German pianist, made their first American tour.

1844. New York Musical Institute established. It was merged into the Harmonic Society in 1849.

1845. Jan. 11. Spohr's overture to "Jessonda" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1845. Jan. 26. Handel's oratorio "Samson" performed by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1845. Mar. 1. W. Sterndale Bennett's overture to "Die Najaden" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1845. April 19. Mendelssohn's "Zum Maerchen von der Schoenen Melusine" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1845. June 4. Production, in English, of William H. Fry's grand opera "Leonora" at the Chestnut St. Theatre, Philadelphia,—the first grand opera written by an American. The Italian version was given at the Academy of Music, New York City, in March, 1858. The cast at Philadelphia was P. Richings, Ed. Seguin, Brunton, Frazer, Mrs. Seguin and Miss Ince. In the New York production Sig. Rocco, Gassier, Barratini, Tiberini, Madame de la Grange, Madame d'Angri and Madame Morra.

1845. Nov. 22. Mendelssohn's "Scotch Symphony" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, G. Loder conducting.

1845. Dec. 21. Handel's oratorio "Moses in Egypt" given by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1846. Jan. 17. Mendelssohn's Pianoforte Concerto in G Minor given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, with H. C. Timm as soloist.

1846. Feb. 14. Spohr's overture to "Faust" given at the Philharmonic Concerts, Boston.

1846. Mar. 7. Kalliwoda's First Symphony (D minor) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1846. Mar. 9. Donizetti's opera "Don Pasquale" presented in English at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1846. May 20. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (D minor) given by the Philharmonic Society of New York at Castle Garden, New York City.

1846. Steyermark's Orchestra of twenty men visited America and made their first appearance in New York City.

1846. Oct. 12. Camille Sivori, noted Italian violinist, made his American debut in a concert at the Broadway Tabernacle, New York City.

1846. Nov. 21. Berlioz's overture to "King Lear" given by the Philharmonic Society of New York City. A. Boucher, conductor.

1847. Jan. 4. Donizetti's opera "Linda di Chamounix" presented at Palmo's Opera House, New York City, with a company including Clotilde Barili, Mlle. Pico, Benedetti, Sanquirico and Barili. Rapetti, conductor.

1847. Jan. 9. Deutscher Liederkranz organized in New York City, with Dr. Ludwig as conductor.

1847. Jan. 9. Mendelssohn Festival held at the Castle Garden, New York City, under U. C. Hill.

1847. Jan. 9. The Havana Opera Company arrived in America with Luigi Arditi as conductor. The company included Fortunata Tedesco, prima donna, Perelli, tenor, Cesar Badiale, bass, also Bottesini, the noted double-bass virtuoso.

1847. Jan. 3. Coppola's opera "Nina Pazza per Amore" presented by the Havana Company at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1847. Mar. 3. Verdi's opera "I Lombardi" presented at Palmo's Opera House, New York City, with Narili, Patti, Beneventano.

1847. April 15. Verdi's opera "Ernani" presented at the Park Theatre, New York City, by the Havana Company, with Tedesco, Perelli and Novelli. Arditi conducting.

1847. April 23. First season of Italian opera in Boston, begun with "Ernani" at the Howard Athenaeum, given by the Havana Opera Company.

1847. May 13. Musical Fund Society organized in Boston. Lasted till 1856.

1847. June 12. Pacini's opera "Saffo" presented at the Park Theatre, New York City, by the Havana Opera Company.

1847. Aug. 4. Madame Anna Bishop, noted English singer, made her American debut at the Park Theatre, New York City.

1847. Nov. 14. Mozart's Third Symphony (E flat major) and Bristow's Concert Overture (Opus 3) given by the Philharmonic Society of New York City.

1847. American debut of Teresa Truffi, soprano, in "Ernani" at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City, which was opened in this month under the management of Patti, Sanquirico and Pogliano. The company included Clotilde and Antonio Barili, Benedetti and Sanquirico.

1847. Dec. 5. Handel's oratorio "Judas Maccabeus" given by the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston.

1847. Mozart Society organized in Chicago, under the direction of Frank Lumbard.

1848. Jan. 8. Beethoven's Seventh Symphony (in F,) given by the Musical Fund Society, Boston.

1848. Feb. 1. Bellini's opera "I Capuletti e Montecchi" presented at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City, for the debut of Caterina Barilli Patti, as Romeo.

1848. Feb. 14. Mercadante's opera "Il Guiramento" presented at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City, with Truffi, Benedetti, Rossi and Beneventano.

1848. April 4. Verdi's opera "Nabucco" presented at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City, with Truffi, Amalia Patti.

1848. April 11. Schumann's secular cantata, "Paradise and the Peri," given in New York City, by the Musical Institute, Henry C. Timm conducting.

1848. April 29. Spohr's Symphony in E flat, given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1848. May 4. Wallace's opera "Maritana" given by the Seguin Company in Philadelphia.

1848. May 14. Mendelssohn's "Midsummer Night's Dream," music given by the Germania Orchestra in New York City.

1848. Oct. 2. American debut of Maurice Strakosch, noted conductor and impresario, at the First Grand Musical Festival of the season, at the Broadway Tabernacle, New York City, given by the "Italian Opera Company of the United States."

1848. Oct. 5. The Germania Orchestra, consisting of German revolutionary refugees, organized and gave their first concert in America at Niblo's Garden, New York City.

1848. Nov. 16. Gungl's Orchestra of twenty-five players gave their first concert in New York City, at the Broadway Tabernacle, after which they made a tour of the United States, playing chiefly dance-music.

1848. Dec. 2. W. Sterndale Bennett's overture to "Die Waldnymphe" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1848. Edouard Remenyi, noted Hungarian violinist, made first American tour, and Richard Hoffman was the first noted pianist to visit Chicago.

1848. Musical Convention held in Chicago for the first time.

1848. During this season the Havana Opera Company again visited America bringing Steffanone, Bosio, Tedesco (soprani); Vietto (contralto); Salvi, Bettini and Lorini (tenori); Badiali, Setti, Marini, and Coletti (bassi)—the best company heard in America up to that time.

Also Max Maretzek arrived in New York and began his career as impresario. His company included Madame Laborde, and Truffi (soprani); Amalia Patti (contralto); Benedetti and Arnoldi (tenori); Giubeli, Rossi and Salvatore Patti (bassi). Also, later, Teresa Parodi. His first public appearance was on Oct. 5, at the Chestnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, conducting "Norma."

1849. Nov. 24. Beethoven's Fourth Symphony (B flat major) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, also Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto (E minor) with Joseph Burke as soloist.

1849. Dec. 10. Donizetti's opera "Marie de Rohan" presented in New York City, on which occasion Giuletta Perrini, Italian soprano, made her American debut supported by Patti, Forti, Giubelei and Beneventano.

1849. Dec. 16. Donizetti's opera "Il Poliuto" performed as an oratorio (The Martyrs) by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1849. Saengerfest held in Cincinnati, O.

1849. Musikverein founded in Milwaukee, Wis.

1849. The Artists' Union Opera Company formed in New York City, including Bosio, De Vries, Bettini, Lorini, Badiali, and Coletti. They gave what they claimed was the first performance in America of Meyerbeer's opera "Roberto il Diavolo." (See April 7, 1834).

1849-1874. Sacred Harmonic Society, New York City.



CHAPTER V

1850-1875

During this period musical events moved forward quite rapidly, and though there was a pause during the years of the Civil War—from 1861 to 1865—after that time increasing energy was in evidence.

Possibly one of the most significant events was the establishment of "Dwight's Journal of Music," in Boston, the first journal in America devoted entirely to musical matters. It was published every two weeks, and while the greater part of the space was devoted to musical affairs in Europe, yet there were letters and reports from various centres in this country, which make the Journal something of a history in itself. Moreover, John S. Dwight helped very materially in bringing to the American people something in the way of musical criticism, which was sadly needed. Indeed, anyone who takes the trouble to look over the reports of concerts and operas in the daily papers of these times will be surprised at the absurdity of the comments on the performances of the noted musicians. Ritter, for instance, quotes a criticism of a pianoforte recital where the critic was much pleased by a "double run on the chromatic scale, in which the semitones were distinctly heard." With singers the chief point was whether the singer of this season could sing louder than the singer of last season. John S. Dwight was the pioneer of musical criticism in America,—an intellectual man, one of the noted band of idealists who were in the "Brook Farm" movement. "Dwight's Journal of Music" went out of existence in 1881. Musical criticism has since become a specialized art.

Musical societies were multiplying,—Cincinnati and Milwaukee had them, and in Chicago the "Philharmonic Society" was organized. In 1850 also the Worcester (Mass.) "Festivals" began, and in 1858 the Peabody Institute concerts, in Baltimore.

In 1858 the "Mendelssohn Quintet" was formed, and for many years toured the country giving concerts of a high standard, and doing much to raise the level of musical taste. This organization had its beginning in Boston, but it traveled so widely that it may be said to have belonged to the nation.

Towards the end of this period the "Apollo Club" was organized in Chicago, and it is today one of the most excellent clubs in America. The following year the "Cecilia Society," in Boston, was organized and likewise still exists and flourishes. But these are only a few.

The American composer was beginning to show himself—perhaps not yet very brilliantly in comparison to the great men of Europe—but he was beginning to be heard from. William H. Frye, besides his two operas, composed several symphonies, which were played by Jullien's Band in 1853. Also a "Grand Symphony" in 1855 and "The Pilgrims' Cantata" by C. C. Perkins, were performed in Boston, and we have record of an oratorio, "The Cities of the Plains," by Dawley, in 1855. Apart from these efforts the American composer seems to have been inconspicuous. In fact there were no facilities for the study of music or for the hearing of music which could be compared, as a training school for composers, with the musical centres of Europe, so that the efforts of these earlier composers may be considered, in some respects, premature, and prompted by energy and ambition rather than by scientific preparation.

The story of grand opera of this period is one of perpetual striving for the unattainable. In Chicago the first performance of grand opera was given in 1850. Chicago is now a rival of New York in matters of opera.

San Francisco heard its first opera in 1853. The gold fever of 1849 drew people of all kinds to California, and among them were musicians. Henri Herz, the French pianist, reached California in 1849 when the excitement was at its highest, and he gives an interesting account of his adventures. It may also be well to mention here Signora Biscaccianti, who went to San Francisco in 1852, and was there more or less till 1864. Signora Biscaccianti was one of the first American singers to achieve a measure of success in Europe. She was the daughter of a musician named Ostinelli, was born in Boston, where she met with some success as a singer, went to New York and thence to Europe. Another American who was, perhaps, better known in her own country was Miss Isabella Hinkley who appeared in 1861, but another who appeared in New York in the same year, became still better known and was prominent for many years, Clara Louise Kellogg. Eighteen hundred and fifty-nine was the year of Adelina Patti's debut.

The list of great singers who were imported during this period is long. We can but touch on it,—there was Jenny Lind in 1850, then came Marietta Alboni in 1851. Two years later Sontag, and the next year Grisi and Mario. In 1865 came Parepa Rosa, and in 1870 Christine Nilsson. In 1873, Maurel and Campanini. In 1855 Brignoli appeared, and was for many years a great popular favorite.

We find efforts in New York to promote German opera. Operas by Germans—"Fidelio" for instance—had been heard together with operas by Italians, and others, but now Wagner came above the horizon, and German opera began to mean Wagner. So we find a "Tannhaeuser" and "Lohengrin" in New York in 1859,—quite inadequate performances according to the opinion handed down to posterity,—but yet, performances. They were followed in 1862 by "Der Fliegende Hollaender," all worthy but inadequate efforts. Maretzek and Strakosch were the chief figures in grand opera during this period, but there were spasmodic efforts by others which need not be recorded.

Pianists were not so numerous as later. Alfred Jaell had appeared and, in 1854, Dr. William Mason returned from Europe and established himself in New York, but was not known as one of the traveling virtuosi. He had a great influence in musical education, for many years. Anna Mehlig visited America in 1869.

In 1862 Louis M. Gottschalk, a native of New Orleans, returned to America after a brilliant career in Europe, and he appears to have been the first American to have made a career as a piano virtuoso.

Violinists were few in comparison to singers,—Miska Hauser, Pablo Sarasate, in 1850, and Camilla Urso in 1852. Then a space of twenty years without any great virtuoso.

An important matter in the musical life of America was the establishment of conservatories. There had already been the Academy of Music in Boston, which enrolled twenty-two hundred pupils the first year, but the conservatory idea appears to have developed just after the Civil War, for we find in 1865 a conservatory of music established with Oberlin College, in 1871 Illinois College at Jacksonville followed suit, and in 1873 Northwestern University. In the meantime, in 1867, we find the Boston Conservatory, under Julius Eichberg, the New England Conservatory, under Eben Tourjee, the Cincinnati Conservatory, and the Chicago Academy of Music, which became the Chicago Musical College,—and in 1877, a couple of years after this period, Syracuse University added a conservatory.

1850. Jan. 12. Mendelssohn's "Meerstille und Glueckliche Fahrt" and "Capriccio Brillante," with William Scharfenberg as soloist, given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1850. Jan. 19. Beethoven's Third Pianoforte Concerto given by the Musical Fund Society, Boston, with G. F. Hayter, soloist.

1850. Mar. 9. Handel's oratorio "Jephtha" given by the Musical Education Society, Boston, under G. J. Webb and Lowell Mason.

1850. Mar. 11. American debut of Signora Steffanone in "Norma" at Niblo's Garden, New York. City, with the Havana Company.

1850. Mar. 18. American debut of Angiolina Bosio, soprano, at Niblo's Garden, New York City, in "Lucrezia Borgia" with the Havana company.

1850. Mar. 23. C.C. Perkins's "Grand Symphony" given by the Musical Fund Society, Boston.

1850. April 1. Meyerbeer's opera "L'Etoile du Nord" presented at the Opera House, New Orleans, La.

1850. April 2. Meyerbeer's opera "Il Profeta" presented at the Opera House, New Orleans, La.

1850. April 16. Verdi's opera "Attila" presented at Niblo's Garden, New York City, by the Havana Company with Fortunata Tedesco, Corradi-Setti, Marini and Lorini.

1850. April 24. Verdi's opera "Macbeth" presented at Niblo's Garden, New York City, with Bosio and Badiali in the leading parts.

1850. June 24. Meyerbeer's opera "Les Huguenots" presented in New York City, by the Havana Company. (See New Orleans April 29, 1839.)

1850. Sept. 11. American debut of Jenny Lind (in concert) at the Castle Garden, New York City. Her first selection was "Casta Diva" from "Norma."

1850. Oct. 24. First concert of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, organized by Julius Dyhrenfurth. (On Feb. 2, 1853, the Legislature of Illinois incorporated the Society by an act entitled "An Act to Encourage the Science of Fiddling.")

1850. Nov. 4. American debut of Teresa Parodi at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City, as Norma, under Maretzek.

1850. Nov. 22. Donizetti's opera "Parisina" presented at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City, by Maretzek, with Truffi, Forti, Rossi and Beneventano.

1850. Dec. 7. Beethoven's "Leonora Overture" No. 3, given at a concert of the Musical Fund Society, Boston. G. J. Webb conducting.

1850. Dec. 21. Mozart's Symphony in G minor given by the Musical Fund Society, Boston, at Tremont Temple, from a manuscript presented by C. C. Perkins.

1850. First performance of grand opera in Chicago given during this season,—"La Sonnambula," with Elisa Brienti, Manvers and Giubelei in the leading parts.

1850. Miska Hauser and Pablo Sarasate, noted violinists, made their first American tours.

1850. Worcester (Mass.) Festival Association organized. Reorganized in 1866, and chartered in 1872.

1851. Jan. 3. Production of Maurice Strakosch's opera "Giovanni di Napoli" at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City.

1851. Jan. 11. Schubert's Symphony in C major given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City. Th. Eisfeld conducting.

1851. Sept. 13. American debut of Catherine Hayes, noted singer, at a concert in Tripler Hall, New York City.

1851. Nov. 15. Mendelssohn's "Italian Symphony" given at a concert of the Musical Fund Society in Tremont Temple, Boston. G. J. Webb conducting.

1851. Dec. 7. American operatic debut of Marietta Alboni, great contralto, in "La Cenerentola," with Sangiovanni, Barili and Rovere at the Astor Place Opera House, New York City. She had appeared in concert at Tripler Hall, June 23.

1852. April 17. Mendelssohn's Pianoforte Concerto in D minor, given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, with W. Scharfenberg as soloist.

1852. Oct. 15. American debut of Alfred Jaell, noted pianist, at Tripler Hall, New York City.

1852. Oct. 27. Verdi's opera "Luisa Miller" presented at the Chestnut St. Theatre, Philadelphia, with Caroline Richings and Madame Bishop in the leading parts.

1852. Oct. 29. Camilla Urso, noted violinist, made her American debut at a concert in Tripler Hall, New York City.

1852. Nov. 1. Flotow's opera "Martha" given in New York City, with Madame Anna Bishop in the title-role, under direction of Bochsa.

1852. Nov. 13. Gade's "Ossian Overture" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1852. Nov. 20. Music Hall, Boston, dedicated with a concert given by the Handel and Haydn Society and the Musical Fund Society combined.

1852. Dec. 12. Gade's First Symphony (E minor) given by the Germania Orchestra in Boston.

1852-1859. Chicago Maennergesang-Verein.

1852-1881. Dwight's Journal of Music, Boston. The first American Musical Journal.

1853. Jan. 1. Haydn's Eighth Symphony given by the Musical Fund Society, Boston. F. Suck conducting.

1853. Jan. 10. American debut of Henrietta Sontag, noted soprano, in "La Figlia del Reggimento" supported by Badiali and Pozzolini, at Niblo's Garden, New York City.

1853. Jan. 12. American debut of Signor Rocco, famous buffo.

1853. June. First performance of a symphony in Chicago,—Beethoven's Second, given by the Germania Orchestra.

1853. Sept. 26. First concert given by Louis A. Jullien, in New York City, beginning an American tour. During the visit of Jullien and his band they produced the following works of William H. Frye: "Christmas, or Santa Claus," "The Breaking Heart," "Childe Harold," and "A Day in the Country."

1853. Nov. 19. Wagner's overture to "Rienzi" played, from MS. by the Germania Orchestra in Boston.

1853. Nov. 22. Beethoven's Violin Concerto (first movement only) played in Boston, with August Fries as soloist. (Complete work given in 1859 with Julius Eichberg, soloist.)

1853. Nov. 26. Spohr's ninth symphony, "The Seasons," given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1853. The first performance of Italian opera in San Francisco, Cal., was given this season by Madame Thillon,—"Ernani."

1853. Louis Moreau Gottschalk, the first American pianist of international renown, returned to America and began concert touring. In three seasons he gave more than 1100 concerts.

1853. The pianoforte manufacturing house of Steinway and Sons established in New York City.

1854. Jan. 14. Schumann's Second Symphony (C major) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1854. Feb. 4. Beethoven's Fourth Pianoforte Concerto (B flat) given by the Germania Orchestra in Boston with Robert Heller as soloist.

1854. Mar. 4. Beethoven's Fifth Pianoforte Concerto (E flat) given by the Germania Orchestra in Boston, with Robert Heller as soloist.

1854. April 22. F. Schneider's Twentieth Symphony given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1854. Oct. 2. Opening of the Academy of Music, New York City. A performance of "Norma," with Grisi and Mario in the leading roles. They had previously made their American debuts in "Lucrezia Borgia" at Castle Garden under Hackett's management. (The Academy of Music was the home of opera until 1866, and was frequently used for this purpose until 1896.)

1854. Oct. 9. Louisa Pyne, noted English singer, made her American debut as Amina in "La Sonnambula," at the Broadway Theatre, New York City.

1854-1910. William H. Sherwood, noted American pianist and teacher.

1855. Feb. 13. American debut of Madame F. Vestvali, as Arsace at the Metropolitan Theatre, New York City, with Grisi and Mario.

1855. Feb. 17. Haydn's Fifth Symphony given by the Musical Fund Society, Boston, and together with the Handel and Haydn Society, C. C. Perkins's "The Pilgrims' Cantata."

1855. Mar. 12. American debut of Luigi Brignoli, Italian operatic tenor, as Edgardo in "Lucia di Lammermoor" supported by Vestvali, Amodio and Rocco,—in New York City.

1855. April 30. Verdi's opera "Il Trovatore" presented in New York City, with Vestvali, Steffanone, Brignoli and Amodio, at the Academy of Music.

1855. May 8. American debut of Madame Anna de la Grange in "Il Barbiere" at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1855. Sept. 27. Production of George Bristow's opera "Rip van Winkle" at Niblo's Garden, New York City, by the Pyne and Harrison Opera Company.

1855. Oct. 1. American debut of Madame Nantier-Didier as Arsace in "Semiramide" at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1855. Oct. 6. The first attempt at German opera made in New York City, at Niblo's Garden, under Julius Ungher. "Der Freyschuetz," "Martha," "Masaniello," and "Czar und Zimmerman" were presented by a company including Carolina Lehman, Madame d'Ormy, Madame Seidenberg, Schraubstadter, Quint and Vineke.

1855. Oct. 30. Rossini's opera "Semiramide" presented by Maretzek at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1855. Nov. 18. Handel's oratorio "Solomon" given by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston.

1855. Dec. 8. An American oratorio, "The Cities of the Plain," by F. T. S. Darley, produced by the Harmonia Sacred Music Society in Philadelphia.

1855-1863. Philharmonic Society, Boston, Carl Zerrahn, conductor.

1855-6. Sigismund Thalberg, noted pianist, and Henri Vieuxtemps, great violinist, made a concert-tour in America.

1856. Mar. 17. Adelaide Phillips, noted contralto, made her operatic (American) debut as Azucena in "Il Trovatore," in New York City.

1856. Oct. Flotow's opera "Stradella" presented at Niblo's Garden, New York City.

1856. Dec. 3. Verdi's opera "La Traviata" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Madame de la Grange, Brignoli and Amodio.

1856. Dec. 29. Beethoven's opera "Fidelio" presented in German at the Broadway Theatre, New York City, when Mademoiselle Johansen made her American debut in the title role. (Ritter states that this opera was given in English by the Seguin Company on Sept. 9, 1856—the first representation in America.)

1856. The Academy of Music in Philadelphia opened.

1856. The Cecilia Society and Harmonic Society organized in Cincinnati, O.

1856-7. During this season an orchestra, under Carl Bergmann, giving concerts at the City Assembly rooms, New York City, is said to have performed for the first time in America:

Beethoven's Seventh Symphony—in A. Mozart's Symphony in D major. Haydn's Symphony in G major (see 1843, Jan. 7). Beethoven's Pianoforte Concertos in E flat and G.

1857. Jan. 3. Wagner's "Faust Overture" given by the Philharmonic Society, Boston, Carl Zerrahn, conductor.

1857. Jan. 18. Mozart's "Requiem" given by the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston.

1857. Jan. 21. Strakosch appointed manager of the Academy of Music, New York City.

1857. Jan. 24. Berlioz's "Roman Carnival" overture given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1857. Feb. 7. Schumann's Symphony in D given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1857. Feb. 23. American debut of Marietta Gazzaniga as Leonora in "Il Trovatore" at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia. She appeared in New York City as Violetta in "La Traviata" on April 13.

1857. Nov. 2. Debut of Madame d'Angri as Arsace in "Semiramide" at Castle Garden, New York City.

1859. Nov. 19. Wagner's prelude to "Lohengrin" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1856. April 27. Schumann's "Manfred Overture" given at a concert given by Carl Bergmann, New York.

1857. Nov. 30. American debut of Carl Formes, noted German basso, as Bertram in "Roberto," at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1857. Dec. 30. American debut of Madame Anna Caradori, as Fidelio, at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1857-65. Chicago Musical Union. C. M. Cady, conductor.

1857. An orchestra was established in Brooklyn, N. Y., with Theodore Eisfeld as conductor. It is claimed that this orchestra introduced to America Beethoven's Third and Seventh Symphonies, and Mendelssohn's Fourth.

1858. Jan. 9. Nicolai's overture to "The Merry Wives of Windsor" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1858. Mar. 6. Hiller's Symphony in F, given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1858. April 24. Schumann's Overture, Scherzo and Finale given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1858. Oct. 20. American debut of Maria Piccolomini, noted soprano, as Violetta, in "La Traviata" at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1858. Nov. 1. During a season of opera begun on this date and ended Jan. 30, 1859, the following operas were presented in New Orleans, La., probably for the first time in America:

Ambroise Thomas' "Le Caid." Donizetti's "La Favorita." Halevy's "Jaquarita l'Indienne." Grisar's "Les Amours du Diable." Adam's "Chalet" and "Si J'Etais Roy." Halevy's "La Juive." Auber's "Les Diamans de Couronne." Halevy's "Reine de Chypre."

1858. Nov. 23. Mozart's opera "Nozze di Figaro" presented in Italian at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Carl Formes as Figaro, supported by Madame von Berkel, Ghioni, Piccolomini, etc.

1858. Nov. 28. Gade's Fifth Symphony given by the Philharmonic Society, New York.

1858. The Mendelssohn Quintet organized in Boston—August Fries, first violin, Francis Riha, second violin, Edward Lehman, viola and flute, Thomas Ryan, viola and clarinet, Wulf Fries, violoncello. This was a pioneer organization in Chamber Music, and traveled extensively for many years.

1858. The French Opera Company from New Orleans appeared in Chicago.

1859. Feb. 26. Mozart's Pianoforte Concerto in E flat major given at the Philharmonic concerts, Boston, with B. J. Lang as soloist.

1859. Mar. 26. Schumann's Pianoforte Concerto in A minor (Op. 54) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, with S. B. Mills as soloist.

1859. Mar. 26. Beethoven's music to Goethe's drama "Egmont" given entire at the Philharmonic Concerts, Boston, with readings from the drama by Mrs. Barrow.

1859. April 4. Wagner's opera "Tannhaeuser" presented at the Stadt Theatre, New York City, under Carl Bergmann, with Madame Seidenberg as Elizabeth, Pickaneser as Tannhaeuser, Lehmann as Wolfram, and the Arion Society as chorus.

1859. April 20. Liszt's symphonic poem "Les Preludes" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1859. May 25. Donizetti's opera "Il Poliuto" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Piccolomini, Brignoli, Barili.

1859. Aug. 27. Wagner's opera "Lohengrin" presented at the Stadt Theatre, New York City, under Carl Bergmann, with Seidenberg, Pickaneser and Lehmann.

1859. Nov. 7. Verdi's opera "I Vespri Sicilienne" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Brignoli and Colson.

1859. Nov. 24. Operatic debut of Adelina Patti at the Academy of Music, New York City, as Lucia, supported by Brignoli.

1859. New French Opera House built in New Orleans, La.

1859. Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore organized his noted band in Boston, Mass.

1860. Jan. 14. Spohr's Double Symphony, for two orchestras, given in Boston.

1860. Jan. 27. Rossini's opera "Otello" presented in New Orleans, La.

1860. Feb. 11. Lachner's "Festival Overture" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1860. Mar. 3. Beethoven's overture "Die Weihe des Hautes" given by the Philharmonic Society in Boston, Carl Zerrahn conducting.

1860. Dec. 22. Liszt's seventh symphonic poem, "Fest-Klaenge," given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1860. Mar. 19. Verdi's opera "Rigoletto" presented in New Orleans, La.

1860. Mar. 24. Liszt's symphonic poem "Tasso" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1860. May 31. Verdi's opera "I Masnadieri" presented by Maretzek at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Oliviera, Guerra and Luisia.

1860. Sept. 19. American debut of Pauline Colson in "I Vespri Sicilienne" at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1860. Sept. 27. Pacini's opera "Medea" presented at Niblo's Garden, New York City.

1860-1868. Chicago Philharmonic Society (reorganized) under Hans Balatka.

1860. An Oratorio Society organized by R. Herold in San Francisco, Cal.

1860-1861. The Briggs House Concerts given in Chicago—the first Chamber Music Concerts in that city. Henri de Clerque, first violin; Buderbach, violoncello; Paul Becker, piano.

1869. Jan. 9. Liszt's symphonic poem "Ce qu'on entend sur le Montagne" given by the Philharmonic Society in New York City.

1861. Jan. 23. American debut of Isabella Hinkley as Lucia at the Academy of Music, New York City, supported by Steffani, Coletti.

1861. Feb. 3. Schumann's Third Symphony (E flat major) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1861. Feb. 11. Verdi's opera "Un Ballo in Maschera" given at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Colson, Adelaide Phillips, Hinckley, Brignoli, Ferri.

1861. Feb. 27. American debut of Clara Louise Kellogg as Gilda in "Rigoletto" at the Academy of Music, New York City, under Grau and de Vivo.

1861. Mar. 16. Mozart's Eighth Pianoforte Concerto (in D) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, with Richard Hoffman, as soloist.

1861. April 20. Mendelssohn's "First Walpurgis Night" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1861. Masse's opera "Les Noces de Jeanette" with Kellogg, Elena, Mancini, Debreuil, given at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pa., also Donizetti's "Betley," with Miss Hinkley, Brignoli, Lusini.

1861. Nov. 9. Chopin's Second Pianoforte Concerto given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, with S. B. Mills as soloist.

1861-1908. Edward MacDowell. Noted American pianist, composer and teacher.

1862. Jan. 30. Mendelssohn's "Hymn of Praise" given in the Old South Church, Boston, under the direction of B. J. Lang.

1862. Feb. Brahms's First Serenade given by the Philharmonic Society, New York.

1862. Mar. 8. Schubert's "Grand Fantasia" given by William Mason at a concert of the Philharmonic Society, Boston.

1862. May 13. Music of Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Hollaender" given at Irving Hall, New York City, under the direction of Theodore Thomas.

1862. Sept. 18. Auber's "Grand Inauguration March" given at a concert in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1862. Sept. 22. Operatic debut of Carlotta Patti as Amina in "La Sonnambula," supported by Miss Stockton, Sbriglia and Susini, in New York City.

1862. Oct. 10. Mozart's opera "Entfuehrung aus dem Serail" presented in New York City, at Wallack's Theatre, under the direction of Carl Anschutz.

1862. Nov. 14. Meyerbeer's opera "Dinorah" presented in New York City.

1862. Teresa Carreno, great Venezuelan pianist, first appeared in New York City, as a child pianist.

1862-1901. Ethelbert Nevin. Song composer.

1863. Mar. 7. Berlioz's "Corsair Overture" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1863. April 6. Petrella's opera "Ione" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Medori, Sulzer, Mazzolini, and Bellini, under Maretzek.

1863. April 15. Verdi's opera "I due Foscari" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Medori, Mazzolini, Bellini and Coletti, under Maretzek.

1863. April. William H. Fry's opera "Notre Dame de Paris" produced at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia.

1863. May 4. Verdi's opera "Aroldo" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, under Maretzek, with Mazzolini, Bellini and Coletti.

1863. Nov. 2. Inauguration of the great organ in Music Hall, Boston, when Charlotte Cushman, Lyman Wheeler, and Mrs. J. F. Houston took leading parts in the ceremonies.

1863. Nov. 7. Ferdinand Hiller's Second Pianoforte Concerto (in A) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1863. Nov. 11. Peri's opera "Judith" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, by Maretzek, with Medori, Mazzolini, Bellini and Biachi.

1863. Weber's opera "Euryanthe" said to have been presented at Wallack's Theatre, New York, by Carl Anschutz.

1863. Nov. 18. Gounod's opera "Faust" presented at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, by the German Opera Company. Was given in New York, Nov. 26.

1863-1872. The Mendelssohn Society, New York City.

1864. Jan. 30. Liszt's "Faust Symphony" (F minor) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, assisted by the Arion Society.

1864. The first complete performance of Haydn's oratorio, "The Seasons" given in Boston, under the direction of B. J. Lang.

1864. Nov. 4. American debut of Jennie van Zandt, as Gilda in "Rigoletto" at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1864. Nov. 25. Donizetti's opera "Don Sebastian" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1864. Dec. 3. Lachner's Suite in D minor given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City, also the second part of Berlioz' dramatic symphony "Romeo et Juliette."

1864. Great Band Festival in New Orleans, La., under P. S. Gilmore.

1865. Jan. 13. Bach's Toccata in F given in New York City by Theodore Thomas.

1865. Feb. 18. Raff's symphony "An das Vaterland," and Beethoven's Triple Concerto, for piano, violin and cello, given in New York City by Theodore Thomas.

1865. Feb. 18. Beethoven's Second Pianoforte Concerto (B flat) given by the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society.

1865. Feb. 24. Verdi's opera "La Forza del Destino" presented in New York City, with Carozzi-Zucchi, Massimiliani and Bellini.

1865. Mar. 4. Hohnstock's overture, "Hail Columbia," given by Theodore Thomas in Brooklyn, N. Y.

1865. Mar. 11. Haydn's First Symphony (E flat) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1865. April 8. Mozart's Symphony Concertante for violin and viola,—Bach's Passacaglia,—and Schumann's overture to "Die Braut von Messina" given in New York City by Theodore Thomas.

1865. April 20. Crosby Opera House in Chicago, dedicated. Performances were given there by a company brought by Jacob Grau and including Clara Louise Kellogg and Zucchi, sopranos; Morensi, Fischer and Zapucci, contraltos; Massimiliani, Mazzolini and Lotti, tenors; Bellini, Orlandini, Lorini and Debreuil, baritones; Susini, Colletti, Muller, Perni and Ximenes, basses, and Carl Bergmann, conductor.

1865. Sept. 11. First appearance in America (in concert) of Madame Parepa-Rosa, at Steinway Hall, New York City.

1865. Nov. 4. Liszt's symphonic poem "Mazeppa" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1865. Dec. 1. Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine" given at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Carozzi-Zucchi as Selika and Mazzoni as Vasco da Gama. Carl Bergmann, conductor.

1865. Dec. 2. Liszt's Pianoforte Concerto in E flat given in New York City, under Theodore Thomas.

1865. Dec. 28. The first concert of the Harvard Musical Association in Boston. Mozart's Symphony in G minor was performed.

1865. Germania Maennerchor organized in Chicago, Ill.

1865. Peabody Institute Concerts established in Baltimore, Md.

1865. Conservatory of Music opened in connection with Oberlin College (Ohio) which was founded in 1834.

1865. Opera given in San Francisco, Cal., by a company including Morelli, Barilli, Sbriglia and Adelaide Phillips. Twenty-four operas were presented.

1866. Jan. 13. Beethoven's Choral Fantasia, and Bargiel's Symphony in C, given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1866. Jan. 27. Berlioz'a "Fantastic Symphony" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1866. Feb. 10. Mozart's Concerto in E flat, for two pianos, and Weber's "Invitation to the Dance" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1866. Feb. 28. Cherubini's overture to "Anacreon" given in Boston, by the Harvard Musical Association.

1866. Mar. 1. Schumann's overture to "Genoveva" given in Boston, by the Harvard Musical Association.

1866. Mar. 10. Introduction to Wagner's opera "Tristan und Isolde" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1859. Jan. 8. Schubert's overture to "Fierabras" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York.

1866. Aug. 29. Mozart's Andante, Variations, and Minuetto, and his "Turkish March" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1866. Oct. 13. Minnie Hauck, noted American soprano, made her debut in "L'Etoile du Nord" at the Academy of Music, New York City, before going to Europe.

1866. Oct. 20. Vorspiel to Wagner's opera "Die Meistersinger" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1866. Oct. 27. J. J. Abert's First Symphony, and Schubert's "Reiter March" given by Theodore Thomas, in Brooklyn, N. Y.

1866. Nov. 17. Liszt's "Nachtlicher Zug," from "Faust," given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, and Bristow's "Columbus Overture" produced at the same concert.

1866. Dec. 2. Beethoven's Overture in C (Opus III), and Grimm's Suite in Canon Form given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1866. Dec. 8. Liszt's "Mephisto Waltz" given in Brooklyn, N. Y., by Theodore Thomas.

1866. The Summer Night Concerts at Terrace Gardens, New York City, were inaugurated this year, by Theodore Thomas.

1867. Jan. 12. Raff's Suite in C (Opus 101) given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1867. Jan. 19. Berlioz's "Romeo et Juliette" overture given by the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society, under Theodore Thomas.

1867. Feb. 7. Handel's oratorio "Jephtha" given by the Handel and Haydn Society, in Boston.

1867. Mar. 13. Entr'acte from Schubert's "Rosamunde" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1867. Mar. 18. American operatic debut of Euphrosyne Parepa-Rosa, great soprano, in "Il Trovatore" at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1867. April 3. Petrella's opera "Il Carnival di Venezia" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City.

1867. April 3. Molique's Concerto for Violoncello given by the Philharmonic Society, Brooklyn, N. Y., under Theodore Thomas.

1867. July 1. J. Strauss's "Blue Danube" waltz, and the ballet music from Gounod's opera "The Queen of Sheba," given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1867. July 5. Liszt's march "Vom Fels zum Meer" given by Theodore Thomas, and on the 7th Strauss's waltz "From the Mountains," and the overture to Schubert's "Rosamunde," in New York City.

1867. July 14. J. Strauss's "Buergesin" and polka mazurka "Lob der Frauen" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1867. Aug. 13. Schumann's "Traeumerei" given for the first time in America by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1867. Oct. 7. Bach's Third Suite, in D, given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1867. Oct. 26. Schubert's "Unfinished Symphony" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1867. Nov. 9. Mendelssohn's "Trumpet Overture"; Haydn's theme and variations on "Kaiser Franz Hymn"; and Berlioz's overture to "Benvenuto Cellini" given by the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society, Theodore Thomas conducting.

1867. Nov. 21. Cherubini's overture to "Medea" given in Boston, by the Harvard Musical Association.

1867. Dec. 14. Gounod's opera "Romeo et Juliette" presented at the Academy of Music, New York City, by Maretzek, with Minne Hauck as Juliette.

1867. Dec. 14. Vieuxtemps's Violin Concerto in D given by the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society, with Camilla Urso as soloist.

1867, Dec. 15. Beethoven's "Prometheus" music given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1867. Dec. 21. Ritter's overture to "Othello" given in New York City, by the Philharmonic Society.

1867. French Opera Bouffe introduced to New York City, by F. L. Bateman, at the French Theatre, where Offenbach's "La Grande Duchesse" ran for 180 nights.

1867. In this year the following Conservatories of Music were established:

The Boston Conservatory, Julius Eichberg, director, Boston, Mass. The New England Conservatory, Eben Tourjee, director, Boston, Mass. The Cincinnati Conservatory, Clara Bauer, director, Cincinnati, O. The Chicago Academy of Music, Dr. F. Ziegfeld, director, Chicago, Ill. (Later known as the Chicago Musical College.)

1868. Jan. 11. Liszt's symphonic poem "Die Ideale" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1868. Jan. 25. C. C. Converse's "Festival Overture" produced by the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society.

1868. April 13. Gade's cantata "The Crusaders" given by the Parker Club, in Boston, J. C. D. Parker, conductor.

1868. April 18. Liszt's symphonic poem "Heroide Funebre" given in New York City.

1868. May. 24. Reinecke's overture "King Manfred" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1868. Oct. 21. Handel's "Royal Fireworks" music given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1868. Nov. 11. Salem (Mass.) Oratorio Society founded. Carl Zerrahn was elected as conductor at a later meeting.

1868. Nov. 28. Gade's overture "Hamlet" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1868. Dec. 4. Haydn's Symphony in B flat given in Boston, by the Harvard Musical Association.

1868. Dec. 10. Joachim's "Hungarian Concerto" for violin given by the Harvard Musical Association, in Boston, with B. Listemann as soloist.

1868. Dec. 12. Schubert's Twenty-third Psalm, also Mozart's First, Second, and Third Motets given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1868. Bruch's First Violin Concerto (G minor) given at a concert of a New York Conservatory, with Richard Arnold as soloist.

1868. Theodore Thomas established his Symphony Orchestra in New York City.

1869. Jan. 9. Catel's overture to "Semiramide" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1869. Jan. 16. Rubinstein's musical portrait "Faust," and Gade's "Spring Fantasia" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1868. May 9. Mendelssohn's "Reformation" Symphony, and Schubert's Symphony in B minor, given at the Triennial Festival, Boston.

1869. Feb. 11. Barnett's cantata "The Ancient Mariner" given under Mr. Sharland, at the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church, Roxbury, Mass.

1869. Feb. 18. Gade's Second Symphony (in E) given by the Harvard Musical Association, in Boston.

1869. Mar. 13. Max Bruch's Symphony in E flat given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1869. April 3. Singer's Fantasia for Pianoforte and Orchestra; Volkmann's "Festival Overture," and Liszt's symphonic poem "Prometheus" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1869. May 8. Schumann's "Manfred" music given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City, with Edwin Booth as reader.

1869. May. 12, Schubert's "Italian Overture" given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1869. June 15. First concert of the Peace Jubilee in Boston.

1869. July 20. Strauss's waltz "Wein, Weib, und Gesang" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1869. Dec. 2. Anna Mehlig, noted pianist, visited America and played at Miss Porter's School, Farmington, Conn. She appeared on Dec. 18, at the Brooklyn Academy of Music.

1869. Dec. 15. A season of six nights of Russian opera begun at the Theatre Francaise, New York City, under Leon Jasievitch, with Levitzkaya as leading soprano, and Dimitri d'Agreneff, tenor. The opera "Askold's Tomb" was given.

1869. Dec. 30. Haydn's Fifth Symphony (in D) given by the Harvard Musical Association, in Boston.

1869. First of twenty-two annual tours made this season by the Theodore Thomas Orchestra.

1869-1874. Church Music Association, New York City. The first performance in America of Beethoven's Mass in D was given by this Association.

1870. Jan. 8. Raff's Second Symphony (in C) given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1870. Jan. 22. A Russian Male Choir of nine voices, under Dimitri Agreneff Slaviansky, visited America.

1870. Feb. 17. Mozart's Second Pianoforte Concerto (D minor) given by the Harvard Musical Association in Boston.

1870. Feb. 28. Mendelssohn's overture to "Ruy Blas" given in Boston.

1855. Mar. 10. Selections from Wagner's "Die Meistersinger" played by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1870. May 9. Liszt's "Goethe March" given in New York City, by Theodore Thomas.

1870. May 26. Dargomysky's "Cosatchague" given by Theodore Thomas, at the Central Park Garden, New York City. (Selections from opera.)

1870. July 14. Glinka's "Jota Aragonese" given by Theodore Thomas, at Central Park Garden, New York City, and

1870. Aug. 25. Glinka's "Kamarinskaja."

1870. Sept. 19. American debut of Christine Nilsson, noted soprano, at a concert in Steinway Hall, New York City. Her operatic debut took place Oct. 25, 1871, at the Academy of Music, as Lucia, under Carl Rosa.

1870. Nov. 12. Mozart's opera "Der Schauspieldirektor" given in New York City.

1870. Marie Krebs, noted German pianist, visited America.

1870. Feb. 5. Karl Goldmark's overture to "Sakuntala" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York.

1871. Jan. 7. Rubinstein's "Ocean Symphony" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1871. Feb. 23. Gade's Third Symphony (A minor) given by the Harvard Musical Association, Boston.

1871. May 3. Rossini's "Messe Solennelle" given in Boston, under the direction of George W. Whiting.

1871. May. 7. Mozart's overture to "Idomeneo" given by the Philharmonic Society, New York City.

1871. June 13. Reinecke's "Festival Overture,"

1871. June 22. Wagner's "Kaiser March," and

1871. June 27. Joachim's First March (in C) given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1871. July 19. Rubinstein's overture to "Dimitri Donskoi,"

1871. July 21. Joachim's Second March (in D) given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1871. Aug. 10. Rheinberger's "Wallenstein's Camp,"

1871. Aug. 17. Schubert's March in B minor,

1871. Sept. 8. Wagner's "Hildegung's March," given by Theodore Thomas, in New York City.

1871. Sept. 18. American debut of the noted German tenor, Theodore Wachtel, at the Stadt Theatre, New York City, in "Le Postillon de Longjumeau."

1871. Nov. 9. Schubert's overture to "Alfonso and Estrella" given by the Harvard Musical Association, in Boston.

1871. Nov. 22. Ambroise Thomas's opera "Mignon" given at the Academy of Music, New York City, with Christine Nilsson in the title-role.

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